ASPOF EN AEL Ventura Viegas 2015

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Tiago Ventura Viegas

Rádios Cognitivos e

Alocação Dinâmica

de Espetro

Contributos para uma

Aplicação Prática na

Marinha Portuguesa

Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Militares Navais,

na especialidade de Engenheiros Navais

Ramo Armas e Eletrónica

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Tiago Ventura Viegas

Rádios Cognitivos e Alocação Dinâmica de Espetro

Contributos para uma Aplicação Prática na Marinha

Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Militares Navais, na

especialidade de Engenheiros Navais – Ramo Armas e Eletrónica

Orientação de: Eduardo Ludovico Bolas

Co-orientação de: NIL

O Aluno Mestrando O Orientador

Tiago Ventura Viegas

Eduardo Ludovico Bolas

Alfeite

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❆♦ ♠❡✉ ❛✈ô✱ ❏♦❛q✉✐♠ ❏♦sé ❋✐❧✐♣❡ ❱❡♥t✉r❛

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❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

❘❡s❡r✈♦ ❡st❡ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s q✉❡ t✐✈❡r❛♠ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♠❛s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛✲ ❧❤♦✳

❆♦ ❊♥❣✳ ❊❞✉❛r❞♦ ❇♦❧❛s ♣❡❧❛ s✉❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ❛♣♦✐♦✳ ❆ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❡s✲ ❢♦rç♦ ♣♦r ❡st❡ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r❛♠ ❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

❆♦ ❊♥❣✳ ●❡r♠❛♥♦ ❈❛♣❡❧❛✱ ♣❡❧❛ s✉❛ ❛❥✉❞❛ ❡ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛✱ s❡♠ ❛s q✉❛✐s ♥ã♦ t❡r✐❛ s✐❞♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐❞❛s ✉s❛❞❛s ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ út✐❧✳

❆♦ ♠❡✉ ❝❛♠❛r❛❞❛ ▲✉ís ▼❡♥❡③❡s✱ ♣❡❧♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡❞✐❝❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❛ ❞❡✲ ❜❛t❡r ✐❞❡✐❛s ❡ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r t❡st❡s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ♠út✉♦ ❡ q✉❡ ❡❧❡✈♦✉ ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

❆♦ ❊♥❣✳ ❘✐❜❡✐r♦ ❈♦rr❡✐❛✱ ♣❡❧❛ s✉❛ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❝❡rt✐✜❝❛r q✉❡ ♦s ♠♦❧✲ ❞❡s ❡♠ q✉❡ ❞❡❝♦rr❡r❛♠ ♦s ❡stá❣✐♦s ❛♥✉❛✐s ♣❡r♠✐t✐ss❡♠ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ t❡s❡ s❡♠ ❡♠♣❡♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡①❝❡ss✐✈♦s✱ ❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ ❛♥♦ ❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ t❡s❡✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s ♣❛✐s✱ ❛♦s ♠❡✉s ✐r♠ã♦s✱ à ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❡ à ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥❛♠♦r❛❞❛✱ ❆♥❛ ●❛❧❤ós✱ q✉❡ ♠❡ ❛♣♦✐❛r❛♠ ✐♥❝♦♥❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡ ♣r♦❝✉r❛r❛♠ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ❡ ✐♥s♣✐r❛r ❡♠ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ♠❡♥♦s ❢á❝❡✐s ❡ s❡♠ ♦s q✉❛✐s s❡r✐❛ ár❞✉♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❢♦rç❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❢r❡♥t❛r ❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s✳

❆ t♦❞♦s✱ ✉♠ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦

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❘❡s✉♠♦

❆s ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ♠❛rít✐♠❛s ❛t✉❛✐s ❜❛s❡✐❛♠✲s❡ ❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❡s✲ tr❡✐t❛✱ t✐♣✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ✈♦③ ❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❞é❜✐t♦✱ ♥❛s ❜❛♥❞❛s ❞❡ ▼❡❞✐✉♠ ❋r❡✲ q✉❡♥❝② ✭▼❋✮✱ ❍✐❣❤ ❋r❡q✉❡♥❝② ✭❍❋✮ ❡ ❱❡r② ❍✐❣❤ ❋r❡q✉❡♥❝② ✭❱❍❋✮✱ ♣❛r❛ ❞❛r s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦s à s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❡ s♦❝♦rr♦ ❞❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛çã♦✳ ❖ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✱ ❢❛③✲s❡ ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❙❛tt❡❧✐t❡ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✭❙❆❚❈❖▼✮ ♦✉✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❛ t❡rr❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❡✱ ❛ r❡❞❡s ♠ó✈❡✐s t❡rr❡str❡s ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ●❧♦❜❛❧ ❙②st❡♠ ❢♦r ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✭●❙▼✮ ♦✉ ▲♦♥❣ ❚❡r♠ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐♦♥ ✭▲❚❊✮✳ ❆ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ s❡❣✉❡ ❡st❛ t❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ t❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝❛ ❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❝♦rr❡r ❛♦ ❙❆❚❈❖▼✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛✱ t❡♠ ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ♥❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ✜♥❛♥❝❡✐r♦✳ ❚♦r♥❛✲s❡ ♣r❡♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠❛ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛✱ ❡❝♦✲ ♥♦♠✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ✈✐á✈❡❧ ❡ ♣❛ssí✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❛❝❛✉t❡❧❛r ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❈♦♥✲ t✉❞♦✱ ♦ ♠❛✐♦r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛✱ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ à ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s rá❞✐♦ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛✱ é ❛ ❡s❝❛ss❡③ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦✳ ❆s ❛t✉❛✐s ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❡stát✐❝❛✱ ♠❛♥✐❢❡st❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ♥♦ q✉❡ ❞✐③ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ à ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦✱ ♥ã♦ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ❝❡♥tr❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ✉♥✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ ♣r♦t❡çã♦ ❞♦s ✐♥❝✉♠❜❡♥t❡s ❝♦♥tr❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦s r❡❝❡♥t❡s ❞❡✲ s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦s ♥❛s ár❡❛s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❡ ❞❛s t❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ ♥♦♠❡❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ rá❞✐♦s ❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s✱ ✈ê♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐✲ ❧✐③❛r t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ❛❝❛✉t❡❧❛r ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦s ✐♥❝✉♠❜❡♥t❡s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ r❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❛r ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❡s♣❡❝tr♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝r✐❛r ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❡①♣❧♦r❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐st❛s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛✱ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ ❝♦♥st✐t✉✐r ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s ✈á❧✐❞❛s ❛♦ ❙❆❚❈❖▼✳ ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠❛ r❡✢❡✲ ①ã♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛s ❞❛ ❣❡stã♦ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡❝tr♦ ❡ ♦ s❡✉ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ♥♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❡♠ ❡①♣❧♦r❛çã♦✱ ❞✐s❝✉t✐♥❞♦ ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ✐♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ rá❞✐♦s ❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s ♣♦❞❡ r❡✈♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❛r ❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ t❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ ❡ ❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦✲ ♥❛✐s✳

P❛❧❛✈r❛s ❈❤❛✈❡✿ ❘á❞✐♦s ❈♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s✱ ❆❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❉✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❊s♣❡tr♦✱ ❈♦✲ ♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ▼❛rít✐♠❛s✱ ●❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❊s♣❡tr♦✳

