Premature Birth

Use of a computerized C-reactive protein (CRP) based sepsis evaluation in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants: a five-year experience.

... hours. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078602.t001 gestational age and birth weight compared to the Comp group (Table 1). The Non-Comp group had more days on the ventilator or on nasal CPAP and received oxygen longer (Table 1). Among the reasons given by providers for continuing antibiotics in the Non-Comp group were: abnormal WBC indices, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), ... protein (CRP) values may be useful for decision-making regarding duration of antibiotics in neonates. However, established standard of practice for its use in preterm very low birth weight (,1500 g, VLBW) infants are lacking. Objective: Evaluate compliance with a CRP-guided computerized decision support (CDS) algorithm and compare characteristics and ... indices. Citation: Coggins SA, Wynn JL, Hill ML, Slaughter JC, Ozdas-Weitkamp A, et al. (2013) Use of a Computerized C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Based Sepsis Evaluation in Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) Infants: A Five-Year Experience. PLoS ONE 8(11): e78602. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078602 Editor: Patricia Wei Denning, Emory University School of Medicine,
 0  3  10

Loss of cannabinoid receptor CB1 induces preterm birth.

... Loss of Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Induces Preterm Birth Haibin Wang.¤a, Huirong Xie.¤b, Sudhansu K. Dey¤b* Departments of Pediatrics, Cell & Developmental Biology, and Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America Abstract Background: Preterm birth accounting approximate 10% of pregnancies in women ... pharmacological inactivation of CB1, but not CB2, induced preterm labor in mice. Radioimmunoassay analysis of circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones revealed that premature birth resulting from CB1 inactivation is correlated with altered progesterone/estrogen ratios prior to parturition. More strikingly, the phenotypic defects of prolonged pregnancy ... parturition timing in Cnr1 deficient mice. In contrast, wild-type females receiving excessive levels of corticosterone induced preterm birth. Conclusions: CB1 deficiency altering normal progesterone and estrogen levels induces preterm birth in mice. This defect is independent of prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase-1. Moreover, CB1 inactivation resulted
 0  4  8

Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories

... use of young adults who were born with extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight. Pediatrics 119(3):e562-e573 DOI 10.1542/peds.2006-3225. Saigal S, Stoskopf B, Pinelli J, Streiner D, Hoult L, Paneth N, Goddeeris J. 2006. Self-perceived health-related quality of life of former extremely low birth weight infants at young adulthood. Pediatrics ... Duncan L, Schmidt LA, Hoult L, Paneth N, Saigal S. 2011. Psychopathology in young adults born at extremely low birth weight. Psychological Medicine 41(8):1763–1774 DOI 10.1017/S0033291710002357. Dahan-Oliel N, Mazer B, Majnemer A. 2012. Preterm birth and leisure participation: a synthesis of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities 33(4):1211–1220 DOI ... Skranes J, Brubakk AM, Indredavik MS. 2009. Bullying among adolescents with very low birth weight. Acta Paediatrica 98(6):1049–1051 DOI 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01253.x. Grunau RE, Whitfield MF, Fay TB. 2004. Psychosocial and academic characteristics of extremely low birth weight (
 0  4  18

Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II)

 0  3  19

Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.

... characteristics Significant differences between cases and controls were observed for gestational age (days) (p,0.001), birth weight (g) (p,0.001), APGAR 1 (1 minute after birth) (p,0.001), APGAR 5 (5 minutes after birth) (p,0.001), gravidity (number of births) (p = 0.02), and smoking (p,0.001) (Table 1). Single locus tests of associations Table 2 presents the ... R, Culhane JF, Goldenberg RL (2008) Primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality of preterm birth. Lancet 371: 164–175. 5. Goldenberg RL, Rouse DJ (1998) Prevention of premature birth. N Engl J Med 339: 313–320. 6. Rush RW, Keirse MJ, Howat P, Baum JD, Anderson AB, et al. (1976) Contribution of preterm delivery ... understanding of genetic factors in preterm birth. BJOG 112 Suppl 1: 28–31. 15. Clausson B, Lichtenstein P, Cnattingius S (2000) Genetic influence on birthweight and gestational length determined by studies in offspring of twins. BJOG 107: 375–381. 16. Treloar SA, Macones GA, Mitchell LE, Martin NG (2000) Genetic influences on premature parturition in an Australian
 0  3  11


