Um Sistema Evolutivo para a Construção da Taxonomia dos Seres Vivos (SETAX)

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❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦

❯♠ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐✈♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❈♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛

❚❛①♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❞♦s ❙❡r❡s ❱✐✈♦s ✭❙❊❚❆❳✮

▲❯■❙ ❍❊◆❘■◗❯❊ ▲❊▼❊ P❆❈❍❊❈❖

r✐❝❦♣❛❝❤❡❝♦❅❣♠❛✐❧✳❝♦♠

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▲❯■❙ ❍❊◆❘■◗❯❊ ▲❊▼❊ P❆❈❍❊❈❖

❯♠ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐✈♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❈♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛

❚❛①♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❞♦s ❙❡r❡s ❱✐✈♦s ✭❙❊❚❆❳✮

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛

♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❈✉rs♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦

❡♠ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦

■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡

❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❡s✿

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛✿ Pr♦❢❛✳ ❉r❛✳ ❘♦❜❡rt❛ ❱✐❧❤❡♥❛ ❱✐❡✐r❛ ▲♦♣❡s

❈♦✲❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❊✈❛♥❞r♦ ❞❡ ❇❛rr♦s ❈♦st❛

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Catalogação na fonte

Universidade Federal de Alagoas

Biblioteca Central

Divisão de Tratamento Técnico

Bibliotecária Responsável: Helena Cristina Pimentel do Vale

P116u Pacheco, Luis Henrique Leme.

Um sistema evolutivo para a construção da taxonomia dos seres vivos (SETAX) / Luis Henrique Leme Pacheco. – 2011.

60 f. : il.

Orientadora: Roberta Vilhena Vieira Lopes. Co-Orientador: Evandro de Barros Costa.

Dissertação (mestrado em Modelagem Computacional de Conhecimento) – Universidade Federal de Alagoas. Instituto de Computação. Maceió, 2011.

Bibliografia: f. 56-60.

1. Algoritmos evolucionários. 2. Otimização combinatória – Multiobjetivo. 4. Problema do caixeiro viajante. I. Título.

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❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

❊✉ t❡♥❤♦ ♠✉✐t♦ q✉❡ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r✱ ❛ ❝♦♠❡ç❛r ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛r ✈✐✈♦✱ ❡ ❞❡ ♣♦❞❡r ❝♦♠♣❛r✲ t✐❧❤❛r ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦s s❡r❡s✱ ✐❣✉❛✐s ❛ ♠✐♠✱ q✉❡ ❣♦st❛♠ ❞❡ s❡ ❛♣♦❞❡r❛r❡♠ ❞♦s ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ❤❡r❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♥♦ss♦s ❛♥t❡♣❛ss❛❞♦s✳

❊❧❡s sã♦ ♠❡✉s ❤❡ró✐s ❡ ♠❡r❡❝❡♠ ♠❡✉s ❛❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s✱ t♦❞♦s ❡❧❡s✱ ❛♦s s❡r❡s ❤✉♠❛♥♦s q✉❡ ✈✐✈❡r❛♠ ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ♠✐♠✱ ♦ ♠❡✉ ♠✉✐t♦ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦✦

❆♦s q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r❛♠ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐r❡t❛✱ q✉❡r♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ♠✉✐t♦ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♠ã❡✱ q✉❡ ♥❛s ❤♦r❛s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s✱ ♠❛♥t❡✈❡ ✜r♠❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ✈♦♥t❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡s❝♦❧❛r✐③❛r ♦s ✜❧❤♦s✱ ❛♦ ♠❡✉ ♣❛✐ ❝❛❜❡ ♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♥❡st❡ ♣♦♥t♦ ♦❜❡❞❡❝❡r ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♠ã❡ ❡ ❛❥✉❞❛r ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠❡✉ ❝❛r❛t❡r✳

❆ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✐r♠ã ❊st❡❧✐t❛ ❡ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥❛♠♦r❛❞❛ ❊❧✐sâ♥❣❡❧❛✱ ❛❧❡♠ ❞❡ ♣❛r❡♥t❡s ♣ró①✐♠♦s✱ t♦❞♦s ❡st✐✈❡r❛♠ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❧♦♥❣❛ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❛❞❛ ❞❡st❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦✳ ▼❡✉ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦ ❡ ♠❡✉ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦ ❛ t♦❞♦s✳

❆♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❡ ♣❛ss❛r❛♠ ♣♦r ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ♠✉✐t♦s✱ q✉❡r♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛✱ Pr♦❢❛✳ ❉r✳ ❘♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❡①❝❡❧❡♥t❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❛ ❡ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛✳ ❙❡♠

❛ s❡♥❤♦r❛ s❡r✐❛ ✐♠♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡ ❛♦ Pr♦❢✳ ❆❣❛♠❡♠♥♦♥ ✱ ♠✉✐t♦ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦✦✳ ❖s Pr♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❉r✳ ■●✱ ❘❛❢❛❡❧ ❉r✳ P❛r❛❣✉❛ç✉✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❉r✳ ❊✈❛♥❞r♦✳ ❊①❝❡❧❡♥t❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✳

◆❛ ❯❋❆▲ q✉❡r♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛♦ s❡❝r❡t❛r✐♦ ❱✐t♦r✱ q✉❡ ❛❧❡♠ ❞❡ s❡r ✉♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥ár✐♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❝♦♠♣❡t❡♥t❡ é ✉♠ ❛♠✐❣♦ ❡ ❡st❛ s❡♠♣r❡ ♣r♦♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r q✉❛❧q✉❡r s♦❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳

◆❛ s❛❧❛✱ ♥♦ ❝♦♥✈í✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❞✐❛✱ ❚❛rs✐s ❡ ❈❛r♦❧✱ ♠❡✉s ❡t❡r♥♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s✱ q✉❡ ❡st❡✈❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ ❝✉rs♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❛❞♠✐r❛çã♦ ❡ ♠❡✉ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦✳

◗✉❡r♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ❞❡ t✉r♠❛ ❡ ❛♠✐❣♦s✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❊❧✈②s✱ ❍✐❣♦r✱ ❏❡❛♥✱ ▼❛r❝♦s✱ ●✉st❛✈♦✱ ❆♥❣❡❧❛✱ ❏❛r❜❛s✱ P❈ ❡ ❋❛❜rí❝✐♦✳ ❋♦✐ ❜♦♠ ❝♦♥✈✐✈❡r ❝♦♠ ✈♦❝ês✱ ▼✉✐t♦ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦✦

❊ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ à ❋❆P❊❆▲✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ✜♥❛♥❝❡✐r♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

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❘❡s✉♠♦

❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❙❊❚❆❳✳ ◆❡st❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ t✐♣♦s ❛❜str❛t♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭●❡♥❡t✐❝ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠ ❇❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❆❜str❛❝t ❉❛t❛ ❚②♣❡s ✲●❆❆❉❚✮ ❢♦✐ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❛ ♠❡♥♦r ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❣r✉♣♦s t❛①♦♥ô♠✐❝♦s ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛✲ ❞♦s✱ ❣❡r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ✈❛❧♦r ♣❛r❛ ♦ s♦♠❛tór✐♦ ❞❛s ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ t❛①♦♥ô♠✐❝❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s s✉❜✲ár✈♦r❡s ❜✐♥ár✐❛s q✉❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣õ❡✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ é ❛q✉✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s✱ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✐♥s♣✐r❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧❀ ✉♠ r❡s✉♠♦ ❜✐♦❧ó❣✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ár✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✱ ❛ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❞❡ s❡r❡s ✈✐✈♦s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧❣✉♥s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❡♠❛✐s ♠ét♦❞♦s✳

P❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡✿ ■♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧✱ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥✐❛✱ ➪r✈♦r❡s ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s✱ ❇✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❖t✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❈♦♠❜✐♥❛tór✐❛✱ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❊✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐♦s ❡ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ●❡✲ ♥ét✐❝♦s✳

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❆❜str❛❝t

❚❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r❡s❡♥ts ❛ s②st❡♠ t❤❛t ✉s❡ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐♦♥❛r② ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤ t♦ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡ ❝♦♥✲ str✉❝t✐♦♥ ❝❛❧❧❡❞ ❙❊❚❆❳✳ ■♥ t❤✐s s②st❡♠✱ t❤❡ ❣❡♥❡t✐❝ ❛❧❣♦r✐t❤♠ ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❛❜str❛❝t t②♣❡s ♦❢ ❞❛t❛ ✭●❡♥❡t✐❝ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠ ❇❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❆❜str❛❝t ❉❛t❛ ❚②♣❡s ✲●❆❆❉❚✮✇❛s ✐♥st❛♥t✐❛t❡❞ t♦ ❢♦✉♥❞ t❤❡ ♠✐♥✐♠✉♠ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ t❛①♦♥♦♠✐❝ ❣r♦✉♣s ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛t❡❞✱ ❣❡♥❡r❛t✐♥❣ ❛ s❡t ♦❢ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡s ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ✈❛❧✉❡ ❢♦r t❤❡ s✉♠ ♦❢ t❛①♦♥♦♠✐❝ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ ❜✐♥❛r② s✉❜tr❡❡s ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝♦♠♣♦s❡s ✐t✳ ❆❧s♦ r❡♣♦rt ❤❡r❡✱ ❛ st✉❞② ♦❢ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡s✱ t❤❡ ♠❛✐♥ ❛❧❣♦r✐t❤♠ ❢♦r ❝♦♥str✉❝t✐♦♥ tr❡❡s ✐♥s♣✐r❡❞ ❜② ♠❡t❤♦❞s ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ✐♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡❀ ❛ ❜✐♦❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ s✉✲ ♠♠❛r② ❢♦r t❤❡ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ♦❢ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡s ❝♦♥tr✉❝t✐♦♥✱ t❤❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ●❆❆❉❚ t♦ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡ss ♦❢ ❧✐✈✐♥❣ ❜❡✐♥❣s ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s s♦♠❡ r❡s✉❧ts ❛❝q✉✐r❡❞ ❜② t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ s②st❡♠ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♠♣❛r✐s♦♥ ✇✐t❤ ♦t❤❡r ♠❡t❤♦❞s✳

❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ✐♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡✱ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥②✱ P❤②❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝ tr❡❡s✱ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❇✐✲ ♦❧♦❣②✱ ❈♦♠❜✐♥❛t♦r✐❛❧ ❖♣t✐♠✐③❛t✐♦♥✱ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐♦♥❛r② ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s ❛♥❞ ●❡♥❡t✐❝ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s✳

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

✶✳✶ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬✻❪ s♦❜r❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ✶✳✷ Pr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛s ❡♠ ❧❛❜♦r❛tór✐♦✱ ❢♦♥t❡ s✐t❡ ❞❛ ❊♠❜r❛♣❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✶✳✸ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛✲❞❡✲❛çú❝❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✻ ✷✳✶ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ➪r✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✷ ■♥s❡t♦s ❞❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❤♦❧♦♠❡t❛❜ó❧✐❝♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✸ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡sq✉❡♠át✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❝❡rt♦s ✈ír✉s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✹ ❙ér✐❡s ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✷✳✺ ❙ér✐❡s ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✻ ➪r✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❞❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❛s

❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s t❡r♠✐♥❛✐s✿ ✶ ✭❛✮✱ ✷✭❜✮✱ ✸✭❝✮✱ ✹✭❞✮✱ ✺✭❡✮ ❡ ✻✭❢✮✳ ❆ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s ár✈♦r❡s é ♠♦str❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✭❣✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✼ ➪r✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ✭❛✮✱ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ✭❜✮ ❡ t❡r❝❡✐r❛

✭❝✮ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✺♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❲❛❣♥❡r ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❞❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ✷✳✽ ➪r✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ✭❛✮✱ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ✭❜✮ ❡ t❡r❝❡✐r❛

✭❝✮ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✺♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❛s ♠é❞✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❞❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ✸✳✶ Ps❡✉❞♦❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✸✳✷ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❚❡r♠♦ ❇✐♦❧ó❣✐❝♦ ✲❃ ❚❡r♠♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❬✶✹❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✸✳✸ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ●❡♥❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✸✳✹ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❈r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ✹✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✹✳✷ ❚❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✹✳✸ ❚❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡♥✉ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✹ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✺ ❆♠♦str❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ✭❈❛♥❛ ❞❡ ❛çú❝❛r✮ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✻ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡ ❣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭❈❛♥❛ ❞❡

