Goat Milk

Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

... positive association with milk yield in bulls. In HTB7, Discussion Effects of the FTO Locus on Milk Fat Yield and Other Milk Composition Traits In the current study, we tested the biological function of a 2 Mb region of the FTO locus on milk composition in German Holstein dairy cattle. Evidence for association of this locus with milk fat yield was provided ... functional candidate on milk composition, in particular fat yield. Since effects on milk composition are difficult to test in humans, we performed an association study between genetic variation in the FTO region and milk composition traits in German Holstein cattle. The advantage of dairy cattle is the availability of monthly records of milk yield and composition during ... ID SNP number Regression model Table 3. Results of haplotype association analysis with milk fat yield (FY) (estimated breeding values (EBV) in bulls, yield deviations (YD) in cows). Impact of FTO Variations on Milk Fat in Cattle May 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 5 | e63406 Impact of FTO Variations on Milk Fat in Cattle Figure 2. Effect plots for significant haplotype
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Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

... lead and cadmium in Austrian raw milk? ??a comparison to earlier analyses from foregin countries. Wien Tierärztl Monat., 2002, 89: 249 253. 20. Martino FAR, Sanchez MLF, Sanz-Medel A.: The potential of double focusing-ICP-MS for studying elemental distribution patterns in whole milk, skimmed milk and milk whey of different milks. Anal Chim Acta, 2001, 442: ... differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health. Key words: cadmium, lead, milk, regions WSTĘP metali w środkach spożywczych i wprowadzono ograniczenia ... spożywczym pochodzącym od czterech wybranych producentów z dwóch różnych województw (mg/kg mleka) Tab. I. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from the four selected milk producers from two different provinces (mg/kg of milk) Województwo łódzkie podlaskie Próbki A B C D n Kadm xśr SD xśr Ołów SD 6 0,0082a 0,0015 0,0119a 0,0040 8 0,0091a 0,0013
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... decreases the goat farming profitability. The count of cell elements in milk is species-specific. Goat milk contains on average a higher somatic cell count (ks) than cow milk [4,8], which is due to the apocrine character of milk secretion in goats, namely involving the destruction of the milk- producing cell and its reaching the light of milk- producing ... cytological quality of goat milk based on the somatic cell count in respective months of lactation. Besides there was defined the effect of somatic cell on the milk production and chemical composition of milk. The research covered goats of color improved breed in the 2nd and 3rd lactation. Daily milk yield, chemical composition of milk and its somatic ... nutrition, milking technique, and most of all the health condition of udder. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the cytological quality of milk on the basis of the somatic cell count in goat milk depending on the lactation period and the effect on milk production and chemical composition. MATERIAL AND METHODS The research involved 30 goats of
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... content in the cow’s milk with κ-CN AA genotype was 4.9% and κ-CN AB was 5.0%. The difference between fat content wasn’t statistically significant. Regular article Keywords: κ -casein, proteins, polymorphism, milk yield, milk composition INTRODUCTION Caseins participated to phosphorproteins that account for nearly 80% of bovine milk proteins and whey ... of genotype κ-CN AB. Polymorphism of milk proteins does not only affect the protein content of milk but also for its technological properties and cheese. The quality and yield of cheese given by the volume and type of casein in milk. Variants of κ-CN have significant effect influenced on the quality of the cheese. Milk containing the B variant of κ-CN ... nm. The evaluation of the average daily milk yield (Table 1) shows that cow’s milk production of κ-CN AA was 13.5 l/day and in κ-CN AB 14.2 l/day. Figure 1 shows the average daily milk yield of genotypes of κ-CN during lactation. Similar to our findings are the result of Michalcová et al. (1997), who report higher milk production in genotype κ-CN AB than
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Finding of coagulase negative staphylococci in the herd with an increased number of somatic cells in milk and their antimicrobial susceptibility

