Acess Health Services


... e -Health, Cloud computing, Healthcare services, Security. JEL Codes: I10, C88, D83. 1. INTRODUCTION During the last years, the global economic crisis has affected all domains, including the health sector. Many governments have considered that the solution to this problem is to reduce public expenses on healthcare, to decrease the budgets for health services, ... of public expenditure on health during the last years. With any of these options they could also reallocate funds within the health system to enhance efficiency [18].All European governments made efforts to implement e -Health solutions to ensure optimal healthcare services to their citizens (E-Medical records, ePrescriptions, Health card) with a reasonable ... e -Health The term e -Health refers to “the use of emerging information and communication technology, especially the Internet, to improve or enable health and healthcare thereby enabling stronger and more effective connections among patients, doctors, hospitals, payers, laboratories, pharmacies, and suppliers” [11]. E -Health offers important medical/healthcare
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CSP26.R21: Women, Health and Developmemt

... PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 26th PAN AMERICAN SANITARY CONFERENCE 54th SESSION OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington, D.C., USA, 23-27 September 2002 RESOLUTION CSP26.R21 WOMEN, HEALTH, AND DEVELOPMENT THE 26th PAN AMERICAN SANITARY CONFERENCE, Having considered the report of the Director on women, health, and development (Document ... gender perspective in health analysis so as to target policies and programs more effectively and to develop and implement models that address gender inequities in health in an integrated manner; (f) address the need for more in-depth studies on the perception of health service providers, for the identification and explanation of the health problems of ... establishing and financing information systems on gender differences in health and development; and to the collection, processing, and presentation of health information disaggregated by sex; (b) promote the participation of users and producers of information about gender and health issues from both government and civil society; CSP26.R21 (Eng.) Page
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The regulation of privacy and data protection in the use of electronic health information: an international perspective and reference source on regulatory and legal issues related to person-identifiable health database

... Rodrigues Regional Advisor,? ?Health? ? Services? ?Information  Technology Division  of? ?Health? ? Systems and? ?Services? ? Development Pan American  Health? ?Organization  / World? ?Health? ? Organization Washington,  D.C., USA Petra Wilson * Scientific Officer European Commission, Directorate General for Information Society Applications Relating to  Health Brussels, Belgium Stephen J. Schanz Adjunct Associate Professor East Carolina  ... USE OF ELECTRONIC HEALTH? ?INFORMATION An International Perspective and Reference Source on Regulatory and Legal Issues Related to Person­Identifiable? ?Health? ?Databases R. J. Rodrigues P. Wilson S. J. Schanz PAN  AMERICAN  HEALTH? ?ORGANIZATION Pan  American  Sanitary  Bureau,  Regional  Office  of  the WORLD  HEALTH? ? ORGANIZATION DIVISION OF? ?HEALTH? ? SYSTEMS  AND? ?SERVICES? ? ... government agencies,  and other  entities  have  been  using  patient­specific  electronic health? ?information  in connection with the delivery of healthcare  services, healthcare  financing,  or  health? ? services? ? research.  Group  providers  and healthcare  organizations  in  the  United  States  (Kaiser­Permanente, Mayo  Clinic,  Veterans  Administration,  Department 
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The Pan American Sanitary Code: Toward a Hemispheric Health Policy

... Public Health and Chief of the Department of Public Health History of the National School of Public Health, Ministry of Public Health, Calle 150 entre 31 y 25, Cubanacán, Municipio Playa, Havana, Cuba. 2 Former professor (deceased) of the School of Medicine, Central University of Quito, Ecuador. 3 Chief of the Publications Program, Pan American Health ... in health. Without question, the cholera epidemic that ravaged Europe in 1848 proved the best ally of English public health authorities, who, faced with the horrible spectacle of some 54,000 deaths, called for the imposition of order. As a result, England initiated health reforms based on the collection of demographic and health data, established health ... data, established health posts, enacted health policies, conducted studies on the causes of diseases, and, on the basis of their findings, applied prevention and control measures. T his was the origin of England’s National Public Health Act and General Board of Health, both important landmarks in the history of public health. Following England’s example,
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Legislation and policy for adolescent health in Latin America and the Caribbean

... advance the health and development of adolescents. Adolescent health is best dealt with in a comprehensive, holistic manner. Based on the analysis of the existing laws and policies, an appropriate adolescent health policy should be addressed through all of the following sectors: Health. Laws and policies on youth health should encourage health promotion ... health services in many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. In response to those adolescent health concerns, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been working with a variety of partners and on a wide range of activities. For example, in 1995 the Andean Parliament asked for help from PAHO in drafting a law to promote adolescent health ... on adolescent health and again emphasized the need for technical assistance on legislative and policy analysis relating to adolescent health. To help address that need, a team was assembled that included specialists from PAHO, the George Washington University Center for International Health, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Overall
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The canadian health system and its financing

