Fresh Water

Equilibrium and kinetic study on chromium (VI) removal from simulated waste water using gooseberry seeds as a novel biosorbent

... procured locally (Coimbatore, India). The seeds were washed under running tap water and were subjected to drying in hot air oven at an optimum temperature of 40°C. Then the seeds were ground and sieved. The finely powdered biosorbent was subjected to washing. After washing with distilled water, the mixture was filtered and dried at 50°C for a period of 1 h. ... Bengal gram, E. J. Biotechnol., 8 (3): 258-264 (7 pa ges ). APHA, AWWA, WEF, (2005). ‘Chromium 3500-Cr DCalorim etri c method ’, S tand ard meth ods for the examination of water and wastewater, 17 th ed.American Public Health Association, Washington DC. Aravind, J.; Shanmugaprakash, M.; Sangeetha, H.S.; Lenin, C.; Kanmani, P., (2013). Pigeon pea (Cajanus ... Petronio, B.M.; Pietroletti, M.; Tosti, G., (2003). Metal ion removal from water by sorption on paper mill sludge, Chemosphere, (51): 797–803 (7 pages). Cimino, G.; Passerini, A.; Toscano, G., (2000). Removal of toxic cations and Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by hazelnut shell, Water Res., 34(11): 2955-2962 (8 pages). Das, B.; Mondal, N.K.; Roy, P.; Chattaraj,
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Public health risk analysis through evaluation of drinking water safety

... the other waterborne disease outbrakes caused by pathogens or other waterrelated diseases could be handled as well. We are aiming at PH professionals, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry responsible for water resources management, to improve monitoring of reservoirs used for water supply, to improve the enforcement of the Water Law and Water Source ... its relationship to drinking water. In: Fewtrell L, 7. 8. 9. 10. Bartram J, editors. Water quality - Guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for waterrelated infectious disease. London: IWA Publishing; 2001. p. 61–88. Ivetić M, Kostić D. Analysis and evaluation of risk regarding safe water supply – examples from ... of drinking water safety in public health (PH) 6, and also to point out the relationship between distal (associated with social, environmental and engineering status) and proximal causalities (associated with microbiological or biological factors) of some water- related diseases. The current PH risk analysis approach concerning drinking water is based
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Uncertainty analysis of a spatially explicit annual water-balance model: case study of the Cape Fear basin, North Carolina

... change (Guswa et al., 2014). The InVEST annual water yield model was developed in line with this philosophy (Sharp et al., 2014). It includes a biophysical component, computing the provision of freshwater, or water yield, by different parts of the landscape, and a valuation component, representing the benefits of water provisioning to people. The biophysical ... value of water withdrawals is small compared to water yields (see Sect. 4). In addition, we explicitly accounted for this uncertainty by examining the effect of a 50 % error on the water withdrawal – a magnitude consistent with the variance among the county withdrawals. The average withdrawal rate, 39 mm yr−1 , was subtracted from the predicted water yields ... boundary are presumed negligible, resulting in a simple water budget based on catchment precipitation, evapotranspiration, and water yield. This assumption will not hold for a parcel-based application of Eq. (2). Thus, error in the catchment-scale water balance will arise by ignoring the excess water generated P.
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Satellite retrieval of the liquid water fraction in tropical clouds between −20 and −38 °C

... Geosciences Union. 1684 D. L. Mitchell and R. P. d’Entremont: Satellite retrieval of the liquid water fraction that can simultaneously characterize the water phase, liquid water content (LWC) and ice water content (IWC), and the effective particle size De for water and ice at all altitudes. Recent progress has also been made regarding the satellite remote ... detected liquid water between −20 and −36 ◦ C at all latitudes (Yoshida et al., 2010; Hu et al., 2010), compiling global statistics on the frequency of occurrence of these mixed phase clouds, as well as the temperature dependence of their liquid water content and path. However, these studies did not retrieve an estimate of the mean liquid water fraction ... small range of De is due to the liquid water fraction being 90%, even though De for the ice phase extends to 139 µm. Figure 2b is like Fig. 2a but examines the condition when the liquid water fraction is 90 %. The retrieved temperature errors are less than 0.14 K at cloud temperatures above 233 K where liquid water can actually exist. Under conditions
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Influence of drinking water containing Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel on growth performance, intestinal microflora, and humoral immune responses of broilers