... of coagulasenegative staphylococci in milk of the cows with subclinical mastitis, as well as to determine different CNS species isolated from quarter milk samples for their susceptibility to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. On the farm where there was found an increase of somatic cells in bulk milk, 112 dairy cows were examined by ... 2. 178 13 Broj / N % 25 37 Broj / N % 75 % 24 61,53 n 8 n 20,51 % 5 n 12,82 % 1 n 2,56 % KNS/CNS* KPS/CPS** S. agalactiae Klebsiella spp. Mastitis pathogens isolated from milk samples Broj / 17 24 8 Kloksacilin/ Cloxacillin Penicilin G / Penicillin Number Amoksicilin / klav. kiselina / Amoxicillin / clav. acid Antimicrobials Atimikrobno sredstvo ... antimicrobials *KNS/CNS – koagulaza negativne stafilokoke / Coagulasa negative staphylococci ; **KPS/CPS – koagulaza pozitivne stafilokoke / Coagulasa positive staphylococci 52 Number of tested milk samples Broj pregledanih Bakteriolo{ki negativni uzorci/ Bakteriolo{ki pozitivni uzorci / uzoraka mleka / Bacteriologically negative samples Bacteriologically positive samples Table
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Relationship between teat morphology and microbiological quality of sheep milk

... with the highest total bacteria count concentration – up to 200 000 of bacteria in 1 cm3 of milk: 122.7 mm. With increasing concentration of total bacteria count in milk, decreased udder height (p < 0.001). The smallest height of udder was found in ewes producing milk of the lowest microbiological quality (p < 0.001). The experiment showed no statistically ... 238-243. GUT A., WÓJTOWSKI J., STANISZ M., ŚLÓSARZ P., 2008. Dairy performance of new Polish milk sheep. Ann. Anim. Sci. 8, 4: 411-415. STEPPA R., WÓJTOWSKI J., BIELIŃSKA S., KĘSZYCKA M., 2009. Effect of transferrin and haemoglobin polymorphism on hygienic quality of milk in sheep. Züchtungskunde 81, 2: 125-132. ŚLÓSARZ P., WÓJTOWSKI J., BIELIŃSKA S., FRĄCKOWIAK ... sheep caused by machine milking. Arch. Tierz. Dumm. 49 Suppl. 1: 231-237. 7 Bielińska-Nowak S., Wójtowski J., Ślósarz P., Markiewicz-Kęszycka M., 2012. Budowa morfologiczna sutka owiec a jakość mikrobiologiczna ich mleka. Nauka Przyr. Technol. 6, 4, #67. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEAT MORPHOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SHEEP MILK Summary. The aim
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... highest milk yield, while a longer one than 400 days as well as a shorter one than 351 days had a negative impact on milk performance [2]. Table 4.Gross product coming from milk by calving interval size group Specification MU Calving interval Over 400 days 351-400 days N=573 N=377 Milk yield Kg 4,682 4,240 Milk price Lei/kg Gross product Lei from milk Source: ... calving interval, dairy cows, economic efficiency, milk yield INTRODUCTION Milk yield and milk fat content are the main factors that drive the economic profitability in dairy farming. As long as, the heritability of the milk characters is very low, ranging between 0.2-0.3, this means that the growth of milk yield depends mainly of the environmental factors ... registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg milk. The variation coefficient for milk yield recorded 19.90 % in case of calving intervals longer than 400 days and 28.66 % in case of calving intervals ranging between 351-400 days (Table 3). Gross product from milk by calving interval size group. For all the 950 lactations, gross product coming from milk accounted for Lei
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Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

... subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at 808C or 48C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced ... breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; breast milk; ... frozen breast milk samples die rapidly, leading to contamination of the native milk EV population with vesicles derived from dying or dead cells. Thus, we provide an alternative method for the storage of breast milk samples for efficient and reliable recovery of EV at later time points. Materials and methods Breast milk collection Fresh, mature milk samples
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Programme of identification and assessment of risks at Ukrainian milk processing factories

... Ukrainian milk processing factories The goal of the article lies in the study of possible risks at a milk processing factory and their identification and assessment by relevant criteria and creation of the efficient risk management system with the help of methods of reacting to them. The article considers the economic risk of production processes at a milk ... international practice pursuant to the COSO concept, and analyses methods of identification of assessment of the risk level and relevant methods of reacting to them. The authors offer the milk processing factory risk identification and assessment programme, which would ensure timely detection of the most important risks, which require relevant reactions, and development ... system for ensuring efficient activity of a factory in general. Key words: economic risk, identification and assessment, COSO concept, risk identification and assessment programme, milk processing factory Tabl.: 4. Bibl.: 8. Shvets Victor H. – Doctor of Science (Economics), Professor, Department of Accounting and Auditing, Kyiv National University named after
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Direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in fermented milk products

... simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using the Donnan Membrane Technique. Int. Dairy J. 19, (2009) 431-436. 4. Petrovich, M.B., Filho, V.R.A. and Neto, J.A.G.: Direct determination of calcium of milk by atomic absorption spectrometry using flow-injection analysis. Ecl. Quím. 32, 3 (2007) 25-30. 5. Renner, E.: Micronutrients in milk and milk- based ... yogurt 6. „Dukat b-aktiv LGG natur“ yogurt 7. „Balans +“ kefir 8. „Ella“ yogurt 9. „Danone Activia“ yogurt 10. Kombucha based milk product 1 11. Kombucha based milk product 2 12. Kombucha based milk product 3 13. Kombucha based milk product 4 Starter cultures Lactobacillus delbrueckii subp.bulgaricus Streptococcus thermophilus Lactobacillus acidophilus ... such as in childhood and adolescence, and also during lactation and in the elderly. No less than 75% of calcium in many western diets originates from milk. The bioavailability of calcium and magnesium in milk is considered to be excellent since the intestinal absorption of these nutrients is facilitated by lactose (5). Moreover, it has been demonstrated
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Relación entre residuos de clorpirifos en leche y sangre de vacas Holstein y niveles séricos de estradiol y tiroxina - Chlorpyrifos residues in milk and blood in Holstein cows and their relation to estradiol and thyroxin serum levels

... the milk and blood of Holstein cows, fed with chlorpyrifos treated grass. Additionally, it measured, by radioimmunoanalysis, the blood levels of thyroid hormone and estradiol in the cows the day before their entrance in the treated pastures and through-out the following 30 days. Although gas chromatography was effective in detecting chlorpyrifos in milk ... in the serum and milk samples from the studied animals. No significant difference was found in thyroid hormone and estradiol levels through-out the treatment. These findings indicate that treating grass with chlorpyrifos according to manufacturer’s instructions does not generate detectable residues of the insecticide in the blood and milk of the cows ... Production Council (BCPC), UK; 2006. 1347 p. 3. Bluthgen A, Heeschen WH. Principles for the toxicological evaluation of the residues. In monograph on residues and contaminants in milk and milk products. International Dairy Federation. Brussels, Belgium, 1997. 4. Bolles HG, Dixon WHE, Peterson RK, Tomerlin JR, Day Jr EW et al. Market basket study to determine
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Change of sensory characteristics and some quality parameters of mixed milk and cocoa spreads during storage up to 180 days

... favourite in the nutrition of children and sportists, but also of healthy grown-ups [3]. Condensed milk, milk powder, partially skimmed and skimmed milk powder are mostly used in the confectionery industry. Besides, milk crumb, “block milk? ??, anhydrated milk fat, Correspondence: J.G. Laličić-Petronijević, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, ... sugar, milk and dairy products, vegetable fats and other food products. Regarding the consistence, they are produced as: spreadable, bars, granules or “crispy” spread-cream products [2]. At the market they can be found as dairy cream-products, containing at least 12% of non-fat dry matter of milk (calculated on the whole product), mixtures of milk- spreads ... The main role of milk and milk products in the technology of confectionery products (chocolates, caramele-candy products, dairy products, spreads, etc.) is to increase the nutritional value of the final product and to influence some sensory characteristics of quality (appearance, consistence/texture, flavor). In this study, mixtures of milk and cocoa
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Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

... physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMRfed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. ... the morning milking; samples were delivered to the laboratory within 2 h from milking. The milk was subjected to sensory evaluation and physico-chemical assays. All the milk batches were normal in appearance, without visible impurities, almost white to cream (at a higher fat content) coloured, and had a characteristic smell. It was only the milk sampled ... (spring-summer), the Farm B milk usually containing more lactose. A particularly low lactose content was observed in the Farm A milk in September, the milk yielding also a highly irregular smell and taste. Among the basic milk constituents, the fat content is most susceptible to alteration by cattle feeding regime modification. The milk fat content depends
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... chromosome number six. Release of BCM-7 from the hydrolyzed raw or processed milk is related to the beta-casein A1 allele, irrespective of a lactation period. Processing of raw milk at high temperatures is having only a little effect. Human milk, goat milk, sheep milk and milk of other species contain beta-casein which is ‘A2 like’, as they have amino ... 2319-247X (Online) Website: www.animalmedicalresearch.org HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF BOVINE BETA-CASOMORPHIN-7 OF MILK — A QUESTION FOR MILK PRODUCTS OR OUR BREEDING POLICY ? Beta-casein comprises around 30% of the total protein contained in cow’s milk. Betacasein may be present as one of the two major genetic variants, A1 and A2 in cattle. Although there ... than this. But some Jersey cows carry one “B” beta-casein allele which can release of BCM-7 far more. So, we can at least safely conclude that the milk of our native cow is far safer than the milk of Jersey or such other Europian breed of cattle. A breed is developed by exercising continuous selection pressure on a particular type of animal
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Ação do soro de cabra anti-soro de coelho imunizado ou não com células linfóides do doador sobre o alotransplante cardíaco em ratos: immunosupression of goat antiserum against rabbit serum immunized or not with donor lymphoid cells.

... week they were bled and their serum were mixed. This serum, which had a cytotoxic titer of 1:1024, was used to immunize 2 goats that gave rise to the antiantilymphocytic serum (AAS-1 and AAS-2). As control we immunized 1 additional goat with normal rabbit serum (ANS). The gel diffusion technique (AAS x rabbit serum) showed precipitation bands against ... block the in vitro lymphocytotoxity of goat antilymphocytic serum till dilution of 1:2 while ANS did not. The hearts from Wistar rats (donors) were transplanted in Holtzman rats. The transplanted rats were divide in groups: C1 – 11 animals (control that received no serum); C2 – 5 animals (control that received 1ml of goat normal serum); A19 animals – A1 ... DO SORO DE CABRA ANTI-SORO DE COELHO IMUNIZADO OU NÃO COM CÉLULAS LINFÓIDES DO DOADOR SOBRE O ALOTRANSPLANTE CARDÍACO EM RATOS1 CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT IN RATS: IMMUNOSUPRESSION OF GOAT ANTISERUM AGAINST RABBIT SERUM IMMUNIZED OR NOT WITH DONOR LYMPHOID CELLS. Haylton Jorge Suaid2 Antonio Carlos Pereira Martins3 Silvio Tucci Jr24 Jeova Nina Rocha4 Antonio
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Congenital infection by Mycoplasma agalactiae in goat kids.

... three cases of contagious agalactia (CA) by Mycoplasma agalactiae in goat kids born with polyarthritis. The nanny goats belonging to two different herds presented clinical signs of CA during pregnancy and in parturition they were apparently healthy. The carpal articulations of the three goat kids, the tarsus articulation in one, and thigh-femoral articulation ... em Medicina Veterinária) – Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos. ARGÜELLO, A.; CASTRO, N.; ZAMORANO, M.J. et al. Passive transfer of immunity in kid goats fed refrigerated and frozen goat colostrum and commercial sheep colostrum. Small Rumin. Res., v.54, p.237-241, 2004. AZEVEDO, E.O.; ALCÂNTARA, M.D.B.; NASCIMENTO, E.R. et al. Contagious ... p.2211-2217, 2009. MADANAT, A.; ZENDULKOVÁ, D.; POSPÍSIL, Z. Contagious agalactia of sheep and goats. A review. Acta Vet. Brno., v.70, p.403-412, 2001. NASCIMENTO, E.R.; BARRETO, M.L.; PLATENIK, M.O. et al. Contagious agalactia by Mycoplasma agalactiae in goats in Brazil. Etiologic study. In: CONGRESS OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MYCOPLASMOLOGY,
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Ultrasound measurements of the mammary gland of transgenic hormone-induced lactating goat.

