Dental Age Estimation

Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood

... the community in general. It also develops experts’ meetings and consensus conferences, proceedings and recommendations of which have been published in several different languages (English, Spanish, Portuguese and Japanese). ACINDES brings together health professionals and specialists from different disciplines who contribute their experience to these ... open access journals. Once approved, publication will occur in English (on the relevant BioMed Central journal website) and in Spanish or Portuguese in print. The English language version is the original publication and will be archived in PubMed Central. ACINDES Av. America Nro.2, 12B, (CP 28028) Madrid, Spain Padre Vanini 380, (B 1602EEF) Buenos Aires,
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Reliability of different mark-recapture methods for population size estimation tested against reference population sizes constructed from field data.

... e98840 Population Size Estimation of models that allow inclusion of covariates (sub-program GSRUN) as implemented in program CARE-2 [CARE/GSRUN] [25]. The sample coverage estimator is a nonparametric estimation technique that builds on the proportion of individual capture probabilities included in the data by the animals captured. The population size estimation ... estimator; SC1: Sample coverage 1; SC2: Sample coverage 2; EE: Estimating equation. The 95%-confidence interval is shown in brackets. Estimations that cover the reference population size are highlighted in bold. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098840.t002 PLOS ONE | 5 June 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 6 | e98840 Population Size Estimation Table 3. ... Interpolated jackknife; ME: Moment estimator; SC1: Sample coverage 1; SC2: Sample coverage 2; EE: Estimating equation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098840.g002 PLOS ONE | 6 June 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 6 | e98840 Population Size Estimation Table 4. Results for population size estimation with fully independent data. Sample period 1985_11 1986_01 1986_03 1986_11 1987_01 Reference 183 165 155 106 74 f1 48 38 35 33 21 f2 15 23 19 26 14 f3 4 13 18 9 8 f4 1 3 15 2 5 f5 0 1 5 0 3 f6 0 2 3 0 0 f7 0 0 1 0 0 f8 0 0 0 0 0 S 68 80 96 70 51 ptr 0.092 0.122 0.171 0.259 0.451 CV 0.50 0.52 0.55 0.21 0.57 LP 128.23
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PLoS Medicine— A Medical Journal for the Internet Age.

... Open access, freely available online Message from the PLoS Founders PLoS Medicine— A Medical Journal for the Internet Age Michael B. Eisen, Patrick O. Brown, Harold E. Varmus T he Internet is awash with medical information. Eight hundred million people ... of a disease or drug, and you will be directed to hundreds of sites, ranging from the sound and useful to the quackish and dangerous. Google “medical” and you get 85 million pages, “drug,” 40 million, and “health,” 230 million. But something is conspicuously missing. The most reliable medical information on the Internet—the contents of peer-reviewed ... and the public, began to publish general medical journals containing case reports, ideas for new treatments, and the results of medical experiments. These pioneers took advantage of the best available technology for disseminating information, printing titles like The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, and The Journal of the American Medical
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Book Review: "The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World"

... Book reviews The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World by Stephen Castles and Mark J. Miller New York–London: Guildford Press, 2009 ISBN 978-1-606-23069-5 Softcover, $42.00, 370 pp. Reviewed by Md Kamrul Islam Department of Sociology, University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB) The Age of Migration: ... mobility in the 21st century. Castles and Miller predict that below-replacement-level fertility and increasing ageing populations in developed countries will increase the demand for labour from the developing world. In addition, they envisage that “North Africa and Mexico may soon become zones of immigration” (p. 301). However, the authors did not point out ... integrating immigrants into their host societies. Another key strength of the book is that the authors provide guides to further reading at the end of each chapter. A website (www .age- has been set up for further information. Apart from these strengths, the book contains a few relatively minor, though important, limitations. First, the authors
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Does foraging performance change with age in female little penguins (Eudyptula minor)?

