SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry - a tool for improving the quality of diagnostics, treatment and care of dementia patients in clinical practice.
... are excluded from many clinical trials . SveDem could address these methodological problems and function as a tool to identify and recruit patients that are suitable for studies. Given the possibility to observe the clinical course and progression of dementia, SveDem can facilitate certain improvements in designing clinical trials. The registry could ... facilitate epidemiological studies , study the clinical expression of AD , provide a framework for recruitment of patients for clinical trials  or promote equality in the access for medical services . SveDem aims to accomplish a similar high quality of dementia care in all regions in Sweden and in different clinical settings. Both specialist and ... diagnostic criteria of dementia , therefore the diagnosis of different dementia disorders may vary in several clinical centers. Furthermore, misclassification between PDD and DLB is common  as these disorders often overlap in pathology and clinical manifestation . On the other hand, the true incidence of PDD and DLB is uncertain and therefore the
Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in a cohort of 61 dogs with peripheral nervous system diseases - a retrospective study
... Electrodiagnostic evaluation. In: Clinical Neurology in Small Animals-Localization, Diagnosis and Treatment, KG Braund (Ed.) Publisher: International Veterinary Information Service (www.ivis.org), Ithaca, New York, USA. Vanhaesebrouck AE, I Van Soens, L Poncelet, L Duchateau, S Bhatti, I Polis, S Diels and L Van Ham, 2010. Clinical and electrophysiological characterization of myokymia and neuromyotonia ... determining the etiological diagnosis in patients with peripheral nervous system disease. ©2013 PVJ. All rights reserved To Cite This Article: Giza EG, JE Nicpon and MA Wrzosek, 2014. Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in a cohort of 61 dogs with peripheral nervous system diseases - a retrospective study. Pak Vet J, 34(2): 149-154. 2002). EMG is the recording ... years. All canine patients were referred for an electrodiagnostic examination because of local or generalized peripheral nervous system impairment. All the patients underwent a clinical and neurological examination, as well as a blood test (serum biochemical analysis and complete blood count). A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination was performed in 9/61
The clinical characteristics and direct medical cost of influenza in hospitalized children: a five-year retrospective study in Suzhou, China.
... analysis PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 September 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 9 | e44391 Clinical Features and Medical Cost of Flu Children dollars. Meteorological data were provided by the Suzhou Meteorological Bureau. The criteria for diagnosing pneumonia was a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia by the treating physicians according to the syndromes and ... rate of 1 USD for 6.3 RMB to convert RMB costs to US PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 September 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 9 | e44391 Clinical Features and Medical Cost of Flu Children Table 1. Population profile and primary clinical characteristics of influenza positive children hospitalized in Suzhou Children Hospital from 2005 to 2009 (%). Gender Age Year Location a Symptoms Coexisting ... www.plosone.org 3 September 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 9 | e44391 Clinical Features and Medical Cost of Flu Children Figure 1. Monthly distribution of number of influenza cases, positive rate, precipitation and mean temperature in Suzhou from Nov 2005 to Dec 2009. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044391.g001 Table 2. Clinical characteristics by age group of the influenza
Clinical outcomes in low risk coronary artery disease patients treated with different limus-based drug-eluting stents--a nationwide retrospective cohort study using insurance claims database.
... Myocardial Infarction) trial. The MACE rate was significantly lower for EES group compared with the SES group. Besides, several clinical trials have found that EES performs equally to SES in specific clinical outcomes. The Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials with Clinical Outcome IV (SORT OUT IV) was an all-comer trial that randomized ... stent. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122860.g002 cardiac events (MACE) than patients in the SES group at 5-year follow-up. On the contrary, the Danish Organization for Clinical Trials with Clinical Outcome (SORT OUT III) trial, with randomization of 2332 patients to receive either the E-ZES or the SES, revealed higher risks of all-cause mortality, MI and target lesion ... animal models, and reduce stent thrombosis rate in randomized clinical trials.[13,14] Studies attempting to compare the efficacy and safety between different second-generation limus-based DES have yielded conflicting results.[15–18] 23Besides, external validation of findings of clinical trials in daily “real-world practice” has been limited and a comparison
Toward FRP-Based Brain-Machine Interfaces-Single-Trial Classification of Fixation-Related Potentials.
... ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0146848 January 26, 2016 10 / 19 Toward FRP-Based BMI—Single -Trial Classification of FRP ERP Analysis In a first step we analyzed the data by computing the standard grand average over all trials and all participants. The trials were grouped according to the three individual classes. Fig 3 shows the plots for the grand ... overall of 112 objects was selected, which equals the number of trials. The originally black background was converted to white. For each stimulus, twelve images were arranged in a grid-like fashion (plus random offset, see Fig 1 (right). One out of the 112 objects was selected as the target for a trial such that each object served only once as target. The ... the object center. Fig 1 (right) shows an example scanpath for one trial, that is, the sequence of the participant’s fixations and saccades while he/she searches for the target object. PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0146848 January 26, 2016 7 / 19 Toward FRP-Based BMI—Single -Trial Classification of FRP Removing eye artifacts with ICA. Independent
Psychological Center as a Foundation for the Practical Training of Clinical psychologists at the Saint-Petersburg State University
... skills training for the students of the Clinical Psychology specialty, has proven its necessity, relevance, and effectiveness. counseling, student training, client challenges, effective counselor INTRODUCTION An urgent problem of all public higher education institutions in Russia that train specialists in the field of clinical psychology is their practical preparation ... Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 2015; 4: 100–104 DOI: 10.12740/APP/61049 Psychological Center as a Foundation for the Practical Training of Clinical psychologists at the Saint-Petersburg State University Ekaterina A. Burina, Marina V. Danilova Irina V. Grandilevskaya, Liudmila V. Rykman, Piotr K. Trabczynski Summary: The ... practical preparation for a future career. In particular, this problem exists at the Department of Psychology at the Saint-Petersburg State University. Since its inception, the training of clinical psychologists was conducted within the framework of the Leningrad School of Psychology, respecting the traditions established by V.M. Bekhterev, B.G. Ananyev, V.N. Myasischev,
Relation between clinical and anthropometric data and systemic inflammation in patients with COPD
... attention is devoted to systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between clinical and anthropometric data with systemic inflammation in stable COPD patients. According to the study CRP levels were raised in 44% of patients (7.9 [7,1-10,9). Serum
Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) envenoming in Nigeria.
... dose-finding and safety studies  followed by formal Phase III clinical trials. In the present study, conventional pre -clinical rodent ED50 assays reliably predicted clinical effectiveness of ET-Plus and ET-G. Surely such tests should become a minimal requirement before an antivenom is selected for clinical use in a particular country and to prevent the ... addressed by future clinical studies. Clinical testing of antivenoms Traditionally, the clinical use of antivenoms, a neglected class of biological drugs, has been based almost entirely on results of laboratory tests in animals. In future, however, WHO  will strongly encourage the procedure carried out in the present programme: preclinical tests and ... envenomations by a new polyvalent antivenom composed of highly purified F(ab)2: results of a clinical trial in northern Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 1017–1018. 5. Chippaux JP, Massougbodji A, Stock RP, Alagon A, Investigators of African Antivipmyn in Benin (2007) Clinical trial of an F(ab’)2 polyvalent equine antivenom for African snake bites in Benin. Am
A cluster randomised controlled effectiveness trial evaluating perinatal home visiting among South African mothers/infants.