... following treatments were applied: (1) Basal broiler diet (C) and normal drinking water, (2) 0.5% AV gel in drinking water, (3) 0.75% AV gel in drinking water, (4) 1% AV gel in drinking water, and (5) basal diet supplemented with flavophospholipol at 4.5 mg/kg and normal drinking water. The broilers received a corn-soybean meal basal Table-1: Chemical characterization ... AV Antibiotic 368 945b 2190b 378 1043a 2355a 387 1072a 2338a 381 1086a 2417a 384 1075a 2433a 6.5 21.9 46.1 36.7ab 88.9b 168 98.1b 35.5b 95.8a 179.3 103.5ab 36.8ab 95.8a 172.4 101.8ab 38.3a 96.1a 179.9 104.9a 36.7ab 92.6ab 174.5 101.5ab 0.69 1.97 3.99 1.78 75.5 187b 352.9 205.5 77.8 207.4a 377 221.2 76.7 209.4a 358 215.1 77.4 208.6a 385 223.9 79.9 198.8ab 360.9 213.5 1.57 5.12 12.67 5.6 1.71a 2.18a 2.01a 2.01a 1.59c 1.99b 2.04a 1.97ab 1.61bc 1.96bc 2.04a 1.95b 1.70ab 1.90bc 2.02a 1.94b 1.61bc 1.87c 1.92b 1.86c 0.027 0.031 0.022 0.014 Means in the same row not sharing a common superscript differ (p
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Immune Response to Killed Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus by Water-Catholyte-Anolyte in Specific-Pathogenic-Free Chickens

... in Vero cells were inactivated using water- Catholyte-Anolyte (ECA). Complete inactivation of UPM0081T15 with titer of 106.7 TCID50/0.1 mL and UPM0081T20 with titer of 107.4 TCID50/0.1mL occurred after 24 hours. The inactivated virus suspension and an equal volume of Freund’s incomplete adjuvant were mixed together water- in-oil emulsion and injected subcutaneously ... groups Inactivation of vv IBDV The inactivation of the two Vero cell adapted and attenuated vvIBDV at passage 15 (P15) and 20 (P20) were carried out using Electrolysed waterCatholyte-Anolyte (ECA) treatment. Electrolysed water- Catholyte-Anolyte (ECA) Treatment ECA solution, an anolyte with pH 2.2 was used to inactivate the virus by adding 0.5 mL of viral suspensions at ... that both the inactivated UPM0081T15 and UPM0081T20 was safe and could provide 100% protection against vvIBDV challenged with titer of 107.8 EID50/ 0.1 mL. Keywords: Electrolysed water- Catholyte-Anolyte (ECA), Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) INTRODUCTION Infectious bursal disease (IBDV) virus is the causative agent of IBD a highly contagious disease
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Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

... differences in prevalence of water mite parasitism, proportion of individuals resisting water mite parasites and Mann-Whitney U-test for differences in water mite intensity between sexes within ten Coenagrionidae species. (DOCX) S2 Table. Raw data on measures of parasitism and resistance in ten Coenagrionidae species to Arrenurus water mites. (XLSX) S3 Table. ... questions, we use coenagrionid damselfly-Arrenurus water mite associations. Damselflies are a unique model hosts to investigate innate immunity and host-parasite interactions for two main reasons. First, resistance to water mites can be easily assessed [23,24]. In damselflies, the immunological response to water mites is melanotic encapsulation of the mites’ ... parasitism was the proportion of individuals infected with at least one water mite and intensity was the number of water mites per infected individual [28]. Proportion of resisting host individuals was defined as the proportion of infected host individuals with at least one resisted (dead) water mite. We made the assumption that all the resisted mites were
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Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.)

... and antioxidant activity in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. The significance of differences was estimated with Duncan’s test at p = 0.05 (level of significance) with Statistica 7.1 software by StatSoft. Sikora E., Bieniek M.I., Borczak B., 2013. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn ... Technol. Aliment. 12(4), 365-372. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of essential nutrients’ contents in the edible part of fresh and frozen blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.) are shown in Table 1. The dry matter content in fresh blackthorn fruits was at the level of 18.11%. This fruit, although well known in folk medicine, has not been a subject ... countries of warm and dry climate are characterized by lower water content. The obtained results are close to the dry weight, which were reported by Rejman [1987] and Hodun [2008] in Poland in various embodiments of prune. The frozen fruits had 16.09% of the dry weight, which is quite surprising. Water is one of the first food components undergoing some
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Stable water isotopes of precipitation and firn cores from the northern Antarctic Peninsula region as a proxy for climate reconstruction

