Apoptosis Inductor Factor
Protection of neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA).
... Cyclic Phosphatidic Acid suggest that stimulation by 300 mM CoCl2 for 24 hours induced apoptosis in Neuro2A cells. Therefore, these conditions were used to induce apoptosis in Neuro2A cells in all subsequent experiments. Results and Discussion 1. CoCl2-induced apoptosis in Neuro2A cells Neuro2A cells were treated with various concentrations of CoCl2. ... cPA on CoCl2-induced Neuro2A cell apoptosis was largely abolished after knockdown of LPA2 (Fig. 4D). In the case of LPA, the effect of the suppression of its antiapoptotic activity on CoCl2-induced Neuro2A cell apoptosis was less apparent. Therefore, we propose that cPA-induced protection of Neuro2A cells from CoCl2induced apoptosis might potentially be ... Neuro2A cells to CoCl2 rapidly increased ROS levels and might initiate apoptosis signaling. Meanwhile it was revealed that Neuro2A did not generate superoxide by treatment of CoCl2 for 0–30 min (data not shown). Flow cytometric analysis with FITC-Annexin V was used to analyze the rate of apoptosis induced by CoCl2 (Fig. 1D). Representative data show that
Adolescence as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome in Central Africa--a cross-sectional study.
... risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Antenatal care programs specifically tailored for the needs of adolescents may be necessary to improve the frequency of antenatal care visits and pregnancy outcomes in this risk group in Central Africa. Citation: Kurth F, Bélard S, Mombo-Ngoma G, Schuster K, Adegnika AA, et al. (2010) Adolescence As Risk Factor ... .The percentage of childbearing adolescent women is regionally highly variable depending on cultural, religious, political, economic and other factors . Early pregnancy has been discussed as an independent risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Large epidemiologic studies on this topic were however largely reported from high or medium income countries ... Cultural and religious norms may be one of the reasons for these demographic differences. In addition, these cultural factors may modify health care seeking behavior of young pregnant women and may therefore constitute by themselves confounding factors for pregnancy outcome. Our analysis is restricted to the medical and epidemiologic aspects of adolescent
The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes in mice
... inhibitory factor deficiency protects pancreatic islets from palmitic acid-induced apoptosis. Immunol. Cell Biol. 90, 688-698. Serre-Beinier, V., Toso, C., Morel, P., Gonelle-Gispert, C., VeyratDurebex, C., Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F., Calandra, T., Roger, T., James, R.W., Montet, X., Bühler, L., Bosco, D., and T. Berney (2010). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor deficiency ... increased levels of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor- α – TNF-α, interleukin-6 – IL-6, interleukin-1β – IL1β) and acute-phase reactants (C-reactive protein – CRP, haptoglobin, fibrinogen) are seen in obese subjects (Donath and Shoelson, 2011; Lumeng and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with ... SAKSIDA ET AL. macrophage migration inhibitory factor regulates glucose metabolism during systemic inflammation. J. Immunol. 179, 5399-5406. Calandra, T., Bernhagen, J., Mitchell, R.A., and R. Bucala (1994). The macrophage is an important and previously unrecognized source of macrophage migration inhibitory factor. J. Exp. Med. 179, 1895-1902. Church,
Hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for new onset micro-albuminuria in a middle-aged and elderly population: a prospective cohort study in taiwan.
... p,0.01). In addition, adjustment for 2 factors (gender and age), and 8 factors (gender, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, triglycerides, cholesterol, eGFR, and BMI) also yielded significant correlations for all participants, males alone, and females alone (p,0.01 for all). In particular, after adjustment for all 8 factors, there was a significant relationship ... four-year study period, serum UA level was an independent risk factor for development of microalbuminuria and this risk was independent of age, gender, and other metabolic factors. Chen at al. performed a cross-sectional study and reported that metabolic syndrome appeared to be an important factor for development of CKD and micro-albuminuria . Kurella ... urinalysis, participants were instructed to collect at least 5 mL of midstream urine from the initial morning voiding urine. factor for CKD, the causality of hyperuricemia and microalbuminuria can provide the evidence of hyperuricemia to be the risk factor of CKD. Several measurements provide assessment of overall renal function, such as eGFR and urinary protein
E2F1-Mediated Induction of NFYB Attenuates Apoptosis via Joint Regulation of a Pro-Survival Transcriptional Program.