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❆❜str❛❝t

◆♦✇❛❞❛②s✱ ♠❛r✐t✐♠❡ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❛r❡ ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ♥❛rr♦✇✲❜❛♥❞ s②st❡♠s✱ ❧✐❦❡ ✈♦✐❝❡ ♦r ❧♦✇ r❛t❡ ❞❛t❛✱ ✐♥ t❤❡ ▼❋✱ ❍❋ ❛♥❞ ❱❍❋ ❜❛♥❞s s♦ t❤❛t t❤❡② ❝❛♥ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡ s❡❝✉r✐t② ❛♥❞ s❛❢❡t② s❡r✈✐❝❡s✳ ❚❤❡ ❛❝❝❡ss t♦ ✇✐❞❡✲❜❛♥❞ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✱ ❧✐❦❡ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✱ ❛r❡ ♠❛❞❡ ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈❡❧② t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❙❆❚❈❖▼✳ ■♥ s♦♠❡ ❝❛s❡s✱ ✇❤❡♥ t❤❡ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ t♦ ❧❛♥❞ s♦ ❛❧❧♦✇s✱ t❤❛t ❛❝❝❡ss ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ♠❛❞❡ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ●❙▼ ♦r ▲❚❊✳ ❚❤❡ P♦rt✉❣✉❡s❡ ◆❛✈② ❢♦❧❧♦✇s t❤✐s t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❝ t❡♥❞❡♥❝②✳ ❘❡❧②✐♥❣ ♦♥ ❙❆❚✲ ❈❖▼ ❛❝❝❡ss ❢♦r ✇✐❞❡✲❜❛♥❞ s❡r✈✐❝❡s ❤❛s ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥❝❡s ♦♥ s❡r✈✐❝❡ ❛✈❛✐❧❛❜✐❧✐t② ❛♥❞ ✜♥❛♥❝✐❛❧ ✐♠♣❛❝t✳ ❈♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❧②✱ ❛ ♥❡❡❞ ❢♦r ❛♥ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❡ ❡♠❡r❣❡s✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❝♦st ❡✛❡❝t✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ ✐s ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ❛❝❝♦♠♠♦❞❛t❡ t❤❡ ♥❡❡❞❡❞ ♦♣❡r❛t✐♦♥❛❧ r❡q✉✐r❡✲ ♠❡♥ts✳ ❚❤❡ ❜✐❣❣❡st ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ❤♦✇❡✈❡r✱ r❡❣❛r❞✐♥❣ t❤❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ✇✐❞❡✲ ❜❛♥❞ s❡r✈✐❝❡s ♦♥ t❤❡ r❛❞✐♦ ❜❛♥❞✱ ✐s s♣❡❝tr✉♠ s❝❛r❝✐t②✳ ❚❤❡ ❝✉rr❡♥t s♣❡❝tr✉♠ ♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t ♣♦❧✐❝✐❡s✱ st❛t✐❝ ❛❧❧♦❝❛t✐♦♥s✱ ❞♦ ♥♦t ❛❧❧♦✇ t❤❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♦❢ ♥❡✇ s❡r✈✐❝❡s ❞✉❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❢❛❝t t❤❛t t❤❡② ❞♦ ♥♦t t❛❦❡ ❢✉❧❧ ❛❞✈❛♥t❛❣❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ✉♥✉s❡❞ s♣❡❝tr✉♠✱ ❢♦❝✉s✐♥❣ ♦♥ ✐♥t❡r❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ❢r❡❡ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✳ ◆♦♥❡t❤❡❧❡ss✱ r❡❝❡♥t ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥ts ✐♥ ❞✐❣✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥❛❧ ♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ t❡❧❡❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✱ r❡❣❛r❞✐♥❣ ❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈❡ r❛❞✐♦s✱ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣② t❤❛t ❝❛♥ ❛❝❝♦♠♠♦❞❛t❡ t❤❡ ✐♥❝✉♠❜❡♥ts ♥❡❡❞s t❤✉s ❝❤❛♥❣✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠✐♥❞s❡t ♦♥ ❤♦✇ s♣❡❝tr✉♠ ✐s ❛❝❝❡ss❡❞✳ ❚❤✐s ✇✐❧❧ ♠❛❦❡ ✇❛② ❢♦r ❝r❡❛t✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❢♦✉♥❞❛t✐♦♥s ❢♦r ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♦❢ ♦♣♣♦rt✉♥✐st✐❝ ✇✐❞❡✲❜❛♥❞ s②st❡♠s t❤❛t ❝❛♥ ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ❛ r❡❧✐❛❜❧❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❡ ❢♦r ❙❆❚❈❖▼✳ ❚❤❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t ✇♦r❦ ✇✐❧❧ s❤♦✇ ❛ ❞✐s❝✉ss✐♦♥ ♦♥ ❝❤❛♥❣✐♥❣ s♣❡❝tr✉♠ ♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t ♣♦❧✐❝✐❡s ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ✐♠♣❛❝t t❤❛t ❢♦❧❧♦✇s✳ ❚❤❡ ❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈❡ r❛❞✐♦ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣② ✐s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ t❤❡ r❡✈♦❧✉t✐♦♥❛r② ❡❧❡♠❡♥t✱ ♥♦t ♦♥❧② ❢♦r t❤❡ P♦rt✉❣✉❡s❡ ◆❛✈② t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❝ ✐♥❢r❛s✲ tr✉❝t✉r❡✱ ❜✉t ❛❧s♦ ❢♦r t❤❡ ❛r❝❤✐t❡❝t✉r❡ ♦❢ ♦♣❡r❛t✐♦♥❛❧ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✳

❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❈♦❣♥❡t✐✈❡ ❘❛❞✐♦✱ ❉②♥❛♠✐❝ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ❆❧❧♦❝❛t✐♦♥✱ ▼❛r✐t✐♠❡ ❈♦♠✲ ♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✱ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ▼❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t✳

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

✷✳✶ P❛♥♦r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ▼❛rít✐♠❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽

✷✳✷ ✽✵ ▼❍③ ❛té ✶✼✹ ▼❍③ ❬✶❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✷✳✸ ❆❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❈❛♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❚❱ ♥❛ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❱❍❋ ❡ ❯❍❋ ❬✷❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✷✳✹ ■❧✉str❛çã♦ ❞♦s P❛ss♦s Pr♦♣♦st♦s ❬✸❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✸✳✶ ❘❘ ❆♣♣❡♥❞✐① ✶✽ ❬✹❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✸✳✷ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ●❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ♥❛ ◆❆❚❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✸✳✸ ❚❛①♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❞❛ ●❡stã♦ ❉✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❊s♣❡tr♦ ❬✺❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✹✳✶ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ s♣❡❝tr✉♠ s❡♥s✐♥❣ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❬✻❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✹✳✷ ❊sq✉❡♠❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ ●◆❯❘❆❉■❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✸ P❧❛❝❛ ❡❧❡tró♥✐❝❛ q✉❡ s✐♠✉❧❛ ✉♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✹✳✹ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❡ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ ❊s❝♦❧❛ ◆❛✈❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✹✳✺ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❆r♠❛s ❡ ❊❧❡tró♥✐❝❛ ❡ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❖♣❡✲

r❛çõ❡s✱ ❊❚◆❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✹✳✻ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞♦ ❚❡st❡ ♥❛ ❊❚◆❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✹✳✼ ▼♦♥t❛❣❡♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❊s❝♦❧❛ ◆❛✈❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✽ ▼♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ t❡st❡ ♥❛ ❊s❝♦❧❛ ◆❛✈❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✾ ❙♥❛♣s❤♦t ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❡❧❡tr♦♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ✉♠❛ tr❛♥s♠✐s✲

sã♦✱ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❯❙❘P✱ ♥♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❧✐❜r❛çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✹✳✶✵ ❙♥❛♣s❤♦t ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❡❧❡tr♦♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ✉♠❛ tr❛♥s♠✐s✲

sã♦✱ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦s ❋❙❍✸✱ ♥♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❧✐✲ ❜r❛çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✹✳✶✶ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ✐♥tr♦❞✉③✐❞♦s ♥♦ ❝❛rtã♦ ❙❉ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✹✳✶✷ Pr♦❜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❝❛♥❛❧ ❡st❛r ♦❝✉♣❛❞♦✱ ♥♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❧✐❜r❛çã♦✳ ✺✶ ✹✳✶✸ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ tr❛♥s♠✐ssõ❡s✱ ♥♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❧✐❜r❛çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✹✳✶✹ ▲♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♥t❡♥❛ ❛ ❜♦r❞♦ ❞♦ ◆❘P ❩❛r❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✹✳✶✺ ❚r❛❥❡t♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♥❛✈✐♦ ◆❘P ❩❛r❝♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ r❡❝♦❧❤❛ ❞❡

❞❛❞♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✹✳✶✻ ❉❛❞♦s r❡❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s ❛ ❜♦r❞♦ ❞♦ ◆❘P ❩❛r❝♦ ❞❛s ✶✶✺✾ às ✶✺✺✾ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✹✳✶✼ ❉❛❞♦s r❡❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s ❛ ❜♦r❞♦ ❞♦ ◆❘P ❩❛r❝♦ ❞❛s ✵✽✶✵ às ✶✷✶✵ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✹✳✶✽ ▲♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❆♥t❡♥❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻

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✹✳✶✾ ▼♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ ❆♥t❡♥❛ ❈❳✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✹✳✷✵ ❉❛❞♦s r❡❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s ❊st❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❙❛té❧✐t❡✱ ❋✶✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✹✳✷✶ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s♠✐ssõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ✹✳✷✷ ▲♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❆♥t❡♥❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ✹✳✷✸ ❉❛❞♦s r❡❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s ♥❛ ❈❛♣✐t❛♥✐❛ ❞❡ ❈❛s❝❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾ ✺✳✶ ❊✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❛ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❬✼❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❆❝ró♥✐♠♦s

❆❈P✿ ❆❧❧✐❡❞ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s P✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✳ ❆●❈✿ ❆✉t♦♠❛t✐❝ ●❛✐♥ ❈♦♥tr♦❧✳

❆■❙✿ ❆✉t♦♠❛t✐❝ ■❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ ❙②st❡♠✳ ❆▼◆✿ ❆✉t♦r✐❞❛❞❡ ▼❛rít✐♠❛ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

❆◆❆❈❖▼✿ ❆✉t♦r✐❞❛❞❡ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s✳ ❇◆▲✿ ❇❛s❡ ◆❛✈❛❧ ❞❡ ▲✐s❜♦❛✳

❇❙▼P✿ ❇❛tt❧❡s♣❛❝❡ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ▼❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t P❧❛♥✳

❈❊P❚✿ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦❢ P♦st❛❧ ❚❡❧❡❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❆❞♠✐♥✐str❛t✐♦♥s✳ ❈❙▼✿ ❈♦♠❜✐♥❡❞ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ▼❛♥❛❣❡rs✳

❈❙▼❈✿ ❈♦♠❜✐♥❡❞ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ▼❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t ❈❡❧❧✳ ❈❚❋❈✿ ❈♦♠❜✐♥❡❞ ❚❛s❦ ❋♦r❝❡ ❈♦♠♠❛♥❞❡r✳ ❉❆❊✿ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❆r♠❛s ❡ ❊❧❡tró♥✐❝❛✳ ❉❈✿ ❉✉t② ❈②❝❧❡✳

❉❈❚✿ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❡ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s✳ ❉❙❆✿ ❉②♥❛♠✐❝ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ❆❧❧♦❝❛t✐♦♥✳

❉❙❈✿ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ❙❡❧❡❝t✐✈❡ ❈❛❧❧✐♥❣✳ ❉❖P✿ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❖♣❡r❛çõ❡s✳ ❉❙P✿ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ❙✐❣♥❛❧ Pr♦❝❡ss♦rs✳

❉②❙P❆◆✿ ❉②♥❛♠✐❝ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ❆❝❝❡ss ◆❡t✇♦r❦s✳ ❊❈❈✿ ❊❧❡❝tr♦♥✐❝ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❈♦♠♠✐tt❡❡✳ ❊❈❋✿ ❊❧❡tr♦♥✐❝s ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❊◆✿ ❊s❝♦❧❛ ◆❛✈❛❧✳

❊❖❇✿ ❊❧❡tr♦♥✐❝ ❖r❞❡r ♦❢ ❇❛tt❧❡✳ ❊❚◆❆✿ ❊s❝♦❧❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ◆❛✈❛✐s✳ ❋❈❈✿ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❈♦♠✐ss✐♦♥✳ ❋❋❚✿ ❋❛st ❋♦✉r✐❡r ❚r❛♥s❢♦r♠✳

❋P●❆✿ ❋✐❡❧❞ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠❛❜❧❡ ●❛t❡ ❆rr❛②s✳

●▼❉❙❙✿ ●❧♦❜❛❧ ▼❛r✐t✐♠❡ ❉✐str❡ss ❙❛❢❡t② ❙②st❡♠✳ ●PP✿ ●❡♥❡r❛❧ P✉r♣♦s❡ Pr♦❝❡ss♦rs✳

●❙▼✿ ●❧♦❜❛❧ ❙②st❡♠ ❢♦r ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✳ ❍❉❚❱✿ ❍✐❣❤ ❉❡✜♥✐t✐♦♥ ❚❡❧❡✈✐s✐♦♥✳

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❍❋✿ ❍✐❣❤ ❋r❡q✉❡♥❝②✳

■❊❊❊✿ ■♥st✐t✉t❡ ♦❢ ❊❧❡❝tr✐❝❛❧ ❛♥❞ ❊❧❡❝tr♦♥✐❝s ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡rs✳ ■▼❖✿ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❛r✐t✐♠❡ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛t✐♦♥✳

■❙▼✿ ■♥❞✉str✐❛❧✱ ❙❝✐❡♥t✐✜❝ ❛♥❞ ▼❡❞✐❝❛❧✳

■❚❯✿ ■♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❚❡❧❡❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❯♥✐♦♥✳ ▲❚❊✿ ▲♦♥❣ ❚❡r♠ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐♦♥✳

▼❋✿ ▼❡❞✐✉♠ ❋r❡q✉❡♥❝②✳ ▼P✿ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ P♦rt✉❣✉❡s❛✳

◆❈✲❖❋❉▼✿ ◆♦♥ ❈♦♥t✐❣✉♦✉s ❖rt❤♦❣♦♥❛❧ ❋r❡♥q✉❡♥❝② ❉✐✈✐s✐♦♥ ▼✉❧t✐♣❧❡✲ ①✐♥❣✳

◆❊✿ ◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❊❧❡♠❡♥ts✳

◆❙▼✿ ◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r✳

◆❙❲❆◆✿ ◆❛t♦ ❙❡❝r❡t ❲✐r❡❧❡ss ❆r❡❛ ◆❡t✇♦r❦✳

❖❋❉▼✿ ❖rt❤♦❣♦♥❛❧ ❋r❡q✉❡♥❝② ❉✐✈✐s✐♦♥ ▼✉❧t✐♣❧❡①✐♥❣✳ ❖❙❆✿ ❖♣♣♦rt✉♥✐st✐❝ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ❆❝❝❡ss✳

P❚❚✿ P✉s❤ t♦ ❚❛❧❦✳ ◗♦❙✿ ◗✉❛❧✐t② ♦❢ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡✳ ❘❈✿ ❘á❞✐♦s ❈♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s✳

❘❈▼✿ ❘❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛✳ ❘❘✿ ❘❛❞✐♦ ❘❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥s✳

❙❆❘✿ ❙❡❛r❝❤ ❛♥❞ ❘❡s❝✉❡✳

❙❆❚❈❖▼✿ ❙❛tt❡❧✐t❡ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✳ ❙❉❘✿ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❉❡✜♥❡❞ ❘❛❞✐♦✳

❙■❈❆▲◆✿ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ■♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❈♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❡ ❆♣♦✐♦ ▲♦❣íst✐❝♦ ❛♦s ◆❛✈✐♦s✳

❙■●❉◆✿ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ■♥t❡❣r❛❞♦ ❞❡ ●❡stã♦ ❞❛ ❉❡❢❡s❛ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❙▼▼✿ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ▼ó✈❡❧ ▼❛rít✐♠♦✳

❙▼❚✿ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ▼ó✈❡❧ ❚❡rr❡str❡✳ ❙♦❈✿ ❙②st❡♠ ♦♥ ❈❤✐♣✳

❙❘❘❈✿ ❙t❛t❡ ❘❛❞✐♦ ❘❡❣✉❧❛t♦r② ❈♦♠✐ss✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❈❤✐♥❛✳

❙❲❖❚✿ ❙tr❡❣♥t❤s✱ ❲❡❛❦♥❡ss❡s✱ ❖♣♣♦rt✉♥✐t✐❡s ❛♥❞ ❚❤r❡❛ts✳ ❚❉✲▲❚❊✿ ❚✐♠❡ ❉✐✈✐s✐♦♥ ▲♦♥❣ ❚❡r♠ ❊✈♦❧✉t✐♦♥✳

❚❱❲❙✿ ❚❡❧❡✈✐s✐♦♥ ❲❤✐t❡ ❙♣❛❝❡s✳ ❯❍❋✿ ❯❧tr❛ ❍✐❣❤ ❋r❡q✉❡♥❝②✳

❯▼❚❙✿ ❯♥✐✈❡rs❛❧ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❚❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❙②st❡♠✳ ❯❊✿ ❯♥✐ã♦ ❊✉r♦♣❡✐❛✳