❛çú❝❛r✮ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✹✳✼ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❣❡♥❡ ♥♦ ❙❊❚❆❳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✹✳✽ ❋❡❝✉♥❞❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞♦✐s ❣❡♥❡s ♥♦ ❙❊❚❆❳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✹✳✾ ■♠❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ ❙❡rr❛ ❞♦ ❖✉r♦ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ▼✉r✐❝✐✲❆❧ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❈❡❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✹✳✶✵ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ r❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ■♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❊①❝❧✉sã♦ ♥❛ ♠❛tr✐③ s❡♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛ ✹✾ ✹✳✶✶ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❲❛❣♥❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ✹✳✶✷ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ▼é❞✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✹✳✶✸ ➪r✈♦r❡s ❣❡r❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❙❊❚❆❳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵

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▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❋■●❯❘❆❙ ✈

✹✳✶✹ ➪r✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✹✳✶✺ ➪r✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❛s ♠é❞✐❛s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s

✷✳✶ ❈♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♠❛tr✐③ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛ ❞❡ sér✐❡s ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣♦❧❛r✐✲ ③❛❞❛s ❧✐♥❡❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✷ ❈♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♠❛tr✐③ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛ ❞❡ sér✐❡s ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣♦❧❛r✐✲

③❛❞❛s ✈✐❛ ❞❡❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✸ ▼❛tr✐③ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✹ ▼❛tr✐③ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✺ ▼❛tr✐③ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✻ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐st❛♥❝✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✼ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✻ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ q✉❡

❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❆ ❡ ❇ t❡♠ ❛ s✉♣❡r✲❡s♣é❝✐❡ ❙✶ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♥❝❡str❛❧ ❞✐r❡t♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✷✳✽ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✼ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ q✉❡

❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s S1 ❡ ❈ t❡♠ ❛ s✉♣❡r✲❡s♣é❝✐❡ S2 ❝♦♠♦ ❛♥❝❡str❛❧ ❞✐r❡t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✹✳✶ ▼❛tr✐③ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ s❡♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛ ✉s❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ t❡st❛r ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✷ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ s❡♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✸ ▼❛tr✐③ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛ ✉s❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ t❡st❛r ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✹ ▼❛tr✐③ ❉✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r❝✐♠ô♥✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✺ ❙❝♦r❡ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✹✳✻ ▼❛tr✐③ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥✢✐t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✹✳✼ ▼❛tr✐③ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥✢✐t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸

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❙✉♠ár✐♦

✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶

✶✳✶ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ♦✉ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶ ✶✳✶✳✶ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✶✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✶✳✶✳✸ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽

✷ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ✶✵

✷✳✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✷✳✷ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❋♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶ ✷✳✸ ▼❛tr✐③ P♦❧❛r✐③❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✷✳✹ ▼❛tr✐③ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✺ ▼❛tr✐③ ❙✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✻ ▼❛tr✐③ ❉✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✼ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❈♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ➪r✈♦r❡s ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✼✳✶ ❆ ❘❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ■♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❊①❝❧✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✼✳✷ ❖ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❲❛❣♥❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✼✳✸ ❖ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❛s ▼é❞✐❛s ✭❯P●▼❆✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷

✸ ❖ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ●❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❚✐♣♦s ❆❜str❛t♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❈♦♥s✲

tr✉çã♦ ❞❡ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ✷✹

✸✳✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✸✳✷ ❚✐♣♦s ❇ás✐❝♦s ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✸✳✸ ❖♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✸✳✹ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✸✳✺ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✸✳✻ ❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ♣❛r❛ ♦ Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✸✳✻✳✶ ❚✐♣♦s ❇ás✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✸✳✻✳✷ ❖♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼

✹ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✭❙❊❚❆❳✮ ✸✾ ✹✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✹✳✷ ❋✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ❙❊❚❆❳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✹✳✸ ❯♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ r❡❛❧✿ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛ ❞❡

❛çú❝❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✹✳✸✳✶ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❛ ❇❛s❡ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✹✳✹ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✹✳✺ Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❊♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶

(12)

❙❯▼➪❘■❖ ✈✐✐✐

(13)

❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶

■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

✶✳✶ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ♦✉ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛

❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ♦✉ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ é ✉♠❛ ár❡❛ ❞❛ ❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊st❡ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛✱ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐❣❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣ré✈✐♦ ❞♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦❬✷✵❪✳

❆ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ é ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♥❛✲ t✉r❡③❛✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❛✉t♦✲♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐✈♦ ❬✶✾❪✱ ❬✷✷❪✳ ❊ss❡s ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt♦s ❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♣♦r ❉❆❘❲■◆ ✭✶✽✺✾✮ ❡♠ s✉❛ t❡♦r✐❛ ❞❛ ❡✈♦❧✉✲ çã♦ ❞❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s✳ ◆❡❧❛✱ ❡❧❡ ❛✜r♠❛ q✉❡ ❛ ✈✐❞❛ ♥❛ t❡rr❛ é ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦✱ ♣❡❧♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ❞❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ♦✉ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s ♠❛✐s ❛♣t♦s ❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ♣♦r ❡st❡ ♠♦t✐✈♦ ❡❧❡s tê♠ ♠❛✐s ❝❤❛♥❝❡s ❞❡ r❡♣r♦❞✉③✐r✲s❡✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛ ❞✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s s❡r❡s ✈✐✈♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❜❛❣❛❣❡♠ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ❝♦✲ ♠✉♠✱ ♣❡❧♦ ♠❡♥♦s ❡♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ s❡✉s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❜ás✐❝♦s✱ é ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❡❧♦q✉❡♥t❡ ❞❛s ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ♥❛t✉r❛❧✳

❖✉tr❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✐♥s♣✐r❛❞❛s ♥❛ t❡♦r✐❛ ❞❛ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s s✉r✲ ❣✐r❛♠ ❝♦♠♦✿ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ❬✷✾❪ ❡ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ ❬✹✶❪✳ ◆❛ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✭P●✮✱ ♦s ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s ❞❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❝❛❞❡✐❛s ❞❡ ✏❜✐ts✑✱ ♠❛s s✐♠ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s s✐♥tát✐❝❛s ♦✉ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s é q✉❡ sã♦ ♦s ❝❛♥❞✐❞❛t♦s à s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♥❛ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❊✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✭❊❊✮ r❡❣r❛s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ é q✉❡ sã♦ ❝❛♥❞✐❞❛t❛s ❛ ✉♠❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❆s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s✭❆●✮✱ ❊str❛té❣✐❛s ❊✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✭❊❊✮ ❡ Pr♦❣r❛✲ ♠❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ ✭P❊✮ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❛❧❣♦ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡❧❛s tr❛t❛ r❡♣r♦❞✉çã♦✱ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛✱ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦ ❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦✳ ❊st❡s q✉❛tr♦ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r♠❛♠ ❛ ❡ssê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ❬✹❪✱ ❬✼❪✳

❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❡rs♣❡❝t✐✈❛ ❤✐stór✐❝❛✱ ❛s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡ ❜✐ó❧♦❣♦s ❡ ❣❡♥❡t✐❝✐st❛s ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛❞♦s ❡♠ s✐♠✉❧❛r ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ✈✐✲

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✶✳✶✳ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖ ❊❱❖▲❯❚■❱❆ ❖❯ ❊❱❖▲❯❈■❖◆➪❘■❆ ✷

t❛✐s ♥♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r✱ ♦ q✉❡ r❡❝❡❜❡✉ ♥❛ é♣♦❝❛ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❡ ✧Pr♦❝❡ss♦s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s✧✭P●✮✬❬✷✹❪✳ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❞❡ss❡s ❝✐❡♥t✐st❛s✱ sã♦✿ ❬✽❪✱ ❬✾❪✱ ❬✷✸❪✱ ▼❛rt✐♥ ❡ ❬✶✸❪✳ ❖ ❜✐ó❧♦❣♦ ❬✸✾❪✱ s✐♠✉❧♦✉ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r❡s ✉♥✐❝❡❧✉❧❛r❡s✱ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ❝❧áss✐❝❛ ✭✉♠ ❣❡♥❡✱ ✉♠❛ ❡♥③✐♠❛✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞✐♣❧ó✐❞❡✱ ❝♦♠ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ❞❡ ✷✵ ❣❡♥❡s ❡ ✶✻ ❛❧❡❧♦s ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠✳

◆❛ ❞é❝❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✻✵✱ ❬✷✼❪ ❡ ♦✉tr♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ❝♦♠❡ç❛r❛♠ ❛ ❡st✉❞❛r ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❛❞❛♣✲ t❛t✐✈♦s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛✳ ❊ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s ✱ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛✈❛♠ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❣❡♥ót✐♣♦✱ ❢♦r♠❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ✭q✉❡ ♥❡st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡r❛♠ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❝❛❞❡✐❛s ❞❡ ✏❜✐ts✑✮ ❛♦s q✉❛✐s s❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛✈❛♠ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦✱ r❡❝♦♠✲ ❜✐♥❛çã♦✱ ♠✉t❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ✐♥✈❡rsã♦✱ ❡st❡ ú❧t✐♠♦ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r ♥ã♦ ❝❤❡❣♦✉ ❛ s❡r ❧❛r❣❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❬✹✹❪✳

❯♠❛ ❞❛s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s✭❝✉❥♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ t❡r♠♦ ❝❛❜❡ ❛ ❇❛❣❧❡② ♥❛ s✉❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✶✾✻✼✮✱ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❞❡ ❍♦❧❧❛♥❞❬✷✼❪✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦r❡s✱ q✉❡ sã♦ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉çã♦ ❡ ✉s❛♠ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❣❧♦❜❛❧✳

❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ s❡❣✉❡ ❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✳✶ ❞❡ ❬✻❪ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ r❡s✉♠♦ ❞❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡✲ r✐③❛♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞❛s ❛q✉✐ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶✿ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬✻❪ s♦❜r❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥ár✐❛✳

❖s ❆● ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❧❛r❣❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ♠✉✐t❛s ár❡❛s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛s✱ ❞❡♥tr❡ ❛s q✉❛✐s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞❡st❛❝❛❞❛s✿

• ❙í♥t❡s❡ ❞❡ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦s ❛♥❛❧ó❣✐❝♦s✿ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❝❡rt❛ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ ✉♠❛ s❛í❞❛ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞❛✱

♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ t❡♥sã♦✱ ♦ ❆● ❣❡r❛ ❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❡ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦❀

• ❙í♥t❡s❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦✿ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ q✉❛✐s ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❞♦ ♣r♦✲

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✶✳✶✳ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖ ❊❱❖▲❯❚■❱❆ ❖❯ ❊❱❖▲❯❈■❖◆➪❘■❆ ✸

s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❛❝❡✐tá✈❡❧ s❡❥❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦❀

• ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❡s✿ s✉♣❡r✈✐sã♦ ❞♦ trá❢❡❣♦ ♥♦s ❧✐♥❦s ❡ ❞❛s ✜❧❛s ♥♦s ✧❜✉❢✲

❢❡rs✧❞❡ r♦t❡❛❞♦r❡s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r r♦t❛s ót✐♠❛s ❡ ♣❛r❛ r❡❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛r ❛s r♦t❛s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❧❤❛ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ❧✐♥❦❀

• ❖t✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ♠✉❧t✐❝r✐tér✐♦✿ ♦t✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧♦s ♦❜❥❡✲

t✐✈♦s q✉❡ s❡❥❛♠ ❝♦♥✢✐t❛♥t❡s❀

• Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♦t✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✿ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝♦♠ ❡s♣❛ç♦s ❞❡ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❞❡

❞✐♠❡♥sõ❡s ❡❧❡✈❛❞❛s✳ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦✿ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞♦ ❝❛✐①❡✐r♦ ✈✐❛❥❛♥t❡✱ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛rt❡✐r❛s ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦s ❞❡ ✐♥✈❡st✐♠❡♥t♦❀

• ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❜✐♦❧ó❣✐❝❛s✿ ♠♦❞❡❧❛ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❜✐♦❧ó❣✐❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♠♣♦r✲

t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s✳

❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐✲ ♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛♠♦s ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ár❡❛s✿ ❙❡t♦r ❞❡ P❡tró❧❡♦ ❡ ●ás✱ ▼✉s✐❝❛❧✱ ❚❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ ❙❛ú❞❡ ❡ ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❇✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ ❆❣r♦♥♦♠✐❛✳