... Health. The public and private financing of Canada’s health system. Ottawa: National Forum on Health; 1995. 2. Ministry of Supply and Services. Choose Canada: for world class health products and services. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services; 1992. 3. Health Canada. Canadian report to the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform. Washington, DC: 29–30 September ... and spending less: policies and partnerships for health care in Canada. Ottawa: The Health Group; 1994. 5. Fulton J. Canada’s health system: bordering on the possible. Washington, DC: Faulkner & Gray’s Healthcare Information Center; 1993. 6. Heidemann E. The Canadian health care system: cost and quality. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 1994;28:169–176. 30 7. Chernomas ... providing health services to a gradually aging population with its growing burden of chronic and degenerative illnesses requiring long, costly, and complex procedures. The measures adopted include establishment of community support services to reinforce the efforts of health personnel and volunteers. Despite the high costs currently facing the Canadian health
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Epidemiology and leadership in public health

... specific causes of ill health in order that the indicated action may be directed appropriately. To evaluate the effectiveness of health programs and services in improving the health of the population. The Importance of Public Health What is the importance of the public health movement? Returning to Winslow, in a report to the American Public Health Association ... with public health. For without public health, there is no epidemiology (6. The Tasks of Public Health As mentioned earlier, one dictionary states that "a leader is a person who leads others along a way; a guide." To discuss leadership in epidemiology and public health, one must define which "way" we have in mind. What are the tasks of public health today ... Health Organization. Health Conditions in the Americas, 1981-84. Volume 1. Washington, D.C., 1986. 2. Support the appointment of leaders of health departments, schools of public health, and departments of community, social and preventive medicine who are committed to the new direction, namely, an epidemiologic and preventive approach to the major health
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Fortieth anniversary of the World Health Organization

... health ministries. PAHO is sponsoring a "Health for All - All for Health" essay 6. contest for high school students of the Americas to commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the World Health Organization. The contest is designed to create general public interest in the celebration of WHO's 40th Anniversary, to call attention to the outstanding public health ... Fortieth Anniversary of the World Health Organization had served as an opportunity for developing activities to heighten awareness about WHO and international health in the Americas. The Region's official observance of the anniversary took place at PAtiO Headquarters on World Health Day. National observance ceremonies were sponsored by the Ministries of Health and, in ... directing council -t NoM )}~} % · PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION LP\iP/ WORLD HEALTHJi RGANA ORGANIZATION 101st Meeting Washington, D.C. June-July 1988 Provisional Agenda Item 6.1 CE101/15 (Eng.) 18 April 1988 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION The Fortieth World Health Assembly (1987) adopted Resolution WHA40.36
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Health as an economic value in a time of crisis

... exploring ways to promote the health and well-being of its people, and is also exploring systems for providing services to care for the sick. Universality and equity are the health planners’ criteria and are applicable to both the urban and rural sectors, with establishment of a scale of priorities. Because of the greater demand for servicesarising from higher ... expenditure on social services and corresponding reductions in the health sector are becoming more marked, with a resulting increase in the social debt. Generally, the prospects for maintaining the economic resources that support the poor countries’ health programs are becoming increasingly dim; and certain components of the goal of health for all by the ... living standards. Health occupies a prominent place in economic and social development, because of the sizable investments and expenditures in the sector and also because of the population’s increasing expectations of better achievements. As a result, health has come to be viewed as a value of production, for the study of which the discipline of health economics
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The financing of health: conditions for effectiveness and equity

... sicknesswith health, of curative serviceswith health services, and of effectiveness with complexity; and it has done so among providers because their training is technology- 449 dominated and because they get a sense of professional achievement from a high-technology work environment. Internal ineffkiency of public programs. It is a fact that health ... for services. Health SectorProblems The list of three main health sector problems referred to in the study could be supplemented with others of equal or greater importance. However, the three selected are pertinentamong other things because they actually exist in a great majority of countries. Allocation: insuflicient expenditure on cost-effective health- related activities. ... T HE FINANCING OF HEALTH: CONTXTIONS FOR EFFECTIVENESS AND EQUITY1 David Tejada de Rivero’ The World Bank study-proposal on financing health services3 unquestionably constitutes an important agenda for urgently needed reforms in this field. Indeed, the World Bank’s Population, Health, and Nutrition Department has opened the
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Brazilian health care delivery during a recession

