Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

... stress, but to alternative pathways. This observation would imply that in MRSdeficient cells the evolutionary mechanisms allowing adaptation to a sessile environment not only produce a comparatively enhanced (quantitative) adaptation, but also use distinct (qualitative) mechanistic pathways. In fact, based on the postreplicative action and mismatch affinity ... poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over ... of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities. Citation: Luján AM, Maciá MD, Yang L, Molin S, Oliver A, et al. (2011) Evolution and Adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Driven by Mismatch Repair System-Deficient Mutators. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27842. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027842 Editor: Christophe Herman,
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Adaptation to High Grain Diets Proceeds Through Minimal Immune System Stimulation and Differences in Extracellular Matrix Protein Expression in A Model of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis in Non-lactating Dairy Cows

... for three weeks, the cattle were then transitioned back to the HF diet for an additional three weeks to facilitate adaptation. SARA was diagnosed by pH data only during the first week and not during the remaining weeks, indicating that adaptation to the HG diet took place within one week. Results: In this study, significant (p
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Temporal adaptation enhances efficient contrast gain control on natural images.

... test is whether the adaptation of the halfsaturation constant reflects the temporal structure imprinted by saccades and fixations as predicted by our study. Previous work has measured adaptation timescales for s2 [14,28]. However, these measurements are carried out in anesthetized animals and cannot account for eye movements. Since our adaptation mechanism mainly ... necessary consequence of strong redundancy reduction. Finally, we demonstrate that a dynamic adaptation of the half-saturation constant in divisive normalization may provide a physiologically plausible mechanism that can achieve close to optimal performance. Our proposed adaptation mechanism works via horizontal shifts of the contrast response curve along ... color. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002889.g002 ignored both the structure imposed by fixations between saccades in natural viewing conditions, and the adaptation of neural contrast response curves to the ambient contrast level via the adaptation of s2 [14]. Figure 2 shows an example of simulated eye movements on a natural image from the van Hateren database. For each
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Evidence that adaptation in Drosophila is not limited by mutation at single sites.

... emerges. However, several striking examples of rapid adaptation appear inconsistent with this view. Here we investigate a showpiece case for rapid adaptation, the evolution of pesticide resistance in the classical genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster. Our analysis reveals distinct population genetic signatures of this adaptation that can only be explained if ... probability of successful adaptation from standing genetic variation is less than 1% even if positive selection is extremely strong (s,100%). Thus, if H,0.01, as previously estimated based on analyses of neutral loci in Drosophila [18,19], we only need to consider the case of adaptation from de novo mutations. The probability of successful adaptation from de ... mutation rate per site we can be certain that adaptation would be mutationlimited. In many species N can be much larger than the reciprocal of mutation rate and thus in these species it is possible that adaptation is not limited by mutation at single sites. However, it is Ne measured over time scales relevant for adaptation and not N that needs to be assessed
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Antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation.

... this dynamic framework. We show that a zone for equivalent co -adaptation outcomes exists in which stable levels of PI can evolve and be maintained despite fast strategy transitions and ongoing co-evolutionary dynamics. Under antagonistic co -adaptation, costfree solicitation can evolve as an adaptation to emerging preferences in parents. Conclusions/Significance: ... epistasis for fitness and the co -adaptation of offspring and parental strategies within genomes. The ‘‘possibility of coadaptive evolution’’[16] in parentoffspring interactions was pointed out for the first time by Feldmann and Eshel [16], but explicit co -adaptation models were developed much later [24–26]. These previous co -adaptation models predict adaptive ... Brodie ED III, Moore AJ (2005) The coadaptation of parental supply and offspring demand. Am Nat 166: 506–516. 26. Wolf JB, Hager R (2006) A maternal-offspring coadaptation theory for the evolution of genomic imprinting. PLoS Biology 4: 0001–0006. 27. Smiseth PT, Wright J, Kölliker M (2008) Parent-offspring conflict and coadaptation: behavioural ecology
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Transcriptome Profiling and Molecular Pathway Analysis of Genes in Association with Salinity Adaptation in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