❯❘✿ ❯♥❞❡r❧❛② ❘❛❞✐♦s✳

❯❙❘P✿ ❯♥✐✈❡rs❛❧ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❘❛❞✐♦ P❡r✐♣❤❡r❛❧✳ ❯❲❇✿ ❯❧tr❛ ❲✐❞❡ ❇❛♥❞✳

❱❍❋✿ ❱❡r② ❍✐❣❤ ❋r❡q✉❡♥❝②✳

❲▲❆◆✿ ❲✐r❡❧❡❡s ▲♦❝❛❧ ❆r❡❛ ◆❡t✇♦r❦✳

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❲❘❈✿ ❲♦r❧❞ ❘❛❞✐♦ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡s✳

(16)
(17)

❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦

❉❡❞✐❝❛tór✐❛ ■

❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ■■■

❘❡s✉♠♦ ❱

❆❜str❛❝t ❱■

▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s ❱■■■

▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❆❝ró♥✐♠♦s ❳■

✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✸

✷ ❊♥q✉❛❞r❛♠❡♥t♦ ✼

✷✳✶ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ♥❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼

✷✳✷ ❆❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s ❛♦ ❙❆❚❈❖▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾

✷✳✸ ●❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❊s♣❡tr♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾

✷✳✹ ❇❛♥❞❛s ❘á❞✐♦ ❝♦♠ ■♥t❡r❡ss❡ ♣❛r❛ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❇❛♥❞❛ ▲❛r❣❛ ✶✷ ✷✳✺ ❊①♣❧♦r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❊s♣❡tr♦ ❱❍❋ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✺✳✶ ❘á❞✐♦s ❈♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✺✳✷ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❉❡✜♥❡❞ ❘❛❞✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✺✳✸ ❊st✉❞♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾

✸ P❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛s ❞❡ ●❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❊s♣❡tr♦ ✷✺

✸✳✶ P❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ❆t✉❛❧ ❞❛ ●❡stã♦ ❞♦ ❊s♣❡tr♦ ❱❍❋ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✸✳✷ ●❡stã♦ ❞♦ ❊s♣❡tr♦ ♥❛ ◆❆❚❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✸✳✷✳✶ ❋❛s❡ ❞❡ P❧❛♥❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✸✳✷✳✷ ❋❛s❡ ❞❡ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✸✳✷✳✸ ❋❛s❡ ❞❛ ❘❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✸✳✷✳✹ ❖❜s❡r✈❛çõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✸✳✸ ❆❝❡ss♦ ❉✐♥â♠✐❝♦ ❛♦ ❊s♣❡tr♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾

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✸✳✸✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❯s♦ ❉✐♥â♠✐❝♦ ❊①❝❧✉s✐✈♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✸✳✸✳✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ P❛rt✐❧❤❛ ▲✐✈r❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✸✳✸✳✸ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❆❝❡ss♦ ❍✐❡rárq✉✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✸✳✸✳✹ ❖❜s❡r✈❛çõ❡s ✜♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻

✹ ❯t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❊s♣❡tr♦ ♥❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ ✸✾

✹✳✶ ❯t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❊s♣❡tr♦ ♥❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✹✳✶✳✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✹✳✶✳✷ ❉❡t❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❖❝✉♣❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❈❛♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✹✳✶✳✸ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✶✳✹ ❚❡st❡s ❡ ▼❡❞✐❞❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✹✳✶✳✺ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾

✺ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❘á❞✐♦s ❈♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s ✻✶

✺✳✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶ ✺✳✶✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ✺✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❙❲❖❚ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ✺✳✷✳✶ P♦♥t♦s ❋♦rt❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ✺✳✷✳✷ P♦♥t♦s ❋r❛❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ✺✳✷✳✸ ❖♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ✺✳✷✳✹ ❆♠❡❛ç❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻ ✺✳✷✳✺ ❖❜s❡r✈❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼

✻ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ✻✾

❇✐❜❧✐♦❣r❛✜❛ ✼✽

❆ ❆♥❡①♦s ✼✾

❆✳✶ ❆❧♦❝❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❊s♣❡tr♦ P♦rt✉❣✉ês ❬✽❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✾ ❆✳✷ ▼❛♣❛ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❡❞✐✜❝❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❛♣♦✐♦ às ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❱❍❋ ✳ ✽✶ ❆✳✸ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ▼ó✈❡❧ ▼❛rít✐♠♦ ✲ P❧❛♥♦ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s

❡♠ ❱❍❋ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✷

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶

■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

❯♠❛ ♣❛rt❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ ❞❡ t♦❞❛ ❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛çã♦ ♠❛rít✐♠❛ é ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ♠❡♥♦s ❞❡ ✹✵ ♠✐❧❤❛s ❞❡ ❝♦st❛✳ ❙❡❥❛♠ ❝r✉③❡✐r♦s ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♥❛✈✐♦s ❞❡ tr❛♥s♣♦rt❡ ❞❡ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦r✐❛s ♦✉ ♥❛✈✐♦s ♣❡tr♦❧❡✐r♦s✱ t♦❞♦s ♣❧❛♥❡✐❛♠ ❛s s✉❛s ✈✐❛❣❡♥s ♦ ♠❛✐s ♣ró✲ ①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ❝♦st❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧✳ ❊st❡ ❢❛❝t♦ t♦r♥❛ ❡✈✐❞❡♥t❡ q✉❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ♣♦❞❡r s✉♣♦rt❛r ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ✐♥❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ✉♠❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛çã♦ s❡❣✉r❛✱ ♦s ❡st❛❞♦s ❝♦st❡✐r♦s ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛♠ ❞❡ t♦❞❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❛ ✉♠❛ ❝♦❜❡rt✉r❛ ❞❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❝❛♥❝❡ ❞❛s ❡st❛çõ❡s ❝♦st❡✐r❛s ❱❍❋✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❛té às ✹✵ ♠✐❧❤❛s✱ q✉❡ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s rá❞✐♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✈♦③ ❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛ ❞❡ s♦❝♦rr♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ❙❡❧❡❝t✐✈❡ ❈❛❧❧✐♥❣ ✭❉❙❈✮✳

P❛r❛ ✉♠ ♥❛✈✐♦ ♦❜t❡r ❧✐❝❡♥ç❛ ♣❛r❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛r ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛ ❞❡ t❡r ✉♠❛ ✐♥st❛❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s rá❞✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ s✉❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦✱ ♥♦♠❡❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❱❍❋ q✉❡ é ♦❜r✐❣❛tór✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❆✶ ❬✾❪ ❞♦ ●❧♦❜❛❧ ▼❛r✐t✐♠❡ ❉✐str❡ss ❙❛❢❡t② ❙②s✲ t❡♠ ✭●▼❉❙❙✮ ♣♦r ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❣❛r❛♥t❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜♦s ♦s s❡♥t✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛❧❝❛♥❝❡s ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❣❡♦♠❡tr✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡st❡♥❞✐❞♦s ✭✸✺ ♠✐❧❤❛s✮✳

❈♦♠ ♦s ❛✈❛♥ç♦s ❞❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ r❡❧❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s❡r✲ ✈✐ç♦s ❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦r✱ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❞❡✲ ♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛✱ tê♠ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛❞♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡ t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ❝♦♠✉♠ s❡❥❛ q✉❛❧ ❢♦r ♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦✳ ❆ r❡❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❝♦✲ ♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ♠❛rít✐♠❛ ♥ã♦ é ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❬✼❪✳ ❙✉r❣❡♠ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛çã♦✱ ♥♦♠❡❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❡✲◆❛✈✐❣❛t✐♦♥ ❬✶✵❪✱ q✉❡ s❡ ♣r♦✈❛ ✉♠❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ❛❥✉❞❡ ❛ r❡❞✉③✐r ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❝✐❞❡♥t❡s ♥♦s ♥❛✈✐♦s ❞♦s q✉❛✐s✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❛r✐t✐♠❡ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛t✐♦♥ ✭■▼❖✮ ❬✶✶❪✱ ✻✵✪ ❡stã♦ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠

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♦ ❡rr♦ ❤✉♠❛♥♦✳ ❖ ❛❝❡ss♦ à ■♥t❡r♥❡t é ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠✉♠ ❡ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♦ ❢❛③❡r ❛ ❜♦r❞♦ ❞♦s ♥❛✈✐♦s ❞❡ ❝r✉③❡✐r♦✱ ♦✉ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♦✉tr❛ ❡♠❜❛r❝❛çã♦✱ s✉r❣❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❡st❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s r❡q✉❡✲ r❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛ q✉❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦s ♣♦r ❙❆❚❈❖▼ q✉❡ s❡ ♣r♦✈❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ❞✐s♣❡♥❞✐♦s♦ ❡✱ ♣♦r ✈❡③❡s✱ ✐♥❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧✳

❆ ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ às ❙❆❚❈❖▼ é ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛♥t❡ ♣♦✐s✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ❡①✐st✐r ❝♦❜❡rt✉r❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❱❍❋ ❡st❛s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛❝♦♠♦❞❛♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ✈♦③ ❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❞é❜✐t♦ ✭❉❙❈✮ ❡ ♦ ❯♥✐✈❡rs❛❧ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❚❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❙②s✲ t❡♠ ✭❯▼❚❙✮ ❡ ▲❚❊ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦❜❡rt✉r❛ ♠❛rít✐♠❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ❧✐♠✐t❛❞❛✳ ❚❡♥❞♦ ✐st♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥t❛✱ t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ❡✈✐❞❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛ ✐♠✲ ♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❱❍❋ s❡r✐❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ✈❛♥t❛❥♦s♦ ♣❡❧♦ q✉❡✱ ♥ã♦ ✐r✐❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s r❡❞✉③✐r ♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ✜♥❛♥❝❡✐r♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✐r✐❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛r ✉♠ ❛✈❛♥ç♦ ♥❛s ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ♠❛rít✐♠❛s ♥❛ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ ❡♠ q✉❡ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧✐③❛r✐❛ ❛ ❝✐r❝✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♥❛✈✐♦s ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❛ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛✲ çã♦✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡s❛✜♦ ♥♦ q✉❡ ❞✐③ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ à ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡st❡s ♥❛ ❜❛♥❞❛ ♠❛rít✐♠❛ ❱❍❋ é✱ s❡♠ ❞ú✈✐❞❛✱ ❛ ❡s❝❛ss❡③ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❡ ❛ s✉❛ ❣❡stã♦✳ ❚♦r♥❛✲s❡ ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❡s♣❡tr♦ q✉❡ s❡ ♣♦ss❛ ✉t✐❧✐✲ ③❛r ✭♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❝♦♥tí❣✉♦✮✳ ❯♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❝♦♥❞✉③✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❈♦♠✐ss✐♦♥ ✭❋❈❈✮ ❬✶✷❪ ♠♦str♦✉ q✉❡✱ ❞❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ❡ t❡♠♣♦✱ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ♥❡ss❡ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✲s❡ ✐♥✉t✐✲ ❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ■st♦ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ ❛ ♠á ❣❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ♣❡❧❛s ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s r❡❣✉❧❛❞♦r❛s ❡ ♥ã♦ à ❡s❝❛ss❡③ ❢ís✐❝❛ ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❡♠❡r❣❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✈✐r ❝♦❧♠❛t❛r ❡st❛ ♠á ❣❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦✳ ❖s ❘á❞✐♦s ❈♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s ✭❘❈✮ sã♦ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞✐ss♦ ♣♦✐s ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♠ú❧✲ t✐♣❧❛s ♣♦rt❛❞♦r❛s ❡ ✧s♠❛rt ❛♥t❡♥♥❛s✧✱ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s à ❜❛♥❞❛ ❱❍❋✱ t♦r♥❛r✲s❡✲✐❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ❊❞✉❛r❞♦ ❇♦❧❛s ♥❛ s✉❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ t❡s❡ ❞❡ ❞♦✉t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❬✶✸❪✳ ▼❛✐s ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ ❛ q✉❡s✲ tã♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❡❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛♥ç♦ q✉❡ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❡ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦ sã♦ ❛s ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s r❡❣✉❧❛❞♦r❛s q✉❡ ❞✐t❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ ❡s♣❡✲ tr♦ ❞❡✈❡ ❡st❛r ❛❧♦❝❛❞♦ ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦r ♦✉ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡st✐♥❛❞♦✱ s❡♠ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛✳ ❊st❛ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛ t❡♠ ❞❡ ❡✈♦❧✉✐r ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ♠❛✐s ❞✐♥â♠✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ t❛❧ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ❬✶✹❪✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ✈ár✐❛s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞❛s ♥♦ ❞❡❝♦rr❡r ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❝✉❥❛ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ s❡rá ❢❡✐t❛ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥t❛ ❛ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❞❡ ❱❍❋✱ ♥♦♠❡❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ▼ó✈❡❧ ▼❛rít✐♠♦ ✭❙▼▼✮✳ ❆ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❛ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ✭❝♦♠♦ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❜❛♥❞❛✮ ♣♦✐s t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ♠✉✐t♦ ❞✐❢í❝✐❧ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ◗✉❛❧✐t② ♦❢ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ✭◗♦❙✮ ❡ ✐♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ às ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s✳ ❊st❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❡stã♦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♣♦✉❝❛ ♠❛t✉r✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♠ q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛ ❡st❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡✱ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❢❛❝t♦ ❞❡ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛s ♥❛✲ ✈❡❣❛çõ❡s ♠❛rít✐♠❛s s❡r❡♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ❥✉♥t♦ ❛ ❝♦st❛ ✭♥♦♠❡❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛s ♠✐ssõ❡s ❞❡

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♣❛tr✉❧❤❛ ❞❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ P♦rt✉❣✉❡s❛✮✱ ❛ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❱❍❋ ♣❛r❡❝❡ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ♣r♦♠✐ss♦r❛✳

➱ t❛♠❜é♠ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ r❡❢♦rç❛r ❛s♣❡t♦s q✉❡ ❢❛③❡♠ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣❧❡✲ ♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ P♦rt✉❣✉❡s❛ ✭▼P✮ s❡❥❛ ❛❧❣♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❡①❡q✉í✈❡❧✳ ❆ ▼❛✲ r✐♥❤❛ P♦rt✉❣✉❡s❛ ❞❡té♠ ❝❛♥❛✐s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❙▼▼ q✉❡ sã♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈♦ ❞❡st❛✱ ♦ q✉❡✱ ❧♦❣♦ à ♣❛rt✐❞❛✱ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝♦♥str❛♥❣✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡①t❡r✐♦r❡s✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ t❛♠❜é♠ ❥á tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦♥❝❧✉í❞♦s ❡ ❛ ❞❡❝♦rr❡r à ✈♦❧t❛ ❞❡st❛ t❡♠át✐❝❛✱ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛ ♠✐❧✐t❛r❡s ❞❛ ▼P ❝♦♠♦ ❛ t❡s❡ ❞❡ ❞♦✉t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❛r❞♦ ❇♦❧❛s q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛ ❡♠ ❞❡✲ s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❝✉❥❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ❡♠ ✷✵✶✷ ❬✶✸❪ ❡ ❛ t❡s❡ ❞❡ ♠❡str❛❞♦ ❞❡ ●❡r♠❛♥♦ ❈❛♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉í❞❛ ❡♠ ✷✵✶✹ ❬✻❪✳ ■st♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ ❛ ▼P t❡♠ ♥❡st❡ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❛✉t♦♥♦♠✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ❡st❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♣✐♦♥❡✐r❛ ♥❛q✉✐❧♦ q✉❡ s❡rá ♦ ❢✉t✉r♦ ❞❛s t❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s✳

❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✐rá ♣♦rt❛♥t♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✈ár✐❛s r❡✢❡①õ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛s t❡♠át✐❝❛s ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥t❡s✱ ♥♦♠❡❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛s ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦✳ ◆❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ s❡rá t❛♠❜é♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r ❝♦♠♦ é q✉❡ ♦s ❝❛♥❛✐s ❞♦ ❙▼▼ sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐✲ ③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣♦❞❡r♠♦s ♣❡r❝❡❜❡r q✉❡ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ♣♦❞❡rã♦ ❡①✐st✐r ♣❛ssí✈❡✐s ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ❛♣r♦✈❡✐t❛❞❛s✳ ❙❡rã♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉t♦s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❛ ♣❡r❝♦rr❡r ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ ❡ q✉❛✐s ♦s ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s ♣❛ss♦s ❛ ❞❛r✳

➱ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ s❛❧✐❡♥t❛r q✉❡ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♥ã♦ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❡①❛✉st✐✈❛ ❛s ❝❛r❛t❡ríst✐❝❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❞❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✭✐✳❡✳ ♠♦✲ ❞✉❧❛çã♦✱ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ s❡♥s✐♥❣✮ ♠❛s s✐♠ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ✐♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡st❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♥❛ ▼P ❡ ❞✐ss❡rt❛r s♦❜r❡ q✉❛❧ ♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✱ t✉❞♦ ✐st♦ s✉♣♦rt❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ r❡❝♦❧❤❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝❛♠♣♦✱ ❞❡✈✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t❛ ♥♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ r❡s♣❡t✐✈♦✳

❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✲s❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦ ❞❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❢♦r♠❛✿ ♥♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷ s❡rã♦ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❛ t❡♠át✐❝❛ ❡ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠ ❡♥q✉❛❞r❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❛❜♦r❞❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❞❡❝♦rr❡r ❞♦s r❡st❛♥t❡s ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦s✳ ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸ ❡♥tr❛r✲s❡✲à ❡♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡ ❡♠ q✉❡stõ❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❣❡stã♦ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ♥❛ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❱❍❋ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦✳ ◆♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹ s❡rã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♦s t❡st❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❛ ♦❝✉♣❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❝❛♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❱❍❋✳ ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡st❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦✲ ❣✐❛ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❙tr❡❣♥t❤s✱ ❲❡❛❦♥❡ss❡s✱ ❖♣♣♦rt✉♥✐t✐❡s ❛♥❞ ❚❤r❡❛ts ✭❙❲❖❚✮ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ♥❛ ▼P✳ ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✻ s❡rã♦ ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞❛s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s r❡t✐r❛❞❛s ❞❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷

❊♥q✉❛❞r❛♠❡♥t♦

✷✳✶ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ♥❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛

❙❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ ❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ ❢♦✐ ✐♥tr♦❞✉③✐♥❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛s q✉❡ t♦r♥❛r❛♠ ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❛ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❣❛r❛♥t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ s❡ ♠❛♥té♠ s❡❣✉r❛✳

P♦r ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ♥♦ ❡♠♣❡♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ♥❛✈✐♦s ❞❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ P♦rt✉❣✉❡s❛✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ s❛❜❡r ❛ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❡ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♥❛✈❛❧✳ P❛r❛ t❛❧✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ ✈ár✐♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❛♦s ♥❛✈✐♦s q✉❡ sã♦ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝✉♠✲ ♣r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♠✐ssã♦✳ ❊st❛s ♠✐ssõ❡s ♦❝♦rr❡♠ t❛♥t♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❧♦♥❣❡ ❞❡ ❝♦st❛ ❡ ❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ♣❛r❛ ♠❛♥t❡r ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ♦s ♥❛✈✐♦s é ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ✜❣✉r❛✿

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✭❛✮ ❱❍❋ ✲ ◆❛✈❡❣❛çã♦ ❈♦st❡✐r❛ ✭❜✮ ❍❋ ❡ ❙❆❚❈❖▼ ✲ ◆❛✈❡❣❛çã♦❖❝❡â♥✐❝❛

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✿ P❛♥♦r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ▼❛rít✐♠❛s

❈♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶ ❛✮✱ ❛s ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛çã♦ ❝♦s✲ t❡✐r❛ sã♦ ❢❡✐t❛s ♣♦r ❱❍❋ ❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s sã♦ ✈♦③ ❡ tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❡str❡✐t❛ ✭❉❙❈✮✳ ❆♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ t♦❞❛ ❛ ❝♦st❛ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ❡❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛çõ❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ❡♠ ❛♥❡①♦✱ q✉❡ ❣❛✲ r❛♥t❡ ❝♦❜❡rt✉r❛ ❡♠ t♦❞❛ ❛ ❝♦st❛✳ ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶ ❜✮ ♦❜s❡r✈❛♠♦s ❞❡ q✉❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s❡ ♠❛♥tê♠ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ♥❛✈✐♦s ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ❛❧❝❛♥❝❡ ❞❛s ✸✺ ♠✐❧❤❛s✱ ✉t✐❧✐✲ ③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❍❋ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s s❛té❧✐t❡✳ ◆❡st❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛r ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✿

• ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❢♦r♠❛✐s ❆❈P ✶✷✼

• ❱♦③ tát✐❝❛

• ■♥t❡r♥❡t

• ■♥tr❛♥❡t

• ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥✐❛

• ◆❙❲❆◆ ✭◆❆❚❖ ❙❡❝r❡t ❲✐r❡❧❡ss ❆r❡❛ ◆❡t✇♦r❦✮

❖ ❆❧❧✐❡❞ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s P✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✭❆❈P✮ ✶✷✼ é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥s✲ tr✉çõ❡s ❡ ♣r♦❝❡❞✐♠❡♥t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❣❡r✐r ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ♠✐❧✐t❛r❡s✳ ❊st❛s sã♦ tr❛♥s♠✐✲ t✐❞❛s ❡♠ ❍❋ ❡ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✉❛s ❡st❛çõ❡s ❡♠ t❡rr❛ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣❡❧❛ tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦ ❡ r❡❝❡çã♦ ❞❛s ♠❡s♠❛s ✭P❡♥❛❧✈❛ ❡ ❋♦♥t❡ ❞❛ ❚❡❧❤❛✱ r❡s♣❡t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✮ ❝♦♠♣❧❡✲ ♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ❡st❛çã♦ ❞❡ P♦♥t❛ ❉❡❧❣❛❞❛✳ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ é ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❝❛♥❛✐s ❞❡ ✸ ❦❍③✳ ❖ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ✈♦③ é ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ três ❜❛♥❞❛s ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ✭❍❋✱ ❱❍❋ ❡ ❯❧tr❛ ❍✐❣❤ ❋r❡q✉❡♥❝② ✭❯❍❋✮✮✳ ❉♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❢♦r✲ ♥❡❝✐❞♦s✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ❡ ■♥tr❛♥❡t sã♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛ ♠❛s ♥❡♠

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t♦❞♦s ♦s ♥❛✈✐♦s tê♠ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝❡❞❡r ❛♦s ♠❡s♠♦s✱ t❛♥t♦ ♣♦r ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❛✈✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❙❆❚❈❖▼✳

◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❛tr❛❝❛❞♦s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ♣♦r ✜❜r❛ ót✐❝❛✱ ♦s ♥❛✈✐♦s ❡stã♦ ❧✐❣❛❞♦s à ❘❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ▼❛r✐♥❤❛ ✭❘❈▼✮ ❡ ✉s✉❢r✉❡♠ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❝♦♠♦ ■♥t❡r ❡ ■♥tr❛♥❡t r❡❢❡r✐❞♦s ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ ❜❛s❡❞ ❝♦♠♦✿ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ■♥t❡❣r❛❞♦ ❞❡ ●❡stã♦ ❞❛ ❉❡❢❡s❛ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✭❙■●❉◆✮✱ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ■♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❈♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❡ ❆♣♦✐♦ ▲♦❣íst✐❝♦ ❛♦s ◆❛✈✐♦s ✭❙■❈❆▲◆✮✱ ❡t❝✳

✷✳✷ ❆❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s ❛♦ ❙❆❚❈❖▼

❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❡s ♠ó✈❡✐s ♥♦ ♠❛r ♥ã♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♣❡❧♦ q✉❡ ❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ sã♦ ❛s ❙❆❚❈❖▼✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♣❡♥s❛r ❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ ❜❛♥❞❛ rá❞✐♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛✳

P❛r❛ ❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s rá❞✐♦ ♦ ♣❛♥♦r❛♠❛ é ♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✿

• ❍❋ ✲ ❈❛♥❛✐s ❞❡ ✸ ❦❍③ ❝♦♠ ❞é❜✐t♦s ♠á①✐♠♦s ❞❡ ✾✳✻ ❦❜♣s

• ❱❍❋ ✲ ❈❛♥❛✐s ❞❡ ✷✺ ❦❍③✱ ❡♠ q✉❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ❉❙❈ s❡ ✉s❛ ✾✳✻ ❦❜♣s

• ❯❍❋ ✲ ❈❛♥❛✐s ❞❡ ✶✷✺ ❦❍③ ❝♦♠ ❞é❜✐t♦s ♠á①✐♠♦s ❞❡ ✷✽ ❦❜♣s

• ✷✳✹ ●❍③ ✲ ❈❛♥❛✐s ❞❡ ✷✷ ▼❍③ ❲✐✜ ♦✉ ❲✐▼❛① ❝♦♠ ❞é❜✐t♦s ❞❡ ✹✵▼❜♣s

✷✳✸ ●❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❊s♣❡tr♦

❖ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❡❧❡tr♦♠❛❣♥ét✐❝♦ é ✉♠ r❡❝✉rs♦ ❡s❝❛ss♦✱ ✜♥✐t♦ ♠❛s r❡✉t✐❧✐③á✈❡❧✳ ❊st❡ r❡❝✉rs♦ t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ✈✐t❛❧✱ ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛♥❞♦ ❢❛t♦r❡s ❡❝♦♥ó♠✐❝♦s✱ s♦❝✐❛✐s ❡ ♣♦❧ít✐❝♦s ♥❛s ♥❛çõ❡s✳