... known age. Their age ranged from three to fourteen years. Age could not be treated as continuous variable since the sample size per year was unequal and severely reduced in some years. We then treated age as categorical variable by grouping them in three age classes following [25]: class 1 for young birds (3 and 4 years, n = 7), class 2 for middle-aged ... deterioration at old age was found in wolves [49] and aboriginal human hunters [50], also supporting a curvilinear relation with age. Physiological deterioration at old age may be, however, balanced by increasing foraging experience until a certain age limit, which may well be related to our birds in the transition stage between middle age and old birds. ... studies of the influence of age on foraging performance are challenging because: 1) long-term demographic datasets are scarce [16] and, as in all age- related studies, it is difficult to have a various sample size in age up to old age and 2) at-sea behaviour can only be recorded by remote sensing technologies compared to studies on age- related breeding performance
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Incidence of traumatic long-bone fractures requiring inhospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis in 4,890 fractures

... Trauma and Emergency Management Conference venue Clarion Hotel Stavanger, Ny Olavskleiv 8 Plenary Hall Hall I, Hall II and Hall III, Clarion Hotel 1st floor. See map on page 16 Exhibition Exhibition area will be located next to the Conference Hall (1st floor) and in the bar area (2nd floor). See map on page 16 Workshops See page 15 for more information Smoking The ... ventilator R Vacchi et al. O29 Trauma systems and early management of severe injuries in scandinavia: review and current status Thomas Kristiansen et al. O22 Is the observation unit a proper place to observe a trauma patient with minor injuries? OP Vinjevoll O30 Is the sky the limit? Trends in ambulance usage in Sør-Trøndelag County, Norway, from 1997–2007 Andreas ... Central supplements@ CONTENTS continued Volume 17 Supplement 3 2009 Open Access O15 Incidence of traumatic long-bone fractures requiring inhospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis in 4,890 fractures Terje Meling et al. O16 Cardiopulmonary response to reamed intramedullary nailing of the femur with a traditional
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Recursive prediction error methods for online estimation in nonlinear state-space models

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Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale

... Hydrology and Earth flux System Sciences, 9(6), 675–684 (2005) potential © EGU Uncertainty of solute estimation in ungauged small streams: implications for input-output nutrient mass balances Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach ... small changes in the hydrological and chemical parameters used for the mass balance estimation? How can the sampling effort be reduced by varying at one end of the stream reach, the frequency of water sampling, without an undue increase of the uncertainty associated with the estimation of the annual solute fluxes and, thus, of mass balances? Here, these ... were performed varying g from 0.9 to 1 and increasing the concentration CG(t) from 0 to 4 times the average solute concentration at the output reach end ( C O ( t ) 25 arbitrary units ). The impact of sampling effort on the accuracy of mass balance estimation at the reach scale was evaluated by varying the frequency (f) of measurements of solute concentration
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... Advantages of students’ participation in research projects VIII. Disadvantages of students’ participation in research projects - Question No 10. Fig. 7. Disadvantages of students’ participation in research projects Fig. 5. Student’s participation in research projects VII. Advantages of research project participation – Question No 9. Major advantages ... period from January to May 2013. Statistical processing and analysis of the information have been performed using Windows 11 SPSS statistics package. Microsoft Office package software has been used for graphic images such as tables and figures used as visual aids. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused mainly ... and from specialized units at the Faculties of Dental Medicine (FDM) (59.5%) – Fig. 9. This shows Bulgarian dental medicine students’ hunger for more sources of up-to-date scientific information. CONCLUSION The role that research projects play in medical universities and in particular in the faculties of dental medicine in Bulgaria is of key importance
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The degradation of the insecticide Imidacloprid in greenhouse tomatoes and an estimation of the level of residues.