... RESEARCH ARTICLE Transcriptome Profiling and Molecular Pathway Analysis of Genes in Association with Salinity Adaptation in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Zhixin Xu1, Lei Gan1, Tongyu Li1, Chang Xu1, Ke Chen1, Xiaodan Wang1, Jian G. Qin2, Liqiao Chen1*, Erchao Li1* 1 Laboratory of ... (LC) Abstract OPEN ACCESS Citation: Xu Z, Gan L, Li T, Xu C, Chen K, Wang X, et al. (2015) Transcriptome Profiling and Molecular Pathway Analysis of Genes in Association with Salinity Adaptation in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0136506. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0136506 Editor: Marie-Joelle Virolle, University Paris South, FRANCE Received: ... provided the original author and source are credited. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is a freshwater fish but can tolerate a wide range of salinities. The mechanism of salinity adaptation at the molecular level was studied using RNASeq to explore the molecular pathways in fish exposed to 0, 8, or 16 (practical salinity unit, psu). Based on the change
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Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific

... conferences on community based (climate) adaptation, the most recent establishing the Global Initiative on Community Based Adaptation with several global nongovernment organisations (NGOs) cosponsoring the project. Global development agencies such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have developed Community Based Adaptation projects, while AusAID ... addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) projects are presented to highlight some of ... sense. 4.3 Samoa Community Based Adaptation (CBA) The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the financial mechanism for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), tasked to assist countries with on-the-ground action to cope with climate change impacts (Global Environment Facility, 2009). The Community Based Adaptation (CBA) Project
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The evolutionary paradox of tooth wear: simply destruction or inevitable adaptation?

... The Evolutionary Paradox of Tooth Wear: Simply Destruction or Inevitable Adaptation? Stefano Benazzi1*, Huynh Nhu Nguyen1, Dieter Schulz2, Ian R. Grosse3, Giorgio Gruppioni4, JeanJacques Hublin1, Ottmar Kullmer5 1 Department of Human Evolution, Max ... evolutionary perspective. Citation: Benazzi S, Nguyen HN, Schulz D, Grosse IR, Gruppioni G, et al. (2013) The Evolutionary Paradox of Tooth Wear: Simply Destruction or Inevitable Adaptation? PLoS ONE 8(4): e62263. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062263 Editor: Janet M. Monge, University of Pennsylvania, United States of America Received January 17, 2013; Accepted
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Reactive recruitment of attentional control in math anxiety: an ERP study of numeric conflict monitoring and adaptation.

... conflict adaptation effects in math anxiety have never been studied. Since neural and behavioral evidence of conflict adaptation is sensitive to subtle differences in cognitive processing, it can be especially useful for identifying the specific nature of cognitive processing deficits in 3 June 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 6 | e99579 Conflict Monitoring and Adaptation ... Issue 6 | e99579 Conflict Monitoring and Adaptation in Math Anxiety Table 2. Response times (mean of medians) and accuracy (percentage of hits) (SEM in brackets) for the LMA and HMA groups for conflict monitoring and for conflict adaptation effects. Response time Hit rates Conflict monitoring Conflict adaptation Interference Interference preceded ... differences between groups were expected for this conflict adaptation effect in behavioral measures, as suggested by previous evidence analyzing this effect in trait anxiety [48]. 4) Differences between groups were expected to be found in ERPs though. Given that there is no clear evidence for conflict adaptation modulations for the N450 component, with some authors
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A widespread chromosomal inversion polymorphism contributes to a major life-history transition, local adaptation, and reproductive isolation.

