Mast Cells

A millifluidic study of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth-rate and cell-division capability in populations of isogenic cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

... populations grown from single cells over periods of a week, but is also able to sort and collect drops of interest, containing viable and healthy cells, which can be used for further experimentation. In this study, we used isogenic algal cells that were first synchronized in mixotrophic growth conditions. We show that these synchronized cells, when placed in ... short doubling-time (fast-growers) and a significant subpopulation of slowly dividing cells (slowgrowers). These observations suggest that algal cells from an isogenic population may be present in either of two states, a state of restricted division and a state of active division. When isogenic cells were allowed to propagate for about 1000 generations on solid agar plates, ... isogenic cells. These stochastic differences have been correlated to fluctuations in metabolites and in differing capacities of individual cells to transmit signals through signaling pathways [16]. Another major source of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in S. cerevisiae stems from its asymmetric cell division, that is associated with differential aging of cells
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Stem Cells So far! Stem Cell Therapy Facts and Principles

... The 2nd Annual Congress Stem Cells Research and Application(22-23 May 2014, Mashhad-Iran) Stem Cells So far! Stem Cell Therapy Facts and Principles *Elahe Mahdipour1 1 Department of Medical Biotechnology, Medical School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad, Iran. Abstract Stem cells are cells with the ability to divide for indefinite ... School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad, Iran. Abstract Stem cells are cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods and to give rise to specialized cells. Stem cell therapy has now been emerged as an extraordinary promise to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions. However, except blood stem cell transfer by bone marrow
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CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genomic Deletion of the Beta-1, 4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 Gene in Murine P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells Results in Low Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxin Type C.

... number of cells. To solve these problems, we previously identified a new cell line of murine P19 cells that showed high sensitivity to BoNTs [15]. P19 cells are a mouse-derived embryonal carcinoma cell line that is able to differentiate into neuronal cells [16]. In comparison with neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells, neuronal cells derived ... GalNAc-T-knockout cells were generated. We next examined ganglioside synthesis in P19 neurons of knockout cells using CTB and an anti-GT1b mAb. Both CTB and anti-GT1b mAb were barely detected in GalNAc-T-knockout neurons (Fig 3C). Evaluation of off-target effects in GalNAc-T-deficient P19 cells We evaluated whether GalNAc-T-deficient P19 cells possessed ... and KO indicate wild-type and GalNAc-T-knockout cells, respectively. Both syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 were cleaved by BoNT/C in a dose-dependent manner in wild-type cells, but were barely cleaved in knockout cells. (C) Recovery of BoNT/C-induced SNAP-25 cleavage in P19 neurons derived from GalNAc-T-knockout cells by addition of exogenous gangliosides. P19
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Inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity renders cancer cells highly sensitive to mitoxantrone.

... growth assays, SiHa and HeLa cells were seeded into 6-well plates 48 hours before treatment. The cells were exposed to treatment for 6 hours and then trypsinized and suspended in fresh medium and seeded into 6-well plates with 3 mM imatinib. SiHa cells were incubated for 14 days and HeLa cells for 7 days. Following incubation, cells were fixed with 1:1 acetone–methanol ... that c-Abl is required for the normal proliferation of these cells. Targeting of c-Abl in HeLa cells by siRNA rendered the cells less sensitive to MX. CaSki cells were also less sensitive to MX when c-Abl was downregulated with siRNA, but no inhibition of proliferation was observed. These cells were harder to transfect with siRNA and only 40% efficacy ... recovery capacity of the cells. MX concentrations as low as 1 nM together with 3 mM imatinib inhibited HeLa cell clonal growth completely, both p53-null and empty vector–carrying cells (Figure 1C). In SiHa cell lines, 3 mM imatinib alone did not affect clonal growth. The sensitivity of CaSki cells for imatinib addition was between that of SiHa and HeLa cells (Figure
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Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells.