... content of water molecules in precipitation are considered as an excellent proxy to trace seasonal changes in air temperatures, especially in Polar Regions (Dansgaard, 1964; van Ommen and Morgan, 1997). Thermo- dynamic differences between the water molecules containing different stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen lead to the fractionation of water ... cores retrieved at the main glacier dome (700 m a.s.l.) in this island (Simo˜es et al., 2004). Both studies detected a water table above the firn/ice transition. As a consequence of the climatic conditions of the region, strong melting, melt water percolation, and refreezing processes are evident, thus making the drilling process and interpretation of the ... trajectories. 4 Results and discussion 4.1 δ18O and δD In the next section, oxygen and hydrogen stable water isotopes of precipitation and firn core samples are presented, compared and discussed. All results are referred to the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water Standard (VSMOW) in ‰, as δ18O and δD for oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, respectively. 4.1.1 Precipitation
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Identification of ochratoxin A producing fungi associated with fresh and dry liquorice.

... CGMCC3.15264(G3323) CGMCC3.15272(G5314) CGMCC3.15267(74124) CGMCC3.15268(84424) Substratum fresh liquorice fresh liquorice fresh liquorice dry liquorice fresh liquorice fresh liquorice fresh liquorice fresh liquorice fresh liquorice dry liquorice fresh liquorice fresh liquorice Origin Gansu province, China Gansu province, China Ningxia province, China ... both fresh and dry liquorice which including A. westerdijkiae, Eurotium amstelodami, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, P. chrysogenum, P. crustosum, P. glycyrrhizacola and P. polonicum. The similarity of fungal communities between fresh and dry liquorice was 22% (BrayCurtis index). Among the three production areas examined, the most similar dry and fresh ... thin metulae. Comparison of fungal community on fresh and dry liquorice Total fungal counts ranged from 300 to 3400 CFU/g on fresh liquorice sampled from 3 production areas; nineteen species of fungi belonging to 8 genera were detected among these CFUs (Table 2). The fungal community associated with fresh liquorice showed high species diversity with
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A Household Level Analysis of Water Sanitation Associated with Gastrointestinal Disease in an Urban Slum Setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar

... family members, and their properties. Knowledge of household water utilization and gastrointestinal diseases comprised 16 questions, concerning the quality of drinking water, hand washing, causes of water pollution, water borne diseases, and water treatment methods for household drinking water. The perceived obstacles and benefits were divided into ... 1.27 0.74-2.18 Types of household toilet 364 Water sealed latrine 305 12.8 87.2 1 Unsanitary latrine 59 74.6 25.4 20.01 10.18-39.31 Sources of household water 364 Tube water 313 15.0 85.0 1 Non-tube water 31 70.6 29.4 13.58 6.90-26.74 Types of drinking water 364 Boiling 73 15.1 84.9 1 Non-boiling 291 ... unsanitary latrines and water sealed latrines were strongly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value
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Physico-Chemical Characteristics Of Water Of River Mandakini In Chitrakoot Region

... 300mg/l, 200mg/l, 45mg/l, 250mg/l. Keywords- Drinking water, Physico-chemical, Surface water, Water quality, Water pollution I. Introduction- Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a stream, river, lake, wetland, or ocean. It can be contrasted with groundwater and atmospheric water[ 1].The river Mandakini originates near village ... Garg, and J.R. Rao, Water quality and pollution status of Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, J. Environ. Biol., 2008, 29 (5), 701-710. [10]. ICMR, 1975. Manual of Standard of quality for drinking water, ICMR Delhi 2nd ed. 1975. [11]. NEERI 1988, Manual on water and waste water analysis, Nagpur 1988. [12]. WHO guideline for drinking water monograph series ... bacterial, plank tonic and benthic fauna studies. River water is used as potable water by municipal supplies to the public. But high – class people use independent distilled or sterile water reservoirs. It is one of the resources for all kind of life. Comprising over 71 of the Earth surface water is unquestionable the most precious natural resource
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Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species turnover in temperate grasslands in northern China.

