Long Pathlength

Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: signatures of catchment co-evolution

... observed trend. This time scale combines several geomorphologic and hydraulic soil properties. Catchments with relatively longer subsurface storage release time scales produce significantly more E/P . Vegetation in these catchments have longer access to this additional groundwater source and thus are less prone to water stress. Further analysis reveals ... was to try to understand the climatic and landscape controls on long- term hydrologic partitioning. Catchments demonstrate a surprisingly simple behavior across many different climate and landscape properties. This is best illustrated in the work of Budyko (1974) who hypothesized that the long- term hydro27   logic partitioning is driven to first degree ... 12 US catchments across a climate gradient to decouple the impact of climate and landscape properties to gain insight into the role of climate-vegetation-soil interactions in long- term hydrologic partitioning. The 12 catchment models (with different paramterizations) are subjected to the 12 different climate forcings, resulting in 144 10 yr model simulations.
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Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults.

... RESEARCH ARTICLE Long- Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults Ikenna C. Eze1,2, Emmanuel Schaffner1,2, Maria Foraster1,2, Medea Imboden1,2, Arnold von Eckardstein3, ... Davos, Switzerland a11111 * Nicole.Probst@unibas.ch Abstract OPEN ACCESS Citation: Eze IC, Schaffner E, Foraster M, Imboden M, von Eckardstein A, Gerbase MW, et al. (2015) Long- Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0130337. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130337 Academic Editor: Stephania Ann Cormier, University ... healthy ones [12]. MetS subjects also developed cardiovascular symptoms when exposed to ultrafine particles [13]. Susceptibility to low grade systemic inflammation on exposure to long- term particulate matter
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Long-term follow-up of patients after acute kidney injury: patterns of renal functional recovery.

... C, Tenorio MT, Rivera M, Abraira V, et al. (2007) Long- term outcome of acute tubular necrosis: a contribution to its natural history. Kidney Int 71: 679–686. 31. James MT, Ghali WA, Tonelli M, Faris P, Knudtson ML, et al. (2010) Acute kidney injury following coronary angiography is associated with a long- term decline in kidney function. Kidney Int 78: ... São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract Background and Objectives: Patients who survive acute kidney injury (AKI), especially those with partial renal recovery, present a higher long- term mortality risk. However, there is no consensus on the best time to assess renal function after an episode of acute kidney injury or agreement on the definition of renal ... Nephrology referral should be considered mainly for older patients and those with elevated serum creatinine at hospital discharge. Citation: Macedo E, Zanetta DMT, Abdulkader RCRM (2012) Long- Term Follow-Up of Patients after Acute Kidney Injury: Patterns of Renal Functional Recovery. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36388. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036388 Editor: Emmanuel A. Burdmann,
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Rural-urban differences in the long-term care of the disabled elderly in China.

... hygiene products. Conclusions: The use of long- term care services varies by living area. Long- term care of the disabled elderly imposes a substantial burden on families. Our study revealed that informal care involves huge opportunity costs to the caregivers. Chinese policy makers need to promote community care and long- term care insurance to relieve the burden ... population aging and changes in the prevalence of disability among elderly people could have significant effects on the demand for long- term care. This study aims to describe the urban-rural differences in use and cost of long- term care of the disabled elderly and to explore potential influencing factors. Methods: This study uses data from a cross-sectional ... relatively low, especially in PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 5 November 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 11 | e79955 Long- Term Care of the Disabled Elderly in China We are aware of several limitations to this study that should be acknowledged. First, this is not a longitudinal but a crosssectional survey, so the associations found in the study should be interpreted
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... Andrejszki T. et al. The Long- Term Forecast of Land Passenger Transport Related CO2 Emission and Energy Use in Hungary UDC: 504.3.054:656.07(439) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7708/ijtte.2014.4(4).03 THE LONG- TERM FORECAST OF LAND PASSENGER TRANSPORT RELATED CO2 EMISSION AND ENERGY USE IN HUNGARY Tamas ... generally policymakers do not have the courage to change significantly the modal shift by political decisions because of their popularity. Transport investments are generally long- term investments that show a return in around 30 years. ForFITS is a software tool for policymakers to simulate the effects of different transport scenarios and gives outputs ... essential role in strategy making. If we are able to make a good sophisticated scenario of the future we can plan actions in the right times and in the right fields to control the long- term processes of the examined systems. With this kind of information a competent management of a country or any region is well prepared to keep their managed country or region competitive
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Long-term changes of tropospheric NO<sub>2</sub> over megacities derived from multiple satellite instruments

... Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | A. Hilboll et al.: Long- term NO2 changes over megacities n Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | 4152 A. Hilboll et al.: Long- term NO2 changes over megacities 50˚ 55˚ Moscow 45˚ 50˚ 40˚ Berlin Ruhr 45˚ Kiev 35˚ Katowice Paris Milan 40˚ Madrid Barcelona Istanbul Rome −10 ˚ 10˚ 20˚ Atlanta Dallas Houston −13 0 Miami −70 ˚ 40˚ Athens 0˚ Las ... and varying amplitude for the www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/4145/2013/ Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4145–4169, 2013 4156 13 over megacities A. Hilboll et al.: Long- term NO2 changes A. Hilboll et al.: Long- term NO2 changes over megacities 55˚ 55˚ 50˚ 50˚ 45˚ 45˚ 40˚ 40˚ −10 40˚ ˚ 0˚ 10˚ −10 40˚ ˚ 0˚ 30˚ 20˚ 1 3 5 7 9 20˚ Levelshift ... areas on both regional and city scales, for the first time allowing consistent trend analysis of the full time series at high spatial resolution. Compared to previous studies, the longer study period leads to significantly reduced uncertainties. Climate of the Past Open Access Correspondence to: A. Hilboll (hilboll@iup.physik.uni-bremen.de) The Cryosphere Open
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Long-term effect of interferon plus ribavirin on hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in patients dually infected with hepatitis B and C viruses.

... surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance in patients dually infected with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV), but the long- term effect remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the rate of and the factors associated with HBsAg seroclearance during long- term follow-up after interferon-a/ ribavirin combination therapy in HBV/HCV dually-infected patients. Methodology/Principal ... that interferon-a/ribavirin had long- term effect on HBsAg seroclearance in dually HBV/HCVinfected patients. Baseline cirrhosis and seroclearance of HBV DNA 1 year after end-of-treatment were significant factors associated with HBsAg seroclearance. Citation: Yeh M-L, Hung C-H, Huang J-F, Liu C, Lee C-M, et al. (2011) Long- Term Effect of Interferon Plus ... (1999) Interferon alfa for chronic hepatitis B infection: increased efficacy of prolonged treatment. The European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP). Hepatology 30: 238–243. 28. Buster EH, Flink HJ, Cakaloglu Y, Simon K, Trojan J, et al. (2008) Sustained HBeAg and HBsAg loss after long- term follow-up of HBeAg-positive patients treated with peginterferon
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Mass drug administration for trachoma: how long is not long enough?

... / 14 Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma: How Long Is Not Long Enough? strategy, which recognizes that though high-coverage, continuous MDAs are essential, clean water and good hygiene may be as important. For programs seeking real and sustainable elimination, it may be that no amount of time is long enough to achieve trachoma elimination without ... America * dhaddad@emory.edu Abstract OPEN ACCESS Citation: Jimenez V, Gelderblom HC, Mann Flueckiger R, Emerson PM, Haddad D (2015) Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma: How Long Is Not Long Enough? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(3): e0003610. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003610 Editor: Thomas M. Lietman, University of California San Francisco, UNITED STATES Received: ... newly-identified high prevalence districts PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases | DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003610 March 23, 2015 1 / 14 Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma: How Long Is Not Long Enough? for financial support to ITI. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. warrant
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When ‘temporary’ lasts too long

... legislation such as free electricity and now, under a long overdue programme, for rehabilitation and privatisation of these spaces. Generally, it is the pre-existing character of these buildings that makes them useful as emergency shelters. However, the term has also been used to describe purpose-built shelters for longer-term housing. For example, MSF built ... “extremely sub-standard”, collective centres can hardly be considered a “home”. Typically, collective centres are found in buildings that were never intended for habitation, or at least not for long- term or family accommodation. They thus tend to lack the living space as well as water, sanitation, electrical systems and cooking facilities for the number of residents and ... transit facilities located in pre-existing structures, such as community centres, town halls, gymnasiums, hotels, warehouses, disused factories, and unfinished buildings.”1 Along the same lines, but more closely approaching a definition, the CCCM Cluster’s Typology of Camps describes collective centres as: “a type of settlement […] where displaced persons
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Influence of long-term fertilization on soil enzyme activities