... and their families; Ministry of Health services directed mainly at the relatively poor and unemployed; local and state government health services; and private hospitals and HMO-like groups operated for profit. So far as the federally funded health services are concerned, INAMPS accounted for over 90% of the combined health ministry/ INAMPS budgetary ... importance of health care services to Brazilian development make the health impact of economic stress especially interesting. In‘Also appearing in Spanish in the Bolefin de In Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana. *Assistant Professor, Health Administration Program, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A. deed, health care is ... Ministry of Health, has a longer history and has focused on certain primary and preventive services, largely for the relatively poor. However, its budget is only an eighth the size of the INAMPS budget (3). In addition, the ambulatory and hospital services offered by many state, county, and municipal governments offer a third source of health care for
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Primary health care: worldwide interest... and a U.S. perspective

... quite concerned about providing health services to people living in rural areas and to the urban poor. l The Pan American Health Organization’s United States-Mexico Border Health Association held a workshop on primary ‘Public Health Adviser, United States Public Health Service, Health Services Administration, Bureau of Community Health Services. 35 health care in ... Public Health Service Act-P.L. 95-626), the law also refers to “supplemental (primary care) services? ?? that, unlike the services mentioned above, are optional and may be provided. These services include: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) home health care; extended care facility services; mental health services; rehabilitative services; social services; and health education. When ... emergency medical services; 4) preventive health services including immunizations, prenatal and postpartum care, children’s eye and ear examinations, voluntary family planning services, and preventive dental services: and 5) transportation services as needed. In addition to the aforementioned comprehensive and mandatory services that must be provided by all
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Environmental health and technical cooperation among developing countries

... Bull Part Am Health Organ 12(2), 1978. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND AMONG DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Frank A. TECHNICAL ’ COOPERATION Butrico2 The subject of technical cooperation tries has attracted growing attention between developing counin recent years. The account presented here summarizes PAHO’s efforts to promote health. such cooperation ... are directed towards defining national health goals and. will contribute directly and significantly to the improvement of the health status of their populationsthrough methods they can apply now and at a cost they can afford now. The Current Outlook One of the technical cooperation activities in the environmental health field that is being given priority attention is ... water supply and sanitation services, and for that matter all environmental health programs, is manpower development. I refer both to shortterm training of professionals and subprofessionals and to formal degree-level academic programs. In this connection, the massive capital investment needed to provide water and sanitation services, among others, must
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CD25.R11: Resolutions of the 30th World Health Assembly and of the 60th session of the Executive Board of interest to the Regional Committee

... PAN AMERICAN? ?HEALTH? ?ORGANIZATION  WORLD? ?HEALTH? ?ORGANIZATION                    25th DIRECTING COUNCIL   29th SESSION OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 27 September – 6 October 1977 RESOLUTION CD25.R11 RESOLUTIONS OF THE 30th WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY AND OF THE 60th SESSION OF THE EXECUTIVE BOARD ... COUNCIL, Having examined Document CD25/6 containing resolutions of the Thirtieth World Health Assembly and of the Sixtieth Session of the Executive Board, which the Director has brought to the attention of the Directing Council as Regional Committee of the World Health Organization for the Americas; and Having taken note of the information provided ... the information provided by the Director on the activities being carried out by the Organization in the various fields, RESOLVES To take note of the resolutions of the World Health Assembly and of the Executive Board contained in Document CD25/6. Sept.–Oct. 1977 OD 152, 53
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Creation of national systems for health sciences documentation in Latin America

... (A) MINISTER OF HEALTH CD24/29 (Eng.) 'CREATION OF-NATIONAL SYSTEMS FOR HEALTH 'SCIENCES DOCUMENTATION ' I9? LATIN -AMERICA' (Item p'roposed by the Government' of Chile) The Teni-Year 'Health Plan for the Americas (PAHO Official Document 118, January 1973) contains the following recommendations: I'.'' Est'abli-sh national documentation systems for the health ... creating.the national systems of documentation on health sciences.:by the end of'. the decade. ,.'..2.',, .To urge that-.the countries which have - already ·. · established systems consolidate and expand their disseminate scientific and technical. information to health professionals-by the services to hospitals and thus creating regional - ... it could be included in the agenda of the Meeting. The topic with which the Chilean proposal is concerned was recommended by the III Meeting of Ministers of Health and included in the Ten-Year Health Plan, which is evidence of its importance and its continuing validity. We feel, however, that it has not been given its due importance, and hence that
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First intersectorial meeting on health of man in the Americas: progress report of the Director

