Knowledge On The Early Brazilian Textbooks For Chemistry Teaching

High resolution structure of the ba3 cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus in a lipidic environment.

... electron density with lower B-factors; therefore, the subsequent analysis will be focused on the A120F mutant unless noted otherwise. The enzyme was crystallized under a number of conditions; however, all crystallization conditions contained a high concentration of PEG400 (40–45%) that swells LCP and converts it into a sponge phase [33], which is consistent ... likely functions in egress of product water and proton translocation. The hydrophobic O2-uptake channel, connecting the active site to the lipid bilayer, contains a single water molecule nearest the CuB atom but otherwise exhibits no residual electron density. The active site contains strong electron density for a pair of bonded atoms bridging the heme ... peroxide. The structure of ba3-oxidase reveals new information about the positioning of the enzyme within the membrane and the nature of its interactions with lipid molecules. The atomic resolution details provide insight into the mechanisms of electron transfer, oxygen diffusion into the active site, reduction of oxygen to water, and pumping of protons across
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Description and implementation of a MiXed Layer model (MXL, v1.0) for the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer in the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy)

... equations for the moisture budget By adding the moisture budget to the heat budget, we incorporate the effect of moisture on the buoyancy of air parcels and therewith complete the configuration of the thermodynamic variables in the ABL. The inclusion of the moisture effects on the dynamics of the ABL requires the introduction of two new equations. The ... appears for instance in the calculations of the aerodynamic resistance which governs evapotranspiration (Sect. 2.7.2) and dry deposition. Similar expressions as for hθ i and hqi can be used for the two horizontal components of the wind speed. These equations also contain the Coriolis force that takes into account the rotation of the Earth. This gives another ... for the calculation of soil temperature and moisture changes that occur on diurnal time scales, and therefore affect the surface heat fluxes. It is a forcerestore soil model, based on the model formulation of Noilhan and Planton (1989) with the soil temperature formulation from Duynkerke (1991). The soil model consists of two layers, of which only the
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Relationship between Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: evidence for differential susceptibility?

... carriers would be protected from the heightened inflammation related to adverse environmental conditions [12]. Though these background works suggest a critical role for IL-6 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, one has to acknowledge this is clearly a candidate gene approach since currently there is only a limited support for the proposed SNP in terms of ... presence of environmental conditions that induce the transcription factor activity [12]. Because of the necessary precondition, phenotypic manifestation of rs1800795 is not universal. For instance, impact of rs1800795 (in terms of association with increased IL-6 levels) has been found in inflammation-related conditions such as ageing [15], systemiconset juvenile ... white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus[37]. Coronal slice where an ovoid gray matter starts to appear inferiomedially to the trigone of the lateral ventricle marked the posterior end [38]. Sagittal and axial sections were used to confirm the anatomical landmarks. Further, after tracing on coronal section, imperfections were rectified on sagittal plane, such
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Off-line signature verification based on hus moment invariants and zone features using support vector machine

... cheques, attendance register monitoring, document authentication and visa applications. One of the main reasons for developing an off-line system is in banks, Forensic Science Labs (FSL’s) for detecting the forged and genuine signatures. The proposed system is based on strong feature set in combination of SVM .The rest of the paper is organized as follows. ... Boole Cayley and Sylvester, on the theory of algebraic forms. Hu’s Uniqueness Theorem states that if is piecewise continuous and has nonzero values only in the finite part of the plane, then statistical moments of all orders exist. Moment set can be computed and used to exceptionally explain the information contained in the image segment. Hu introduced ... locationsofblackpixelsand the totalnumberofpixels. The resulting twonumbers(one for andother for )is the centroidlocation. x x x x MaximumHorizontalProjection Finding the maximum among the sum of number of black pixels of all the rows in binary and thinned image[6]iscalledMaximumHorizontalProjection(MHP). MaximumVerticalProjection Finding the maximumfrom the sumofblackpixelscolumnwiseinbinaryandthinnedimage[17]iscalled MaximumVerticalProjection(MVP). Mass It
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Parallel Implementation of Bias Field Correction Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for Image Segmentation

... performance evaluation, the allocation on device and data transfer is done only one time before the loop iteration to avoid the latency caused by transferring data back and forth from the CPU and GPU. We calculate the time of the application after the file I/O, in order to show the speedup effect more clearly. The speedup results are normalized to the baseline ... CPU configuration. Fig. 4 confirms the influence of the x64 configuration. Indeed treatment on images to this resolution is better than on x32 configuration (Fig. 3) for the same parallel implementation of the algorithm and different GPU. Performance improvement is manifested on the three curves of the speed-up to an x64 configuration. The maximum values ... variation of the execution time for iteration versus the picture size for the three types of the tested devices. Fig. 6. The variation of execution time per iteration versus image size on different GPU devices Fig. 4. Evolution of speed-up versus image size on different GPU devices for 64 bit configuration In most cases and for large image sizes the
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Corrigendum to "Boron incorporation in the foraminifer <i>Amphistegina lessonii</i> under a decoupled carbonate chemistry" published in Biogeosciences, 12, 1753–1763, 2015