... W: water addition, WN: combination of water and nitrogen addition. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039762.g001 PLoS ONE | 3 June 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 6 | e39762 Water and Nitrogen Influence Species Turnover Table 1. Results (F-value) of repeated measures ANOVA with a split-plot design on the effects of block (B), year (Y), water ... either water or N can act independently as driver of plant community dynamics, and water condition also inuenced community sensitivity to N, and vice versa [42,43]. The significant interactions between water and N on species richness, forbs cover, and species turnover indicated that the effects of N on plant community are strongly mediated by water availability ... years. C: control, N: nitrogen addition, W: water addition, WN: combination of water and nitrogen addition. (TIF) Figure S2 Species richness of annuals and biennials (AB) and perennials (PE) from 2005 to 2009 in a steppe and an old field. C: control, N: nitrogen addition, W: water addition, WN: combination of water and nitrogen addition. (TIF) Acknowledgments We
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Interact to survive: Phyllobacterium brassicacearum improves Arabidopsis tolerance to severe water deficit and growth recovery.

... soil relative water content and B) survival percentage of non-inoculated (NI) and inoculated plants (I) in five watering scenarios including constant well-watered conditions (35% g H2O21 dry soil; 35%), water withdrawing from the two firsts leaves (L2) followed by constant moderate water deficit (20% g H2O21 dry soil; 20%c), punctual severe water deficits ... before rewatering to reach well-watered level (RWCsoil = 35%) Irrigation stopped at stage L2 to decrease RWCsoil at 10%. RWCsoil then maintained constant during 1 day before rewatering to reach well-watered level Irrigation stopped at stage L2 to decrease RWCsoil at 7%. RWCsoil then maintained constant during 1 day before rewatering to reach well-watered ... tolerance to severe water deficit. A) Leaf relative water content and B) relationship between whole-rosette Fv/Fm and leaf relative water content of non-inoculated (NI; closed symbols) and STM196-inoculated (I; open symbols) plants under well watered (WW) and water deficit (WD; 6%p) during soil drying (35%, 20%, 10% and 6%) and after rewatering (20%r, 35%r
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Study of contaminants stemmed from the waste water of the Ivorian Refining Company

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Piata palisadegrass fertilized with different sources of phosphorus for solubility in water.

... [Communication] Capim-piatã adubado com fontes de fósforo de diferente solubilidade em água [Piata palisadegrass fertilized with different sources of phosphorus for solubility in water] C.F.D. Duarte1, L.M. Paiva2, H.J. Fernandes2, D.L. Prochera1, L.H. Cassaro1, M.F. Breure1, L.S. Flores1, R.L. Fernandes1, E.R.C. Souza1, A.C. Fleitas1, K.R.S. Falcão1 1Alunos ... Vet. Zootec., v.67, n.1, p.315-318, 2015 317 Duarte et al. ABSTRACT The development of piatã grass fertilized with phosphorus sources with different solubilities in water was evaluated. The experiment was developed in the unit of Aquidauana of UEMS, MS, from February to August, 2012. Four treatments were evaluated: control (without phosphorus
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Inequities in access to and use of drinking water services in Latin America and the Caribbean

... vs. rural setting, household income, type and regularity of water supply service, time spent obtaining water in homes not served by running water, and type of water- purifying treatment, if any. Results. Access to drinking water as well as total and per capita household expenditures on drinking water show an association with household income, economic ... use of, and expenditures on drinking water. It is recommended that countries improve their portion of the surveys that deals with water and sanitation in order to facilitate national health assessments and the establishment of more equitable subsidy programs. Key words Drinking water, water supply, water and health, water and development, Latin America. Division ... and regularity of water supply, time spent on 387 getting water in homes not served by running water, type of water treatment, total and per capita household expenditures or income, etc. The surveys also provide information on access to water supply services under different household conditions: in households having safe drinking water, with or without
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Worldwide aspects of water chlorination

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Progess in the rural water programs of Latin Americal

... rural water systems Financing rural water and sanitation programs Financmg rural water systems Financing rural water systems Fmancing rural water systems Fmancing rural sanitation p~OgKilIlS Financing rural sanitatmn pV3gKULlS Financing house connections Financing rural water systems Financing rural water and sanitation programs Financing rural water ... argued that water delivered from a house connection-which implies developing a program for collecting and distributing the water and for administering the resulting system-should be considered one of the advanced steps in the rural water supply process. Therefore, in many of these programs hand pumps are the immediate goal, with any type of piped water being ... Safe Rural Water Far too many in the rural areas are still without an adequate supply of water. To help remedy this the goals of the 70’s have been set, and now we need to find the ways and means to help the people involved as they strive to receive the benefits of safe water in their homes. To achieve this ultimate goal-delivery of safe water as near
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Water supply and sewage disposal program