... identified several pro and anti-apoptotic genes regulated by NF-Y and E2F1. API5, an apoptosis inhibitor, is down-regulated while SIVA1, an apoptosis- inducing factor, is upregulated following NFYB knockdown. This result matches phenotypically with increased E2F1-mediated apoptosis upon NFYB depletion. Further studies are necessary to determine the roles ... Hallstrom TC, Tunyaplin C, Calame K, Nevins JR. Identification of E-box factor TFE3 as a functional partner for the E2F3 transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003; 23(11):3707–20. Epub 2003/05/16. PMID: 12748276. 28. Hallstrom TC, Nevins JR. Jab1 is a specificity factor for E2F1-induced apoptosis. Genes Dev. 2006; 20 (5):613–23. Epub 2006/02/17. doi: gad.1345006 ... activate the expression of genes encoding other transcription factors and then cooperate with these induced factors to regulate additional target genes, a relationship know as a feed-forward regulatory loop [14, 30]. To further explore this concept, with a focus on the E2F1 transcription factor, we have made use of an inducible system with an ER-E2F1
Distinct Macrophage Fates after in vitro Infection with Different Species of Leishmania: Induction of Apoptosis by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, but Not by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis.
... macrophage delivers warning signs of imminent apoptosis. However, there are no reports on classic apoptosis of macrophages induced by the infection of L. amazonensis or L. guyanensis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether these cutaneous leishmaniasis-causing species are able to induce apoptosis in macrophages, trying to relate this ... DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0141196 October 29, 2015 16 / 22 L.amazonensis, but Not L.guyanensis, Induces Apoptosis in Macrophages shown to cause apoptosis in host cells belong to the subgenus Leishmania, whereas L. guyanensis, which does not cause apoptosis in host cells, belongs to the subgenus Viannia. We showed here that, like the strains of the Leishmania ... importance of macrophage apoptosis for parasite spreading. Indeed, Getti et al. (2008)  showed that macrophage apoptosis intensifies Leishmania infection. It is curious that the speed of PS exposure in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages is higher in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c (Fig 4), which seems opposed to the reasoning that apoptosis contributes to
Natural killer cell cytokine response to M. bovis BCG Is associated with inhibited proliferation, increased apoptosis and ultimate depletion of NKp44(+)CD56(bright) cells.
... sufficient to stimulate the production of IFN-γ by human NK cells also triggered NK cell apoptosis . As suggested by these authors, this programme provides a mechanism to limit the inflammatory response in order to prevent excessive inflammation. It can be anticipated that apoptosis of activated cells will further limit the short half-life of human NK cells, ... (10%). BrdU incorporation and apoptosis analysis Freshly isolated NK cells were cultured for 4 days with IL-2 (400u/ml) and/or M. bovis BCG (1:5). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was initiated for 16 hours before processing the cells using FITC/BrdU FlowKit (BD PharmingenTM) following manufacturer’s recommendations. Apoptosis experiments were performed ... as an immunotherapeutic agent. Citation: Portevin D, Young D (2013) Natural Killer Cell Cytokine Response to M. bovis BCG Is Associated with Inhibited Proliferation, Increased Apoptosis and Ultimate Depletion of NKp44+CD56bright Cells. PLoS ONE 8(7): e68864. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068864 Editor: Jacques Zimmer, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé
Foxn1 Transcription Factor Regulates Wound Healing of Skin through Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.
... novel therapeutic targets. Skin wound healing is a coordinated and rapid physiological process under the control of a magnitude of factors, including transcription factors. The present data revealed that the transcription factor Foxn1 acts as a regulator of skin wound healing. We showed that during the skin wound healing process, Foxn1 is modulated and, ... remodeling . These events are synchronized by transcription factors (key molecules in healing process), effector genes and their protein PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0150635 March 3, 2016 1 / 21 Foxn1 Regulates Wound Healing of Skin products including cytokines (i.e. Il-1, -6), growth factors (Tgf, Egf, Kgf, Pdgf, Fgf), proteolytic enzymes and ... whereas fibroplasia and scarring (late stages of wound healing process) appear to be controlled by HoxB13, Smad3 and β-catenin. However none of the transcription factors alone provide a satisfactory explanation of the different pathways and outcomes of skin wound healing resolution: regular scar formation, overgrowing scar tissues formation or non-healing
The translation initiation factor eIF4E regulates the sex-specific expression of the master switch gene Sxl in Drosophila melanogaster.