... Hanover, Germany 4 Burgers Zoo, Antoon van Hooffplein 1, 6816 SH Arnhem, the Netherlands Correspondence to: K. Kaczmarek ( The authors regret that a typographical error appeared in the above paper on page 1756, first column, lines 8–9. The authors apologise for any inconvenience caused, and the correct lines should read as follows: Our ... Attribution 3.0 License. Corrigendum to “Boron incorporation in the foraminifer Amphistegina lessonii under a decoupled carbonate chemistry? ?? published in Biogeosciences, 12, 1753–1763, 2015 K. Kaczmarek1 , G. Langer2 , G. Nehrke1 , I. Horn3 , S. Misra2 , M. Janse4 , and J. Bijma1 1 Alfred Wegener Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, ... size and is in agreement with published values of 39.6 ± 0.2 ‰ (2 SD) (Foster et al., 2010) and 39.7 ± 0.6 ‰ (2 SD) (Spivack and Edmond, 1987). Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union.
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Evaluation of the JULES land surface model in simulating catchment hydrology in Southern Africa

... be an important consideration here. Observed daily and monthly river flow data for 3 stations on the Orange, Okavango and Zambezi rivers were obtained from the Global Runoff Data Centre, 56 068 Koblenz, Germany. Although more stations are available for these rivers we only present results here for Aliwal North on the Orange, Mohembo on the Okavango and ... Mulilo on the Zambezi. The reason for selecting these stations is that the river channels upstream from these sites are relatively unmodified by large dams or excessive abstraction. The exception is Aliwal North, where the flow may be modified to some degree by the Lesotho Highlands Water Transfer Scheme, but this program has only come online in the late ... Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures J I J I Back Close | 2.3 Model simulations Discussion Paper 15 | 10 Discussion Paper 5 Figure 1 displays the locations of the 3 discharge stations and the upstream catchment masks as defined in the JULES domain. Of particular interest for the selected catchments is the contrasting
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Understanding the connection between epigenetic DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning from computer simulations.

... respect to the histone core (in grey) used in this work: (top) the CpG step minor groove faces the histones; (bottom) the CpG major groove faces the histones. The methyl carbon is colored in green. The images on the right show a lateral view of the DNA and the protein as seen from the solvent. (B) Diagram of the thermodynamic cycle used to extract the free ... Methylation of the DNA causes a higher energetic cost for nucleosome formation, especially when the MeCpG steps are positioned in the minor groove facing the histones (dark red). (B) Correlation between the additional energetic cost due to methylation (ÆEMethæ-ÆEæ, kJ/mol) to form a nucleosome and the phasing of CpG steps respect to the histone (the zero ... (the zero is the reference phase position in which the CpG minor groove directly faces the histones). The cartoons illustrate two extreme positions of the methyl groups with respect to the histone core, which translate into a change in the rotational phase: the position of the methyl group, pointing to the solvent in 0 (red dot) and to the histones in 5
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The educational dimension of pastoral youth service

... or religious experience. The religious experience favors cognitive and affective development, desire of the absolute, relationships development, commitments with justice, and the construction of a personal life and social history; in this regard, the religious experience turns into an educational one. The evangelist deed in the pastoral youth service, ... educativos - objetivos, contenidos, lugares educativos, procesos, metodologías, responsables de la educación, etcétera, que pueden evaluarse indudablemente. Abstract The educational dimension of pastoral youth service is highlighted by the fact that it is about education on faith. Faith education means taking a young person towards a personal encounter with ... un conjunto de comportamientos y actitudes con los cuales el cristiano vive y construye su relación con Dios que ha sido descubierto y aceptado como presente y actuante en la propia vida y acciones” (1997: 184). Pero, junto con esta característica personal, Gevaert menciona la dimensión relacional comprendida con una amplia relación del hombre consigo
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Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?

... used for 2-group comparisons regarding parameters with normal distribution, while nonparametric tests (Wilcoxon signed rank tests and McNemar tests) were used for 2-group comparisons regarding parameters without normal distribution. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the hematoma size estimated by ABC/2 formula and the ... it is hard to get conclusion whether surgical intervention benefit ICH patients than medical treatment or not. Nevertheless, this important issue is beyond the scope of this study, in which only the initial conditions are taken into account. Third, our study recruited patients only from a single medical center in one country. The overall 30-day mortality ... error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of Tri-Service General Hospital (1-103-05-014). The institutional review board waived the need of written informed consent from the patients in this study. All data underlying the findings described
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The Divergent Intracellular Lifestyle of Francisella tularensis in Evolutionarily Distinct Host Cells.