... Microtubules Result of Required Required Invasion C. albicans Epithelial cells Unknown Unknown Zipper Endothelial cells Als3p expressed by hyphae Capsule (GXM) Cr. neoformans Epithelial cells Brain endothelial Capsule (GXM) cells Epithelial cells Conidia Endothelial cells R. oryzae Yes Unknown N-cadherin and Zipper other proteins Unknown Unknown Yes Yes Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Membrane ruffling Zipper Yes Yes Hyphae Unknown Zipper Yes Unknown Endothelial ... albicans, including HeLa cells, HET1-A esophageal cells, FaDu pharyngeal cells, and OKF6/TERT-2 oral epithelial cells [17–19]. However, the formation of pseudopods by epithelial cells is difficult to observe in vivo. Thus, the relative contribution of endocytosis versus local proteolytic digestion to the invasion of epithelial cells by C. albicans in ... host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research. M Introduction Pathogenic fungi interact with a variety of host cells during the induction of disease. To cross tissue planes and cause invasive disease, these organisms must invade normally nonphagocytic host cells such as epithelial cells and endothelial cells.
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Dicer1 depletion in male germ cells leads to infertility due to cumulative meiotic and spermiogenic defects.

... (I) P12 testes was used to quantify meiotic prophase I cells. (J) Note the higher number of early meiotic cells (i.e., Preleptotene and leptotene) and the reduced number of late meiotic cells (i.e. mid/Late zygotene and pachytene) in 2/2 cell preparations suggesting a delayed progression of germ cells into meiosis. Results are mean 6SEM, ns = not significant, ... Veterinarian Office. Isolation of testicular cells Male germ cells were obtained from P60 adult mice (n = 3, each pool of germ cells was isolated from either four pairs of Ddx4Cre;Dcr1fx/fx mutant testes or two pairs of Dcr1fx/fx control testes) by mechanical disruption and liberase treatment (Roche Applied Science). Cells were elutriated and separated into ... Pachytene. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025241.g004 in Fig. 4B and C). We used ser-10 phosphorylation of histone 3 as a specific marker of cells in metaphase (i.e. spermatogonia and late meiotic cells; [11]) to compare mutant individuals to control littermates at P60. This revealed an increased number of cells in meiotic metaphase in the tubules of the mutant group (Fig. S4). These findings indicate
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Inhibition of mesothelin as a novel strategy for targeting cancer cells.

... and anti-mesothelin siRNAtreated cells (30,000 cells/ well) were plated in 24-well plate and incubated at 37uC with 5% CO2. Forty-eight hours later, the cells were fixed in 100% methanol and stained in 0.05% crystal violet and photographed to visually count the number of invaded cells. For lentivirus related experiments cells were pre-treated with lentivirus ... HT1080 cells. Forty-eight hours postinfection, the cells were assessed by FACS and the titration was calculated using the formula [FxC/V]xD, where ‘‘F’’ is the frequency of GFP-positive cells; ‘‘C’’ is the total number of cells in the well at the time of transduction; ‘‘V’’ is the volume of inoculums in mL; and ‘‘D’’ is lentivirus dilution. Ovca429 cells were ... H2373 mesothelioma cells is reduced significantly (p,0.05) upon mesothelin silencing. Electroporated cells were introduced to the invasion chambers for this experiment and invaded cells were counted and photographed after 48 hrs. Callout panels represent the density of invaded cells stained with crystal violet. (B–C) Skov3 and Bxpc3 cells both exhibit
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Spatial organization of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro--results from a new individual cell-based model with podia.

... dynamics and spatial organization are assessed in terms of the number of cells, mean population radius, and cell-cell Figure 1. Model cells. Three model cells with 1, 2, and 3 podia, respectively. The podium of the cell with only 1 podium (left) is shorter because of cell movement. The cells with 2 and 3 podia (middle, right) are spread out and resting ... outline Our new IBM builds on previous models of Galle and Drasdo [34,49,50] representing cells as elastic spheres that can form contacts, move, grow and divide. The cell dynamics are determined by attractive and repulsive interaction forces between cells and between cells and the substrate (Modeling methods section A). This approach is carried over to ... behavior. Models of individual migrating cells have reached a very high level of detail and complexity [29,30,31,32]. Typically, individual cell-based models follow one of two paradigms: either geometric modeling of cells with cell migration according to Brownian-type Introduction Over the past decade mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bone marrow,
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Attenuation of hind-limb ischemia in mice with endothelial-like cells derived from different sources of human stem cells.

