Osteochondritis Of The Tibial Tuberosity

Understanding the connection between epigenetic DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning from computer simulations.

... lateral view of the DNA and the protein as seen from the solvent. (B) Diagram of the thermodynamic cycle used to extract the free energy variation (DDGb (kJ/mol)) in nucleosome-DNA stability due to methylation of CpG steps. The calculations of the unbound reference state for the single mutations were performed on shorter DNA chains, using the nearest ... formalism, exploiting a thermodynamic cycle sketched in figure 1B. In this method, the free energy between two states is computed by integration of the derivative of the energy of the system as function of the state parameter l, known as coupling parameter [35], which in our case describes either the methylated (e.g. l = 0) or the unmethylated state ... Eukaryotic cells, control of the patterns of DNA cytosine methylation – a mechanism that acts on top of the genetic code – plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression. The large prevalence of DNA methylation in vivo, suggests a connection between the physical properties of methylated and un-methylated DNA with the control of gene expression. In
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Expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 in muscle is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance and lipid disturbances in patients with HIV.

... credited. Funding: The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism (CIM) is supported by a grant from the Danish National Research Foundation (# 02-512-55). This study was further supported by the Danish Medical Research Council (# 22-04-0588), the Commission of the European Communities (Grant Agreement no. 223576 MYOAGE), the Lundbeck Foundation, the Danish AIDS ... was, furthermore, closely associated with insulin resistance. Since HIV patients with lipodystrophy share the same metabolic disturbances as subjects with type 2 diabetes we aimed to determine whether muscle FGF-21 mRNA is altered in these patients. The second aim of the study was to investigate the possible association of muscle FGF21 mRNA with other ... saturating (8 mM) concentration of G-6-P. Calculations A physiological and isotopic steady state was achieved during the last 30 minutes of the basal and the insulin-stimulated conditions, so the rates of endogenous glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance of glucose (Rd) were calculated as the tracer infusion rate divided by the tracer to-tracee ratio
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Europium nanoparticle-based high performing immunoassay for the screening of treponemal antibodies.

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Modelling multi-phase halogen chemistry in the coastal marine boundary layer: investigation of the relative importance of local chemistry vs. long-range transport

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Interaction pattern of Arg 62 in the A-pocket of differentially disease-associated HLA-B27 subtypes suggests distinct TCR binding modes.

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Microbial contamination of disinfectants and antiseptics in four major hospitals in Trinidad

... to gentamicin and that 100% of them were resistant to ceftriaxone. In Trinidad and Tobago one of the quinolones, ciprofloxacin, is the first line of oral therapy for Pseudomonas infections. Of the 24 isolates in our study, 58.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin, again emphasizing the possible therapeutic consequences of infections that result from ... utilized the largest volumes of disinfectants and antiseptics purchased by the Government and distributed to the pharmacy departments of these public health care institutions. These four hospitals are the largest public health care institutions in Trinidad. Three of these hospitals are located in the northern region of Trinidad, and the fourth is in the southern ... directly used at 7 of the hospitals, while the other 2 used WASA water that had been stored in large tanks within the hospital premises. None of the 11 institutions used sterilized utensils in preparing the disinfectants/antiseptics, but 2 of the 11 hospitals utilized some apparatus to sterilize either the disinfectants/antiseptics or their containers. These containers
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The regulation of privacy and data protection in the use of electronic health information: an international perspective and reference source on regulatory and legal issues related to person-identifiable health database

... reserved. The? ?designations employed and? ?the? ?presentation? ?of? ?the? ?material in this publication  do not imply the? ?expression  of? ?any opinion whatsoever  on? ?the? ? part? ?of? ?the? ? Secretariat  of? ?the? ? Pan American Health  Organization  concerning  the? ?legal status? ?of? ?any country, territory,  city,  or  area or  of? ? its authorities,  or concerning? ?the? ?delimitation? ?of? ?its frontiers or boundaries. The? ? mention  of? ?specific  ... with  the? ? concurrent  costs  of? ? deploying  and  maintaining such  configurations.  Extant  projects  around  the? ? world  have  been evaluated  and  experts  have  been  unanimously  of? ? the? ? opinion  that  the implementation  of? ? the? ? EHR  must  be  done  in  the? ? context  of? ? a  global reorganization  of? ? the? ? healthcare  processes,  including  the? ? ... implications  of electronic  commerce  there  are  a  vast  array  of? ? issues  and  laws applicable  to  the? ? Internet  stressing  the? ? importance  of? ? a  contractual agreement  and  the? ? validity  of? ? forming  contractual  relationships electronically, raising? ?the? ?question  of? ?digital signatures  as a valid way? ?of authenticating  a document. There are many administrative 
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The shape of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico

... AIDS was the first cause of death among persons between 30 and 39 years old and also the most frequent cause of death in males up to 49 years of age. The subsections below describe the toll that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken on some special groups. Women The number of HIV-infected women has increased rapidly in the United States and the rest of the world ... February 1999. Of these children, 92% acquired the infection from their mothers, and the rest were infected by contaminated blood or blood products (4). AIDS is one of the five leading causes of death in Puerto Rico among persons aged 15 years or younger, and it is the second-leading cause of death among those 2–9 years old (20). The majority of these children ... intercourse. carried out to assess the characteristics of a subgroup of 123 HIV patients 55 years and older within a larger cohort study in the Human Retrovirus Registry of the Bayamón health region.6 Preliminary results revealed that only 23 of these elderly persons (18.7%) were employed. Among the persons in this subgroup 67% of the females and 52% of the males reported
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The Pan American Sanitary Code: Toward a Hemispheric Health Policy

... articles, the first of which states the objectives of the Code, namely: 1. T he prevention of the international spread of communicable infections of human beings. 2. T he promotion of cooperative measures for the prevention of the introduction and spread of disease into and from the territories of the Signatory Governments. 3. T he standardization of the ... collection of morbidity and mortality statistics by the Signatory Governments. 4. T he stimulation of the mutual interchange of information which may be of value in improving the public health and combating the diseases of man. 5. T he standardization of the measures employed at places of entry for the prevention of the introduction of communicable diseases of ... employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization concerning the status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. T he mention of specific
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Efficiency of hospital cholera treatment in Ecuador

... that at a rate of 14% a year, up to a maximum of 70%. These values were then converted into April 1994 (the start date of the project) sucres on the basis of the cumulative inflation rates in each of the cities between the date of the inventory and the beginning of the project. To calculate the total equipment costs, the total value of the equipment ... other administrative costs. Capital costs were determined on the basis of the present value of hospital buildings, land, and medical and other equipment. It is worth noting that the research concentrated on the factors that affected the efficiency of in-hospital cholera treatment from the point of view of the providers of the service, in this case the ... mention of the type or use of the equipment registered, the value used was the current value multiplied by the ratio of clinical, pediatrics, and infectious disease patient-days to total patient-days. v) Finally, of the list of equipment bought directly by the MPH (principally four contracts with overseas suppliers that together account for around 90% of the
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Ecology of Vibrio cholerae serogroup 01 in aquatic environments

... periods when they were attached to the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor than when they were suspended in the water where the plants had been floating. The pathogenic agent secretes the enzyme mucinase, which is considered to be one of the factors responsible for the virulence of V. cholerae (35) and which degrades the cellular mucilage of plants, including L. ... that toxigenic strains of V. cholerae 01 biotype El Tor need Na+ to survive in the absence of other nutrients and to grow more rapidly in the presence of other nutrients (9, 27). It was determined that the need for Na+ could not be met by substituting the alkali metals Li+ and K+ (27). However, when Na+ is available, addition of the alkaline earth metals ... and planktonic copepods from the Chesapeake Bay in the United States of America and from the Buriganga River in Bangladesh. The species of planktonic copepods collected from the Chesapeake Bay were Acartia tonsa, Eurytemora affinis, and Scottolana spp. In the samples taken from the Buriganga River, the two predominant species of planktonic copepods were not
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Amendments to the staff rules of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau

... at official stations in category H. However, if the staff member is maintained at the same official station at the initiative of the Bureau, the payment of the mobility element of the allowance may be extended for a further period of one year. The non-removal element of the allowance is payable at official stations in categories A to E as long as the staff ... 1991. Since 1969, the practice of the Governing Bodies of PAHO has been to maintain the salary of the Director at the same level as that of the Deputy Director-General of WHO. CE107/14, Page 2 ADD. T (Eng.) The XXMeeting of the Directing Council, in operative paragraph 2 of Resolution XX, requested "the Executive Committee, in case of any future adjustments in ... respect of professional and ungraded categories of posts, to make recommendation to the Conference or the Directing Council concerning the appropriate level of the salary of the Director." The Executive Committee, following this guide, may wish to recommend to the XXXV Meeting of the Directing Council that it adjust the annual net salary of the Director to
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Salary of the Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau

... to replenish the Tax Equalization Fund of the United Nations. The review carried out by the ICSC resulted in the revision not only of the staff assessment, but of the schedule of salaries for the above-mentioned categories of staff. The changes in the scale concerned the annual gross salaries; there were no changes to the scale of net salaries at the dependent ... rate of the Deputy Director to $53,891 and that of the Assistant Director to $52,891, effective 1 April 1988. Since 1969, the practice of the Governing Bodies of PAHO has been to maintain the salary of the Director of PASB at the same level as that of the Deputy Director-General of WHO. The XX Meeting of the Directing Council, in operative paragraph 2 of ... further consequence of the revision of the staff assessment rates described in the preceding paragraphs, adjustments to the remuneration of the Assistant Director, the Deputy Director and the Director are called for. Since 1962, it has been the policy of the Executive Committee to set the salary of the Deputy Director at the level of other WHO Regional Directors
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Health as an economic value in a time of crisis

... year 2000. The external debt of the poor countries has reached US$l,O35 billion; of this, US$43 billion was accrued in the past year, US$35 billion of it in currency revaluations alone. In other words, much of the increase in the debt owed is occurring without usufruct of the money. Every society is today anxiously exploring ways to promote the health ... development, because of the sizable investments and expenditures in the sector and also because of the population’s increasing expectations of better achievements. As a result, health has come to be viewed as a value of production, for the study of which the discipline of health economics has been created. This latter is really a new field of knowledge that ... receivesthe greatest benefits and should therefore assume the leadership in mobilizing the community and persuading the other public and private sectors to cooperate on an integral plan. The fmancing of this multiple participation will also be derived from a variety of sources including the national budget and the resources of the participating organizationssourcesthat
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Expanded program on immunization in the Americas

... engage the full support of the community, the improvement of methods and materials relating to sterilization and the cold chain, the acquisition of additional knowledge concerning the epidemiology of the target diseases, further development of appropriate management information systems, and further improvement in the production and quality control of vaccines ... efforts for the remainder of the decade. 4. Discussion at the 90th Meeting of the Executive Committee After a discussion of the Report and of the presentation by the Secretariat, the Executive Committee agreed to recommend to the Directing Council the approval of a resolution, which is contained in Resolution XIII shown below: CD29/23 Page 16 (Eng.) THE ... of the success of PAHO's technical cooperation in achieving the goal of health for all by the year 2000; c) Make a study of the vaccine production capacity of the Member Countries and of the quality and cost of the vaccines, with a view to their possible use in the EPI; d) Renew efforts to assure full capitalization of the EPI Revolving Fund; e) Promote evaluation activities in the countries and urge
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CD29.R4: Appointment of the External Auditor

... OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 26 September – 3 October 1983 RESOLUTION CD29.R4 APPOINTMENT OF THE EXTERNAL AUDITOR THE 29th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Bearing in mind that it has been the practice of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization to have the same External Auditor, and that the holder of the office of ... Auditor General of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, who has been appointed External Auditor of the World Health Organization for the financial periods 1984–1985 and 1986-1987, has expressed a willingness to serve as External Auditor of the Pan American Health Organization, RESOLVES To appoint the holder of the office of Comptroller ... Auditor General of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland External Auditor of the accounts of the Pan American Health Organization for the financial periods 1984–1985 and 1986–1987, and to request him to conduct his audits in accordance with the principles set forth in Article XII of the PAHO Financial Regulations, with the provision
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CD29.R5: Amendments to the financial regulations of the PAHO

... PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION                    29th DIRECTING COUNCIL   35th SESSION OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 26 September – 3 October 1983 RESOLUTION CD29.R5 AMENDMENTS TO THE FINANCIAL REGULATIONS OF THE PAHO THE 29th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Having considered the recommendation of the 90th Meeting of the Executive Committee and the proposed changes in the Financial Regulations proposed ... CD29/31; and Taking into consideration that the changes in the Regulations will provide conformity between the Financial Regulations of WHO and PAHO with respect to the availability of appropriations, RESOLVES To approve the changes in the Financial Regulations of the Pan American Health Organization as they appear in Document CD29/31. Sept.–Oct.
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Prevention of rheumatic fever

... the patient; the number of earlier attacks of ARF; the severity of the residual cardiac lesion (CRC); the closeness in time between the last acute attack and the new streptococci infection; and the number of days elapsed between the onset of the infection and the beginning of treatment to eliminate the streptococci. The prevention of streptococcus infection ... the ministries of health of the countries and supplied on the PAHO international form. 4 * Epidemiological bulletins (see Table 1) and other official publications of the ministries of health. PAHO, in turn, relays the epidemiological information of international interest to the countries pursuant to the Pan American Sanitary Code and the International Health ... maintained for the entire period of 10 days, even if the clinical state of the patient improves. Table 1. Cases of rheumatic fever with results of first yearly examination, classlfied according to number of attacks of streptococcus pharyngltis from the time of Initial registration and to regularity of preventive treatment. Streptococcus pharyngitis No. of injections
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CD26.R36: Emergency preparedness and disaster relief coordination program in the Americas

... affect the health status of the countries of the Region, and that the ministries of health should play a leading role, within the civil defense system, in emergency preparedness and relief activities related to health; and Convinced that the most valuable contribution of the Organization in the wake of a disaster may be the speedy provision of technical ... towards areas of need in the health sector. 5. To invite the Director to increase the cooperation of the Organization in assessing emergency needs, preparation of damage estimates, and rehabilitation projects following a disaster. 6. To request the Director to center the efforts of the Organization on the training of health officials in charge of emergency ...   31st SESSION OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 24 September – 5 October 1979 RESOLUTION CD26.R36 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND DISASTER RELIEF COORDINATION PROGRAM IN THE AMERICAS THE 26th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Bearing in mind Resolution X of the XXIV Meeting of the Directing Council on emergency assistance to countries of the Americas, and
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First intersectorial meeting on health of man in the Americas: progress report of the Director

... useless if they do not go hand in hand with the delivery of the other basic goods and services essential to subsistence. The Coverage Goal of the Ten-Year Health Plan The above observations are particularly meaningful in the Region of the Americas, since one of the fundamental goals of its Ten-Year Health Plan is to extend coverage of minimum services to the ... most of the decisions necessary for carrying out the plan depend upon the mechanisms of the market, and the application of policies is the responsibility of the agencies specialized in the matter. These are the main features that enable economic planners to think that the future can be controlled by the plan. But we know very well that this is not the ... they will be organized, the channels and modalities of their relationships, and the way in which they will be administered. Otherwise, the plan will be nothing but wishful thinking. Closely linked with the above is the problem of evaluation, i.e., of constant control over the performance of the human resources involved. There is no other tool for finding
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Request of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas for membership in the PAHO

... favorable consideration to the request of the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas for membership in the Pan American Health Organization. Annex (Eng.) INSTRUMENT PAN OF ACCEPTANCE OF THE CONSTITUTION AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION The Director General Pan American Health OF Organization. Sir, I have of the Health of The and of of T_is comply amended fully with by the I ... 1974 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH REQUEST OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE BAHAMAS MEMBERSHIP IN THE PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOR The Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau has the honor to advise the Executive Committee that he has received a letter from His Excellency Paul L. Adderley, Minister of External Affairs of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, ... 8 REQUEST OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE PAN AMERICANHEALTH CSP19/13 (Eng.) 30 July 1974 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH OF THE COMMONWEALTH ORGANIZATION OF THE BAHAMAS FOR MEMBERSHIP The Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau is pleased to inform the Conference that he has received a request from the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas for membership in the
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Proposed program and budget estimates of the WHO for the region of the Americas for 1978-79

