Wolbachia age-sex-specific density in Aedes albopictus: a host evolutionary response to cytoplasmic incompatibility?
... Wolbachia Age-Sex-Specific Density in Aedes albopictus : A Host Evolutionary Response to Cytoplasmic Incompatibility? Pablo Tortosa1,2*, Sylvain Charlat3, Pierrick Labbé1, Jean-Sébastien Dehecq4, Hélène Barré5, Mylène Weill1 1 Institut des Sciences ... Wolbachiabased control strategies. Citation: Tortosa P, Charlat S, Labbé P, Dehecq J-S, Barré H, et al. (2010) Wolbachia Age-Sex-Specific Density in Aedes albopictus: A Host Evolutionary Response to Cytoplasmic Incompatibility? PLoS ONE 5(3): e9700. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009700 Editor: Adam K. Chippindale, Queens University, Canada Received December 5, 2009; ... best documented. In the simplest CI picture, uninfected females’ embryos rapidly die following fertilization by Wolbachia infected males’ sperm. In contrast, infected females’ eggs are ‘? ?immune? ??’ to this lethal effect and develop normally into infected adults, so that the infection frequency tends to increase. Similar embryonic mortality is seen in crosses between
Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by Escherichia coli lacking RpoS.
... Summary Escherichia coli, like all bacteria, expresses distinct sets of genes in response to different environmental challenges. One protein, RpoS, is a central part of the cellular response that brings about these changes in gene expression. Despite the importance of this protein in response to some kinds of stresses, strains that lack a functional RpoS protein are ... allowing for partial restoration of wild-type response to osmotic stress. Our results show that the regulatory networks of bacteria can evolve new structures in ways that are both rapid and repeatable. Citation: Stoebel DM, Hokamp K, Last MS, Dorman CJ (2009) Compensatory Evolution of Gene Regulation in Response to Stress by Escherichia coli Lacking RpoS. ... United States of America Abstract The RpoS sigma factor protein of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is the master transcriptional regulator of physiological responses to a variety of stresses. This stress response comes at the expense of scavenging for scarce resources, causing a trade-off between stress tolerance and nutrient acquisition. This trade-off
Vaccine-mediated immune responses to experimental pulmonary Cryptococcus gattii infection in mice.
... high risk for developing cryptococcosis (i.e., patients with compromised immune systems and immune competent persons residing in areas observed to contain C. gattii) represent ideal candidates for vaccination as a prophylactic measure. Most studies to determine the protective immune response against pulmonary cryptococcossis have been performed using C. neoformans. ... type CD4+ T cells is the predominant host defense response against cryptococcosis [15– 17]. However, recent studies in mice suggest that host responses against C. gattii differ from those induced against C. neoformans [18–20]. In particular, C. gattii may exert a more suppressive impact on inflammatory responses compared to C. neoformans, Introduction Cryptococcus ... putatively protective cytokine and chemokine levels at days 14 and 21 post-challenge in the lungs of immunized mice and the absence of a prominent leukocyte response suggests that the early immune response to C. gattii infection ultimately was not sufficient to effectively resolve or contain the infection. significantly increased production of IL-4 and
P02-01. Elicitation of a humoral immune response towards non-immunogenic peptides using the transcriptional transactivator of HIV-1
Mobilisation or dilution? Nitrate response of karst springs to high rainfall events
... 4131–4161, 2014 Nitrate response of karst springs to high rainfall events M. Huebsch et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures J I J I Back Close | 15 | A conceptual model of nitrate responses in karst groundwater systems was developed to elucidate the relationship between nitrate responses in karst springs ... be observed as a storm response, which reflects the dilution of spring water by storm water. Our conceptual model of karst spring responses to storm events can be summarized in four possible scenarios (Fig. 5). Scenario 1 (Fig. 5a) shows mobilisation of nitrate in the soil/epikarst during storm events and fast increasing nitrate concentrations as response at the ... Paper 25 Discussion Paper 20 The proposed conceptual model of nitrate response in karst systems is able to explain various nitrate response scenarios, the nitrate patterns at the spring of the current study and the findings from other studies. In the current study, four possible nitrate response scenarios in karst aquifers to storm events were hypothesized.