... However, visits likely must extend over several years for persistent benefits. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00996528 Citation: Rotheram-Borus MJ, Tomlinson M, le Roux IM, Harwood JM, Comulada S, et al. (2014) A Cluster Randomised Controlled Effectiveness Trial Evaluating Perinatal Home Visiting among South African Mothers/Infants. PLoS ... independent teams conducted the assessment (Stellenbosch), intervention (Philani), and data analyses (UCLA). This cluster randomised control trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00996528). The protocol for this trial and supporting CONSORT Checklist are available as supporting information; please see Protocol S1 and Checklist S1. Participants Neighbourhood ... intervention group; however, this represents a three-fold increase over the control arm. A randomized controlled trial encouraging exclusive breastfeeding in six African countries reported similar results . Although condom use was still too low for a clinical impact on HIV transmission, consistent condom use was 6% greater (OR = 1.25) with the intervention.
Variations in Transverse Foramina of Cervical Vertebrae: Morphology & Clinical Importance
... Vertebrae: Morphology & Clinical Importance Vaishakhi Gonsai1*, Janki Jadav2, H.R.Shah3 1,2Resident doctor, 3 Additional Professor, Department of Anatomy, B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad. ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate variations in transverse foramina in the cervical vertebrae and its morphological and clinical importance. ... costo-transverse bar. Variations in transverse foramina may affect the course of vertebral artery. Headache, migraine & fainting attack may result due to compression of vertebral artery. Clinically, these types of variants are important for the radiologist during CT & MRI scan. Results Out of 200 cervical vertebrae, complete double transverse foramina were observed ... of the seventh cervical vertebra contains some branches of vessels and nerves as well as fibrous and adipose tissues4. The morphological knowledge of this type of variation is clinically important because the course of the vertebral artery may be distorted under such condition. The compression or other pathology of such aberrant artery may lead to neurological
Time since onset of disease and individual clinical markers associate with transcriptional changes in uncomplicated dengue.
... admission was only dependent on a positive outcome from the rapid test and not based on clinical disease severity. Clinical data were recorded daily with a standard case report form. Blood samples were collected on every other day (including the day of admission), both for clinical laboratory tests and for transcriptome profiling. At day 3, 5 and 7 of admission ... significant. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003522.g004 Classical dengue clinical parameters associated with transcriptional patterns in dengue Next, we investigated the association between the identified gene modules and clinical parameters. To this end, we used weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) that organizes genes into 25 modules that are subsequently correlated to 18 clinical parameters ... would limit the application of such biomarkers in a clinical setting. However, the expression level of the identified gene modules specific for biological processes relevant in dengue disease may support earlier detection of progress to severe disease and improve clinical management of dengue. The clinical parameter platelet count has frequently been
The position of the Chinese massage (Tuina) in clinical medicine
... 24î5. 23. Wang JL, Gao XL. Clinical trial of combined acupuncture and medicine in treating migraine. Shanxi J Tradit Chin Med 2004; 25(6): 549î50. 24. Shao Y,Yan B, Zhang QW, Peng XM. Clinical Observation of Combined Acupuncture and Tuina in Treating Migraine. New J Tradit Chin Med 2005; 37(9): 56î7. 25. Lu ZQ, Yan SG. Clinical Trial of Combined Acupuncture ... PREGLED Volumen 69, Broj 11 several private clinics), although there are no literary information on its clinical efficiency in this region. The aim of the paper was to present the physiological and therapeutic action of Tuina with a the special insight in its clinical efficiency. Tuina: traditional concept of physiological basic and therapeutic effects Physiological ... Medicine of the Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Serbia; ‡Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Center of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia Key words: medicine, chinese traditional; clinical medicine; massage; acupuncture therapy; combined modality therapy; health status. Kljuÿne reÿi:
Epidemiology and Clinical Burden of Malaria in the War-Torn Area, Orakzai Agency in Pakistan.
... For further investigation, studied patients were divided into groups on the basis of their age and sex. Clinical assessment After a detailed clinical investigation of patients, a standardized case report template was designed to compile the complete clinical data of each patient. For children younger than five years, their parents or relatives were asked ... in the nearby regions as well. For the first time, we report a clinical assessment of malaria endemicity in the Orakzai Agency, which is Pakistan’s most neglected area due to Talibanization and war in Afghanistan. Febrile patient blood samples of the area were investigated to report the clinical assessment of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and P. ... conditions in FATA, likely caused by poor socioeconomics and the collapse of the public health infrastructure. Decompensated shock was a common and prominent clinical feature of malaria among all the clinical presentations caused by both P. vivax (53%) and P. falciparum (42.9%). Our results have significant implications for both public health and malaria
MicroRNA expression and clinical outcome of small cell lung cancer.