... 1A). BM mononuclear cells were obtained from a group of 6 patients and cultured in the EGM-2 for 14 days. However, functional EC could only be derived from 1/6 (17%) patient’s BM mononuclear cells. Culture of BM mononuclear cells obtained in the other 5 patients failed to yield any CD31+ cells. During the differentiation, those BM mononuclear cells from these ... lower levels 3 March 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 3 | e57876 Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Stem Cells PLOS ONE | 4 March 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 3 | e57876 Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Stem Cells Figure 1. Characterization of derived endothelial-like cells (EC). (A) Phase contrast photos (left panel) showing the morphology ... | Issue 3 | e57876 Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Stem Cells Figure 3. Angiogenic cytokine profiles of conditioned medium obtained from derived endothelial-like cells under normoxic and hypoxic condition. A total of 16105 cells were plated into 6-well gelatin coated plate for overnight incubation, then the cells were washed and PLOS ONE |
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... describes the application of the developed model to the scheduling of the Robotic Flexible Assembly Cells (RFACs). The present study is a continuation of the paper titled “Development of a FuzzySimulation Model of Scheduling Robotic Flexible Assembly Cells? ??. This new model for multi-objective scheduling problems in RFACs was based on combining a fuzzy-based ... assembly cells using fuzzy logic. Proceedings of the 12th WSEAS International Conference on Robotics, Control and Manufacturing Technology, (CMT’ 12), World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS) Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA., pp: 202-207. Abd, K., K. Abhary and R. Marian, 2012b. Efficient scheduling rule for robotic flexible assembly cells based ... scheduling rules. The simulation results show that the performance of the proposed methodology outperforms the most popular scheduling rules from previous research. Keywords: Robotic Cells, Scheduling, Fuzzy Logic, Simulation advantage of increased productivity in a shorter cycle time with lower production costs (Xidias et al., 2010). Nevertheless, two robots
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Stem Cells in Regenerative Endodontics

... http:// The 2nd Annual Congress Stem Cells Research and Application(22-23 May 2014, Mashhad-Iran) Stem Cells in Regenerative Endodontics *Maryam Forghani1 1Assistant Professor of Dental Materials Research Center and Department of Endodontics, ... that are based on the ability of stem cells to accomplish repair (eg, direct pulp capping, apexogenesis, apexification, and even pulpal regeneration). An attempt is made to critically assess the current status in pulp regeneration therapy. Methods: Systematically, 2 distinctly different strategies exist involving stem cells for the repair and/or regeneration ... the repair and/or regeneration of damaged tissues: first, the acellular approach with in situ stimulation of stem cells and modulation of their activity and, second, the cellular approach consisting of ex vivo cell culture and the use of stem cells in tissue engineering. Result: Desired outcome is considered important, specifically for root strengthening
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Making human neurons from stem cells after spinal cord injury.

... generation, in which nonadherent cells proliferate to form multicell spheres. This is a standard method for propagating stem cells [12,13], but only very few cells can proliferate under these conditions, and this technique might select for a particular subpopulation (and potentially a gliogenic subpopulation) of stem cells [14]. In contrast, adherent ... finding that over 70% of cells in dorsal or ventral horn of L4–L5 expressed the neuronal marker TUJ1. 11%–14% of the cells were Nestin positive, and only 5% expressed the astrocyte marker GFAP. Of cells residing in white matter, approximately 60% were neurons and 16%–20% were positive for the astroglial marker GFAP. Very few cells became oligodendrocytes ... oligodendrocytes and grey matter neurons. Stem cells could provide growth factors beneficial to SCI repair, or help replace lost myelin or circuitry. tissues, which is a notable advantage over embryonic stem cells, and have the further advantage of being regionally specified to produce spinal cord progeny. Stem cells can be isolated from spinal cord from
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Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

... whole process is also dependent on the presence of the Sertoli cells; ablation of Sertoli cells in the neonatal period leads to a .90% loss of adult Leydig cells with mature cells only forming near the rete testis where Sertoli-like cells remain [21]. Once formed, activity of the adult Leydig cells is dependent on LH and osteocalcin and in the absence ... however, that the Sertoli cells are also essential for adult Leydig cell development [21]. A role for the Sertoli cells in adult Leydig cell development has also been suggested by Hazra and colleagues [22] who have shown that precocious androgen receptor (AR) expression in the Sertoli cells has knock-on effects on the Leydig cells. Once established, ... count the number of Leydig cells in each testis. The cells were recognised by their position, round nucleus and relatively abundant cytoplasm as described previously [18,37–39]. After DTX injection the morphology of some of the Leydig cells started to change (e.g. reduction in cytoplasmic volume) as described in Results. These cells were included in the
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The Divergent Intracellular Lifestyle of Francisella tularensis in Evolutionarily Distinct Host Cells.