Transcriptome and Degradome of microRNAs and Their Targets in Response to Drought Stress in the Plants of a Diploid and Its Autotetraploid Paulownia australis.
... drought stress response in plants. Recently, miRNAs in the Paulownia species have been subsequently reported. Several miRNAs and their target genes associated with chromosome doubling and in response to Paulownia witches’ broom phytoplasma in Paulownia species have been identified [36–41]. Nonetheless, miRNAs involved in the drought response have not ... stress, many plants evolve special mechanisms to adapt to such stress via physiological response and molecular changes such as modification of metabolic processes, gene expression, and signal transduction pathways . Understanding the mechanisms involved in plants’ responses to water deficit will provide a molecular basis for improving plants’ tolerance to ... studies have demonstrated that several drought stress response miRNAs through regulating their target genes that are associated with the ABA-dependent and ABAindependent pathways to adapt to water deficit. For example, in Arabidopsis, miR169 was reported to play a vital role in the plant’s drought stress response; miR169 was down-regulated through an ABA-dependent
Influence of drinking water containing Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel on growth performance, intestinal microflora, and humoral immune responses of broilers
... growth promoter substitution on performance, carcass characteristics, some of the immune responses, and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chicks. J. Med. Plants Res., 6: 510-515. Landy, N. and Kavyani, A. (2014) Effect of using multistrain probiotic on performance, immune responses, and cecal microflora composition in broiler chickens reared under ... promoters on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chicks. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis., 4: 447-451. Yazdi, F.F., Ghalamkari, G.H., Toghiani, M., Modaresi, M. and Landy, N. (2014b) Efficiency of Tribulus terrestris L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on performance and immune responses in broiler chicks. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis., ... macrophages, and upregulate phagocytic and candidacidal activities [18,51]. The immune enhancing effect of acemannan is also mentioned to be due to the induced maturation of immature dendritic cells, which are the important accessory cells for the initiation of primary immune response . Moreover, Chinnah et al.  found that acemannan has strong
Immune Response to Killed Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus by Water-Catholyte-Anolyte in Specific-Pathogenic-Free Chickens
... interval in 3 weeks SPF chickens (Hsieh et al., 2007). Since the current facts showed that the humoral immune response plays the principal role in defense against vvIBDV (Lukert & Saif, 1997), there may be a need to study the cell mediated immune response and the effect of vaccine inactivated by this substances ECA on the cellular mechanism since T ... a surfactant (Arlacel A) and mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis ) has been used for many years to enhance immunologic response to antigens, and even today is To cite this paper: Mohammed H., Hair-Bejo M, Omar A.R., Aini I. and Hasoon M.F. 2011. Immune Response to Killed Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus by Water-Catholyte-Anolyte in Specific-Pathogenic-Free ... JWPR Journal of World's Poultry Research J. World's Poult. Res. 1(1): 22-26, 2011 © 2011, Scienceline Publication Immune Response to Killed Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus by Water-Catholyte-Anolyte in Specific-Pathogenic-Free Chickens M.H. Mohammed1, 2*, M. Hair-Bejo1, A.R. Omar1,
DISIS: prediction of drug response through an iterative sure independence screening.
... scheme and the OLS method to refine the final regression coefficients estimates. So, the drug response for D of each sample was predicted 10 times against the training sets. Finally, the Pearson correlation coefficient between the true response vector and the averaged response of the 10 predicted values was used to evaluate the performance of the model. For ... DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120408 March 20, 2015 9 / 13 Prediction of Drug Response via ISIS Fig 5. Consistence between correlations of true and predicted drug responses by elastic net and ISIS. Dotted line indicates equal predictions. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120408.g005 Discussion and Conclusion Inference of drug response with respect to large scale of genomic data ... DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120408 March 20, 2015 2 / 13 Prediction of Drug Response via ISIS nearly all drugs compared to the elastic net model and some important marginally weak features for drug sensitivity discovery were detected. Material and Method Data sources The cancer genomic and drug response data used in this work are available from the Cancer Cell
Characterization of Changes in Global Genes Expression in the Distal Colon of Loperamide-Induced Constipation SD Rats in Response to the Laxative Effects of Liriope platyphylla.