... translation initiation factor eif4e as a gene that acts together with Sxl to repress expression of the Msl-2 protein. However, eif4e is not required for Sxl mediated repression of msl-2 mRNA translation. Instead, eif4e functions as a co -factor in Sxl-dependent female-specific alternative splicing of msl-2 and also Sxl premRNAs. Like other factors required ... needed for the synthesis of some limiting Sxl co -factor. In this scenario, the amount of this splicing co -factor would drop below some critical threshold when eif4e activity is reduced, and this would impair the ability of Sxl to regulate splicing. Alternatively, eif4e itself could be the Sxl splicing co -factor. This latter model makes several predictions ... regulating translation. One of the most common mechanisms of regulation is by controlling the association eIF4E with eIF4G. Factors such as poly-A binding protein that promote the association between eIF4E and eIF4G activate translation initiation, while factors such as the 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) that block their association, inhibit initiation [3,4]. Although
Apoptosis of purified CD4+ T cell subsets is dominated by cytokine deprivation and absence of other cells in new onset diabetic NOD mice.
... protected from apoptosis in culture by soluble factors released from adjacent populations. To determine the major subsets that affect the sensitivity to apoptosis, B lymphocytes and myeloid cells (GR-1+ and MAC-1+) were depleted from the mixed cultures (Figure 2B). Since the isolation procedure appears to be a process that sensitizes to apoptosis, we ... CD25- cells display increased rates of spontaneous apoptosis upon CD3 stimulation with no apparent additional PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 December 2010 | Volume 5 | Issue 12 | e15684 T Cell Apoptosis in Diabetic NOD Mice Figure 2. Soluble and cellular factors affecting susceptibility to apoptosis. A. CD252 and CD25+ T cells isolated from ... Fractional apoptosis of responsive and unresponsive CD252 T cells under CD3/CD28 stimulation (n = 4) and representative plots of apoptosis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015684.g004 proliferation rates, and improve the viability of isolated CD25+ T cells. CD28 costimulation sensitizes CD252 T cells to apoptosis in mixed cultures Measurements of Treg cell apoptosis
Independent regulation of reovirus membrane penetration and apoptosis by the mu1 phi domain.
... associated with extensive apoptosis at sites of viral replication [10–12]. Modulation of apoptosis in infected animals using pharmacological inhibitors or through genetic means attenuates CNS disease, highlighting an important contributory role of apoptosis to the pathogenesis of encephalitis [11–14]. In cultured cells, reovirus-induced apoptosis does not ... suggesting that Q initiates apoptosis subsequent to cytosolic delivery. In comparison to wild-type virus, apoptosis- defective Q mutant viruses display diminished neurovirulence following intracranial inoculation of newborn mice. These results indicate that the Q domain of m1 plays an important regulatory role in reovirus-induced apoptosis and disease. Citation: ... protein in apoptosis induction. PLoS Pathogens | www.plospathogens.org 1 December 2008 | Volume 4 | Issue 12 | e1000248 Reovirus Membrane Penetration and Apoptosis Author Summary Many viruses produce central nervous system disease by infecting and systematically killing host neurons via a process known as programmed cell death, or apoptosis.
Expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 in muscle is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance and lipid disturbances in patients with HIV.
... 115: 1627–1635. 2. Coskun T, Bina HA, Schneider MA, Dunbar JD, Hu CC, et al. (2008) Fibroblast growth factor 21 corrects obesity in mice. Endocrinology 149: 6018– 6027. 3. Xu J, Lloyd DJ, Hale C, Stanislaus S, Chen M, et al. (2009) Fibroblast growth factor 21 reverses hepatic steatosis, increases energy expenditure, and improves insulin sensitivity ... RA, et al. (2009) Circulating fibroblast growth factor- 21 is elevated in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes and correlates with muscle and hepatic insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 32: 1542–1546. 10. Hojman P, Pedersen M, Nielsen AR, Krogh-Madsen R, Yfanti C, et al. (2009) Fibroblast growth factor- 21 is induced in human skeletal muscles ... and may suggest that muscle FGF-21 is working in a local manner. Citation: Lindegaard B, Hvid T, Grøndahl T, Frosig C, Gerstoft J, et al. (2013) Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor- 21 in Muscle Is Associated with Lipodystrophy, Insulin Resistance and Lipid Disturbances in Patients with HIV. PLoS ONE 8(3): e55632. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055632 Editor:
Direct proteolytic cleavage of NLRP1B is necessary and sufficient for inflammasome activation by anthrax lethal factor.