... up of pesticide residues in crops but also disrupts the biochemical parameters of plants. Imidacloprid causes a blockage in a type of neuronal pathways (nicotinergic) that is more abundant in insects than in warm blooded animals. This blockage leads to accumulation of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter, resulting in the insect’s paralysis and eventually ... area basis. The injection volume of 10 μl was used in all experiments. Organic solvents and reagents; Acetone, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, methanol were of special grade for pesticide residue analysis..Anhydrous sodiumsulfate (Na2S04) was of analytical grade. These reagents were used without prewashing. Florisil (60-100 mesh) was obtained from fluka. Florisil ... agric. sci. 2014 (Special edition) AgriculturalUniversity of Tirana RESEARCH ARTICLE (Open Access) The degradation of the insecticide Imidacloprid in greenhouse tomatoes and an estimation of the level of residues. VJOLLCA VLADI1*, FATOS HARIZAJ2, VALDETE VORPSI2, MAGDALENA CARA3 1 Food Safety and Veterinary Institute. Tirana, Albania. 2Faculty of Agriculture
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Influence of anisotropy on velocity and age distribution at Scharffenbergbotnen blue ice area

... orthotropic flow law, however produced surface ages in significant disagreement with the few reliable age measurements and suggests that the age field is not in a steady state and that the present distribution is a result of a flow reorganization at about 15 000 yr BP. In order to fully understand the surface age dis20 tribution a transient simulation starting ... ice are translated into carbon ages with a correction made for 14C produced in 5 situ, requiring an ice core to be analysed to about 50 m depth, and that results in the age at Point V, Table 1. Additional measurements are available from 14C analysis in 10 other locations, see Fig. 1 (numbered empty pentagons). These 14C ages had large uncertainties of ... and calibrated to calendar ages using OxCal, an online calibration tool (http: // The errors given in Table 1 correspond to the standard deviations given by the calibration. Since these measurements are much less reliable than the two 15 measurements obtained at V and H, they are only used for approximate age estimation. In Sect. 5,
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Technical Note: Probabilistically constraining proxy age–depth models within a Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction model

... reconstruction and the actual coverage rates of the uncertainty intervals. The spatially or temporally averaged CRPS can be broken into two parts: the average reliability score (Reli), which estimates how well the nominal coverage rates of the ensemble reconstructions correspond to the empirical ones, and the potential average CRPS (CRPSpot), which characterizes ... optimal age model by some metric, or by treating all age models as equally likely. The statistical model is hierarchical, and model fitting exploits conditional dependencies by sequentially updating estimates of the climate conditional on the currently selected age model, and then updating the probabilities associated with members of an ensemble of age? ??depth ... climate indices or fields (e.g., Moberg et al., 2005; PAGES2k Consortium, 2013). In general, however, the age model errors associated with the time-uncertain proxies has have been explicitly addressed: a “best” age model is selected and then time uncertainties are ignored. Recent attempts to account for age model uncertainties (Anchukaitis and Tierney, 2013;
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Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

... continuous variables or the Spearman nonparametric correlation in all other cases. For the 59 patients over 18 years, a comparison between the 3 age groups (N524 aged 18–29 years, N517 aged 30–39 years, N518 aged over 40 years) was performed using the ANOVA or the equivalent non parametric test PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113111 November ... with DS of different ages, from 11 to 66 years, with the aim of characterising the accelerated age- associated decline of cognitive performances of these persons. The main result of this investigation is that the neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in older DS persons and this impairment precedes the overt stage of dementia. In ... early as 30 years of age, such as plaque and tangle formation in the amygdala, hippocampus, and association areas of the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex [7], which are claimed to occur in all people with DS by 40 years of age [8–11]. Dementia is present in 55% of DS adults in their sixth decade [12], preceded by changes in language skills [13, 14]
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Notch signaling mediates the age-associated decrease in adhesion of germline stem cells to the niche.