... ESTIMATES OF THE WORLD THE REGION OF THE AMERICAS FOR 1978-79 HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOR The Director-General of the World Health Organization has requested that the Regional Committee for the Americas recommend a tentative program projection in global terms for 1978 and 1979, within a planning ceiling of US$12,744,000 and $13,445,000, respectively. The ... by adopting a resolution along the following lines: THE XIX PAN AMERICAN proposed Resolution SANITARY CONFERENCE, Having considered the Proposed Program and Budget Estimates of the World Health Organization for the Region of the Americas for 1976 and 1977; and needs Recognizing the advisability into future years, of projecting probable program RESOLVES: To ... the advisability into future years, of projecting probable program RESOLVES: To recommend to the Director General that he include in the Program and Budget Estimates of the World Health Organization for 1978 and 1979 the proposed program for the Region of the Americas as detailed in Document CsPIg/20. Annex csP19/20(Eng.) ANNEX oo oo oo olooo _oooo _ olooooooooo r--u_
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Election of two member countries to fill the vacancies on the Executive Committee

... 27: SPANISH ELECTION OF TWO MEMBER COUNTRIES TO FILL THE VACANCIES ON THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE CREATED BY THE TERMINATION OF THE PERIODS OF OFFICE OF CHILE AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Pursuant to Article 13-A of the Constitution of the Pan American Sanitary Organization, the Executive Committee "shall be composed of seven Member GCvernments elected by the Council ... 1955 Mexico October 1954 Panama October 1955 Since the terms of Chile and the Dominican Republic will expire immediately after the current Meeting of the Directing Council, two Member Countries are to be elected to form part of the Executive Committee under the provisions of the Constitution. MEMBERSHIP OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE T COUNTRY From From From E R M S From From From From January ... GCvernments elected by the Council for overlapping terms of three years... A Member Government shall not be eligible for reelection to the Executive Committee until one year has elapsed." The following chart shows the composition of the Executive Committee together with the expiration dates of the terms of the present Members: Executive Committee Country Term
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Remuneration of international staff members of the PASB

... throughout the staff, the grade classifications are based on the degrees of responsibility and the duties of each post regardless of geographic location. About a year ago a study was made of the responsibilities and duties of the Zone Representatives to determine the proper grade level. As a result of the study, the grade level of these positions was ... 11000 However, the above schedule is subject to the application of salary differentials designed to equate the salaries of internationally recruited staff in all areas of the world in terms of cost of living and related factors. It is, therefore, the present practice of the Bureau to apply an "initial" cost-ofliving adjustment (plus or minus) in multiples of 10% ... Regulation 3.2, quoted below, the system of remuneration of the international staff members of the Bureau is based on the salary and allowance plan of the World Health Organization. Staff Regulation 3.2: *"Salary levels for other .staff members. shal-l be determinedby the *Director on 'the basis of their duties and responsibilities. The salary and allowance
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Scientific institutions en Latin America: National Institute of Hygiene of Ecuador

... which was the scene of two great victories of international hygiene (the eradication of yellow fever, last case, May, 1918, and of plague, last case, April 14, 1939) is an especially appropriate location for thii center of scientific research. Severa1 of the personnel of the Institute are receiving special training in scientific institutions of the United ... have Sections of Bacteriology, Chemistry, Bromatology, and Entomology, and laboratories for the manufacture of serums, vaccines, and B.C.G. (tuberculosis vaccine). There will be a special division for the study of plague. The museum will have collections of both rare and common species of Ameritan animals and insects. It is felt that the city of Guayaquil, ... HIGIENE)* AMERICA (INSTITUTO Guayaquil, Ecuador The National Institute of Hygiene of Ecuador has been established by the National Department of Health in response to a long-felt need. In this country, situated in the tropical region of South America, with its variety in climate, its abrupt changes in altitude, and its wide range of agricultura1 production and the diversity in customs
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