... gibi bakış açılarıyla irdelenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kaşkay Türkleri, Doğum Adetleri, Al BELIEFS AND PRACTICES OF QASHQAI TURKS WITHIN THE CIRCLE OF BIRTH ABSTRACT In this study, which deals with the birth traditions of The Qashqai, and beliefs and practices in this aspect, the data gained through approximately two-month studies in the field of Iran ... rituals and beliefs formed within the frame of birth are examined through the perspectives such as their functions, whether they have an equivalent in the ancient Turkish culture or not and their comparison of aspects similar to the other communities of the world of the Turks. Key Words: Qashqai Turks, Birth Applications, Al * Bu çalışma 2010 yılında
 0  7  14

How Has the Age-Related Process of Overweight or Obesity Development Changed over Time? Co-ordinated Analyses of Individual Participant Data from Five United Kingdom Birth Cohorts.

... United Kingdom Birth Cohorts. PLoS Med 12(5): e1001828. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001828 Editor: Richard Lehman, University of Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM Abstract Background There is a paucity of information on secular trends in the age-related process by which people develop overweight or obesity. Utilizing longitudinal data in the United Kingdom birth cohort ... extensive longitudinal data on BMI in the UK birth cohort studies, with the aims to investigate (1) shifts over time in the distribution of BMI across age and (2) shifts over time in the development of overweight or obesity across age. Methods Study Samples The 1946 NSHD is based on a sample (n = 5,362) of all singleton births in one week in March 1946 in England, ... individuals who were (1) born in Northern Ireland and included only in the birth sweep, (2) immigrants who were incorporated into the study in childhood, or (3) never took part in any sweep [37]. The 1991 Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (1991 ALSPAC) is based on 15,444 births to women living in the defunct county of Avon in England with an
 0  4  20

Expression of the sFLT1 gene in cord blood cells is associated to maternal arsenic exposure and decreased birth weight.

... ratio between observed birth weight and the estimated birth weight at the same gestational age was calculated. Following Ln-transformation of this ratio, ‘high’ and ‘low’ birth weight samples were identified. ‘High birth weight’ means Ln-transformed ratio above mean plus standard deviation (nboys = 14, ngirls = 10), and ‘low birth weight’ smaller than ... mothers that came to give birth were invited if they lived at least 10 years in Flanders and were able to fill in a Dutch questionnaire. The number of participants per province was proportional to the number of inhabitants in that province (status at 01/01/2006). The birth outcomes of interest (birth weight, head circumference at birth and gestational age) ... the group of ’low’ birth weight from ‘high’ birth weight (adjusted for gestational age). The analysis was performed for boys (Figure 3A) and girls (Figure 3B) separately. For each of the sequences, the significance (2log10(PValue)) of differential Table 1. Multiple logistic (SGA) and linear (birth weight) regression analyses. Birth outcome N Explanatory
 0  2  11

Maternal malaria, birth size and blood pressure in Nigerian newborns: insights into the developmental origins of hypertension from the Ibadan growth cohort.

... 3b). Regression analyses testing effects on growth parameters showed that birth length, gestational age at birth and maternal weight were each independently associated with birth weight, while high parasite density was inversely related (Table 5). Only birth weight was independently related to birth length with no effect of malarial status (Table 5). Malaria Present n ... 5. Multiple regression analyses for determinants of birth size including maternal malaria parasite density. Variable Regression for Birth weight ß 95% CI Regression for Birth length P-value Weight (kg) ß 95% CI P-value Length (cm) 0.10 0.08 to 0.11 ,0.001 2.78 2.29 to 3.28 ,0.001 GA at birth (weeks) 0.04 0.02 to 0.07 0.003 0.07 20.08 ... independently associated with birth weight and gestational age and inversely associated with birth length and maternal height. Malaria parasitaemia timing, specifically at delivery was also a determinant of infant SBP (Table 7). Maternal age, weight and DBP were not. Newborn DBP at birth was positively associated with birth weight, gestational age and
 0  6  8