... Table S1 depicts microRNA expression in relation to clinical variables. Trends were observed in favor of higher let-7a expression in women and in younger patients (p = 0.07 and 0.13 respectively, by Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test). No significant correlations were observed between expression of microRNAs and clinical characteristics. We compared expression of ... SCLC and 3 NSCLC cell lines. (B) Correlation between miR-34a and c-MET expression as well as bcl-2 in 5 SCLC cell lines. (TIF) Table S1 MicroRNAs and clinical covariables. (DOC) Table S2 Effect of clinical covariables on progressionfree survival (PFS). (DOC) Table S3 Effect of microRNA expression on progression-free survival (PFS, weeks) in SCLC ... (2010) MicroRNA expression and clinical outcomes in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy after complete resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Res 70: 8288–8298. 19. Hwang JH, Voortman J, Giovannetti E, Steinberg SM, Leon LG, et al. (2010) Identification of microRNA-21 as a biomarker for chemoresistance and clinical outcome following
Comorbidity of depression and type 2 diabetes: Risk factors and clinical significance
... Rabe-Hesketh S. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Lancet 2004; 363: 1589–97. 61. Jašović-Gašić M, Damjanović A, Miljević Č, Marić N. Antidepressants: manual for clinical practice. Niš: Studentski kulturni centar; 2000. (Serbian) 62. ... MA, Simonson DC. Health economic benefits and quality of life during improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. JAMA 1998; 280(17): 1490–6. 28. McKellar JD, Humphreys K, Piette JD. Depression increases diabetes symptoms by complicating patients' self-care adherence. Diabetes Educ ... Care 2008; 31: 255–61. 54. Williams MM, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. Treating depression to prevent diabetes and its complications: understanding depression as a medical risk factor. Clinical Diabetes 2006; 24: 79–86. 55. Fava M. Weight gain and antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61(11): 37–41. 56. Talbot F, Nouwen A. A review of the relationship
Effect of training on the reliability of satiety evaluation and use of trained panellists to determine the satiety effect of dietary fibre: a randomised controlled trial.
... Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) after the enrolment of participants. Curtin University satiety studies that do not involve blood collection are not routinely registered as clinical trials, however a second related study on postprandial glycemia and satiety entailed clinical trial registration. The clinical trial application PLOS ... 14 Training and Satiety Evaluation: A Randomised Controlled Trial was submitted for the combined research. In response however, ANZCTR requested this training study and the second satiety study be separate applications. Despite, the delay in ANZCTR registration, the authors confirm that all ongoing and related trials for this drug/intervention are registered. The ... of intraclass correlation coefficient estimates and standard errors between using cross-sectional and repeated measurement data: The Safety Check cluster randomized trial. Contemp Clin Trials; 2011 32: 225–232. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2010.11.001 PMID: 21070889 35. Cross HR, Moen R, Stanfield MS. Training and testing of judges for sensory analysis of meat
Comparison of statistical and clinical predictions of functional outcome after ischemic stroke.
... scenario-based, rather than clinical predictions . A similar study to ours, demonstrated that doctor’s predictions of poor functional outcome were similar to the six simple variables model . Clinical prediction models for predicting poor prognosis after stroke have yet to find a place in clinical practice. It seems reasonably clear that clinical prediction ... decisions about clinical care, rehabilitation, or targeting of resources. We believe that there would be merit in conducting an impact study of any one of these models to assess what benefit there is in adopting modelbased risk predictions in clinical practice. In conclusion, clinical prediction models are at least as accurate as informal clinical predictions ... made informally, based upon the clinical experience of doctors looking after them. However, statistical models, which calculate the probability of poor functional outcome based upon weights given to different clinical variables, may make more accurate predictions. Previous studies comparing the predictions of models and clinical opinion after stroke have
Tetanus in small ruminants: retrospective study of major clinical and epidemiological findings in 11 cases.