... cycle 4 Transcription 4 Extracellular matrix 3 Neurogenesis 3 Angiogenesis 3 Immune response 3 Aging 2 Inﬂammatory response 2 Response to oxidative stress 1 Total 67 Down-regulated genes (16 categories) Signal transduction 76 Cell differentiation 67 Immune response 47 Apoptosis 44 Cell proliferation 38 Transcription 38 Regulation ... categories) Signal transduction 36 Cell proliferation 31 Cell differentiation 22 Transcription 22 Apoptosis 20 Immune response 14 Inﬂammatory response 14 Regulation of cellular protein metabolic process 11 Extracellular matrix 11 Neurogenesis 9 Response to oxidative stress 9 Angiogenesis 7 Cell cycle 6 Aging 4 Total 216 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129664.t004 increase ... categories) Signal transduction 118 Cell differentiation 89 Transcription 62 Apoptosis 46 Cell proliferation 46 Immune response 45 Regulation of cellular protein metabolic process 42 Neurogenesis 31 Inﬂammatory response 19 Cell cycle 18 Response to oxidative stress 17 Aging 17 Angiogenesis 15 Extracellular matrix 13 DNA repair 3 Total 581 Down-regulated
Estimation of immune cell densities in immune cell conglomerates: an approach for high-throughput quantification.
... immunohistochemical staining of tumor-infiltrating immune cells against the immune cell surface molecules CD3, CD8, CD45RO and Granzyme B in large cohorts of human colorectal cancers [1–3] supports the hypothesis that the adaptive immune response influences the behavior of human tumors. It is important to note that the observed immune cell densities were better predictors ... Niels.Grabe@bioquant.uni-heidelberg.de . These authors contributed equally to this work. immune cells being associated with good outcome independently of other established prognostic markers. In other tumor entities the prognostic value of these immune cells could also be demonstrated [8–12]. Immunohistochemical quantitative analysis of immune cell surface markers can therefore be regarded ... objective and robust strategy for quantifying immune cell densities in immunohistological sections which can be directly implemented into automated full slide image processing systems. Citation: Halama N, Zoernig I, Spille A, Westphal K, Schirmacher P, et al. (2009) Estimation of Immune Cell Densities in Immune Cell Conglomerates: An Approach for High-Throughput
Digital quantification of gene expression in sequential breast cancer biopsies reveals activation of an immune response.
... of immune related genes in response to the first biopsy and further investigations of the immune changes after a biopsy in early breast cancer seem warranted. Citation: Jeselsohn RM, Werner L, Regan MM, Fatima A, Gilmore L, et al. (2013) Digital Quantification of Gene Expression in Sequential Breast Cancer Biopsies Reveals Activation of an Immune Response. ... that are immune related, consisting of: markers of macrophages and monocytes (CD68, CD14), markers of lymphocytes or lymphocyte activation (CD52, CD44), cytokines or other factors that either activate immune cells or are modulated by immune related signals (IL6, PPARG, ADM, IGFBP2, VEGFA) [23–27]. The digital expression level of all of these nine immune ... biopsies. Hence, studies of the immune effects of multiple biopsies in early stage disease seem warranted. Supporting Information Figure S1 Increase in expression of immune related genes in the EB validated by RT-PCR. The fold change between CNB and EB of the expression of immune related genes (CD68, CD52, CD14) compared to non -immune related genes (ESR1,
Pre-existing adenovirus immunity modifies a complex mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response to an Ad5/HIV-1 vaccine candidate in humans.