... reported and it may co-exist along with posterior choanal atresia.(1,2) In our case, birth injury caused by forceps delivery has caused unilateral anterior nares partial atresia. Twenty eight years old male patient came with the complaints of left nostril blocked sensation since birth, aggravated with attacks of upper respiratory tract infections. On examination ... partial atresia caused by fibrous bands as a result of birth injury due to instrumental delivery. Rhinoplasty performed to open-up left nostril and patient relieved of his symptoms and also on cosmetic appearance. KEYWORDS Nasal obstruction, Anterior nares atresia, Nasal atresia, Choanal atresia, Birth injury, Congenital nostril atresia. HOW TO CITE ... ARTICLE: Prabakaran J, Venkataramanan R, Jayagar S, et al. Birth injury related unilateral anterior nares partial fibrous atresia: a rare case report. J. Evid. Based Med. Healthc. 2016; 3(14), 522-523. DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2016/119 INTRODUCTION: Nasal septal deformities are more commonly reported following birth injury happening during the second stage of labour.
 0  17  2

Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very) Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern.

... RESEARCH ARTICLE Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very) Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern Ernesto Cortés-Castell1, Pablo Sánchez-González2, Antonio Palazón-Bru3*, Vicente Bosch-Giménez4, Herminia Manero-Soler2, ... ACCESS Citation: Cortés-Castell E, Sánchez-González P, Palazón-Bru A, Bosch-Giménez V, Manero-Soler H, Juste-Ruiz M, et al. (2015) Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very) Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0138532. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0138532 Editor: Jacobus van Wouwe, TNO, NETHERLANDS Received: ... values, feeding method [breast, formula, mixed (breast plus formula), or partial or fully intravenous feeding], gestational age in weeks (
 0  10  9

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš

... Socioeconomic factors and low birth weight in Mexico. BMC Public Health 2005; 5: 20. 32. Carmelo GA Nobile, Gianluca R, Carlo A, Maria P. Influence of maternal and social factors as predictors of low birth weight in Italy. BMC Public Health 2007; 7: 192. 33. Nomura Y, Wickramaratne PJ, Pilowsky DJ, Bruder B, Newcorn JH, Fifer WP, et al. Low birth weight and risk ... Laura P Torres-Arreola, Patricia C, Sergio, Juan P, Enrique R. Socioeconomic factors and low birth weight in Mexico. BMC Public Health 2005, 5: 20. 12. Petersen CB, Mortensen LH, Morgen CS, Madsen M, Schnor O, Arntzen A, et al. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000. Paediatric & Perinatal ... Epidemiology 2009. pp. 66–75. 13. Chiolero A, Bovet P, Paccaud F. Association between maternal smoking and low birth weight in Switzerland: The EDEN study. Swiss Medical Weekly 2005; 135(35–36): 525–30. 14. Wiles NJ, Peters TJ, Leon DA, Lewis G, et al. Birth weight and psychological distress at age 45–61 years: results from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s
 0  4  6

Child mortality estimation: consistency of under-five mortality rate estimates using full birth histories and summary birth histories.

... on two common forms of retrospective birth history data: full and summary birth histories. In full birth histories (FBHs), which are usually collected via a household survey, women are asked to retrospectively report each live birth, the date of the birth, and, if the child has died, its age at death. In summary birth histories (SBHs), which are mostly ... discerned by tabulating a birth concentration index, as follows: Birth Concentration Index~100| 2|Bt (Bt{1 zBtz1 ) ð4Þ where Bt21, Bt, and Bt+1 are the number of births in the t21, t, and t+1 calendar years. This index should be close to 100. A value of less than 100 implies fewer births than expected for year t. The birth concentration index ... that apply to child births occurring after the cutoff date. Some analysts have documented such birth transference in DHS surveys [18]. Such birth transference can affect mortality rates if it happens in a frequent and systematic fashion and particularly if it affects dead and alive children differently. Possible displacement of births beyond the reference
 0  5  14

