Determination of Silver Ions Toxicity in Short-Term and Long-Term Experiments Using a Luminescent Recombinant Strain of E. coli
... № 2-3 independent experiments, all with similar results, is shown. The error in all the experiments did not exceed 10%. Bacterial bioluminescence intensity was measured using Luminometer 1251 BioOrbit (Finland) and Biotox-10 (Russia) instruments, during 30 minutes for short-term experiments and every 2 hours in chronic 24-hours experiments. The number ... 30 min experiments, EC50 = 0.014 mg/l in a chronic experiment in the presence of 5 g/l NaCl in LB medium, when the same 108 cells/ml concentration of cells was used. Remarkably, in chronic experiments, the EC50 for luminescence was much less than the silver ions concentration required for 50% inhibition of cell growth (about 0.12 mg/l). Our experiments ... be multifarious. The bacterial luminescence tests on many chemicals, including antibiotics, have revealed their toxicity in chronic experiments. Moreover, their sensitivity threshold may be up to a thousand times low than in 30 min experiments, which is explained by apparent specific activity of antibiotics revealed during active bacterial growth [6, 18].
The SPRINTARS version 3.80/4D-Var data assimilation system: development and inversion experiments based on the observing system simulation experiment framework
... E1–3 use simulated AOTs only over the ocean. Two additional sensitivity experiments (Experiments 4 and 5) were also conducted to evaluate how much the land product impacts the inversion, because major aerosol sources (except sea-salt aerosol) are situated over land. In the sensitivity experiments (E4 and E5), we assumed the case if we could obtain fine- ... based on the offline model. To assess the capability of the system in inverse modelling applications, we performed several inversion experiments based on the observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework. The experiments also examined the impact of the observation frequency (number of satellites) and coverage (land and ocean) on the inversion ... respectively. The feasibility and capability of the developed system for aerosol inverse modelling was demonstrated in several inversion experiments based on the observing system simulation experiment framework. In the experiments, we used the simulated observation data sets of fine- and coarse-mode AOTs from sun-synchronous polar orbits to investigate
Whole animal experiments should be more like human randomized controlled trials.
... RCT, animal experiments should hew to the intent-to-treat principle in data analyses, and any revised ARRIVE guidelines should include a requirement for authors to report how they achieved this goal. Adverse Events The reporting of adverse events is a critical part of RCTs to ensure safety of the intervention being tested . Likewise in animal experiments, ... size, and missing data (summarized in Table 2). We also believe that a registry of animal experiments would reduce publication bias, as do sites such as www.clinicaltrials.gov for human RCTs. Such steps are integral to improving the usefulness of whole animal experiments. quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research ... animal-based research in the same way that the CONSORT statement did for RCTs . Here, we argue that whilst the ARRIVE guidelines are a major step forward, the standards of reporting animal experiments still lag behind those of RCTs. As a result, the validity of results from animal studies and their interpretation are frequently in question. We put forward a series
The impact of water table drawdown and drying on subterranean aquatic fauna in in-vitro experiments.
... taxa other than syncarids and copepods in experiments was limited by low abundances in collected samples. Column Experiments Column experiments were conducted to investigate high resolution depth distributions of stygofauna and the impact of fast and slow water table drawdown on these depth distributions. Separate experiments were performed with fauna ... saturation levels at which 10, 50 and 90% of the organisms were dead (Lethal Saturation Level 10 ð2Þ Desiccation Experiments Desiccation experiments were conducted to investigate the viability of fauna in sediments with different water contents. These experiments give information on the potential survival of organisms stranded in the unsaturated zone due to ... were unable to detect the rapid decline in water levels (relative to the desiccation experiments) until such time as it was difficult to move or they were isolated. In the desiccation experiments, the rate of removal of water was much lower (0.03 m/d) than in the column experiments (2.6 m/d) and the syncarids were able to move to the bottom of the dish
Understanding Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments Reveals Signatures of Translation Dynamics in Yeast.