... Ad5-specific responses were uniformly higher than the Gag-specific responses (p,0.0001 for 9 out of 11 significantly expressed analytes). At the peak response time point, PBMC from Ad5-seronegative vaccinees secreted significantly more IP-10 in response to Gag (p = 0.008), and significantly more IP-10 (p = 0.0009), IL-2 (p = 0.006) and IL-10 (p = 0.05) in response ... clonal expansion. By using multiplexed bead arrays to explore T-cell cytokine responses, we could concurrently measure factors linked to a variety of immune functions, such as Th1, Th2, pro-inflammatory, and chemotactic responses. Using this method, we examined the cellular immune responses of Ad5-seronegative and Ad5-seropositive volunteers pre- and post-vaccination ... by 2-to-10-fold over background, with response rates of 34-70% (Table 2 and Figure 1A, upper panel). These results suggest that previously unrecognized immune factors associated with both Th1 and Th2 responses may contribute to the memory T-cell response induced by Ad5-HIV-1 vaccination. Ad5-specific cellular responses are detectable in the absence
Natural killer cell cytokine response to M. bovis BCG Is associated with inhibited proliferation, increased apoptosis and ultimate depletion of NKp44(+)CD56(bright) cells.
... blood to Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces an innate response but not a T-cell cytokine response. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15(11): 1666–1673. doi:10.1128/CVI.00202-08. PubMed: 18815231. 13. Portevin D, Via LE, Eum S, Young D (2012) Natural killer cells are recruited during pulmonary tuberculosis and their ex vivo responses to mycobacteria vary between healthy ... doi:10.1159/000052497. PubMed: 11464031. 20. Evans JH, Horowitz A, Mehrabi M, Wise EL, Pease JE et al. (2011) A distinct subset of human NK cells expressing HLA-DR expand in response to IL-2 and can aid immune responses to BCG. Eur J Immunol 41(7): 1924–1933. doi:10.1002/eji.201041180. PubMed: 21491418. 21. Cantoni C, Bottino C, Vitale M, Pessino A, Augugliaro R et ... Caligiuri MA (1997) Cytokine-induced apoptosis of human natural killer cells identifies a novel mechanism to regulate the innate immune response. Blood 89(3): 910–918. PubMed: 9028322. Sun JC, Beilke JN, Lanier LL (2009) Adaptive immune features of natural killer cells. Nature 457(7229): 557–561. doi:10.1038/ nature07665. PubMed: 19136945. Schierloh P,
Suppression of a Natural Killer Cell Response by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Peptides.
... peptides can differentially affect NK cell responses by modulating MHC class I interactions with inhibitory KIRs, and provide a mechanism by which immunodeficiency viruses may evade NK cell responses. PLOS Pathogens | DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005145 September 2, 2015 1 / 24 Suppression of a Natural Killer Cell Response by SIV Peptides Competing Interests: ... interactions with inhibitory KIR can modulate NK cell responses, and provide a glimpse into the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these receptors contribute to protective immunity versus immune evasion. Assays with mixtures of Mamu-A1 002-bound peptides that do or do not inhibit MamuKIR3DL05+ NK cell responses revealed that signals from inhibitory ... against virus infection. NK cell responses in primates are regulated in part through interactions between two highly polymorphic molecules, the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on NK cells and their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I ligands on target cells. Inhibitory KIRs normally suppress NK cell responses through interactions
Abscisic acid refines the synthesis of chloroplast proteins in maize (Zea mays) in response to drought and light.
... and play a positive role in the response to ABA [3,7,8]. Mature chloroplasts are thought to contain approximately 3,000 proteins , but the functions of most of these proteins are either unknown or poorly understood. The expression of chloroplast proteins and chlorophyll synthesis are significantly affected in crop plant responses to drought . Recently, many ... Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China Abstract To better understand abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of the synthesis of chloroplast proteins in maize (Zea mays L.) in response to drought and light, we compared leaf proteome differences between maize ABA-deficient mutant vp5 and corresponding wild-type Vp5 green and etiolated seedlings exposed ... (MS). After Coomassie brilliant blue staining, approximately 450 protein spots were reproducibly detected on 2-DE gels. A total of 36 differentially expressed protein spots in response to drought and light were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and their subcellular localization was determined based on the annotation of reviewed accession in UniProt Knowledgebase
Systematic analysis of immune infiltrates in high-grade serous ovarian cancer reveals CD20, FoxP3 and TIA-1 as positive prognostic factors.