... molecular mechanism by which a mouse sensor, NLRP1B, directly recognizes the activity of a bacterial toxin, lethal factor. Lethal factor is a protease secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We show that anthrax lethal factor cleaves NLRP1B and this cleavage event is both necessary and sufficient for the activation of this sensor. ... how ‘patterns of pathogenesis’ are sensed by the innate immune system. Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is a critical virulence factor secreted by Bacillus anthracis. LeTx is composed of two proteins: protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF). PA binds to anthrax toxin receptors on host cells, and subsequently translocates the zincmetalloprotease, LF, ... understood. Here we determine the mechanism of activation of the NLRP1B inflammasome in mice. NLRP1B, and its ortholog in rats, is activated by the lethal factor (LF) protease that is a key virulence factor secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. LF was recently shown to cleave mouse and rat NLRP1 directly. However, it is unclear
Correction: Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Down-regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and TNF Receptor 1.
... CORRECTION Correction: Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Down-regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor- α and TNF Receptor 1 Chih-Pei Lin, Po-Hsun Huang, Chung Fang Lai, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin, JiaShiong Chen There is an error in affiliation 2 for author Chih-Pei Lin. ... Chen J-S (2015) Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Downregulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor- α and TNF Receptor 1. PLoS ONE 10(12): e0143686. doi: 10. 1371/journal.pone.0143686 PMID: 26625143 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Lin C-P, Huang P-H, Lai CF, Chen J-W, Lin S-J, ... (2016) Correction: Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Down-regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor- α and TNF Receptor 1. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0148590. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148590 Published: January 29, 2016 Copyright: © 2016 Lin et al. This is an open access article
THROMBOCYTOSIS AS PROGNOSTIC FACTOR FOR SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED NON SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER TREATED WITH FIRST- LINE CHEMOTHERAPY.
... need for the identification of prognostic factors for survival. The analysis of these factors may define a subgroup of NSCLC patients with similar survival potential. They will be helpful advising individuals, choosing treatment, understanding the disease and optimizing the results of chemotherapy. Prognostic factors are a variables, assessed before ... clinicopathological factors Mean pretreatment platelet count for the whole group was 245,39 x 109/L ± 88,23 (range 109- 678x109/ L). Thrombocytosis was detected in a total of 78 patients (22,3%). The correlation between the clinicopathological factors of the patients and their platelet count is shown in Table 2. Elevated platelet count was associated with several factors, ... counts. Conclusions: These results indicated that platelet counts as well as some clinicalpathologic characteristics could be useful prognostic factors in patients with unresectable NSCLC. Key words: Prognostic factors, Thrombocytosis, Non small cell lung cancer, Survival INTRODUCTION Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer death worldwide
Genomic analysis reveals a potential role for cell cycle perturbation in HCV-mediated apoptosis of cultured hepatocytes.
... that HCV-mediated apoptosis of Huh-7.5 cells is linked to perturbations in cell cycle progression. However, it is difficult to determine from the gene expression data if the cell cycle arrest is directly linked to apoptosis or if there other factors that are driving the arrested cells to undergo apoptosis. It is also not clear what factors are responsible ... including apoptosis (Reviewed in Fischer et al, 2007). Core protein, in particular, has been reported to have both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects on deathligand mediated hepatocyte apoptosis, including TNF-a, CD95Ligand and TRAIL-induced apoptosis, via a variety of mechanisms. The HCV envelope protein E2 has been found to both inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis ... caspase-dependent apoptosis in the same hepatoma cell line. Perturbations of apoptotic pathways have also been demonstrated with the non-structural proteins. The NS3 protease inhibits proapoptotic RIG-I signaling via cleavage of the adaptor protein Cardif and also induces apoptosis of hepatocytes via caspase-8. NS5A has been found to inhibit apoptosis through
Non-secreted clusterin isoforms are translated in rare amounts from distinct human mRNA variants and do not affect Bax-mediated apoptosis or the NF-κB signaling pathway.