... 11, 2015 4 / 25 Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments experiments from many different studies in yeast, grouped by hierarchical clustering. Red indicates positive correlation and blue indicates negative correlation. Clustering separates experiments using CHX pretreatment (labeled in orange) from experiments done without CHX pretreatment (labeled ... Profiling Experiments Fig 5. Changes in tRNA binding site enrichments between a pair of experiments with and without CHX are matched by areas of downstream waves in the CHX experiment. For a pair of experiments with and without CHX by Jan , the sum of each codon identity’s changes in mean relative enrichment at the A-, P-, and E-sites between the two experiments ... practice, ribosome profiling experiments in yeast that use translation inhibitors to arrest translation before measuring the positions of ribosomes report very different PLOS Genetics | DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005732 December 11, 2015 1 / 25 Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments apparent translation speeds for each codon than experiments that do not
Transport processes at quartz–water interfaces: constraints from hydrothermal grooving experiments
... (120) 67 ± 10 (91) 67 ± 13 (116) nd 72 ± 9 (120) 578 ± 348 (203) 72 ± 8 (118) Sequential experiments P40, run 1 run 2 run 3 P43, run 1 run 2 392 392 392 441 490 200 198 177 198 199 Experiments with added SiO2 powder P36 P32 392 490 209 200 Single condition experiments P47∗ P22 P11 P44∗ P23 P57∗ P51∗ P10 P53∗ P45∗ P20 P37 P25 P27 P17 P8 P12 P15 P48∗ P30 P42∗ P21 P50∗ P46∗ P54 P38 392 392 392 392 392 392 392 392 392 392 392 441 441 441 441 490 490 490 568 568 568 568 568 568 568 568 194 63 198 202 399 201 98 194 292 198 188 203 200 200 202 198 208 192 200 64 204 202 100 205 260 202 Temperature, ... 8). Samples from short experiments are dominated by a large step/depth ratio. With increasing annealing time, the number of steps decreases and grooves become relatively deeper compared to step height. Finally, we observe many steps with deep grooves (small h/d) for samples of the longest experiments. In sequential annealing experiments, grooves deepen systematically, ... the termination of experiments. The average groove-root angle amounts to about 160◦ , varying systematically with misorientation between neighboring grains and depending slightly on temperature and run duration. The grooving is thermally activated, i.e., groove depth ranging from 5 nm to several micrometers for the entire suite of experiments generally
Basal shear stress under alpine glaciers: insights from experiments using the iSOSIA and Elmer/Ice models
... model in a realistic setting under different scales of relief (Sects. 3.1 and 3.2). In subsequent experiments, the same landscape provides the basis for iSOSIA experiments that combine subglacial erosion with different models for basal sliding (Sect. 3.3). These final experiments are designed to explore long-term feedbacks between landscape evolution and subglacial ... of this trend, we repeated the experiments using: (1) a linear erosion law (m = 1 in Eq. 9) in combination with all three sliding laws (Fig. 9b) and (2) the Coulomb-friction sliding model using two alternative flotation fractions (70 and 90 %) to compute effective pressure, N (Fig. 9c). The similar outcome of these final experiments suggests that decreasing ... the details of the erosion law. 4 4.1 Discussion The benchmarking experiments In order to estimate the practical utility of iterative higherorder shallow ice approximations, we have compared the results of two different computational methods: iSOSIA and Elmer/Ice. The comparison experiments were designed to reflect a realistic setting of relevance
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN MULTIRESPONSE EXPERIMENTS THROUGH ROBUST DESIGN METHODOLOGY
... MULTIRESPONSE EXPERIMENTS THROUGH ROBUST DESIGN METHODOLOGY M. Shilpa1) N.V.R. Naidu2) 1) M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, India firstname.lastname@example.org 2) M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, India email@example.com 1. Abstract: Robust design methodology aims at reducing the variability in the product performance in the presence of noise factors. Experiments ... from target performance. · Signal-to-noise ratio is used for predicting the quality through laboratory experiments. · Orthogonal arrays are used for gathering dependable information about control factors (design parameters) with a small number of experiments. 2. SPLINE HOBBING OPERATION A rotary driving shaft used for power transmission Vol.6, No. ... 30(1), 1-17.  Jiju Antony (2001), Improving the manufacturing process quality using design of experiments: a case study, International journal of operations & production management, 21(5/6), 812-822.  Michael Hamada (1995), Using statistically design experiments to improve reliability and to achieve robust reliability, IEEE Transactions on Reliability,
Polarisation in the auroral red line during coordinated EISCAT Svalbard Radar/optical experiments
... Colour Imager, belonging to the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory of University College London (Fig. 1). No clouds were seen in the pointing direction of the photo-polarimeter and no wind was recorded that could have blown snow in front of the instrument, possibly inducing light scattering. The configurations for the experiments discussed below are sketched ... IPAG, UMR5274, UJF-CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Saint-Martin d’Hères cedex 9, France Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan-3-Avenue Circulaire, 1180 Brussels, Belgium 3 Department of Physics, University in Oslo, P.O.Box 1048, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway 4 UNIS, 9171 Longyearbyen, Norway 5 RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxfordshire, OX11 ... (1959), the polarisation of the thermospheric atomic oxygen red line at 630 nm Correspondence to: M. Barthélémy (firstname.lastname@example.org) has been ignored in the geophysics field for fifty years. It has been recently re-investigated (Lilensten et al., 2006) and measured by Lilensten et al. (2008). The red line emission at 630 nm is due to
Using interpolation to estimate system uncertainty in gene expression experiments.
... approach that may be used in conjunction with gene expression experiments, or other experiments where the cost of collecting samples is substantially less than the cost of assaying them. We introduce a novel algorithm to quantify the uncertainty in the unmeasured regions of gene expression time course experiments that is based on our (BTs) experience as a ... 333–357. 3. Palmer T (2000) Predicting uncertainty in forecasts of weather and climate. Reports on Progress in Physics 63: 71–116. 4. Christie M, Demyanov V, Erbas D (2006) Uncertainty quantification for porous media flows. Journal of Computational Physics 217: 143–158. 5. Brock GN, Shaffer JR, Blakesley RE, Lotz MJ, Tseng GC (2008) Which missing value ... Lermusiaux PF (2006) Uncertainty estimation and prediction for interdisciplinary ocean dynamics. Journal of Computational Physics 217: 176–199. 8. Singh R, Palmer N, Gifford D, Berger B (2005) Active learning for sampling in timeseries experiments with application to gene expression analysis. In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Machine
Mikhail Geraskov (1874-1957) Methodological Concepts of Learning Physics.