... technique to evaluate the cisterns in ruminant udders in transgenic animal. Keywords: goat, udder, ultrasonography, transgenesis REFERÊNCIAS AYADI, M.; CAJA, G.; SUCH, X.; KNIGHT, C.H. Use of ultrasonography to estimate cistern size and milk storage at different milking intervals in the udder of dairy cows. J. Dairy Res., v.70, p.1-7, 2003. FLÖCK, ... cistern size of dairy ewes. J. Dairy Res., v.67, p.101-106, 2000. SALAMA, A.A.K.; CAJA, G.; SUCH, X. et al. Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily. J. Dairy Sci., v.87, p.1181-1187, 2004. SIMÕES, J. Os princípios físicos, a imagem e os artefatos na ecografia em modo B. 2008. Disponível ... estimation of milk yield in the sheep. Zesz. Nauk. Przegl. Hod., v.63, p.113-118, 2002. WÓJTOWSKI, J.; JUNKUSZEW, A.; MILERSKI, M. et al. Application of ultrasound technique for cistern size measurement in dairy goats. Archiv. Tierzucht., v.4, p.382-388, 2006. WÓJTOWSKI, J.; LÓSARZ, P.; GÓRECKI, M.; MALECHA, W. Ultrasound measurements of goat? ??s mammary
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Clinical mastitis in goat due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes.

... pyogenes ABSTRACT This paper reports the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State – Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. A mastectomy was performed as clinical treatment. Keywords: clinical mastitis, goat, Arcanobacterium pyogenes REFERÊNCIAS BERGONIER, D.; ... Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.64, n.4, p.1070-1073, 2012 Comunicação [Communication] Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes [Clinical mastitis in goat due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes] F. Garino Jr.1, R.A.T. Matos2, E.G. Miranda Neto1, J.N.N. Bernardino3, E.D. Santos1, G.M.N. Aguiar1 1Universidade Federal de Campina Grande/CSTR/Campus ... Acessado em: 25 Fev. 2011. DOI:10.1051/vetres:2003030. BERRY, E. Update on summer mastitis. Proceedings: the British Mastitis Conference 1998. Axient/Institute for Animal Health, Milk Development Council/Novartis Animal Health, 1998. p.46-53. COSTA, E.O.; RIBEIRO, A.R.; WATANABE, E.T.; SILVA, J.A.B. Mastite por Arcanobacterium pyogenes: surto em rebanho
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Sanitary profile of goat flocks in Cariri micro regions, Paraiba State, Brazil.

... v.59, n.6, p.1597-1600, 2007 Comunicação [Communication] Perfil sanitário e zootécnico de rebanhos caprinos nas microrregiões do Cariri paraibano [Sanitary profile of goat flocks in Cariri micro regions, Paraiba State, Brazil] D.A. Bandeira1†, R.S. Castro2, E.O. Azevedo3, L.S.S. Melo4, C.B. Melo4* 1Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba ... (CNPq) pelo apoio financeiro. Os autores prestam homenagem póstuma ao Dr. Dimas Assis Bandeira, falecido recentemente de forma precoce. ABSTRACT This work was performed in 60 goat farms located in 15 counties of the micro regions of Western and Eastern Cariri, in Paraiba, to describe and analyze the sanitary profile of the flocks. Visits were done and ... presence of technical assistance in 93.3% in the studied farms, adoption of prophylactic calendar in 85% and parasitic control in 83.3% of the flocks were also observed. Keywords: goat, sanitary profile, disease REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS AVELINO, R.Q. Estudo de caso: Caprinovinocultura no Cariri Paraibano. João Pessoa: SEBRAE-PB, 2005. 16p. AZEVEDO,
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Proteinogram of Alpine goat naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites.

... p.279-282, 2006 Comunicação [Communication] Proteinograma de caprinos da raça Pardo-Alpina infectados naturalmente por parasitos gastrintestinais [Proteinogram of Alpine goat naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites] S.Y. Fernández 1,5, E.E.V. Jesus 2, B.J.A. Paule 4, R.S. Uzêda 1, M.A.O. Almeida 3, J.E. Guimarães 3* 1Aluna de graduação ... criados em sistema intensivo. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.58, n.2, p.279-282, 2006 281 Fernández et al. ABSTRACT The proteinogram of six 12 month-old Alpine goats, intensively raised and naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites, was evaluated. Blood and feces samples of each animal were monthly collected. Total serum protein ... test, either between the Strongyloides eggs count per gram of feces or the Haemonchus spp. larval count per gram of feces and the fraction electrophorectly variable. Keywords: goat, gastrintestinal parasites, proteinogram REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS BARIONI, G.; FONTEQUE, J. H.; PAES, P.R.O. et al. Valores séricos de cálcio, fósforo, sódio, potássio
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Effect of the time after milk feeding on the acid-base balance of calves.