... clearly where the poor health of a population is a reflection of the living standards of the very low income sectors 1 rather than of a lack of health services; in such cases, even the most complete and high quality health care services can be rendered useless if they do not go hand in hand with the delivery of the other basic goods and services essential ... expansion of health services destined to achieve total coverage (Resolution XIII). This represents a clear commitment on the part of governments to design policies and programs and assign resources with a view to providing minimum services to the populations not currently covered, and a commitment on the part of PAHO/WHO to provide the advisory services ... basic goods and services required to improve their standard of living. This brings us once more to the entire problem of the intersectoral collaboration that is essential if the idea of delivering a "package" of goods and services is to be made a reality. If, as in the past, the health sector limits itself to delivering the minimum services in its own
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Provision of health services to the rural and underserved population of Latin America and the Caribbean

... AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION XXIII Meeting XXVII Meeting Washington, D.C. September-October 1975 Provisional Agenda Item 32 CD23/25 (Eng.) 11 September 1975 ORIGINAL: SPANISH PROVISION OF HEALTH SERVICES TO THE RURAL AND UNDERSERVED POPULATION OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN CD23/25 (Eng.) PROVISION OF HEALTH SERVICES ... Meeting, held at Santiago, Chile, in 1972, the Ministers of Health of the Americas underlined the need for extending coveragel of health services to the population living in rural zones or areas cut off from city amenities and at present not having access to minimum health services. In their Ten-Year Health Plan for the Americas 1971-1980, the Ministers designated ... priority to expanding health services designed to achieve total coverage, these being adapted to the life patterns and needs of the communities served, and to promote direct community involvement in local health activities. 2. To urge Governments that they make explicit in the health programs the decision to expand and improve rural health services and make
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Recent progress in tuberculosis chemotherapy applicable to public health programs

... for patients who can come to the health services during the entire period of treatment, so that administration of the drug can be fully super- DE LA OSP . Vol. VII, No. I, 1973 vised. It should be given preference because of its good results. The regimen in Table 2 is indicated for patients who cannot come to the health services during the entire period ... al. The discovery of drugs for treating tuberculosis gave public health authorities a control method with the essential characteristics needed for large-scaleuse: a high degree of efficacy, easeof operation, and low cost. Thus it became feasible to make regular use of chemotherapy in generalhealth services, so that all the benefits could be madeavailableto ... of the British Medical ResearchCouncil (3) is clear on this point. Despite discovery of a third drug, isoniazid (INH), in 1952, two-drug regimens were still preferred by most health servicesand continued to be a subject for research.Combinations of isoniazid-streptomycin (SM), and INH-PAS were tried in the United States, (4) England, (5) and Madras,(6,
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Symposium on Education in Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine Education in veterinary public health and preventive medicine, St. Paul, Minnesota, 18-22 March 1968

... Chief, Veterinary Medical Services, Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, Washington, D.C. t Associate Professor, Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. At present, Deputy Chief, Veterinary Medical Services, Pan American Health Organization, ... training: available university facilities (food, health, and animal); cooperating local, state, Federal, and international health agencies and laboratories (for example, public health and animal health diagnostic laboratories should be utilized in the teaching processes to familiarize the student with the available services, diagnostic tests, specimen processing, ... public health activities in various schools presents almost the same state of disorganization. The public health teaching program is incorporated into the teaching of microbiology, pathology, parasitology, or almost any other subject embraced by "public health. " In contrast, many schools have complete departments devoted to comprehensive public health
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Health Conditions in the Americas, 1961-1964

... Contents, Page CHAPTER IV. CHAPTER V. CHAPTER VI. 81 , HEALTH SERVICES Expenditures for Health Services' •.•••........••. Provision of Health Services ..•....•.......••.. Diagnoses of Clinic Patients •••••........•.•.... Major Social,' Cultural and Economic Events arid Changes in Health Services •••........•...• 81 ·85 HOSPITAL SERVICES ......................... . 101 ,Hospital ... Outpatient Services, by Country" 1964 " " " 86 Number of Persons Attending Health Establishments, Total Visits and Ratios per 100' Population by Country, 1964 . , " " " " " " " " " " " 88 Maternal and Child Health Centers and Services Around 1964 " " " " ' " 89 Mental Health Clinics and Services Around 1960 and 1964 89 Dental Health Clinics and Services ... •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 66 xiii , -,.-. --.-セMN .. セM。アN@ I I ! Figure , CHAPTER IV. Page HEALTH SERVICES 1 Percentage of Total Government Expenditures on Health by Country, 1964 85 2 Percentage of Population Covered by Health Services of Ministry of Health, Honduras, 1958-1964 ...................................•.......... 86 3 Clinic Visits
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CD13.R39: Education and training of health personnel