... arylsulfatase. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 24: 141-146. [7] Dick, R.P., (1992): A rewiew: long- term effects of agricultural systems on soil biochemical and microbial parameters. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 4: 25-36. [8] Dick, R.P., Rasmussen, P.E., Kerle, E.A., (1988): Influence of long- term residue management on soil enzyme activities in relation to soil chemical ... matrix as exoenzymes and as endoenzymes in viable cells [9]. Soil enzyme activities commonly correlate with microbial parameters [11] and have been shown to be a sensitive index of long- term management effects such as crop rotations [6, 8], animal and green manures [12], and tillage [4]. The measurement of soil enzymes can be used as indicative of the biological ... the two t-test [14] and the correlations between the enzymatic activities and chemical indicators were determined according to the methods described in [15]. 113 Influence OF Long- Term Fertilization on Soil Enzyme Activities RESULTS Results of the enzymological analyses are presented in Table 1. Table 1. The effect of different types of green manure
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Incidence of traumatic long-bone fractures requiring inhospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis in 4,890 fractures

... literature, INIST and e-Depot. Contact BioMed Central supplements@ biomedcentral.com CONTENTS continued Volume 17 Supplement 3 2009 Open Access O15 Incidence of traumatic long- bone fractures requiring inhospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis in 4,890 fractures Terje Meling et al. O16 Cardiopulmonary response to reamed intramedullary ... Gudbjartsson Post-traumatic stress symptoms two years after severe multiple injuries – self-reported disability and psychosocial functioning Helene L Søberg, SU09015 Incidence of traumatic long- bone fractures requiring inhospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis in 4,890 fractures Terje Meling, SU09016 Cardiopulmonary response to reamed intramedullary ... evening in the bars and restaurants of Stavanger! Remember to register! Guided hike to Preikestolen/The Pulpit Rock The majestic Preikestolen towers 604 meters and dives into the long and deep Lysefjord. Join a guided tour to this famous tourist-attraction on Saturday, April 25. 12.40 Departure from Clarion hotel. The guide will meet at the hotel and walk
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High density lipoprotein structural changes and drug response in lipidomic profiles following the long-term fenofibrate therapy in the FIELD substudy.

... High Density Lipoprotein Structural Changes and Drug Response in Lipidomic Profiles following the Long- Term Fenofibrate Therapy in the FIELD Substudy Laxman Yetukuri1, Ilkka Huopaniemi2., Artturi Koivuniemi1., Marianna Maranghi3,4, Anne Hiukka4, Heli Nygren1, Samuel Kaski2, ... treatment. Citation: Yetukuri L, Huopaniemi I, Koivuniemi A, Maranghi M, Hiukka A, et al. (2011) High Density Lipoprotein Structural Changes and Drug Response in Lipidomic Profiles following the Long- Term Fenofibrate Therapy in the FIELD Substudy. PLoS ONE 6(8): e23589. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023589 Editor: Matjaz Perc, University of Maribor, Slovenia Received June
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Long-term temporal changes in the occurrence of a high forest fire danger in Finland

... easily flammable. Prolonged periods with high temperatures and no rain correlate well with periods of high forest fire danger. Prevailing dry conditions affect the flammability of particularly dead forest fuel, whose moisture content is already low compared to live fuel (Tanskanen and Vena¨la¨inen, 2008; and references therein). Finland belongs to the boreal ... during a fire season. However, when we want to study long time series, not always are all the needed meteorological parameters available. Nevertheless, typically precipitation and temperature data are available, at least on a monthly scale, and they can explain most of the fire danger. In Finland there is a long tradition in forest research, and also the ... greater effect on the yearly fire danger variation than the temperature. Long- term changes in forest fire danger could presumably follow, more or less, changes in climate. Temperatures in Finland are known to have increased during the latest 160 yr, spring being the season where the long- term warming is strongest (Tuomenvirta, 2004; Tieta¨va¨inen et al.,
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A novel whole-cell mechanism for long-term memory enhancement.