... including the FPI proteins, which play a crucial role in patho-adaptation of the bacteria to different hosts. At the moment, some studies are focused on the FPI genes that encode the T6SS in Francisella. Future studies should elucidate the role of T6SS translocated proteins in disruption of the phagosome and intracellular replication of F. tularensis. The ... how IglC is required for phagosomal escape in mammalian and arthropod-derived cells but is indispensable for intravacuolar growth within amoeba. It is possible that the long-term evolution of F. tularensis within amoeba has facilitated its intravacuolar adaptation in the aquatic environment for long-term survival and for transmission to arthropod and ... lipoprotein that localizes to the outer membrane and interacts with other FPI proteins, resulting in a channel formation [13]. The T6SS assembles a phage tail-like injectisome for translocation of effector proteins across the two bacterial membranes and host cell membrane, and into the cytosol of the host cell [14]. This secretion system is involved in F.
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Benefits of Either Operative or Non-Operative Treatment for Perilunate Dislocation and Fracture Dislocations

... (1). We wonder what the indications were leading the patient and the surgeon electing nonoperative treatment versus operative intervention. Since the outcomes of non-operative care were comparable to the operative outcomes, weighing the benefits of non surgical management may be an area of further investigation .The authors didn’t describe the operative ... fixation and none of them reported any experience with non-operative treatment (2-8). Their operative results are almost similar to Bagheri’s operative results in which they demonstrated better outcomes in terms of motion and Mayo score than the Table 1. studies around the world on the results of operative treatment after perilunate dislocation (PLD) ... )84( COPYRIGHT © 2014 BY THE ARCHIVES OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY LETTER TO THE EDITOR Benefits of Either Operative or Non-Operative Treatment for Perilunate Dislocation and Fracture Dislocations Dear Editor We read the article by Bagheri et al with great interest (1). We found the study interesting and comprehensive as four
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One-Class FMRI-Inspired EEG Model for Self-Regulation Training.

... Depicts the performance of the individual model constructed for the first session when testing on the second session. It compared with the cEFP performance on the same sessions. The results are an average over subjects whose first session was included in the common model construction process (n = 9). b) Compares the cEFP performance with the performance ... testing on the second session. The figure focuses on subjects for whom their first session was included in the common model construction process (n = 9). PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0154968 May 10, 2016 11 / 17 One-Class FMRI-Inspired EEG Model for Self-Regulation Training Fig 5. Comparison between the cEFP and the EFP performances. ... trained on one session to another session. However, differences between sessions may have arisen from changes in the subjects' condition (fatigue, motivation), particularly in task-oriented experiments. Therefore, this adaptation cannot be automatically performed. Fig 5a depicts the performance of the individual model constructed for the first session when
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The semianalytical cloud retrieval algorithm for SCIAMACHY I. The validation

... the column concentration of droplets can be easily found. Note that the contribution of the gaseous absorption is negligible at these wavelengths (see Fig. 2). Due to low surface reflectance at the wavelength 412 nm, the information on the underlying surface reflectance is not crucial for the algorithm. Also we are mostly concentrated on the case of extended ... calculated for the same conditions as in Fig. 8. The case considered above was aimed to the consideration of just one spectrum. The accuracy of our technique for the cloud top pressure determination using satellite measurements can be be further probed using Fig. 10, where we show the comparison of SACURA cloud top pressure p retrievals using Global Ozone Monitoring ... allowing for rapid estimations of the influence of the cloud characteristics on the retrieval results. In particular, we found that the assumption of the homogeneous cloud leads to higher CTHs (by approximately 0.5 km) than those retrieved for the cloud with monotonically increasing with height ice water content used in the fitting procedure (see Fig. 8). The
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A Genetic Algorithm Approach for Solving a Flexible Job ShopScheduling Problem

... machines for performing each operation. The value of genes indicates the amount of production. Fig. 1 shows an example for the structure of the proposed chromosome for one part and one period when there are two operations for completing this part, and machine M1 is related to the first operation and machines M3 and M6 are assigned to the second operation. M1 ... while the last term in the objective function calculates the holding cost. Since, the amount of each part is transferred between the operations of part’s process, in the second, fifth and sixth terms of objective function, the summation of these amounts has been divided by the number of operations for each part. Eq. (2) provides a restriction that the ... shows the operations of parts’ processes and substitute machines for each operation. The last column demonstrates the related process time for these alternative machines. The machines’ available time and associated operation cost are presented in Table 5. Furthermore, the holding cost is 0.1 dollar per month per unit. Table 3: Raw Material Cost for
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Government borrowing and the long-term interest rate: Application of an extended loanable funds model to the Slovak Republic