... considered the key cells in pathogenesis of tularemia in mammals. Understanding intracellular trafficking of F. tularensis within various host cells is indispensable to our understanding of bacterial ecology, intracellular adaptation to various hosts’ microenvironments, and subversion of host cell defenses. Within mammalian and arthropod-derived cells, F. tularensis ... and arthropod-derived cells but is also required for intravacuolar growth of F. tularensis within amoeba. It is also unclear why F. tularensis within amoeba has a different intracellular cycle compared to arthropod and mammalian cells. Conclusions and Future Directions The ability to invade and replicate in a variety of host cells appears to be a ... the FPI are indispensable for this process. Intracellular Life of F. tularensis in Macrophages F. tularensis survives and replicates within various cells, but macrophages are considered the important cells in developing tularemia [19]. Francisella enters into macrophages by looping PLOS Pathogens | DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005208 December 3, 2015 2/8 phagocytosis
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Stepwise development of hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells.

... proportion of EB cells on day 6 of culture. Induced HOXB4 expression during EB formation did not affect the generation of colony forming cells and repopulating cells in the OP9 and iHOXB4 system or the appearance of surface markers in EB cells. EB6 cells were analyzed and sorted by flow cytometry. Sorted EB6 cells were co-cultured with OP9 cells for various ... CD41, CD45, c-Kit, and CD34 in EB6 cells. The sorting gates for CD412 or CD41+ cells, c-Kit+CD41+ or c-Kit2CD41+ cells, and CD34+ CD41+ or CD342CD41+ cells are indicated as squares. (B) EB6 cells were fractionated based on expression of CD41, c-Kit, and CD34, co-cultured with OP9 cells for 4 days, sorted for GFP+ cells, and transplanted into lethally ... from EB6 cells in vitro. (A) CD41+ EB6 cells were co-cultured with OP9 cells in the absence of Dox for 4 days. Cells collected from the co-cultures were analyzed by flow cytometry. HOXB4-expressing cells were detected by GFP expression. Data show the expression of CD41, c-Kit, CD34, and CD45 in GFP+ cells. The sorting gates for CD412 or CD41+ cells, c-Kit2
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Analysis of close associations of uropod-associated proteins in human T-cells using the proximity ligation assay

... 5% (n = 3) of the polarized PLA-positive cells (a total of 248 cells analysed). The remainder of the polarized PLA-positive cells featured 1–2 dots/uropod. Baumann et al. (2013), PeerJ, DOI 10.7717/peerj.186 6/14 Figure 3 Interaction of PSGL-1 and flotillin-2 in human T -cells studied with PLA. (A, B) T -cells were preincubated for 30 min at 37◦C, ... (n = 4) of the resting cells and 88 ± 2% (n = 4) of the chemokine-stimulated T -cells (Fig. 3B), with fluorescent dots located at the plasma membrane of the resting cells (range: 1–11 dots per cell; mean: 4 ± 1 dots per cell analysed in 30 cells derived from 3 experiments), and along the entire uropod border in 67% (n = 2; 198 cells analysed) of the polarized, ... transfected resting cells (range: 9–24 dots per cell; mean: 15 ± 1 dots per cell derived from 23 cells in 4 experiments). Similarly the PLA was positive in 89 ± 7% (n = 3) of the transfected polarized cells, mostly restricted to the uropods and lining the uropods in 75 ± 7% (n = 3) of the cells (Fig. 5B). The remainder of the polarized PLA-positive cells featured
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Novel method for isolation of murine clara cell secretory protein-expressing cells with traces of stemness.