... GSCs is low, allowing them to persist in the niche; as ovaries age, Notch signaling in GSCs is elevated, resulting in the loss of GSCs from the niche. In contrast to GSCs, Notch signaling in niche cells (which is required for niche integrity) is decreased with age, thus contributing to age- induced GSC loss. We therefore demonstrate that both intrinsic ... hs-flpneoFRT19A/ubiGFPFRT19A. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004888.g003 delays age- dependent GSC loss [32], raising the possibility that Notch signaling may be increased in GSCs with age, and mediate suppression of E-cadherin expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined Notch signaling in the GSCs of young and aged germaria using E(spl)m7-lacZ (Fig. 5A–D). Expression ... one-week-old germaria; E(spl)m7-lacZ expression was 68% lower in aged niche cap cells (n = 140) than in young cap cells (n = 154, P,0.001), supporting the known role of Notch signaling in niche maintenance [23], which declines with age. However, we observed a 20% increase of E(spl)m7-lacZ expression in aged GSCs (n = 54, P,0.05) as compared to their younger
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Child mortality estimation: consistency of under-five mortality rate estimates using full birth histories and summary birth histories.

... histories of women aged 25–29, 30–34, and 35– 39 y. I excluded the SBHs from women aged 15–19 and 20–24 y, since the indirect estimates associated with these age groups are subject to notable selection bias and imprecision. This approach is consistent with the standard methodology used by the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation ... two estimation methods and make inferences when the resulting estimates from direct and indirect estimation are inconsistent. The accurate estimation of under-five mortality rates is important for two fundamental reasons. First, the under-five mortality rate is an important indicator of population health [8]. It is widely used by international agencies ... analysis of and adjustment for various shortcomings of the classical direct and indirect estimation methods. In particular, I successively carried out diagnostic analysis and re -estimation of rates to account for birth omissions and birth transference in FBHs used in direct estimation. I also adjusted indirect estimates by relaxing the implicit constant fertility
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Rainfall erosivity estimation based on rainfall data collected over a range of temporal resolutions

... using average annual rainfall and a Modified Fournier Index reflecting seasonal variation in precipitation. Using data from 29 sites in southeastern Australia, Yu and Rosewell (1996) calibrated the two models developed by Renard and Freimund (1994) and recommended the model using average annual rainfall as input for the 15 estimation of average annual ... monthly (individual month totals), yearly (individual year totals), average monthly, and average 10 annual time scales. Total rainfall depth values were also compiled into the other temporal resolutions of rainfall data, including daily, monthly, yearly, average monthly, and average annual resolutions. For the eight stations in the northern part of China ... has only one value for each 10 station for the annual average scale of R estimation, and hence ME was calculated based on simulations and observations for the seven stations. 3 Results and discussions 3.1 Basic data results Average annual rainfall ranged from 449.7 to 1728.1 mm, and average annual erosivity 15 varied from 781.9 to 8258.5 MJ mm
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Improving mechanical properties of flowable dental composite resin by adding silica nanoparticles

... elasticity 20–30% lower than conventional hybrid composites 5, 6, but higher volumetric shrinkage and polymerization shrinkage stress 6. Flowable composites have been proposed as liners 7, fissure sealants and restorative materials for small cavities 8. Their usage is indicated in non stress bearing areas, because of their low mechanical properties. It ... Serbia Abstract Apstrakt Background/Aim. The main drawback of flowable dental composite resin is low strength compared to conventional composite resin, due to a low amount of filler, neccessary for achieving low viscosity and ease of handling. The aim of this study was to improve mechanical properties of flowable dental composite resin by adding small amount of nanoparticles, ... shrinkage and elasticity of flowable composites and filled adhesives. Dent Mater 1999; 15(2): 128–37. 6. Pick B, Pelka M, Belli R, Braga RR, Lohbauer U. Tailoring of physical properties in highly filled experimental nanohybrid resin composites. Dent Mater 2011; 27(7): 664–9. 7. Leevailoj C, Cochran MA, Matis BA, Moore BK, Platt JA. Microleakage of
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Education Projections using Age-Period-Cohort Models: Classical and Bayesian Approaches