... A Novel Whole-Cell Mechanism for Long- Term Memory Enhancement Iris Reuveni, Drorit Saar, Edi Barkai* Departments of Neurobiology and Biology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Abstract Olfactory-discrimination learning was shown to induce a profound long- lasting enhancement in the strength of excitatory and inhibitory ... the functional significance of such modulation to the cortical network activity, with the ultimate goal of describing the mechanism underlying long- term memory of elaborated performance capabilities. We show how long- lasting synaptic modifications are combined at different levels, from single synapses, through whole-cell modifications and to the network ... mediated by whole-cell control mechanism(s). Several studies report a robust long- term increase in the total synaptic strength following learning [9–13,15]. The increase in excitation and in inhibition was observed 4–5 days after training termination [17]. We previously showed that the long term increase observed in our lab is paralleled by only minor morphological
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Government borrowing and the long-term interest rate: Application of an extended loanable funds model to the Slovak Republic

... supply of loanable funds to the left and increase the Slovak long- term interest rate, and an appreciation of the Slovak currency would shift the supply of loanable funds to the right and reduce the Slovak long- term interest rate. Suppose the demand for loanable funds is negatively affected by the long- term interest rate and positively influenced by the ... international capital flows on nominal long- term interest rates in France’, Southern Economic Journal, Volume 25, pp. 179–190. Cebula, R. J. (1998), ‘Budget deficits and long- term interest rates: 1973–1991’, International Advances in Economic Research, Volume 4, pp. 374–388. Cebula, R. J. (1999), ‘Budget deficits, capital flows, and long- term interest rates: cointegration ... capital inflow is explained by the relative interest rate and the exchange rate (Devereux and Saito, 2006; De Santis and Luhrmann, 2009). As the world long- term interest rate rises relative to the Slovak long- term interest rate, the net capital inflow to Slovakia would decrease. As the Slovak currency appreciates relative to other currencies, the net
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Long-term mortality in patients with tuberculous meningitis: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

... other causes of death. Conclusion: Adult TBM patients have an almost two-fold increased long- term mortality and the excess mortality stems from infectious disease related causes of death. Citation: Christensen A-SH, Roed C, Omland LH, Andersen PH, Obel N, et al. (2011) Long- Term Mortality in Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis: A Danish Nationwide Cohort ... TBM patients in Denmark over the last decade [4]. The acute, short-term mortality rates in TBM are well documented, but few studies have analysed long- term mortality. In this population based cohort study the long- term mortality in TBM patients was compared to a population control cohort in a TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) low-endemic country ... are of value both to the treating physician and to the patients and their families, who want to know the long- term prognosis after having survived the first year after a TBM diagnosis. To our knowledge this is the first study to address the issue of long- term mortality in TBM patients in a population-based cohort study design. Previous studies include
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Long-range correlations in rectal temperature fluctuations of healthy infants during maturation.

... investigate the existence of fractal-like long- range correlations, indicative of temperature control, in night time rectal temperature (Trec) patterns in maturing infants. Methodology/Principal Findings: We measured Trec fluctuations in infants every 4 weeks from 4 to 20 weeks of age and before and after immunization. Long- range correlations in the temperature ... found that Trec fluctuations exhibit fractal long- range correlations with a mean (SD) a of 1.51 (0.11), indicating that Trec is regulated in a highly correlated and hence deterministic manner. A significant increase in a with age from 1.42 (0.07) at 4 weeks to 1.58 (0.04) at 20 weeks reflects a change in long- range correlation behavior with maturation ... SIDS. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether night time Trec patterns in infants exhibit fractal-like long- range correlations that can be characterized by DFA under clinically relevant natural conditions in their home environment. We assessed long- range correlations in time series of Trec during sleep in the first 20 weeks of life and examined whether
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Long-term use of angiotensin receptor blockers and the risk of cancer.

... Long- Term Use of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and the Risk of Cancer Laurent Azoulay1,2*, Themistocles L. Assimes3, Hui Yin1, Dorothee B. Bartels4, Ernesto L. Schiffrin5,6, Samy ... risk of lung cancer with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium channel blockers. Citation: Azoulay L, Assimes TL, Yin H, Bartels DB, Schiffrin EL, et al. (2012) Long- Term Use of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and the Risk of Cancer. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50893. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050893 Editor: Kin Mang Lau, The Chinese University of ... of ARBs and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04–1.24), though this effect was driven largely by the ONTARGET trial and was no longer significant when analyzed with a random-effects model [2]. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration also conducted its own meta-analysis of 31 RCTs and found no differences
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