❖ ❢❛❝t♦ ❞❡ s❡r ✉♠ r❡❝✉rs♦ ✜♥✐t♦✱ t♦r♥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡ ❡①✐st❛ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛ss❡❣✉r❛r ✉♠❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡ ✐❣✉❛❧❞❛❞❡✱ ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦r❡s ❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ✉s✉❢r✉❡♠ ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦✳

◗✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ ❡q✉❛❝✐♦♥❛ ❣❡r✐r ♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ ✈ár✐❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❛ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡✲ r❛r✿ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❛tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ✭♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ✐♥❣❧❡s❛ ❛ss✐❣♥♠❡♥t ❡ ❛❧❧♦t♠❡♥t✱ r❡s♣❡t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✮✱ ❛ ✈❡rt❡♥t❡ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛ ✭t❛♥t♦ ❛ ♥í✈❡❧

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♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ♥í✈❡❧ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✮✱ ♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❡❢❡✐t♦ q✉❡ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡✲ tr♦ t❡♠ ♥❛ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ ♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ❡❝♦♥ó♠✐❝♦ ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s té❝♥✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ s✉❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✳

❆ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦ é ✉♠❛ ❛✉t♦r✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❣✉❧❛❞♦r❛ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ♦✉ ❝❛♥❛✐s rá❞✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s✳ ❆ss✐♠ q✉❡ é ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦✱ é ❝r✐❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ♣r♦t❡çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❣❡♦❣rá✜❝❛ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛✳ ❊st❛ ❛✉t♦r✐③❛çã♦ ✈❡♠ ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❧✐❝❡♥ç❛ ♥❛ q✉❛❧ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛♠ ❞✐s❝r✐♠✐♥❛❞❛s ❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s✳ ◆❛ ❛tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦✱ ✉♠❛✱ ✈ár✐❛s ♦✉ ❜❧♦❝♦s ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛♥❞❛✱ ❞❛❞❛s ❛ ✉♠❛ ❛✉t♦r✐❞❛❞❡ s✉❜♦r❞✐♥❛❞❛ q✉❡ ✜❝❛ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ❢❛③❡r ❛s s✉❛s ♣ró♣r✐❛s ❛❧♦❝❛çõ❡s✳ ❆s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛s ❛ ❡st❛s ❛tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✉s❛❞❛s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ár❡❛ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ♦✉ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr❛s ❝♦♥❞✐❝✐♦♥❛♥✲ t❡s✳ ❖ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ♠✐❧✐t❛r é ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❡ t♦❞♦ ❡ss❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦ é ❞❡♣♦✐s ❛❧♦❝❛❞♦ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥t❛ ❛s ✈ár✐❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ✜❝❛♥❞♦ s❡♠♣r❡ à r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ♠✐❧✐t❛r❡s ❬✶✺❪✳

◆❛ ✈❡rt❡♥t❡ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛ t❡♠♦s ♦ ❢❛❝t♦ ❞❡ ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ s❡r ❣❧♦❜❛❧✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❡♠ ♠✉✐t♦s ❝❛s♦s t❡rá ❞❡ ❡①✐st✐r ❝♦♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♣❛ís s❡❥❛♠ ❛ss❡❣✉r❛❞♦s✱ s❡♠ ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♥❛çõ❡s ✈✐③✐♥❤❛s✳ ➱ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡r q✉❡♠ é q✉❡ t❡♠ s♦❜❡r❛♥✐❛ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ q✉❡♠ é q✉❡ t❡♠ ❞✐r❡✐t♦ ❛ q✉❡ ♣♦rçã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦✳ ❖ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ t❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝♦ é t❛♠❜é♠ ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❛ t❡r ❡♠ ❝♦♥t❛ ♣♦✐s ❡st❡ ✈❛✐ ❝♦♥❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ é ❣❡r✐❞♦ ♥❛ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ ❡♠ q✉❡ é ❡st❡ q✉❡ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛ ♦♣çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✳

◗✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ ❛❧♦❝❛ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❛ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦✱ ❡st❡ ❞❡✐①❛ ❞❡ s❡r ✉♠ r❡❝✉rs♦ ♣♦✐s✱ q✉❛❧q✉❡r s❡r✈✐ç♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♥❝♦rr❛ às ♠❡s♠❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❡ q✉❡ ♣r♦✈♦q✉❡ ✐♥t❡r✲ ❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s✱ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ❊✈❡♥t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐rá s✉❝❡❞❡r s❡rá ❛ ❧♦t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ s❡♠ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛r ♥♦✈♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲ ❞♦r❡s ♦✉ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛r ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳

❆ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ❡s♣❡tr♦ é✱ ♥♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ✐♥❝❡ss❛♥t❡ ♣♦✐s ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ ❛ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ t❡♠ ❡♠ ♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ é ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r ♦ q✉❡ s❡ tr❛❞✉③ ♥✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❧❛r❣✉r❛ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛✳ P♦❞❡ ❡♥tã♦ ❞✐③❡r✲s❡ q✉❡ q✉❡♠ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛ ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦✱ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛ ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ é ♣❛ss❛❞❛✳ ❈♦♠ ✐st♦✱ t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ❡✈✐❞❡♥t❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①✐st✐r ✉♠❛ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❣❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡tr♦✳ ❊st❛ é ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♥❛ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❞❛ ✧s❛ú❞❡✧❡❝♦♥ó♠✐❝❛ ❞❛s t❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s✳ ❚r❛t❛ ❞❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ❣❛r❛♥t❡ ✉♠ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❧✐✈r❡ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♠❛✐♦r ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦r❡s ❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s✳

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➱ ♣❡r❢❡✐t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sí✈❡❧ q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♥❛çã♦ q✉❡✐r❛ t❡r ❛❝❡ss♦ ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ q✉❡ ❧❤❡ ❢♦✐ ❛tr✐❜✉í❞♦✱ ♥♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡st❡ r❡❝✉rs♦ t♦r♥❛♠ ❡st❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ✐♠♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♣♦✐s ❛ ❡♥❡r❣✐❛ ❡❧❡tr♦♠❛❣♥ét✐❝❛ ♥ã♦ r❡s♣❡✐t❛ ❛s ❢r♦♥t❡✐r❛s ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛çã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛❝❡❞❡r ❛♦ ❡s✲ ♣❡tr♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✲s❡ ❛♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

P❛r❛ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝❡r ❡st❛ ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛çã♦ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡①✐st❡ ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❚❡❧❡❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❯♥✐♦♥ ✭■❚❯✮✳ ❊st❛ ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✶✾✵✸ ❝♦♠♦ ■♥t❡r♥❛✲ ❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❚❡❧❡❣r❛♣❤ ❯♥✐♦♥ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ r❡❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❣❡r✐r ♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ q✉❡ ♥❡st❛ ❛❧t✉r❛ ❥á ❡①✐st✐❛✳ ❊♠ ✶✾✹✼ ❛❞♦t♦✉ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ q✉❡ ❤♦❥❡ s❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ❡①♣❛♥sã♦ ❞❛s t❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡ ❞♦ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❣❧♦❜❛❧ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧♦ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦✳ ❊st❛ r❡❣✉❧❛ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❣❧♦❜❛❧ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❣❡stã♦ é ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♥❛s ❲♦r❧❞ ❘❛❞✐♦ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡s ✭❲❘❈✮ ♦♥❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s r❡❣r❛s ❡ ♣r♦❝❡❞✐♠❡♥t♦s sã♦ ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦s✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s ❲❘❈ sã♦ ❞❡♣♦✐s ✈❡rt✐❞♦s ♥❛s ■❚❯✲❘❛❞✐♦ ❘❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥s ✭❘❘✮ q✉❡✱ ❛♦ t❡r❡♠ ❡st❛t✉t♦ ❞❡ tr❛t❛❞♦✱ s❡r✈❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❞♦✉tr✐♥❛✳ ❖ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❞❡st❛ é ❛ss❡❣✉r❛r ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❥✉st♦✱ ✢❡①í✈❡❧ ❡ ❛❜❡rt♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛r ♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r s❡r✈✐ç♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦r❡s✳ ➱ t❛♠❜é♠ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ■❚❯ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥❡❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❛ ❛❝♦♠♦❞❛r ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳

❆ ■❚❯ ❡stá ♣♦rt❛♥t♦ ❡♥❝❛rr❡❣✉❡ ❞❛ ❣❡stã♦ ❣❧♦❜❛❧ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦✳ ❊st❛ ❣❡s✲ tã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ♣✐râ♠✐❞❡ ❡♠ q✉❡ t❡♠♦s três ❝❛♠❛❞❛s✿ ❣❧♦❜❛❧✱ r❡❣✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

❆♦ ♥í✈❡❧ r❡❣✐♦♥❛❧ ❡①✐st❡♠ ♥❛ ❊✉r♦♣❛ ❞✉❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ r❡❣✉❧❛♠ ♦ ❡s♣❡✲ tr♦✿ ❛ ❯♥✐ã♦ ❊✉r♦♣❡✐❛ ✭❯❊✮ ❡ ❛ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦❢ P♦st❛❧ ❚❡❧❡❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❆❞♠✐♥✐str❛t✐♦♥s ✭❈❊P❚✮✳ ❆♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❛ ❯♥✐ã♦ ❊✉r♦♣❡✐❛✱ sã♦ t♦♠❛❞❛s ✐♥✐✲ ❝✐❛t✐✈❛s s♦❜r❡ ❞✐r❡t✐✈❛s ❞❛ ❙♣❡❝tr✉♠ ❉❡❝✐s✐♦♥ ❬✶✻❪ ❡ ❞❛ ❊❯ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❢♦r ❊❧❡tr♦♥✐❝s ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❬✶✼❪✳ ❊♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❛s♦s✱ ❛s ♠❡❞✐❞❛s ❛❞♦t❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❛✉t♦r✐❞❛❞❡s ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❤❛r♠♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞✐✜❝✉❧✲ t❛❞❛s ❞❡✈✐❞♦s ❛♦s ❛❥✉st❡s ❛ s❡r❡♠ ❢❡✐t♦s ❝♦♠ ❛s ♥❛çõ❡s ❛❞❥❛❝❡♥t❡s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ❊❧❡tr♦♥✐❝s ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✭❊❈❋✮ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✲s❡ ❛ s❡r ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❧❡❣✐s❧❛çã♦ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s ❡st❛❞♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦✳ ❉✐r❡t✐✈❛s ❡ ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s t♦♠❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ❯❊ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛s ♥❛s ❞✐r❡t✐✈❛s ❛❝✐♠❛ r❡❢❡r✐❞❛s sã♦ ♠❛♥❞❛tór✐❛s ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❡st❛❞♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦✳

❆ ❈❊P❚ é ✉♠❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ✹✺ ❡st❛❞♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦ q✉❡ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝❡✉ ♦ ❊❧❡❝tr♦♥✐❝ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❈♦♠♠✐tt❡❡ ✭❊❈❈✮✳ ❊st❡ ❥✉♥t❛ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛✲ ❞❡s r❡❣✉❧❛❞♦r❛s ❞♦s ❡s♣❡tr♦ ❞♦s ❡st❛❞♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦ ♣♦r ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ t♦♠❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦✳ ❆ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛s

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❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❡ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çõ❡s ❛ ♥í✈❡❧ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ é ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

❆ ♥í✈❡❧ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❡♠ P♦rt✉❣❛❧✱ t❡♠♦s ❛ ❆✉t♦r✐❞❛❞❡ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐✲ ❝❛çõ❡s ✭❆◆❆❈❖▼✮✳ ❊st❛✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❛✉t♦r✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❣✉❧❛❞♦r❛ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❣❛r❛♥t❡ ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ r❡❞❡s✱ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡ ✈ár✐♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦ ✐♥t❡r♥♦ ❞❛s ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡❧❡tró♥✐❝❛s✱ ♣r♦t❡❣❡ ♦s ❞✐r❡✐t♦s ❡ ✐♥✲ t❡r❡ss❡s ❞♦s ❝♦♥s✉♠✐❞♦r❡s✱ ❛ss❡❣✉r❛ q✉❡ s❡ ♠❛♥té♠ ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❡♠❡r❣ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s ❛tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s✳ ❋❛③ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ s✉❛ ♠✐ssã♦✱ ❛ ❝♦❛❞❥✉✲ ✈❛çã♦ ❞♦ ●♦✈❡r♥♦ ♥♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❛s ❈♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣r❡st❛♥❞♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ té❝♥✐❝♦✱ ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r❡❝❡r❡s✱ ❡st✉❞♦s ❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❧❡❣✐s❧❛çã♦✳ ❖ s❡✉ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r✈❡♥çã♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✲s❡ r❡❣✉❧❛♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❆◆❆❈❖▼ ❡♠ ❬✶✽❪✳

P❛r❛ ♣r♦ss❡❣✉✐r ❛s s✉❛s ❛tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s✱ ❛ ❆◆❆❈❖▼ ❞✐s♣õ❡ ❞❡ ♣♦❞❡r❡s ❞❡ r❡❣✉❧❛♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱ s✉♣❡r✈✐sã♦✱ ✜s❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ s❛♥❝✐♦♥❛tór✐♦s✳ ❯t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❡st❡s ♣♦❞❡r❡s✱ ❞❡✈❡ ❛tr✐❜✉✐r✱ r❡✈♦❣❛r ❡ ❛❧t❡r❛r ❞✐r❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s✱ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ❛s ❧❡✐s✱ r❡❣✉❧❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡ ❛t♦s ❞❛ ❯❊ ♥♦ s❡❝t♦r ❞❛s ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ♦ ❝✉♠♣r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ♠❡s♠♦s✱ ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐③❛r ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s s✉❥❡✐t❛s à s✉❛ s✉♣❡r✈✐sã♦ ❡ ♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ♠❡r❝❛❞♦s ❞❛s ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r ♦✉ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛✉❞✐t♦r✐❛s ❡ ♣r♦❝❡❞❡r ❛ ✐♥s♣❡çõ❡s ❡ ✐♥q✉ér✐t♦s✱ ❡♥tr❡ ✈ár✐❛s ♦✉tr❛s ✐♥❝✉♠❜ê♥❝✐❛s ❬✶✾❪✳ ❚♦❞❛ ❡st❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ t♦r♥♦ ❞❛ ❣❡stã♦ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡tr♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ r❡❣✉❧❛♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣♦r ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ♦ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ár✐♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ♥❛s ✈ár✐❛s ❜❛♥❞❛s✳

❊s♣❡tr♦ ♥ã♦ ❧✐❝❡♥❝✐❛❞♦ é ❛❧❣♦ ♠✉✐t♦ r❛r♦✱ ❞✐✜❝✉❧t❛♥❞♦ ♥♦✈❛s ❛tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♦✉ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡♠❡r❣❡♥t❡s ♠♦t✐✈❛♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❛❧t❡r✲ ♥❛t✐✈❛s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❛♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❛t✉❛✐s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ♦✉ ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ q✉❡ é ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡s♣❡tr❛❧✳

✷✳✹ ❇❛♥❞❛s ❘á❞✐♦ ❝♦♠ ■♥t❡r❡ss❡ ♣❛r❛ ❈♦♠✉♥✐✲

❝❛çõ❡s ❇❛♥❞❛ ▲❛r❣❛

P❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❧❛r❣❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ♠❛rít✐♠❛s é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣♦♥❞❡r❛r q✉❛❧ ❛ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ♠❛✐s ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛❝♦♠♦❞❛r t❛❧ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ✈ár✐♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ s❡r ❧❡✈❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♥t❛ ♥❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞❡st❛ ❜❛♥❞❛✱ ♠❛s t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥t❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❡stá ❛ ❡st✉❞❛r ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ♠❛rít✐♠❛s✱ t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ❡✈✐❞❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛✐s ❛ t❡r ❡♠ ❝♦♥t❛ sã♦✿ ♦ ❛❧❝❛♥❝❡ ❡ ❛ ❧❛r❣✉r❛ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛ às ❛t✉❛✐s ❛❧♦❝❛çõ❡s ♥❛s r❡s♣❡t✐✈❛s ❜❛♥❞❛s✳

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