... adaptation mechanism predicts that they will spread if they capture alleles at multiple loci involved in divergent adaptation to contrasting environments. Many empirical studies have found inversion polymorphisms linked to putatively adaptive phenotypes or distributed along environmental clines. However, direct involvement of an inversion in local adaptation ... consistent with the theory that adaptation to local environments can drive the spread of chromosomal inversions and promote speciation. they often appear linked to loci involved in climatic or habitat adaptation (reviewed in [16]). As long as selection is stronger than migration between habitats, alleles involved in local adaptation will be maintained ... of each ecotype. Our results demonstrate for the first time in nature the contribution of an inversion to adaptation, an annual/perennial life-history shift, and multiple reproductive isolating barriers. These results are consistent with the local adaptation mechanism being responsible for the distribution of the two inversion arrangements across the
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... Annals of the University of Petroşani, Economics, 11(3), 2011, 195-204 195 ISSUES IN ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF REORGANIZING ITS ADAPTATION TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE MARKET ECONOMY IOAN DUMITRU MOTONIU, LUCIAN-ION MEDAR * ABSTRACT: Based on the concept that the banking system is the engine of economic ... framework necessary for the functioning of credit cooperatives. Also in this stage, as an element in addition, aiming to contribute to the Romanian banking system reorganization and adaptation to the specific characteristics of market economy, was the takeover, within the internal regulations in the field, with the signing by Romania of the Accession Agreement
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The negatively charged regions of lactoferrin binding protein B, an adaptation against anti-microbial peptides.

... The Negatively Charged Regions of Lactoferrin Binding Protein B, an Adaptation against Anti-Microbial Peptides Ari Morgenthau, Amanda Beddek, Anthony B. Schryvers* Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, ... protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides. Citation: Morgenthau A, Beddek A, Schryvers AB (2014) The Negatively Charged Regions of Lactoferrin Binding Protein B, an Adaptation against Anti-Microbial Peptides. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86243. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086243 Editor: Paul J. Planet, Columbia University, United States of America Received
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Drought-adaptation potential in Fagus sylvatica: linking moisture availability with genetic diversity and dendrochronology.

... provided by nutrients in drier conditions and that there was some physiological adaptation to the water availability of the prove- PLoS ONE | 5 March 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 3 | e33636 Drought -Adaptation Potential in Fagus sylvatica nance origin. Likewise, adaptation in specific root area was found in a drought experiment with F. ... from dry sites and grown within mesic sites might increase resistance of beech forests during the anticipated longer dry periods. Citation: Pluess AR, Weber P (2012) Drought -Adaptation Potential in Fagus sylvatica: Linking Moisture Availability with Genetic Diversity and Dendrochronology. PLoS ONE 7(3): e33636. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033636 Editor: ... higher degree than the general background most likely are fragments which are part of genes PLoS ONE | 1 March 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 3 | e33636 Drought -Adaptation Potential in Fagus sylvatica under selection or are linked with such genes [5]. Indications for candidate markers can also be found if marker frequencies are associated
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Adaptation in the visual cortex: influence of membrane trajectory and neuronal firing pattern on slow afterpotentials.

... amplitudes of adaptation during the injection of each stimulus in 10 cortical neurons. Note a larger adaptation evoked by square pulse than sinusoidal injection current. C, D. Distributions of adaptation index values calculated for 99 cortical neurons recorded in vitro for square pulses (40620%, C) and for sinusoidal current (67618%, D). Adaptation index ... share similar mechanisms for slow adaptation, what should contribute to the excitatory/inhibitory balance within the cortical network [45]. The impact of long lasting adaptation (tens of seconds) on visual processing is not as well known as the one of brief adaptation. A recent study exploring this reveals that long adaptation (40 s) did not induce stronger ... second for the square pulse current injections (500 ms bins). The slow spike frequency adaptation was measured as the firing rate decay between the first and the last 500 ms of the 20 sec of stimulation. Spike frequency adaptation during the pulse is referred to as ‘? ?adaptation index’’: the percentage of spikes during the last 500 ms of the protocol with
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Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