... class I and class II. In other histological subtypes, immune infiltrates were less prevalent, and the only markers associated with survival were MHC class II (positive association in endometrioid cases) and myeloperoxidase (negative association in clear cell cases). Conclusions/Significance: Host immune responses to EOC vary widely according to histological ... extended to the CD8+ T cell subset in particular [10-17], suggesting that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in the antitumor immune response. Accordingly, other factors associated with CTL responses are also positively associated with survival, including interferon-c (IFN- c) [18,19], the IFN- c receptor , interferon regulatory ... the expression of COX-2 was not significantly associated with any of the immune infiltrates studied (Table 2). Associations between immune infiltrates and patient survival in high-grade serous EOC Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess the association between various immune infiltrates and disease-specific survival (DSS). Consistent with prior
A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.
... response. Discussion The type of an immune response is likely to depend upon the subsets and the degree of maturation of the antigen presenting cells that are present. In the skin immune system, LCs and CD103+ dDCs were previously reported to promote Th17-type and Th1type immune responses, respectively [16,17]. However, the types of immune response promoted or suppressed ... Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103+ dDCs and skew the immune response ... the immune response toward a Th1-type [1,72], even after sensitization for CHS. MGL2+ dDCs were also shown to produce lower levels of IL-6, which skewed the immune response toward a Th17-type  after sensitization for CHS (data not shown). These results lead us to hypothesize that MGL2+ dDCs and CD103+ dDCs initiate different types of immune responses. To
The spider effect: morphological and orienting classification of microglia in response to stimuli in vivo.
... limiting the ability of the systemic immune system to remove infections and debris from inside of the brain. Within the central nervous system (CNS), the function of the extracerebral or systemic immune system is taken over by a group of cells called microglia [1,2,3,4,5]. These cells function in a similar way to how the immune system functions outside of ... deactivation of microglia cells. Citation: Jonas RA, Yuan T-F, Liang Y-X, Jonas JB, Tay DKC, et al. (2012) The Spider Effect: Morphological and Orienting Classification of Microglia in Response to Stimuli in Vivo. PLoS ONE 7(2): e30763. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030763 Editor: Huaibin Cai, National Institute of Health, United States of America Received May 19, ... The Spider Effect: Morphological and Orienting Classification of Microglia in Response to Stimuli in Vivo Rahul A. Jonas1,2, Ti-Fei Yuan3, Yu-Xiang Liang3,4, Jost B. Jonas1, David K. C. Tay3, Rutledge G. EllisBehnke1,2,3,4,5* 1 Department of Ophthalmology,
Bacterial survival amidst an immune onslaught: the contribution of the Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxins.
... to elaborate factors that prevent infection resolution by the host immune system. Such immune- altering factors include complement inhibitory molecules, antibody binding proteins, super-antigens, as well as potent cytolytic peptides and pore-forming toxins. Here, we discuss one class of immune cell-targeting toxins, the bi-component leukotoxins. These ... 2 | e1003143 Figure 1. Overview of S. aureus leukotoxin action on host immune cells. The above schematic illustrates our current understanding of leukotoxin targeting and the functional consequences of toxin activity on specific immune cell types. Upon encountering host immune cells, S. aureus elaborates numerous molecules that facilitate escape ... supporting the development of antileukotoxin antibodies and immunization strategies as potential modalities to counter S. aureus infection. PVL and Beyond: A Reemerging Interest in Immune Cell-Targeting Toxins The most studied of the leukotoxins produced by S. aureus is the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (LukSF/PVL). Interest in this toxin stems from its prevalence
Response: A Retrospective Study on the Efficacy of a Ten-Milligram Dosage of Atorvastatin for Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:359-67)
... Response Diabetes Metab J 2011;35:88-89 doi: 10.4093/dmj.2011.35.1.88 pISSN 2233-6079 · eISSN 2233-6087 DIABETES & METABOLISM JOURNAL A Retrospective Study on the Efficacy ... side effects are observed, because atrovastatin is one of the most powerful statins available for reducing LDL-C levels [3,4]. As to the comment regarding how to interpret poor response to statin therapy in patients with high body mass index (BMI). We found that BMI is significantly correlated with baseline LDL-C levels. Patients with large fat mass
Generalized Liver- and Blood-Derived CD8+ T-Cell Impairment in Response to Cytokines in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.