... (45.4%), protusion of the third eyelid (27.2%), hypersensitivity to external stimulus (18.1%), and elevation of ears (18.1%) were the most common clinical signs. Keywords: tetanus, sheep, goat, epidemiology, clinical signs, Clostridium tetani REFERÊNCIAS ASLANI, M.R.; BAZARGANI, T.T.; ASHKAR, A.A. et al. Outbreak of tetanus in lambs. Vet. Rec., ... vacinação dos pequenos ruminantes na prevenção do tétano nos criatórios. Palavra-chave: tétano, Clostridium tetani, ovinos, caprinos ABSTRACT A retrospective study of major clinical and epidemiological findings was performed in 11 cases of tetanus observed in eight sheep and three goats from 1998 to 2008. The cases occurred predominantly in animals ... [Communication] Tétano em pequenos ruminantes: estudo retrospectivo dos principais achados clínico-epidemiológicos em 11 casos [Tetanus in small ruminants: retrospective study of major clinical and epidemiological findings in 11 cases] A.C.S. Almeida, M.G. Ribeiro*, A.C. Paes, J. Megid, V.B. Oliveira, M.M.J. Franco Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Clinical mastitis in goat due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes.
... the occurrence of goat mastitis due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Paraiba State – Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms and microbiological culture. A mastectomy was performed as clinical treatment. Keywords: clinical mastitis, goat, Arcanobacterium pyogenes REFERÊNCIAS BERGONIER, D.; CRÉMOUX, R.; RUPP, R. et al. Mastitis of ... Monitoramento microbiológico da mastite ovina na região de Bauru, SP. Arq. Inst. Biol., v.77, p.395403, 2010. MØRK T.; WAAGE S.; TOLLERSRUD T. et al. Clinical mastitis in ewes; bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical features. Acta Vet. Scand., v.49, p.23, 2007. Disponível em . Acessado em: 25 Fev. 2011. MOTTA, ... Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.64, n.4, p.1070-1073, 2012 Comunicação [Communication] Mastite clinica caprina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes [Clinical mastitis in goat due to Arcanobacterium pyogenes] F. Garino Jr.1, R.A.T. Matos2, E.G. Miranda Neto1, J.N.N. Bernardino3, E.D. Santos1, G.M.N. Aguiar1 1Universidade
Evaluation of a prophylactic method against clinical mastitis in Santa Inês ewes.
... monitored each week searching for clinical sings of mastitis. In 8.4% of G1 and 41.3% of G2 animals, the udder was warm and hyperemic. The presence of residual milk was lower in G1 (24.3%) compared to those of G2 (74.2%). The proposed treatment for the control of ovine mastitis significantly reduced the frequency of the clinical signs of the disease. Keywords: ... 2008 Comunicação [Communication] Avaliação de uma metodologia profilática contra a mastite clínica em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês. [Evaluation of a prophylactic method against clinical mastitis in Santa Inês ewes] C.B. Melo1, B.M. Almeida2, A.A. Oliveira3, H.C. Azevedo3, L.S.S. Melo1, S.S. Mata3 1Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária - UnB ... Acessado em: 2 jun. 2006. BUSWELL, J.F.; YEOMAN, G.H. Mastitis in dry ewes. Vet. Rec., v.99, p.221-222, 1976. CALAVAS, D.; BUGNARD, F.; DUCROT, C. et al. Classification of the clinical types of udder disease affecting nursing ewes. Small Rum. Res., v.29, p.21-31p. 1998. DEAN, A.G.; DEAN, J.A.; BURTON, A.H. EpiInfo 6, Version 1.2: a word processing,
Neurocysticercosis: incidence, diagnosis and clinical pictures.