... experiment’s participants by adaptation potentials’ indicators (AP) we accepted as the basis standard values for students [21], which were worked out on the base of centile corridors’ method: - satisfactory adaptation, 1st group, not more than 2 conv.un.; - tension of adaptation mechanisms, 2nd group, 2.11 conv.un.; - unsatisfactory adaptation, 3rd group, ... adaptation, 3rd group, 3.21 – 4.30 conv.un.; - failure of adaptation, 4th group, from 4.30 and more. By results of AP registration we received:  First group – satisfactory adaptation was registered in 34.04% (n=16) students; 21 PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF STUDENTS  Second group – tension of adaptation mechanisms – in 65.96% (n=31). It should be noted ... with information of other authors [7, 24] in our using of standard values of adaptation potential for students. It concerns the students, who have satisfactory adaptation and tension of its mechanisms. With it we confirmed the existing conclusions about absence of unsatisfactory adaptation or its failure among students. There are also some distinctions
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Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

... years. Under such circumstances adaptation to local environmental conditions would be expected, as appears to be borne out at Qasr Ibrim. A tendency for local adaptation in primitive varieties has important implications in two ways. Firstly, such strong selection pressure is likely to have affected many genes in terms of adaptation, which if identified ... individual cultures. Citation: Palmer SA, Moore JD, Clapham AJ, Rose P, Allaby RG (2009) Archaeogenetic Evidence of Ancient Nubian Barley Evolution from Six to Two-Row Indicates Local Adaptation. PLoS ONE 4(7): e6301. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006301 Editor: Dorian Q. Fuller, University College London, United Kingdom Received May 20, 2009; Accepted May 31, ... present (BP) [2]. The primary role of barley in the origins of agriculture can be attributed to its resilient qualities such as rapid development to maturation [3], xerophytic adaptations such as long awns [4], as well as tolerance of a wide range of edaphic factors such as pH and salinity [5]. These features made it well suited to the early Holocene
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Potential of semi-structural and non-structural adaptation strategies to reduce future flood risk: case study for the Meuse

... land-use and climate change, with and without adaptation strategies at the regional scale. Adaptation strategies include spatial zoning measures and three types of flood-proofing measures: namely, dryproofing, wet-proofing, and a combination of dry- and wetproofing measures. The damage- and risk-reduction capacity of the adaptation strategies is assessed by using ... combination of the different adaptation strategies. Mitigation factors are applied to the land-use maps corrected with the BGR zoning, and to all residential areas. Figure 9 represents the flood risk estimates, in million euros per year, when the different adaptation strategies are combined. In the 2030 low and high scenarios (no adaptation) , Nat. Hazards ... semi-structural and non-structural adaptation strategies Fig. 2. Flow chart of the methods, models, and data used, with climate and land-use scenarios, and stage–damage functions. The Floodscanner produces the inundations maps. The Damagescanner calculates the damage and produces the damage maps used to assess the risk. Adaptation strategies include damage
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The effects of country-level population policy for enhancing adaptation to climate change

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Contrast adaptation contributes to contrast-invariance of orientation tuning of primate V1 cells.

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Microtubule Actin Cross-linking Factor 1 regulates cardiomyocyte microtubule distribution and adaptation to hemodynamic overload.

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Metabolic adaptation and nutrition ; proceedings of the special session held during the ninth meeting of the PAHO Advisory Committee on Medical Research, 16 June 1970

... homeostasis Metabolic adaptation is a subject that should be of major interest to nutritionists. It represents a common ground where nutritionists, endocrinologists, physiologists, pharmacologists, and now molecular biologists can mect and discuss problems of mutual interest. Metabolic adaptation may also begin to involve the sociologists since cultural adaptation ... and Social Adaptation in Famine Jean Mayer ........................ 83 Standards for the Diagnosis of Vitamin Deficiency in Man Guillermo Arroyave ...... 88 Discussion ........................................ 101 Anemia and Normality A. H. Waters .............................. ' ............ 105 Endocrine Mechanisms in Nutritional Adaptation ... can be developed for use with the human. It is the purpose of the present session on Metabolic Adaptation and Nutrition to explore this area with the hope that new approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of nutritional diseases will emerge. 2 PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION: THE TEST OF NUTRITION' Van R.Potter and David F. Scott2 Introduction show a wide
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