Comparison of the Effects of Attachment Training for Mothers on the Behavioral Responses of Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

... Prodromidis M, Field T, Arendt R, Singer L, Yando R, Bendell D. Mothers touching newborns: A camparison of rooming –in versuse minimal contact. Birth. 1995; 22:196-200. 21. Blackburn S, Lowen L. Impact of an Infant’s Premature Birth on the grandparents & Parents. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1986; 15:173-8. 22. Lightbody T. The importance of family-centered ... certain attachments during the first months of life can have negative impacts on one’s behaviors during childhood and adulthood (5). In recent decades, the incidence of premature birth has remarkably increased (6). These infants are immediately separated from their mothers due to prematurity and the associated problems (7) and require care, treatment, ... care) normalized sleepwake cycle in premature infants (19). In fact, skin contact is another attachment method, which results in a stronger mother-infant relationship and usually promotes maternal care (20). Moreover, via these interventions, nurses can contribute to mothers’ acceptance of maternal roles in taking care of premature neonates. In a previous
 0  3  6

Obstetric complications: does training traditional birth attendants make a difference?

... traditional birth attendants make a difference? FIGURE 1. Study sample and its subgroups, intervention to train traditional birth attendants, Guatemala,1990–1993 2 240 normal births with brief interviews 836 women with complications and full interview 4 031 955 women with normal births and full interview 45 women with twins removed 468 women with births ... postintervention period. For each birth, the interviewers—all physicians— determined whether the pregnancy and/or birth had been normal or complicated. They collected information for a census of 4 031 births, including both members of twin sets (Figure 1). The interviews were of two types: a brief series of questions for 2 240 women with normal births and a longer ... births) Full interviews were used from 1 547 mothers, comprised of: a) 695 women who reported a complication associated with pregnancy, delivery, the postpartum period, or her newborn and b) 852 women who had normal births (Figure 1). About 30% of the 2 823 women with normal births completed a full interview. The remaining 1 971 women with normal births
 0  7  9

Epidemiologic identification of infants with low birth weight in urban areas of Latin America:: II A simplified risk score for early prenatal

... preg. NBW NBW NBW LBW NBW LBW - - N= 150 NBW LBW - N= 63 - LBW LBW Figure 1. Influence of birth weights of the study mothers’ previous deliveries upon birth weights of the infants studied. (NBW = normal birth weight.) LBW infants, the incidence of LBW in the third pregnancy was 20.6%. Interestingly, the birth weight of the immediately preceding pregnancy had the strongest effect on the next birth weight. As Figure ... Muiioz A. Genital mycoplasmas as a cause of excess premature delivery. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1981;94:261-66. Herron MA, Katz M, Creasy RK. Evaluation of a preterm birth prevention program: preliminary report. Obstet Gynecol. 1982;59:452-56. Kominski M, Gouford J, Runeau-Rouquette C. Prediction of low birth- weight and prematurity by a multiple regression analysis ... normal birth weights (4-6). The early identification of pregnant women at relatively high risk of delivering LBW infants can enable health care workers to implement appropriate prenatal interventions to reduce the risk of LBW. If prevention is not possible, such early notice can at least help ensure that adequate care is available for the infant at birth. Several
 0  4  13

Maternal risk factor for low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation in a Guatemalan population

... significant only for birth interval and IUGR and for birth interval and Type II (see Table 4). As Figure 1D indicates, mean birth weight increased as the birth interval increased up to an interval of 48 months. However, after 48 months further increases in the birth interval were accompanied by a decline in the average birth weight. DISCUSSION Birth Weight Variables ... increasing birth weight and increasing birth interval up to an interval of four years in Malaysia. Other studies have shown relatively lower birth weights with short birth intervals, and have also shown relatively lower birth weights with intervals longer than four years (30-32). It is likely that the usual etiology of LBW following a short birth interval differs ... relationship between parity and birth weight after adjusting for the effect of maternal age. Women delivering less than 18 months after their last previous delivery also tended to have babies with lower birth weights. Mean birth weight increased with the birth interval until that interval reached four years, after which birth weight began to fall. DaVanzo
 0  5  14

Years of productive life lost to premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases

... Lost to Premature Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases1 INES LESSA* 444 Cardiovascular diseases exact a major toll in both developed and developing countries in terms of death, ill health, and premature incapacitation. This presentation concerns itself with the economic cost-expressed in terms of years of economically active life lost to premature ... also make it possible to evaluate part of the measurable social costs of premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases-costs that accumulate from year to year in the form of pensions begun, on the average, 13.1 years (for men) and 15.5 years (for women) before the sixtieth birthdays of those afflicted. An approximate calculation of these costs shows ... for providing basic health services and communicable disease control received less than 5.5% (4). As a result, many cardiovascular disease deaths and retirements have occurred prematurely, cutting off the productivity of a sizable contingent of people at an economically active age. Considering only one problem, high blood pressure, this has ranked as
 0  4  8

Evaluation of newborn arm circumference as an indicator of low birth weight

... Low Birth Weight1 JoAo GUILHERME BEZERRAALVES,~ GEISY m DE SOUZA LIMA,~ GEISER NERY DA COSTA A~EVEDO,~ VIRGINIA BUARQUE CORDEIRO CABRAL,~ RUBEN SCHINDLER MOGGI,~ & ROBERTONUNES~ A sample of 1,024 newborns in Recife, Brazil, was studied precision with which arm circumference measurements could birth weight. The results support the view that when birth tainable, ... respective frequencies of low birth weight and an average arm circumference below 9 cm were 12.00% and 12.51%, respectively, with a correlation coefficient of +0.79. Data regarding the sensitivity and specificity of arm circumference as an indicator of low birth weight are shown in Table 1. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Low birth weight was found in 12% ... Organization, Family Health. The incidence of low birth weight: a critical review. World Health Sfaf Q. 1980;33:197. 3. Dias MLCM, Camarano MR, Lechtig A. Drought, recession, and prevalence of low birth weight babies in poor urban populations of the Northeast Trap Pediafr. (In press). Our results showed a close relationship between low birth weight and arm circumference.
 0  5  3

Interdepartmental differences in life expectancy at birth in Peru as it relates to income, household drinking-water, and provision of medical consultations

... at birth as an indicator, it becomes possible to assessstatistically the correlation between life expectancy at birth and actions such as provision of drinking-water through house connections. This article seeksto assesshow variations in income, provision of household drinking-water, and medical consultations were associated with life expectancy at birth ... estimated life expectancy at birth being under 50 years in five departments (Apurimac, Ayacucho, Cuzco, Huancavelica, and Puno), as contrasted with 67 years or more in Lima and Callao (see Table 1, column 4). These variations are the subject of the analysis that follows. b 2-4 < e G .g 9, aa Although life expectancy at birth is recognized as being ... I NTERDEPARTMENTAL DIFFERENCESIN LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH IN PERU AS IT RELATES TO INCOME, HOUSEHOLD DRINKINGWAmR, AND PROVISION OF MEDICAL CONSULWTIONS Socorro Heysed and PLdi$ Mzlsgrove3 I NTRODUCTION For some years now the
 0  2  14

Changes in premature mortality: United States of America, 1983-1984

... vaccines, even in the presence of symptomatic HIV infection, appears to be low." (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record 62(9):53-54, 1987.) I Changes in Premature Mortality: United States of America, 1983-1984 Premature mortality in the United States of America, as measured by years of potential life lost before age 65 (YPLL), increased from 1983 to 1984 ... short gestation and unspecified low birthweight (ICD code 765). The inclusion of deaths during the first year of life does not account for the increase in total YPLL from 1983 to 1984. Although total YPLL decreased each year from 1980 to 1984, the slight increase in 1984 is present when YPLL is calculated by either the birth- to-age65-years or the age 1-to-65-years ... each year since at least 1979 with both methods of calculation and now stands 12.3% below the 1979 level when measured from age 1 year to 65 years, and 14.1% when measured from birth to age 65 years. Considerable variability continues to be demonstrated in the year-to-year comparison of YPLL rate due to specific causes of mortality. The rate of YPLL attribut- Figure
 0  2  2