... covered during surgery and/or autopsy. Regarding to its clinical features, the disease was manifested under three separate forms: acute (meningoencephalitis, cerebral edema, ventricular obstruction, ischemic softening secondary to endarteritis), subacute and chronic (specially the purely convulsive clinical pictures). The symptoms had been present for ... generalized and focal seizures was approximately the same. Psychomotor epilepsy was clinically diagnosed in 5 cases, 2 of which presented temporal foci in the EEG examination. The electroencephalograms of 148 cases were analyzed regarding to topography of findings and clinical manifestations. Diffuse alterations and bilateral occipital foci were more ... cases, from 1 to 12 months in 116 cases, and for more than 1 year in 115 cases; in 5 cases this in formation was not ascertained. Our cases were classified, regarding to the clinical symptomatology, in hypertensive, convulsive, with focal or diffuse neurologic manifestations, and psychic. These forms were found as single manifestations in the following
The impact of mother-to-mother support on optimal breast-feeding: a controlled community intervention trial in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala
... differences between nonparticipants and controls. A randomized controlled trial in Mexico (12) demonstrated large increases in rates of exclusive breastfeeding using paid peer counselors. Equally impressive results have recently been obtained in another randomized controlled trial using paid peer counselors in urban Bangladesh (13). In both Mexico and ... home-based 13. 14. 15. 16. peer counselling to promote exclusive breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999;353:1226–1231. Haider R, Ashworth A, Kabir I, Huttly S. Effect of community-based peer counsellors on exclusive breastfeeding practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000;356:1643–1647. Schafer E, Vogel MK, Viegas S, Hausafus C. Volunteer ... The impact of mother-to-mother support on optimal breast-feeding: a controlled community intervention trial in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala Kirk Dearden,1 Mekibib Altaye,2 Irma de Maza,3 Maritza de Oliva,3 Maryanne Stone-Jimenez,4 Barton R. Burkhalter,5 and Ardythe L. Morrow
Development of a simplified perinatal clinical record
... perinatal clinical record (SPCR). This easy-to-use, low-cost record form succeeds in bringing together on one page easily-obtainable data constituting the minimum information needed to provide adequate perinatal care. The SPCRis specifically intended for use in health centers that are unable to complete the more complex and detailed Perinatal Clinical ... the patient has been smoking during this pregnancy by checking the appropriate box. In the ? ?Clinical Exam. (Normal), Dental Exam. (Normal), Cervix Exam. (Normal), and Breast Exam. (Normal)” portions, mark the appropriate boxes to indicate whether the admitting clinical examination, dental examination, cervical examination, and breast examination were ... newborn has any of the following problems: “H.M.D.” (hyaline membrane disease) when demonstrated by a clinical or radiologic picture of this disease that worsens during the first six to 24 hours of life; “Aspirat. Synd.” (aspirative syndrome), the clinical radiologic syndrome of amniomeconial aspiration; “Other RDS” (other respiratory distress syndromes),
A trial of a new method for studying drinking and drinking problems in three countries of the Americas
... A TRIAL OF A NEW METHOD FOR STUDYING DRINKING AND DRINKING PROBLEMS IN THREE COUNTRIES OF THE AMERICAS Reginald G. Smart,1 Guillermina Juan Almendares Bonilla3 de Natera,* and Many ... Caribbean countries. A method commonly used for developing information on drinking problems in developed countries is the household survey. Recent surveys have been performed in most industrialized Western nations-such as Canada (Smart et al., 1978), the United States (Cahalan, 1970), and England (Edwards et al., 1972) to name only a few. Smart et al. l NEW METHOD FOR STUDYING Such ... figure for the same time period. The informant method also provided higher estimates of people having problems and dependency symptoms related to their drinking. Discussion This trial of the informant method has shown it to be workable in at least three countries. The method produced interesting infor- PAHO BULLETIN l vol. 14, no. 4. 1980 mation about