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Maximum a posteriori joint state path and parameter estimation in stochastic differential equations

... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2 MAP estimation in SDEs 17 2.1 Foundations of MAP estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2 Joint MAP state path and parameter estimation in SDEs . . . 24 2.3 Minimum-energy state path and parameter estimation . . . . . 43 3 MAP estimation in discretized SDEs 47 3.1 Hypo-convergence ... state path associated with the MAP noise path. When the trapezoidal scheme is used, on the other hand, the estimation converges to the MAP state-path estimation using the Onsager–Machlup functional. Our work also offers a formal definition of mode and MAP estimation of general random variables in possibly infinite-dimensional spaces, under the framework of ... and Dembo, 1987). Despite that, in the automatic control and signal processing literature, the Onsager–Machlup functional seemed to be virtually unknown until the late 20th century. One of the few uses of the Onsager–Machlup functional for MAP state-path estimation in the engineering literature was the work of Aihara and Bagchi (1999a,b), which did not
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Necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico: validação do DAI (Índice de estética dental) e do ICON (Índice de complexidade, resultado e necessidade) para a região de Belo Horizonte

... VALIDAÇÃO DO DAI (ÍNDICE DE ESTÉTICA DENTAL) E DO ICON (ÍNDICE DE COMPLEXIDADE, RESULTADO E NECESSIDADE) PARA A REGIÃO DE BELO HORIZONTE BELO HORIZONTE Faculdade de Odontologia UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS 2007 RODRIGO NORREMOSE COSTA NECESSIDADE DE TRATAMENTO ORTODÔNTICO: VALIDAÇÃO DO DAI (ÍNDICE DE ESTÉTICA DENTAL) E DO ICON (ÍNDICE DE COMPLEXIDADE, ... reprodutibilidade dos testes, validade dos testes. ABSTRACT Orthodontic treatment need: validation of the DAI (dental aesthetic index) and the ICON (index of complexity, outcome and need) for the area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil Occlusal indices, such as the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) are used to determine ... ABREVIATURAS E SIGLAS CV DAI E EUA FO-UFMG ICC ICON IOTN LILACS MEDLINE NCHS OMS PAR ROC RV S SCAN SciELO UFMG VPN VPP WHO - Coeficiente de variação - Índice de estética dental (dental aesthetic index) - Especificidade - Estados Unidos da América - Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Coeficiente de correlação intraclasse
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Polpa dental: constituintes e respostas frente a agentes agressores

...     UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS Ana Cristina da Cunha POLPA DENTAL: constituintes e respostas frente a agentes agressores BELO HORIZONTE 2010 ANA CRISTINA DA CUNHA POLPA DENTAL: constituintes e respostas frente a agentes agressores Monografia de conclusão do curso de especialização em Endodontia da Faculdade ... propósito desse estudo foi revisar a literatura sobre os constituintes e fisiologia da polpa dental para melhor compreensão das respostas pulpares frente aos agentes agressores. Palavras chave: polpa dental, inflamação pulpar, mastócitos, pulpite. ABSTRACT The dental pulp consists of loose connective tissue, similar to other parts of the body. The ... The purpose of this study was to review the literature on constituents of dental pulp and physiology to better understand the responses of pulp compared to the aggressive agents. Key words: dental pulp, pulp inflammation, mast cells, pulpitis.   1 INTRODUÇÃO 10  A polpa dental é um tecido conjuntivo frouxo circundado por estruturas mineralizadas
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Mortality in children under 15 years of age in Cali, Colombia