... CCSP-expressing cells may function as true stem cells of adult airways. Presently it is not known whether the groups overlap or represent distinct cells such as variant Clara cells [11], type A cells [12], OCT4-expressing stem cells [13] and bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) [14]. Due to the lack of simple methods for the isolation of primary Clara cells from ... CCSP+ cells. However, the level of CD133, Sca-1 and Sox2 expression was lower in CCSP+ cells than that in CCSP2 cells. One possible explanation is that CCSP is a Clara cell differentiation marker, so a CCSP+ population of cells may contain more mature Clara cells, but few stem/progenitor cells, while CCSP2 cells fraction is a mixture of many cells, ... II, ciliated cells, basal cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblast cells and so on. Many of the cells have been shown to have stem cell features [19,41]. Sphere culture showed that CCSP+ cells were able to form spheroid colonies. The sphere colony size and efficiency of colony formation were lower in CCSP+ cells compared to CCSP2 cells. This data
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Notch signaling mediates the age-associated decrease in adhesion of germline stem cells to the niche.

... tightly coupled, and regulate stem cells to fit the current needs of the organism. During aging, diminished niche function leads to stem cell loss [1]; on the other hand, it is unknown whether stem cells influence their own attachment to the niche as they age. Moreover, it is also unclear how niche cells coordinate with stem cells in response to aging. Drosophila ... consists of a terminal filament, cap cells, and anterior escort cells, houses two GSCs, which contain membranous organelles (spectrosomes or fusomes). One GSC division gives rise to a cystoblast, which then develops into cyst cells that are interconnected with a branched fusome. The cyst is then surrounded by somatic follicle cells. (B) Mitotic recombination ... the E(spl)m7-lacZ channel only. GSCs are outlined by dashed circles. Asterisks indicate cap cells. (C and D) Ratio of ß-gal expression in GSCs (C) and cap cells (D) to average LamC expression in cap cells (internal control) in 1 and 7-w-old germaria. The number of cells analyzed is shown above each bar. **, P, 0.01; ***, P,0.001. Error bar, mean 6 SEM.
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E-cadherin promotes incorporation of mouse epiblast stem cells into normal development.

... embryos/63 collected embryos) injected with doxycyclinetreated cells carried EGFP-positive cells in epiblasts, whereas no embryos carrying EGFP-positive cells in the epiblast were obtained from blastocysts injected with untreated cells. Instead, we found embryos possessing EGFP-positive cells in the extraembryonic portion, suggesting that mEpiSCs without ... categorized into two major types, na¨ıve and primed PSCs [1]. The former category includes mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) [2,3] and mouse embryonic germ cells, whereas the latter includes mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) [4,5] and human embryonic stem cells [6]. There are several criteria that distinguish na¨ıve and primed PSCs. From the cell biological ... green) and Oct3/4 (shown in red). White arrowheads indicate inactive X chromosome (XCI)-negative cells. C) Measurement of the ratio of XCI-negative and -positive cells in Figure 3B. Only Oct3/4-positive cells were counted in each case. Note that NaIN and EIN cells maintained 100% XCI in EpiSC medium without doxycycline (data not shown). D) E-cadherin induced
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A Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain that improves stimulation of antigen-presenting cells does not enhance vaccine efficacy.

... activate human T cells poorly in vitro. One LVS mutant, strain 13B47, stimulated higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines from dendritic cells and macrophages and increased costimulatory molecule expression on dendritic cells compared to wild type. Additionally, 13B47-infected dendritic cells activated T cells more efficiently than LVSinfected cells. A deletion ... isolated cells were washed and red blood cells were lysed with ACK Lysis Buffer (Gibco). After washing and counting, cells were resuspended in complete DC media supplemented with 500 U/ml GM-CSF (eBioscience) and seeded into T75 flasks or 24-well plates at a concentration of 20–30 million cells per flask or 16106 cells/ well, respectively. Cells were ... previous studies [42,43,44]. CD4+ T cells were purified from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that passed through the Optiprep gradient by positive selection using the Dynal CD4 Positive Isolation Kit (Invitrogen) per the manufacturer’s instructions. These cells were .95% CD3+CD4+ T cells as assessed by flow cytometry. Purified CD4+ T cells were then stained
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The Wnt receptor, Lrp5, is expressed by mouse mammary stem cells and is required to maintain the basal lineage.