P❡tró❧❡♦ ❡ ●ás✲■♥✈❡rsã♦ ❙ís♠✐❝❛✿ ❈♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ▲■◆❉❊◆ ✭✷✵✵✽✮✱ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❛ ✐♥✲ ✈❡rsã♦ sís♠✐❝❛✱ q✉❡ é ✉♠ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞❛ ❣❡♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ s✉❜s♦❧♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ♣r♦s♣❡❝çã♦ ❣❡♦❧ó❣✐❝❛✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r✐✲ ♠ár✐♦ ♦❜t❡r ✉♠❛ s❡çã♦ ❣❡♦❧ó❣✐❝❛ ♦✉ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✸❉✳ ❊st❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ é s✉s❝❡tí✈❡❧ à ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s✱ ♣♦✐s s✉❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ♠✉✐t♦ ✐rr❡❣✉❧❛r✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❛❧t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥ã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✱ ♣♦ss✉✐♥❞♦ ♠✉✐t♦s ♠í♥✐♠♦s ❡ ♠á①✐♠♦s ❧♦❝❛✐s ❡ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❞❡s❝♦♥t✐♥✉✐❞❛✲ ❞❡s✳

P♦❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r✱ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❆●s t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ út✐❧ ♥♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞❡ P❡tró❧❡♦ ❡ ●ás✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ♣♦✐s ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞❛❞♦s t♦t❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡s ❡ ✐♥❝❡rt♦s✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❡st✉❞♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜t❡r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✈❛❧✐♦s❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s✳

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✶✳✶✳ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖ ❊❱❖▲❯❚■❱❆ ❖❯ ❊❱❖▲❯❈■❖◆➪❘■❆ ✹

❚❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s✿ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭❇❧❛♥❝❤❛r❞✱✶✾✾✹✮✱ ♥♦ ❡✈❡♥t♦ ❲❈❈■✬✾✹ ✭❲♦r❧❞ ❈♦♥❣r❡ss ♦♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡✮✱ ♠♦str♦✉ ✉♠❛ sér✐❡ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♣r♦♠✐ss♦r❛s ❛ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s r❡❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s✳ ❇❧❛♥❝❤❛r❞ ♠♦str♦✉✲s❡ ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❛ ❯❙ ❲❡st✱ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❛♥❤✐❛ r❡❣✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ t❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❈♦❧♦r❛❞♦✱ q✉❡ ✈❡♠ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❆●s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ♣r♦❥❡t❛r✱ ❡♠ ❞✉❛s ❤♦r❛s✱ r❡❞❡s ót✐❝❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛✲ ❞❛s✱ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ q✉❡ ❧❡✈❛r✐❛ s❡✐s ♠❡s❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ❤✉♠❛♥♦s✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦❞✉③ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛✐♥❞❛ ❞❡③ ♣♦r ❝❡♥t♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s q✉❡ ♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❤♦♠❡♠✳ ❆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥❤✐❛✱ ❛✜r♠♦✉ q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦✐ ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ tr❛③❡r ✉♠❛ ❡❝♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❞❡ ✶✵✵ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ❞❡ ❞ó❧❛r❡s ❛té ♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞♦ sé❝✉❧♦ ✷✵✳

❙❛ú❞❡✿ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ sã♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉✲ ①✐❧✐❛r ♦ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝✐r✉r❣✐❛s✳ ❊♠ ❬✸✷❪ ❡ ❬✹✵❪ sã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ❛❧❣✉♥s s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❞❡ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦✳ ❆ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❞❡st❡s s♦❢t✇❛r❡ sã♦ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡①tr❛í❞❛s ❞❡ ❡①❛♠❡s✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ t♦♠♦❣r❛✜❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r✐③❛❞❛ ❡ r❡ss♦♥â♥❝✐❛ ♠❛❣♥ét✐❝❛ ❞❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ♦r❣❛♥✐s♠♦ ❛ s❡r ♦♣❡r❛❞❛✳ ❈♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥❛ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞❛✱ ♦ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❝♦♥stró✐ ✉♠ ♦r❣❛♥✐s♠♦ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ ♣♦ss❛✱ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧✱ t❡st❛r ✈á✲ r✐♦s ♣r♦❝❡❞✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦s ❡ ❛ss✐♠ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛r ❛ s✉❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❏á ❡♠ ❬✸✹❪✱ sã♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❞❡ t❡❧❡❝✐r✉r❣✐❛ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ✉♠ ♠é❞✐❝♦ ♥❛ ❆❧❡♠❛♥❤❛ ♦♣❡r❡ ✉♠ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ❇r❛s✐❧✳ ❆s ❡♥tr❛❞❛s ❞❡st❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ sã♦ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❝❛♣t❛❞❛s ♣♦r s❡♥s♦r❡s ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♦r❣❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ❝✉❥❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❡♥✈✐❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ s❡r✈✐❞♦r r❡♠♦t♦✱ ❝♦♥✈❡rt✐❞❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ♦r❣❛♥✐s♠♦ ✈✐rt✉❛❧✱ s♦❜r❡ ♦ q✉❛❧ ♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦✱ ❡ s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❡♥✈✐❛❞❛s ❞❡ ✈♦❧t❛ ❛ s❛❧❛ ❝✐rúr❣✐❝❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❜r❛ç♦s ♠❡❝â♥✐❝♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛♠ ❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛❥✉❞❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ♠é❞✐❝❛✳

❇✐♦❧♦❣✐❛✿ ✉♠ ❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ❜✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♠♦❧❡❝✉❧❛r é ❛ ✐♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ s❡r ✈✐✈♦✳ ❊ss❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r ❛ ❝❛❞❡✐❛ ❞❡ ❉◆❆ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❡♥ót✐♣♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✳ ❖s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛♠ ❡st❛ t❛r❡❢❛ sã♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❛❧✐♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❯♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✐♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦ r❡❝❡❜❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❉◆❆ ❞❡ ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❡ t❡♥t❛ ❛rr✉♠❛r ❡st❡s ❉◆❆✬s ❡♠ ❧✐♥❤❛s ❞❡ t❛❧ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r q✉❡ ♦❝✉♣❛ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❧✐♥❤❛s s❡❥❛ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦✳ ❖s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❛❧✐♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s sã♦ ♦ ❇▲❆❙❚ ❬✶❪ ❡ ♦ ❋❆❙❚ ❬✶✶❪✳

❆❣r♦♥♦♠✐❛✿ ♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛✲❞❡✲❛çú❝❛r ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ✈❛r✐❡❞❛✲ ❞❡s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛s ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❡❞❛❢♦❝❧✐♠❛t✐❝❛s ✶ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞♦ ❇r❛s✐❧✳ ❇❛s✐✲

❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛s ♥♦✈❛s ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❞❡✈❡♠ t❡r ❣❛♥❤♦s ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❛❣r♦✐♥❞✉str✐❛❧✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦✿ ♠❛✐♦r ♣r♦❞✉t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❝♦♠ ♠❛✐♦r t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛♦ ❡str❡ss❡ ❤í❞r✐❝♦✱ ♠❛✐♦r r❡s✐stê♥❝✐❛ às ♣r❛❣❛s ❡ ❞♦✲ ❡♥ç❛s ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ à ❝♦❧❤❡✐t❛ ♠❡❝❛♥✐③❛❞❛✳ ❖s ór❣ã♦s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ q✉❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠✱ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛s

r❡❧❛çã♦ ♣❧❛♥t❛✲s♦❧♦✲❝❧✐♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ♣❧❛♥t✐♦✳ ❖s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❡❞❛❢♦❝❧✐♠át✐❝♦s sã♦ r❡❢❡r✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ♠❛✐s ✐♠✲

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✶✳✶✳ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖ ❊❱❖▲❯❚■❱❆ ❖❯ ❊❱❖▲❯❈■❖◆➪❘■❆ ✺

ár❡❛s ❞❡ ❜✐♦t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✈✐❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✷ ✱ ❝✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❞♦ s♦❧♦✱ ♥✉tr✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❧❛♥t❛s✱ ❝❧✐♠❛t♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ✜s✐♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ✜t♦♣❛t♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ❡♥t♦♠♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ❡❝♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✷✿ Pr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛s ❡♠ ❧❛❜♦r❛tór✐♦✱ ❢♦♥t❡ s✐t❡ ❞❛ ❊♠❜r❛♣❛ ✷

❆ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛✲❞❡✲❛çú❝❛r é ❤❡r❞❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛❞✐t✐✈❛✳ P♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ ❝r✉③❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❛❧t❛s ❞❡✈❡ r❡s✉❧t❛r ♥✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ❛❧t❛✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❡①❝❡çã♦ q✉❡ é ❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣r♦❞✉t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❛s ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ❛❞✐t✐✈❛s ❡ ♥ã♦✲❛❞✐t✐✈❛ ♣❛r❡❝❡♠ ❡st❛r ❡♠ ✐❣✉❛❧ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛✳ ■ss♦ ✈❡♠ s❡♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞❡s❛✜♦ ♥❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛✲❞❡✲❛çú❝❛r✳

❖✉tr❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛ é ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡s q✉❛♥t♦ à ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✳ ■ss♦ é ✐♠♣♦r✲ t❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦ ❞❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ♠❛✐s ❛♣t❛s✳

❆ ❘❡❞❡ ■♥t❡r✉♥✐✈❡rs✐tár✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❙❡t♦r ❙✉❝r♦❛❧❝♦♦❧❡✐r♦ ✭❘✐❞❡s❛✮ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛ ❡st❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❙❡rr❛ ❞♦ ❖✉r♦ ♥♦ ♠✉♥✐❝í♣✐♦ ❞❡ ▼✉r✐❝✐✱ ❆▲✳ ❆ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡stá ♥❛ ❧❛t✐t✉❞❡ ✾♦ ✶✸ ❙✱ ❛ ✺✵✵ ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❛❧t✐t✉❞❡✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ♣❧✉✈✐♦s✐❞❛❞❡ ♠é❞✐❛ é ❞❡ ♣❡❧♦ ♠❡♥♦s

❞♦✐s ♠✐❧ ♠✐❧í♠❡tr♦s ❛♥✉❛✐s ❡ ❛s t❡♠♣❡r❛t✉r❛s ♠é❞✐❛s✱ ❞❡ ✶✾✱✺ ❛ ✷✻✱✺♦ ❈ ✭❈❡❧s✐✉s✮✳

❊ss❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s t♦r♥❛♠ ♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ♠✉✐t♦ ♣r♦♣í❝✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✢♦r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝❛♥❛✲❞❡✲❛çú❝❛r ❡✱ t❛♠❜é♠✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❜♦❛ ❢❡rt✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ♣ó❧❡♥✳ ❆s ♠✉❞❛s ❞❡ ❝❛♥❛ sã♦ ♣❧❛♥t❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❝❛♠♣♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s ❞❛s ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳

P♦r ❡ss❡s ♠♦t✐✈♦s ❡st❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ s❡rá ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❡st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✳

✶✳✶✳✶ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦

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✶✳✶✳ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖ ❊❱❖▲❯❚■❱❆ ❖❯ ❊❱❖▲❯❈■❖◆➪❘■❆ ✻

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✸✿ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♥❛✲❞❡✲❛çú❝❛r✳

❛❧❣✉♥s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ♣❛ss❛r❛♠ ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥tá✲❧❛ ♣♦r ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❣rá✜❝❛s ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛ ár✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✳ ■ss♦ ✐♥✈✐❛❜✐❧✐③❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❤✐stór✐❛ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈❛ ❞❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ♠❛♥✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛ s✉r❣❡♠ ♦s ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✳

❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ❛s ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s s❡r❡♠ ❞❡ ❢á❝✐❧ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛çã♦✱ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ♣♦r ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ♠❛♥✉❛✐s ❢♦✐ s❡ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❡ss❡s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s r❡q✉❡r❡♠ ♠✉✐t♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞♦ ✜❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝✐st❛ ❡ ♣r♦♣✐❝✐❛♠ ❛ ✐♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❡rr♦s ❤✉♠❛♥♦s ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❬✷❪✳

❆ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s é ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ◆✲P ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦✱ ♣♦✐s ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ár✈♦r❡s ♣❛r❛ ◆ ❡s♣é❝✐❡s é ◆✦✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s q✉❡ ❣❛r❛♥t❡♠ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ót✐♠❛ sã♦ ✐♥❢❛❝tí✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ◆P✲❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s✳ ❊♥tã♦ ❝♦♠♦ r❡s♦❧✈ê✲❧♦s❄ ❆❜r✐♥❞♦ ♠ã♦ ❞❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐❛ ❞❡ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ót✐♠❛ ❡♠ ♣r♦❧ ❞❛ ❢❛❝t✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✳

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✶✳✶✳ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖ ❊❱❖▲❯❚■❱❆ ❖❯ ❊❱❖▲❯❈■❖◆➪❘■❆ ✼

❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s q✉❡ ❡①♣❧♦r❡♠ ♦ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❡✜❝❛③✱ ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛r s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❞❡ ❜♦❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❡ q✉❡ ❡✈❡♥t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡r à s♦❧✉çã♦ ót✐♠❛✳

❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s✱ ❡stã♦ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣r✐♥❝í♣✐♦s✿

• ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♠❛♣❡✐❛ ♦s ♣♦s✲

sí✈❡✐s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♥❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛❞♦t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦❀

• ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦✱ ❛ q✉❛❧ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛ ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡

❞♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❡st❡ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛❀

• ♦s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ♠❛✐s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦s ❣❡r❛♠ ❞❡s❝❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ✭♣❡❧❛ ❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ❣❡✲

♥ét✐❝♦s✮✱ ♦s q✉❛✐s t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ ❤❡r❞❛r ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛s ❞♦ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦ ❛♥❝❡str❛❧ ❡ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ♠❡♥♦s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦s t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ ❞❡s❛♣❛✲ r❡❝❡r✳

❘❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈♦s tê♠ s✐❞♦ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛❞❛s ♥❡st❛ ár❡❛✱ ♠♦str❛♥❞♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ✭❬✶✷❪❀ ❬✸✼❪❀ ❬✹✼❪✮✳

◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ♣r♦♣õ❡♠✲s❡ ✉s❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ●❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❚✐♣♦s ❆❜str❛t♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✭●❆❆❉❚✮✳ ❚r❛t❛✲s❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ♥♦✈♦✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ❬✹✺❪ ❡ ❬✹✻❪ ❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛ s♦❜r❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ♥❛ q✉❛❧ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s é ❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦✳ ❙❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❡st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❛s ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❛✐s sã♦ ✈✐st❛s ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♠❛r❝♦ ❞♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ q✉❛❧ ♦s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ❞❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❛t✉❛❧ ✐rã♦ s♦❢r❡r ❛ ❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐♥t✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❞❛ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦r ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s q✉❡ s❛t✐s❢❛③❡♠ ❛♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❛t✉❛❧✳ ❆♣ós ♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ✈❡♠ ♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛❣♥❛çã♦✱ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ q✉❛❧ ❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉✐✳ ❖ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛❣♥❛çã♦ é ✜♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❛❧ ♦❝♦rr❡✱ ❞❛♥❞♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❛ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ s❡❣✉✐❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛❣♥❛çã♦✳

❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❛t✉❛❧ é ♦ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦ ♠❛✐s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛❣♥❛çã♦ ❛t✐♥❣✐❞❛✳ ❆ ❝❛❞❛ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ❡①t✐♥t♦s ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛✳ ❖s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ❞❡st❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ sã♦ ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♣♦♣✉❧❛çõ❡s ❥á tr❛❜❛❧❤❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦✱ ♦s q✉❛✐s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s ❡ ❞❡s❝❛rt❛❞♦s ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ s❡✉ ❜❛✐①♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ às ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çõ❡s ❛t✉❛✐s ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❆ tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞♦s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ♣❛✐s q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♣❛ss❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ✜❧❤♦s✳

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✶✳✶✳ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖ ❊❱❖▲❯❚■❱❆ ❖❯ ❊❱❖▲❯❈■❖◆➪❘■❆ ✽

❆ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ♥ã♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✈♦❧✉ír❡♠ ❡ ❛té ❝♦♥❞✉③✐✲ r❡♠ à ❣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ♠❛✐s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦s é tr❛❜❛❧❤❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r ❞❡ ♠✉t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚✱ q✉❡ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ s♦♠❡♥t❡ s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ♥ã♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡st❡s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ♥❛s ♣ró①✐♠❛s ❣❡r❛çõ❡s✳

❚❛♠❜é♠ ❢❛③ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ♦ r❡❣✐str♦ ❞❛ ❤✐stór✐❛ ❣❡♥❡❛❧ó❣✐❝❛ ✭tá✲ ①♦♥✮ ❞♦s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ❞❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❛t✉❛❧✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❞❛❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ❣❡r❛❞❛ s❡♠♣r❡ q✉❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✳

✶✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦

❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✱ é ♣r♦♣♦r ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡✈♦❧✉t✐✈♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ q✉❡ ✉s❛ ♦ ●❆❆❉❚ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ❛ ✐♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✳ ❚❛❧ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡✿

• ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛r ❞❛❞♦s ❜✐♦❧ó❣✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çõ❡s❀

• ❝♦♥t❡r ❛ ❡①♣❧♦sã♦ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛t♦r✐❛❧ ❞❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❣❡r❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛

❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛♠❜í❣✉♦s ❡ ✐♥❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ●❆❆❉❚❀

• ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛♦ ✜❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝✐st❛ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛r ♦ r❛❝✐♦❝í♥✐♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛tr❛✲

✈és ❞❛ r❡❝♦♥st✐t✉✐çã♦ ❞❛ ❤✐stór✐❛ t❛①♦♥ô♠✐❝❛ ❞♦s ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦s ❞❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛❣♥❛çã♦❀

• ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ♣❡❧❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦s ❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡s

✈♦❧✉♠❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s❀

• ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❣rá✜❝❛ ❛♠✐❣á✈❡❧✳

✶✳✶✳✸ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦

P❛r❛ ❝✉♠♣r✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♥❛s s❡çõ❡s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s ❞❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ♦r❣❛♥✐③♦✉✲s❡ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡♠ ❝✐♥❝♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ❡st❛ ✐♥tr♦❞✉çã♦✳

◆♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷✱ s❡rá ❞❡♠♦str❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ s♦❜r❡ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r❡♠♦s ❛ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❋♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r❡♠♦s ❛s ♠❛tr✐③❡s ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ✜❧♦❣❡♥❡t✐❝✐st❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛❞❛s✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛❧❣✉♥s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✐♥❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦s ❡ ❛♠❜í❣✉♦s✱ ❡ ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ s♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❛r ❡ss❡s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡ ❞❡♠♦str❛r❡♠♦s ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s q✉❡ sã♦✿ ❆ ❘❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ■♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❊①❝❧✉sã♦✱ ❖ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❲❛❣♥❡r ❡ ❖ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❛s ▼é❞✐❛s ✭❯P●▼❆✮✳

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✶✳✶✳ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖ ❊❱❖▲❯❚■❱❆ ❖❯ ❊❱❖▲❯❈■❖◆➪❘■❆ ✾

❞♦r❡s ✈ã♦ s❡♥❞♦ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱ s❡rá ❞❡♠♦str❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣rát✐❝❛ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳

◆♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹✱ s❡rá ♠♦str❛❞♦s ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❆r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦✲ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛✭❙❊❚❆❳✮ ❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ár✈♦r❡s ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛s ♣❡❧❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦s ❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡s ✈♦❧✉♠❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❡ s❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❣✉✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡ ✜❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥❝✐❛ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧✳

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷

➪r✈♦r❡ ❋✐❧♦❣❡♥ét✐❝❛

✷✳✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

P❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞♦s s❡r❡s ✈✐✈♦s ❢♦ss❡ ♠❛✐s ♣r❡❝✐s♦✱ ❝✐❡♥t✐st❛s ❛❞♦t❛r❛♠ ✉♠❛ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❜❛s❡✐❛ ♥❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ r❡✐♥♦ s❡ ❞✐✈✐❞❡ ❡♠ ✜❧♦s✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✜❧♦ s❡ ❞✐✈✐❞❡ ❡♠ ❝❧❛ss❡s✱ ❝❛❞❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❡♠ ♦r❞❡♥s ❡ ❛ss✐♠ ♣♦r ❞✐❛♥t❡✱ ❛té ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ✧❡s♣é❝✐❡✧✶✳ ❊s♣é❝✐❡s ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❝♦♠✉♥s ❢♦r♠❛♠ ✉♠ ❣ê♥❡r♦✳ ●ê♥❡r♦s ❝♦♠

❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✳ ❆s ❢❛♠í❧✐❛s s❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠ ❡♠ ♦r❞❡♥s ❡ ❡st❛s ❡♠ ❝❧❛ss❡s✳ ❆s ❝❧❛ss❡s s❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠ ❡♠ ✜❧♦s✳ ❆ r❡✉♥✐ã♦ ❞❡ ✜❧♦s ❢♦r♠❛ ♦ r❡✐♥♦✳ ❊♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❛s♦s ❡①✐st❡♠ s✉❜❞✐✈✐sõ❡s ❝♦♠♦✿ s✉❜✜❧♦✱ s✉❜❝❧❛ss❡✱ s✉❜❣ê♥❡r♦✱ ❡t❝✳ ❖s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s r❡✐♥♦s sã♦✿ ❘❡✐♥♦ ❆♥✐♠❛❧✐❛✱ ❘❡✐♥♦ P❧❛♥t❛❡✱ ❘❡✐♥♦ ❋✉♥❣✐✱ ❘❡✐♥♦ Pr♦t✐st❛ ❡ ❘❡✐♥♦ ▼♦♥❡r❛✳ ❍á ♥♦✈♦s r❡✐♥♦s s❡♥❞♦ ❝r✐❛❞♦s✳

❊♣✐❞❡♥❞r✉♠ ❢♦✐ ✉♠ ❞♦s ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s ❣ê♥❡r♦s ❞❡ ♦rq✉í❞❡❛s tr♦♣✐❝❛✐s ❛ s❡r❡♠ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s✳ ❊❧❡ ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r❡s ✈✐✈♦s✱ ▲✐♥❡✉ ✭✶✼✺✾✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❛ ❡s♣é❝✐❡ ❊♣✐❞❡♥❞r✉♠ ♥♦❞♦s✉♠ ▲✳ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞❛ ❡♠ P♦rt♦ ❘✐❝♦✱ ❤♦❥❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❇r❛ss❛✈♦❧❛ ♥♦❞♦s❛✳ ❖ ❊♣✐❞❡♥❞r✉♠ ♥♦❝t✉r♥✉♠ ❏❛❝q✉✐♥ ❢♦✐ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣♦st❡r✐♦r✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❡s♣é❝✐❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡✈✐t❛r ❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❡ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ♠✐❧ ❡s♣é❝✐❡s q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❛♥t✐❣❛ ♣❧❛♥t❛ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❊♣✐❞❡♥❞r✉♠ ❢♦✐ r❡♠♦✈✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❣ê♥❡r♦ ❇r❛ss❛✈♦❧❛✳ ❖ ♥♦♠❡ ❞♦ ❣ê♥❡r♦ é ✉♠❛ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❛s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ♦rq✉í❞❡❛s ❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛s ❛ ❡st❡ ❣ê♥❡r♦ s❡r❡♠ ❡♣í✜t❛s✷

❙✉❛ ❝✐r❝✉♥s❝r✐çã♦ ❡①❛t❛✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ q✉❡ ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♠ ❛ ❡st❡ ❣ê♥❡r♦ ❡ q✉❛✐s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛s ❛ ♦✉tr♦s é ❞✐s❝✉tí✈❡❧✳ ❊♣✐❞❡♥❞r✉♠ ❥á ✐♥❝❧✉✐✉ ♠✉✐t❛s ❡s♣é❝✐❡s ❤♦❥❡ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛ ♦✉tr♦s ❣ê♥❡r♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❊♥❝②❝❧✐❛ ❡ Pr♦st❤❡❝❤❡❛✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ▲✐♥❡✉ ♣r♦♣ôs ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❣ê♥❡r♦ ❊♣✐❞❡♥❞r✉♠✱ ❤❛✈✐❛ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ♦✐t♦ ❣ê♥❡r♦s ❞❡ ♦rq✉í❞❡❛s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♣r❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ♦rq✉í❞❡❛s ❡♣í✜t❛s ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛s ❡r❛♠ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❊♣✐❞❡♥❞r✉♠✳ ❆♦ ❧♦♥❣♦

❉❡♥♦♠✐♥❛✲s❡ ❡s♣é❝✐❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s q✉❡✱ ♣♦r t❡r❡♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❝♦♥st✐t✉✐çã♦ ❣❡♥ét✐❝❛ ♣♦ss❛♠

❣❡r❛r ❞❡s❝❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡✳

sã♦ ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ ✈✐✈❡♠ s♦❜r❡ ✈❡❣❡t❛✐s✳ P♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♥✐♠❛✐s q✉❡ ✈✐✈❡♠ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦s à ✉♠ ✈❡❣❡t❛❧ ♦✉

♣❧❛♥t❛s q✉❡ ✈✐✈❡♠ s♦❜r❡ ♦✉tr❛ ♣❧❛♥t❛✱ ♥❡st❡ ❝❛s♦✱ sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❡♣í✜t❛s✳

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