... of the deaths studied by age and sex, and also the percentage represented by the sample in TABLE l-Distribution of Deaths Studied, Sex, and Age Percentage Representedby Group, Cali, Colombia, 1965. Under 1 month l-l 1 months 1-4 years S-14 years Total (Sample %) the 108 138 78 17 1;: 341 23.3 266 23.4 71 9 by Age and Sample in Each 170 262 149 26 23.2 25.2 22.0 17.4 607 23.4 Llanos ... eight cases (1.3 per cent) were three possibilities considered. In only 22 of the deaths was there a Medical Core Received during Last Illness, by Age, Cali, 1965. Deaths and percentage by age Medical care before death %’ (under 1 month) None .. Lessthah’48hburs More than 48 hours No data available ‘I:... :I:‘.::: 18.8 10.0 60.6" . : ... International Classification, are included in “Certain diseasesof early infancy” 15 Years of Age by Diagnoses Cali, Colombia, 1965. Assigned Age International code Order 92.3 7.7 - Under 1 month on Death Certificate, According gmws l-11 months 1-4 YCiTS 5-14 YGXS A11 ages Per cell1 ~___ 1 IX 2 xv 3 I 4 VIII 2 7 XTV E-XVII VI III ! 10 !I1 11 X 12 XIII 13 XVI Diseases
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La odontología en un programa dental nacional

... food values with little fermentable carbohydrates show a low average of dental caries; han-ever, when they move to urban districts, their primitive diet being changed, the rate of dental decay and periodontosis increases. An average dental caries rate in children of four to five years of age is approximately 75%, and in some cases, even at three years ... as essential to its success: dental examinations of 734 PAN AMBRICAN SANITARY BUREAU [August 19@] pre-school and school children, notices being sent to their parents regarding mouth conditions; dental examination and consultation for these children in dental clinics of the health centers, records being kept of same; dental caries prophylaxis serviees ... la salud general. Los objetivos específicos que persigue el programa de higiene dental recientemente inaugurado en México son los siguientes: (1) Prevenir el desarrollo de las enfermedadesdentales; (2) Evitar la pérdida de dientes permanentes; (3) Eliminar las infecciones dentales que puedan convertirse en focos de infección. Para llevar a la aplicación
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Dental nurses in Trinidad and Tobago

... 1972-1987. 1987 1972 Population Totalnumberof dentists Numberof government dentalofficers Numberof dentalnurses Totalnumberof dentaloperators(dentistsplus dental nurses) Totalnumberof government dentaloperators(dentalofficers plusdentalnurses) Dentaloperator:populationratio Government dentaloperator:populationratio 1,ooo,ooo 553 16 - 1,200,000 91 15 66 55 157 16 1 ... Redistribution of the dental nurses would not solve the problem, because there are too few of them. More dental nurses need to be trained. As there are over 360,000 children, it would be necessary to have 120 dental nurses to give a dental nurse to child ratio of 1 to 3,000. This is nearly twice as many dental nurses as are presently employed. One dental nurse ... lost from the Government Dental Service. It could be predicted that if more dental nurses are trained, there would be a similar low natural wastage rate. However, futher training of dental nurses must be considered in the light of facilities available for them when they qualify. If all of the dental nurses needed were to be trained, many new dental surgeries would
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Prevalences of tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases among people over age 15 in the northeast sector of Medellín, Colombia

... out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Data calculated included tuberculosis and respiratory disease prevalences, the index of treatment abandonment, and the percentage of subjects being treated. In addition, the observed prevalences of respiratory disease were compared for groups with different ages, genders, years of education, ... 2.68 cases per thousand subjects. Two of these were new cases; six of the cases occurred in men and four in women. Regarding age, most (six) of the cases were found in the 25-49 year age group, with two cases each occurring in the 15-24 and 50+ age groups. Of the eight subjects whose tuberculosis cases had been diagnosed before the survey, three said they had ... abandoned the program, 32 (47.1%) were men and 36 (52.9%) women, a sex distribution that Table 2. Percent distribution by age of the 3,731 who were lost to follow-up. Observed differences age groups were not statistically significant. Age in years 15-24 25-49 250 Total Study participants survey subjects and of those in the sizes of comparable Subjects
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