... outgrowths, we confirmed that Lrp5- /cells have less stem cell activity. Interestingly, outgrowths from mixtures of control and Lrp52/2 cells contained labeled (control) and unlabeled Lrp52/2 cells. In other words, outgrowths were not clonal and Lrp52/2 cells can contribute to outgrowths in the presence of wild type cells (Figure S3). Although stem cell ... (Fig. 1), flow cytometric analysis revealed a two-fold depletion of basal cells with respect to total epithelial cells (Fig. 6A). The frequency of basal cells in the total mammary epithelial cell population decreased from approximately 4.2 to 2.2 basal cells per 10 epithelial cells. In contrast, basal cell frequency increased in C57Bl6 MMTV-Wnt1 (MMTV-Wnt1) ... enrichment in mammary stem cells; Fig. 5B). In addition, Lrp5 negative cells were depleted of ductal stem cell activity (1/107,272 cells) compared to the whole population, and the overall recovery of stem cell function in the Lrp5-high fraction was 80%. Based on this one marker (and assuming a 50% dilution with VWB-positive endothelial cells) , the overall
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Defective Resensitization in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells Evokes β-Adrenergic Receptor Dysfunction in Severe Asthma.

... identification to the tissue sample. Cells were received at their first passage from Dr. Panettieri’s lab (non-asthma cell lines N051912/1, N090712/1, N 101412/1, N010912/1, N061212/1, N082112/1, N012412/1 & N120511/1; asthma cells lines AS010513/1, AS011813/1, AS110112/1, AS110412/1, AS 110612/1, AS091511/1, AS101411/1 & AS113011/1). The cells were expanded and ... studies, we have used primary human airway smooth muscle cells derived from patient lungs. A caveat and a limitation of primary culture studies is the selective amplification of sturdy cells in the isolated population from the lungs. However, this limitation is outweighed by advantages like a) that the cells are directly derived from the asthmatic lungs ... asthma pathology and b) that these may be the most receptive cells that may respond to treatment in pathology. Therefore, pathways identified in these cells will have significant translational impact. Ethics statement Although our studies have utilized primary human airway smooth muscle cells, these have been derived from anonymous patient donors.
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Hepatitis B virus induces IL-23 production in antigen presenting cells and causes liver damage via the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

... to efficiently stimulate the differentiation of na¨ıve CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells in the presence of HBsAg or HBcAg; furthermore, the Th17 cells were shown to be the primary source of IL-17. The results also indicated that both hepatic satellite cells and mDCs might be the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. Therefore, our study ... for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of na¨ıve CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBVinfected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide ... expression of IL23R in IL-17+ cells in liver tissue. Confocal microscopy revealed that IL-17 was almost completely co-localized with IL-23R in hepatitis Binfected liver tissues (Figure 4C). Moreover, although not all CD4+ T cells expressed IL-17, the IL-17 was mainly expressed in CD4+ T cells and only rarely expressed in cdT cells or neutrophils (Figure
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Production Cells in Construction: Considering Time, Space and Information Linkages to Seek Broader Implementations

... which aims to keep the production as close to the continuous flow as possible (Liker, 2004). Production cells have steadily gained popularity over the past two decades. Studies show that cells are now adopted by between 43 and 53 per cent of Production Cells in Construction 47 manufacturing companies in the USA and the UK (Johnson and Wemmerlov, 2004). ... several machines (Ohno, 1988).The production cells could be regarded as an evolutionary successor of the moving-line concept of Henry Ford to meet the Japanese small market in those days (Narusawa and Shook, 2009). Production cells have steadily gained in popularity over the past two decades. Cases show that cells are now adopted by between 43 and 53 ... construction flows. The cases with asterisk directly address the application of production cells, and they have, as specific objective, the implementation and/or analysis of production cells. The others have different main focus, referring indirectly to production cells. Eleven out of sixteen cases in Table 2 are related to job site flow, while few applications
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Homeopathic compound reduces the release of superoxide anion by mononuclear cells of rhea (Rhea americana).

... homeopático reduz a liberação de ânion superóxido pelas células mononucleares de ema (Rhea americana) [Homeopathic compound reduces the release of superoxide anion by mononuclear cells of rhea (Rhea americana)] W.R. Bertoldo1, J.L. França1,2, L.T.O. Fernandes3*, A.C. França-Botelho1 1Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário do Planalto de ... (P
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