The worldwide incidence of low birth-weight: an update

... BULLETIN THE WORLDWIDE INCIDENCE OF LOW BIRTH- WEIGHT: An infant’s birth- weight is the single most important determinant of its chances for survival and for healthy growth and development. Because birth- weight is conditioned by the health and nutritional status of the mother, however, the proportion of infants born with low birthweight closely reflects the ... health status of the communities into which they are born. Low birth- weight has been defined as a birthweight of less than 2,500 g (up to and including 2,499 g). It can be caused either by premature delivery (short gestation), or by fetal growth retardation. In countries where the proportion of low birth- weight infants is small, most of them are pre-term. ... illnesses-especially ones involving infections. Short maternal stature, very young age, high parity, and close birth spacing are all associated factors. It is clear from the multiplicity of causes that there is no universal solution to the low birthweight problem. Interventions have to be causespecific. Prenatal care, nutrition programs, health education
 0  4  2

Life expectancy at birth in the Americas

... years of age. The third, which refers to overall mortality, stipulates that by the year 2000 no country of the Region should have a life expectancy at birth of less than 70 years. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years that a newborn can hope to live if age-specific death rates remain constant. It is an indicator of the level of mortality, ... affecting mostly extreme ages; omissions or delays in the registration of deaths and births, and others. These deficiencies in the mortality and population data affect the validity of the life table and of all the indicators based on it, including life expectancy at birth. However, demographic analysis procedures exist which permit the construction of ... quality. The analyses that follow are based on the values for life expectancy at birth published by the Population Division of the United Nations, which have been prepared and projected based on the aforementioned procedures. Figures 1 and 2 show estimated and projected life expectancy at birth for both sexes in the countries of the Region, from 1950 to 2025.
 0  4  7

Formulation of goals for life expectancy at birth in Costa Rica: report of one experience

... Idan. PAHO BULLETIN l Vo’ol.IX, No. 4, 1975 TABLE l-Life expectancy at birth in Middle and South America: rough estimates of average annual rates of death, birth, and natural population 1970-1975, per 1,000 inhabitants. growth in Estimatedannualrates(1970-1975average) Area Mortality Birth rates per 1,000 per 1,000 natu~~?~~~ase per 1,000 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela 8.8 18.1 8.5 8.1 9.0 9.9 9.3 8.8 9.1 6.6 22.9 43.8 36.9 31.0 43.9 43.4 44.6 39.8 20.9 40.3 14.1 25.1 28.4 22.3 34.9 33.5 35.3 31.0 11.8 33.7 Costa ... specific goals in this difficult planning area. In order to arrive at conclusions on this subject, the following measures were carried out: (a) Analysis of birth rates, death rates, and life expectancy at birth in the countries of the Region, as compared with similar information for Costa Rica. (b) Analysis of the possibilities for reducing national mortality ... FORMULATION OF GOALS FOR LIFE AT BIRTH IN COSTA RICA (REPORT OF ONE EXPERIENCE)’ Lenin Shenz Jimhez, EXPECTANCY M.D.’ Life expectancy at birth is a summary indicator of the health status of a country. Thus every method of formulating realistic life expectancy
 0  1  8


... Prevention (4). This report established priority areas for preventing morbidity and mortality by life stages in the United States; these included: Infants: low birth weight, birth defects, injuries at birth, sudden infant death syndrome, and accidents; Children: learning disorders, mental retardation, child abuse and neglect, nutrition, and accidents; Adolescents ... "normal" terminal year of complete life include: 1) an arbitrary terminal year, e.g., 70; 2) current life expectancy at birth; and 3) current life expectancy at the age of premature death. A measurement of life expectancy at the age of premature death with the cause of death partially or completely eliminated in the calculation of life expectancy, reflects ... action that reduces unnecessary morbidity and premature mortality. References (1) Introduction to Table V: Premature deaths, monthly mortality, and monthly physician contacts-United States. MMWR 31:109-110, 1982. (2) National Center for Health Statistics. Monthly Vital Statistics Report 31(6), 1982. (3) Premature Death-United States. MMWR 32:188-189. 1983. (4)
 0  4  3

Documento similar