... not affect caspase‑3/7mediated apoptosis or NF-κB-activity The ability to express distinct CLU isoforms independently allowed us to analyze their impact on cellular processes in which the function of CLU isoforms is intensively discussed. In apoptosis, intracellular CLU isoforms have been reported to act as pro-death factors [34,38]. Therefore we first ... investigating human CLU mRNAs we here unravel mechanisms leading to the synthesis of distinct CLU protein isoforms and analyze their subcellular localization and their impact on apoptosis and on NF-κB-activity. Quantitative PCR-analyses revealed the expression of four different stress-inducible CLU mRNA variants in non-cancer and cancer cell lines. In ... form expressed from an alternatively spliced mRNA variant lacking exon 2. Functional analysis revealed that none of these cytosolic CLU forms modulate caspase-mediated intrinsic apoptosis or significantly affects TNF-α-induced NFκB-activity. Therefore our data challenge some of the current ideas regarding the physiological functions of CLU isoforms in
Nursing workload as a risk factor for healthcare associated infections in ICU: a prospective study.
... (OR: 1.13; p: 0.015) remained as risk factors to HAI. Conclusions: Excessive nursing workload was the main risk factor for HAI, when evaluated together with other invasive devices except mechanical ventilation. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate prospectively the nursing workload as a potential risk factor for HAI, using NAS. Citation: ... risk factor for HAI , but its role has not been completely evaluated . Invasive procedures, besides being a risk factor per se, may contribute to the workload of the healthcare workers (HCW), especially to the nursing personnel. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 December 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 12 | e52342 Nursing Workload Is a Risk Factor ... most important risk factor for acquiring HAI, followed by severity of clinical condition. HAI can originate from a number of different factors: exogenous contamination, linked to inadequate practices of sterile technique such as unsafe injection practices , and the use of invasive devices, traditionally considered to be risk factors for infections
Protection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor to Brain Edema Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Its Involved Mechanisms: Effect of Aquaporin-4.
... cultured PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 5 June 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 6 | e66051 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Brain Edema PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 6 June 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 6 | e66051 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Brain Edema Figure 3. Immunofluorescence of AQP4 protein expression in each ICH AQP4+/+ group. (A) ... as well as up-regulation of anti-apoptotic and neurotrophic proteins, e.g. pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) . Meanwhile, VEGF is considered to increase phosphorylation of inhibitor kB-a (IkB-a) and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor kB (NFkB), contributing to the cell protective effects . Moreover, we found interactions ... glutamate, a neurotoxic factor, to inhibit neuronal death. Furthermore, we simultaneously found rhVEGF165 markedly improved neurological function after ICH, as defined by other studies in different pathological conditions [48,49]. Apart from the neuropretective mechanisms mentioned above, VEGF can also be taken as an independent factor to neurological
Small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP) promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis through negatively regulating pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19).
... propose a mechanism through which SKAP regulates cell apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrate that both overexpression and knockdown of SKAP sensitize cells to UV-induced apoptosis. Further study has revealed that SKAP interacts with Pre-mRNA processing Factor 19 (Prp19). We find that UV-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by ectopic expression of Prp19, ... receptor-mediated apoptosis, initiated by members of the TNF superfamily, including TNFa and TRAIL [3,4]. The intrinsic pathway triggers apoptosis in response to DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoint defects or other types of severe cell stresses . Apoptosis inducing agents such as ultraviolet light (UV) and Staurosporine (STS) mainly induce apoptosis through ... findings suggest that SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis by negatively regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Prp19. Citation: Lu S, Wang R, Cai C, Liang J, Xu L, et al. (2014) Small Kinetochore Associated Protein (SKAP) Promotes UV-Induced Cell Apoptosis through Negatively Regulating Pre-mRNA Processing Factor 19 (Prp19). PLoS ONE 9(4): e92712. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092712 Editor:
Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis with missing data: A simple method for SPSS users