... approach has been successfully utilized in providing services to the National Water Authority of Honduras (May 1965), Water . Authority of Managua, Nicaragua (June 1965), National Water Authority of El Salvador (March 1966), National Water Authority of Uruguay (October 1966), National Water Authority of the Dominican Republic (April 1967), and the Ministry ... watersupply program is the enthusiasm and realism with which the communities have faced up to their responsibilities. The people have come to recognize the value of a domestic water supply. They want --and are willing to pay for-- water service. Introduction The Governments of Latin America established for themselves, ..highly commendable goal - -water in ... to determine permissible levels that would not endanger the health, economic, and related values of surface waters. Ann.exes . . .~~~~~~ CD17/16 (Engo) ANNEX I "COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES A Discussion of Financing" CD17/16 (Engo) ANNEX I "COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES A Discussion of Financing" PROPOSAL FOR IMPROVINGC THIE ,LViL-BEING OF RTURAL PEOPLES CO'3NI'TY
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Organization of water supply agencies in the Americas

... services --__-Autonomous + Metropolitafl Water Services of Haiti s,,P$E$ICe Water Ecuadorean Institute Sanitary Works of 4 . c i +u + 1 ‘?- . t Country 1961 _- 1963 I 1964 > National Autonomous Water and Sewerage Service (SANAA)” Mexico The basic structure: Ministry of Hydraulic Resources, National Mortgage and Public Works Bank, Federal Potable Water Boards, Ministry ... Consumer Education If the municipality and the water board are the first level of organization, the consumer is the keystone. His attitude toward potable water is primitive. He believes in free water because he has been taught to believe in it; he confuses charges with taxes; he is afraid of the meter; he wastes water because he does not understand its economic and ... or local bodies. They also provide for the establishment of departmental or state branches and of local water boards or committees. However, planning, coordination, technical advisory services, management of water resources, and the supervision of water quality remain vested in national agencies. In countries that originally followed a policy of delegating
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Fluoridation of public water supplies

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Technical, financial, and administrative aspects of water supply in the urban environment of the Americas: report of the rapporteur

... coordinate, stimulate and advise the Government on the national water program. 29 A study should be initiated of the best type or types of organization for carrying out the national water program. 3. Such laws should be enacted as are required to implement a program of sound, well managed, and adequately financed national water scheme. 4. Strengthening the Sanitary Engineering ... financiers, and water consumers. 7. Prepare and distribute authoritative and sound literature on examples of successful self-supporting water services. 8. Stimulate or sponsor training of Sanitary Engineers and allied personnel associated with the program. Finance action The group agreed on the following principles and procedures related to finance of water systems: 1. ... level to provide loans for water supply development to local agencies of government. Public Information and Education Since water has traditionally been provided by the Government at little or no cost to the consumer in many countries, a well planned and systematic educational program is basic in promoting the self-financed water supply system. Education
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Present status of water-supply and sewage disposal services in the Republic of Cuba

... Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. From the health point of view the water of seven of our waterworks has been made potable, by the chlorination of subterranean water in some, and the operation of filter plants heretofore inactive. Of the total 30 waterworks, 25 are now furnishing drinking water. Two filter plants operation and an additional two will be ... with 1,000 to 5,000 inhabitants - 16 - 63 - 217 Total 300 Urban centers with and without waterworks Total with waterworks -*t Group A, 4 Total without waterworks - B. 15 1 D,. 35 60 28 157 114 186 C, Total Total 4 16 . 63 217 300 Background Waterworks in Cuba can be divided into three classes (from the standpoint of ownership). Some ... March 1959 creating an autonomous entity, the National Waterworks an Sewerage Commission, whose objectives and functions are quoted below from the law: (a) To encourage the establishment of waterworks and sewerage services in all the urban centers of the nation, standardizing the systems, using the water resources wisely, and establishing service standards
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Use of locally available drinking water for preparation of oral rehydration salt (ORS) solution

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