... and the data for the money market rate 62 Government Borrowing and the Long-Term Interest Rate after 2008.Q4 are not available. Hence, the sample ranges from 2000.Q3 to 2008. Q4. As shown in Table 1, based on the unrestricted cointegration rank test, there are 2 cointegrating relations. Therefore, there is a long-term stable relationship among ... the nominal effective exchange rate. An increase in the nominal effective exchange rate means appreciation of the Slovak currency. NCF is represented by the ratio of the net capital inflow to GDP where the net capital inflow is the sum of the portfolio, direct and other investments in the financial account. The data for the government bond yield before ... determine the theoretical sign of a change in the exogenous variable on the equilibrium long-term interest rate. Third, the latest available data are employed in empirical work, and the results would have more policy implications. The paper is organized in the following manner. The theoretical model is presented in the next section. Data sources, the definition
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Discrete Cosine Transform-II for Reduction in Peak to Average Power Ratio of OFDM Signals Through μ-Law Companding Technique

... (PAPR) of the transmitted or the companded OFDM signals by transforming the statistics of the amplitudes of these signals into uniform distribution. The key idea of the µ-law companderis that it covers all the encountered amplitudes of the OFDM signal. In µ-law companding, the uniform distribution of the signals can be obtained by compressing the peak ... 2013 After applying the DCT-II on OFDM signal the signal get compressed decreasing the PAPR value. Mucompanding is performed on the I and Q outputs of the IFFT after precoding. As the word length at the IFFT output is decreased, the power consumption and complexity of the DAC/ADC decreases. Also companding at the IFFT output increases the resolution giving a ... advantage of the companding transform is that, it eliminates the Out of Band Interference (OBI) and can also maintain a constant average power level and also. The original OFDM signal is converted into the companded signal by using the Mu Companding Transform. The companded signal obtained by using the MuCompanding Transform is given by the equation as: (
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Seasonal distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and net community production on the Bering Sea shelf

... relative to spring concentrations in the bottom waters over the shelf. 4.3 Spatial and seasonal distributions of DIC Figure 3 shows the spatial distribution of spring DIC concentrations averaged over the 10 upper 30 m of the shelf. The highest surface layer concentrations were found in the in- ner domain and the northern regions of the Middle Domain ... kg−1). The lowest surface layer concentrations occurred in the Middle and Outer Domains to the south (∼2025 µmol kg−1). Comparison of the variation of DIC concentrations with depth along the three sampling lines (Fig. 4a–d) shows that concentrations throughout 15 the water column were highest in the northern region of the shelf (∼2130 µmol kg−1). Concentrations ... present in sufficient concentrations on the outer domains of the Bering Sea shelf, production is low in this region compared to the middle 5 shelf. This is likely due to iron limitation: in general, iron concentrations tend to be highest nearer the coast, and decrease off the shelf where iron-deficient basin waters have a greater influence on the water column
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The multi-seasonal NO<sub>y</sub> budget in coastal Antarctica and its link with surface snow and ice core nitrate: results from the CHABLIS campaign

... is attributed to re-emission of both NOx and HNO3 from the snow on the polar plateau, which is then transported to the coastal regions. Their work supports the notion of recycling of N-species between the air and the snow which one would then expect to see evidence for in correlations, 20 such as shown in Fig. 4b. Support for the idea of plateau air delivering ... (methyl nitrate). For PAN, the highest 20 monthly-averaged mixing ratio observed was in July, reaching 13.7 pptv. Measure- ments for PAN only began in July so it is not possible to tell from these data whether the annual maximum occurred then or during an earlier month. For MeONO2, the highest measured monthly average also lay at the start of the data record, ... resolution as the HONO data, but nonetheless it is clear from the figure that there is also little variation in HNO3 during this time period. Mixing ratios are relatively constant at about 1 ppbv. Particulate nitrate concentrations, however, show considerable variability. Again, the data are only available as weekly av20 erages, so the variation from
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Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

... in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these ... GoAmazon2014/5 4787 Figure 1. Locations of GoAmazon2014/5 research sites in the environs of the city of Manaus (−3.1◦, −60.0◦) in the state of Amazonas in the country of Brazil. Table 1 provides further information on the labeled sites. Manaus is located at the confluence of the Black River (Rio Negro) with the Solimões river, which together form the Amazon river. The map rectangle ... to the consumers in the southern states of Brazil. Outside of the city there is natural forest for over 1000 km in every direction. In this context, the airshed intersecting the GoAmazon2014/5 research sites downwind of Manaus oscillated between (i) one of the most natural continental sites on Earth and (ii) one characterized by the interactions of the
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