... on the interval between the morning milk feeding and the blood sample collection (up to 30 minutes or over two hours). Greater alkali reserve and higher carbon dioxide pressure values were observed later than 2h after milk feeding, supporting the influence of the diet on the acid-base balance of calves during the milk feeding phase. Keywords: nursing ... Zootec., v.55, n.6, p.763-765, 2003 Comunicação [Communication] Efeito do tempo após a ingestão de leite sobre o equilíbrio ácido-básico de bezerros [Effect of the time after milk feeding on the acid-base balance of calves] J.A.N. Lisbôa1, F.J. Benesi2, M.L.R. Leal2, C.M.C. Teixeira2 1Departamento de Clínicas Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual de ... sob conservação em água gelada. Ciên. Rural, v.31, p.271-276, 2001. REECE, W.O. Acid-base balance and selected hematologic, electrolyte, and blood chemical variables in calves: milk- fed vs conventionally fed. Am. J. Vet. Res., v.41, p.109-113, 1980. REECE, W.O. Acid-base balance and selected hematologic, electrolytic, and blood chemical variables in
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The dynamics of farm milk price formation in Brazil

... of the dairy sector is long'life milk, called Ultra High Temperature milk (UHT). UHT was introduced in Brazil in 1972, but it only began to be successful in the 1990s, after the government deregulated the milk markets. Since then, sales have increased an average of 27% per year. The market share of UHT milk in the fluid milk market rose from 4.4% in 1990 ... dynamics of milk price formation in Brazil by identifying where the milk price is formed and what the relationship is between milk prices in different Brazilian states. The specific objectives are: • To determine the extention of the milk market in Brazil, 3 • To evaluate the pattern of interdependence between the Brazilian states in milk production, ... the new system of milk production and trade in Brazil. First of all, the new rules to collect and cool the milk imposed by the Normative Instructive 51 (IN 51) (promoted by Agriculture Ministry) caused an impact on milk production. This rule aimed to improve quality of the milk in Brazil. One of the 11 requirements of the IN 51 is that milk be kept in
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Use of D-xylose to detect ingestion of a powdered milk food supplement by family members other than the children 0-2 years of age for whom it was intended

... tests to detect 5g, log, and 15g quantities of d-xylose added to 4548 cans of powdered milk in the urine of adult subjects ingesting roughly 30g of the d-xylose/powdered milk mixture. Test result.9 Test subject Quantity of d-xylose added to each can of powdered milk Estimated amount of d-xylose ingested Control specimens 1 2 3 sg 1% 15% 0.33g 0.6Sg 0.96g - Benedict ... specimens had been collected, distribution of the powdered milk supplements was continued for two weeks, after which arrangements were made for the study children to continue receiving milk from the local health center. Data obtained from the study included all recorded observations concerning milk supplements received by the study children, an account ... average value, variance, and one standard deviation for each set are as shown. Designators assigned to: Quantity of d-xylose per 454g can of powdered milk Quantity of d-xylose per 160mI portion of milk ingested the five test subjects % 0.26g A % 0.26g % 0.26g log o.s2g the 15 urine samples tested d-xylose detected by the Roe and Rice test (in
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Breast-feeding/breast milk and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

... immunologic, nutritionai, psychosocial, and child-spacing benefits of breast milk/ breast-feeding are well recognized. They have been reflected increasingly in national and international policies on maternal and child health. Breast milk is also important in ’ In view of the importance of breast milk and breast-feeding for the health of infants and young children, and ... determining overall maternal and child health. (b) If, for whatever reason, the biological mother cannot breast-feed, or her milk is not available, and the use of pooled human milk is considered, the report of HIV isolation from breast milk should be taken into account. Pasteurization at 56’ C for 30 minutes has been reported to inactivate the virus. However, ... the world, a Consultation on Breast-feeding/Breast Milk and HIV Infection was sponsored by the World Health Organization’s Special Program on AIDS and th.eDivision of Family Health on 23-25 June 1987. Its purpose was to review currently available information on the possible relationship between breastfeeding/breast milk and HIV transmission, and to identify
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