... life”. The educational aim of Physics in high schools is to acquire knowledge of science, scientific methods of observation and study. Physics is an inductive science. This science is the result of inductive reasoning. Thus, according to Geraskov teaching Physics must be based on the experiment. The main method of teaching Physics is induction and parallel ... practical application of Physics. Practical exercises in physics are important for education. Unfortunately, Geraskov says, most schools do not have the necessary facilities. It is important that these exercises allow students to make at least the most important attempts. Empirical knowledge is very important in learning of Physics (Geraskov, 1928, ... optimum number of experiments and preliminary preparation of teachers for the experimental part of a lesson. It helps to perform successful and safe experiments. This is connected with the right technique. Clearly expressed is the idea of teaching students to independence of thought and action, giving them the opportunity to perform experiments under
Sand box experiments to evaluate the influence of subsurface temperature probe design on temperature based water flux calculation
... discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS). Please refer to the corresponding ﬁnal paper in HESS if available. Sand box experiments to evaluate the inﬂuence of subsurface temperature probe design on temperature based water ﬂux calculation M. Munz1,2, S. E. Oswald1, and C. Schmidt2 1Institute of ... sediment biogeochemistry and hydroecology (Krause et al., 2011; Sophocleous, 2002; Boulton et al., 1998). Several direct and indirect measurement methods where applied during ﬁeld experiments to quantify these surface water groundwater exchange ﬂux (Kalbus et al., 2006; Rosenberry and LaBaugh, 2008). A 25 promising experimental approach is the use of natural
Teacher´s Discourses and Subjectivity in Physics Learning
... Investigações em Ensino de Ciências – V10(3), pp. 363-386, 2005 DISCURSOS DO PROFESSOR E SUBJETIVIDADE NA APRENDIZAGEM DE FÍSICA (Teacher´s Discourses and Subjectivity in Physics Learning) Alberto Villani Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo Lizete Orquiza de Carvalho Depto. Física e Química, Fac. de Engenharia, UNESP, Ilha Solteira Resumo Nesse
REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS
... REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS PIECZKA I. 1, BARTHOLY J., PONGRÁCZ R., ANDRÉ K., KIS A., KELEMEN F.D. ABSTRACT. – Regional climate modeling study for the Carpathian region using RegCM4 experiments. The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing ... model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010), RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis ... horizontal resolution. We aim to evaluate the influence of the coarse resolution driving data, which provide initial and lateral boundary conditions (ICBC) for fine scale model experiments. Besides historical runs, climate projection runs are also planned to complete using new RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) scenarios (van Vuuren et al. 2011),
On the influence of model physics on simulations of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice
... optimize sea ice drift. We also note that the spatial patterns of ice circulation in the Arctic Basin are not sensibly different for both experiments, as the metrics in Table 2 suggest. It should be reminded that both experiments are driven by atmospheric reanalyses; given the high dependence of sea ice dynamics to wind forcing (Girard et al., 2009), similar ... important for the models performance in Antarctica, the skill of models depending more on other factors than the sea ice model physics. 6 Conclusions We have investigated the sensitivity of an ocean-sea ice model to the representation of physics in its sea ice component: two hindcast simulations have been studied over the period 1983–2007, for both Arctic ... stem from model physics but rather external causes, such as resolution and atmospheric forcing. No model outperforms the other systematically, and the global performance is lower in the SH than in the NH. www.the-cryosphere.net/5/687/2011/ The Cryosphere, 5, 687–699, 2011 698 F. Massonnet et al.: Inﬂuence of model sea ice physics Acknowledgements.
Explicit simulation of aerosol physics in a cloud-resolving model
... 753–803, 2004 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/4/753/ SRef-ID: 1680-7375/acpd/2004-4-753 © European Geosciences Union 2004 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Explicit simulation of aerosol physics in a cloud-resolving model A. M. L. Ekman1, C. Wang1, J. Wilson2, and J. Stro¨ m3 1Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, ... (CRM) used in this study is an improved version of the model developed by Wang and Chang (1993a) with a full integration of the dynamicsphysics and chemistry sub-models (Wang et al., 1995; Wang and Prinn, 2000). The dynamics -physics module consists of non-hydrostatic momentum equations, the continuity equations for water vapor and air mass density, the thermodynamic ... aerosol number and CO are available), and surface precipitation, representing several aspects of interest dealing with aerosol microphysics, convective transport of important trace gases, as well as cloud dynamics and microphysics. It is worthwhile noting that our sensitivity 5 simulations are carried out using a “real” atmospheric case rather than an