... alcoholic liver disease, the extent of liver damage has been implicated as a potential contributor to reduced T-cell responses, in the absence of infection . Similarly, cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome includes states of immune depression, including CD8+ T-cell exhaustion and senescence that is dependent on the severity and etiology ... and a difference in CD127 expression was not observed in most cases (Fig 1E and 1F). While CMV status and virus-specific cells do play a role in observed immune senescence and the decline of immune response in the elderly, and are numerous among circulating cells, we do not think this has significantly influenced the findings here. In summary, CD8+ ... CD8+ T-cells express less Bcl-2 in response to IL-7 in HCV infection To quantify IL-7-mediated proliferation of blood-derived CD8+ T-cells, CFSE-labelled cells were stimulated with suboptimal amounts of T-cell mitogen (PHA, 0.2 ug/ml), since T-cell activation is required to enable human T-cells to proliferate in response to IL-7 . Cells were cultured
Hepatitis B virus polymerase blocks pattern recognition receptor signaling via interaction with DDX3: implications for immune evasion.
... the host innate immune response early in infection through an unknown mechanism. The data presented here indicate that HBV Pol (polymerase or reverse transcriptase) blocks the innate immune response. This unexpected role of HBV Pol may explain why HBV appears to act as a ‘‘stealth virus’’ in the early phase of the infection. immune response, as shown ... proteins have evolved to evade immune response , it is intriguing that viral polymerase, besides its inherent catalytic contribution, has evolved to interfere innate immune response. More importantly, it is interesting that vaccinia virus and HBV, two unrelated viruses, acquired the ability to evade the immune response by subverting DDX3 during ... interaction. Discussion HBV, that has been dubbed a ‘‘stealth virus’’, efficiently evades antiviral innate immune responses early in infection . However, the underlying immune evasion mechanism remained enigmatic. The data presented here revealed that HBV evades host innate immune response via the inhibition of pattern recognition receptor signaling by one of the viral
HIV/AIDS: key lessons for a successful response and for future challenges
... social, and economic impacts. The report also outlines key lessons learned about the elements of a successful response to the epidemic as well as challenges for an expanded response to HIV/AIDS. The document particularly emphasizes three concerns in the response to the epidemic: leadership, coordination, and the need for adequate resources. The materials below ... a different balance between these three elements, with regional and subregional strategies complementing and adding value to a national response. CHALLENGES FOR AN EXPANDED RESPONSE Broadening and deepening the current successful responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic will necessitate overcoming a number of hurdles. Leadership and coordination Some have described ... out a response to the epidemic, broaden the dialogue concerning HIV/AIDS, challenge complacency and denial, strengthen the call for urgency in the response, and move governments and their leaders to action. The response must deal simultaneously with risks, vulnerability, and impact The epidemic is dynamic and involves relationships among three key elements:
Response to short-course chemotherapy of patients with initial resistance to antituberculosis drugs
... evaluate the respective roles of two major drugs, streptomycin and isoniazid, in the genesis of failures and relapses; and . to determine whether or not there were differences in the responsesof patients with primary resistance as compared to ones with secondary or acquired resistance. 2 2 s 3 .B P, Qa 2 2 175 MATERIALS AND METHODS The coursesof treatment ... Treatment Services/ British Medical Research Council Investigation. Am Rev Respir Dis 106: 1, 1972. 10 Mitchison, D. A., and A. J. Nunn. InfIuence of initial drug resistance on the response to short-course chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis, Am Rev Respir Dis 133:423, 1986. 11 Valenzuela, M. T., G. Schell, J. Ponce, R. Lepe, M. Velasco, and P. Valenzuela.