... input. * We shall extract 3 factors (via PAF) and * use PROMAX rotation, as in the UCLA * example. DATASET ACTIVATE EMcorr. FACTOR MATRIX IN(COR=*) 147 The Quantitative Methods for Psychology T Q ¦ 2014 vol. 10 no. 2 M P Table 1 Rotated factor loadings and uniqueness values from SPSS and Stata. Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Variable SPSS Stata SPSS Stata SPSS Stata Item13 0.888 ... plugged into the Nrow of the final matrix files of EM correlations and covariances. Examples Exploratory Factor Analysis To illustrate, we use data from the factor analysis example on this UCLA webpage: http:// www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/output /factor1 .htm The data file can be downloaded from http:// www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/output/principal_compon ... (http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/faq/ factor_ missing.htm) to perform the same analysis using Stata (version 12.1). (The Stata example on that page used ML extraction and Varimax rotation. We modified the Stata commands to use principal factors (PF) for extraction and Promax(4) as the rotation method, thus matching the approach we used in SPSS.) The rotated factor loadings
La viudez como factor de riesgo de suicidio
... blancos de 65 años o más). En estudios futuros se deberían investigar los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores frente al suicidio en personas que han enviudado recientemente. (Luoma JB, Pearson JL. Suicide and marital status in the United States, 1991–1996: is widowhood a risk factor? Am J Public Health 2002;92: 1518–1522.) Tratamientos tópicos ... un posible factor de confusión en la relación entre el SHU y el uso de antibióticos. Por otra parte, los estudios in vitro y en animales indican que el momento de la instauración de la antibioticoterapia, su duración y el tipo de antibióticos usados pueden tener gran influencia en el riesgo de SHU, pero tampoco se pudieron analizar estos factores. La ... carecer de grupo de control, dos porque no definían claramente los criterios diagnósticos del SHU, cuatro porque no investigaban sus factores de riesgo, tres porque carecían de datos sobre el uso de antibióticos como posible factor de riesgo, y uno porque incluía infecciones por otros serotipos de E. coli distintos del O157:H7. De los nueve estudios que
Basic sanitation as a factor in economic and social development
... BASIC SANITATION DEVELOPMENT ’ AS A FACTOR IN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL Jo& M. de Azevedo Netto 2 Along with general observations on the importance of sanitation to economic development, the author discusses sanitation ... not successful. The years went by and the country entered the era of development, in which arguments for sanitation assumed considerable greater strength: water is a fundamental factor for development in every sector of production and in every aspect of productivity. It is impossible to contemplate industrialization without water. To manufacture one kilogram
El local apropiado como factor indispensable para las escuelas de enfermeras
... cuenta una serie de condiciones relacionadas con la alumna, con el maestro y con el medio ambiente, asi como otros factores que no analizo porque no corresponden a este trabajo. He considerado de primordial significación el factor ambiente, el factor escuela, que a pesar de su gran importancia no ha sido contemplado en nuestro pafs con el suficiente detenimiento ... profesores de tiempo completo. Factor alojamiento.-No existe concordancia respecto a los dormitorios. Algunas Escuelas son partidarias de dormitorios bipersonales, otras de unipersonales y otras de cuartos para varias camas, tomando en cuenta el espacio correspondiente a cada persona. El problema depende del factor económico y del factor higiene; sin embargo ... Escuela dependen del número de alumnas (capacidad), factor éste relacionado con el número de camas de los hospitales generales a que deben estar anexas, según lo acordado por los Estatutos arriba mencionados; no estando todavfa establecida la proporción de enfermos que corresponde a cada alumna. Este factor capacidad es el punto de partida, ya que de
Treatment as a factor in the control of the venereal diseases
... another way, in the 3-day schedule at the end of one year’s observation there is a satisfactory condition in 94.45 per cent of the patients treated, while at the end of one year’s observation of patients treated with the 7$-day schedule there is a 96.40 per cent satisfactory condition of patients treated. The slight difference between the two schedules ... seen nothing that wouId change its opinion of the efficacy of this schedule of treatment in earIy syphilis. The 40,000~unit schedule demonstrated that such a schedule was satisfactory as regards a sufficiently high minimum serum leve1 of penicillin over a sufficient length of time. Subsequently, studies were undertaken to determine the minimum Iength ... of this schedule practically parallel the results obtained with the previous schedule of 40,000 units every 2 hours for 85 doses, so that it appears possible to obtain the same satisfactory treatment of early syphilis in 3 days that had previously been shown possible in 76 days. Of the 451 cases treated on this schedule, 16 patients have been retreated. Of