... PAN AMERICAN? ?HEALTH? ?ORGANIZATION  WORLD? ?HEALTH? ?ORGANIZATION                    13rd DIRECTING COUNCIL   13rd SESSION OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 3 - 13 October 1961 RESOLUTION CD13.R39 EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF HEALTH PERSONNEL THE 13rd DIRECTING COUNCIL, Considering the existing ... trained health workers; Considering the information furnished by the Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau in the documents on this subject; Considering the necessity for expanding the programs of collaboration with centers providing training in the health sciences; Considering the constant increase in the requirements of the ministries of health ... their efforts to have the ministries of health and of education initiate, or accelerate, arrangements for strengthening their programs of mutual collaboration and establish close relationships with the pertinent university authorities in order to increase and improve the training of personnel for the health services of the Member Governments. 2. To
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Public health in the United States

... Public Health Service was enabled to play the most direct part in its history in improving the health The health provisions of the Act services of the 48 States and the Territories. made available Federal funds to be allotted in grants-in-aid to the States for public health work. To become eligible for these funds, the States were required to submit health ... Bureau. PUBLIC HEALTH IN THE UNITED STATES By Dr. THOMAS PARRAN Surgeon General, U. S. Public Health Service The most important advanoe in public health in the United States since the turn of the century has been the development and strengthening of permanent, professional health organisation at Federal, State and local levels. The Public Health Service-the ... public health services. So great was the stimulation of Title VI, that the States and localities themselves budgeted $30,438,399 more for public health in the fiscal year 1942 than they spent in 1935. The Federal contribution for 1942 indeed, amounts to only 12.4 percent of the total $97,458,330 appropriated. The increase in full-time county health
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Public health in Honduras

... Service of Visiting Sanitary (or Publio Health) Nurses. In 1931, the first Coordination of Federal and Local Sanitary Services was organized to strengthen public health activity by the cooperation of Federal and Local governments, particularly the services in rural zones. In 1935, the Ejidal Public Health Services (Services in the Ejidos, or communal villages ... Department of Health was created as a dependency of the Superior Council of Health, and the Republic was divided into five sanitary sones. The Council functioned until June 1920, when the Department of Health was given ample facilities for carrying out an effeotive Publio health program. Present organization-At the present time public health administration ... PUBLIC HEALTH IN HONDURAS By Dr. PEDRO H. ORDÓÑEZ DfAZ Director General of Health History.-Public health development in Honduras began in 1910 with the promulgation of the Sanitary Code. The Public Health Council established by this Code commenced to function in 1914. Prior to 1910, public health was regulated by a series
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Health declaration of Habana : Meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau : Final Act

... particularly to H. E. the President, Dr. Ramón Grau San Martín; to the Minister of Public Health and Social Welfare, Dr. José R. Andreu, the Undersecretary of Public Health and Social Welfare, Dr. Ramiro de la Riva, and the Director of Health, Dr. Pedro Nogueira, and the Health Authprities in general, fo? their generous hospitality, which contributed so greatly ... public health matters. II.-Central Organization Director A-Direclion / Sub-director [Secretary-General B-Z’echnz’cal Adoisory Committee, including permanent members G-Sections (a) Health Administration (b) Epidemiology (c) Sanitary Engineering D-ConsuZtatie,e Commitlees (others may be added as they become necessaw) (a) Health Administration : Publio health ... guarantee the essential purposes of the World Health Organization. III-That in order to enable the Pan Ameritan Sanitary Bureau and the World Health Organization to integrate their aims, it is necessary or the Republics, members of the Pan Ameritan Union, to define the actual scope of Article 54 of the Constitution of the World Health Organization, so as to prevent
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Closing the ranks for health for all

... XXXII Meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization, XXXIX Meeting of the Regional Committee of WHO for the Americas. See PAHO document entitled Messagefrom Dr. H. Mahler, Director-General of the World Health Organization: Closing the Ranks for Health for All; Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C., September 1987. use ... system that prevailed before WHO’s new health paradigm surfaced, and I am sorry to say the kind that still prevails in too many countries. Would it cost less and relieve national health budgets, as well as WHO's budget in support of these? Not at all; to the contrary. The strategy for health for all based on primary health care, with its emphasis on a ... permanent health infrastructure based on primary health care, in order to attain health for all. For my part, desiring to compensate for the difficult regular budget situation, I have stretched my moral conscience to the limit in attempts to secure extrabudgetary funds for that purpose. I now appeal to you to stretch your imagination to the limit to make health
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