284044-Pin, High-Performance, Enhanced Flash, USB Microcontrollers with nanoWatt Technology
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PIC18F24557 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 6 19 5 4 3 2 1 V USB RD0/SPP0RD1/SPP1 /UOE RC2/CCP1/P1A RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1) V SS OSC1/CLKIOSC2/CLKO/RA6 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI V DD 18 20 REFRA3/AN3/V 28 1 8F4 455PI C 1 21 PI C 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 40 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 REF RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREF DS39632E-page 2Pin Diagrams 6 17 16 15 14 13 12 9 7 8 1 5 19 4 3 2 11 10 50 25 5528-Pin PDIP, SOIC PIC18 F 24 40-Pin PDIPPIC18 F 18 20 PP/RE3 RA0/AN0 /UOE RC2/CCP1 V SS RD7/SPP7/P1DRD6/SPP6/P1C RD5/SPP5/P1BRD4/SPP4 RC7/RX/DT/SDORC6/TX/CK RC5/D+/VPRC4/D-/VM RD3/SPP3RD2/SPP2 MCLR/V V DD RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDA (1)/VPO RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO RB7/KBI3/PGD RB6/KBI2/PGCRB5/KBI1/PGM RB4/AN11/KBI0/CSSPPRB3/AN9/CCP2 V SS RC7/RX/DT/SDORC6/TX/CK RC5/D+/VPRC4/D-/VM V DD RB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDA (1)/VPO RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO V USB RB7/KBI3/PGDRB6/KBI2/PGC RB5/KBI1/PGMRB4/AN11/KBI0 RB3/AN9/CCP2 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1) 23 V SS OSC1/CLKIOSC2/CLKO/RA6 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI REF REFRA3/AN3/V REF 21 MCLR/V PP /RE3 RA0/AN0RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/V 22 28 27 26 25 24 8F4 550 Note 1: RB3 is the alternate pin for CCP2 multiplexing. 4 34
NC/ICRSTV DD RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDARB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO (1)/VPO RD7/SPP7/P1D 37 RA3 /AN3/VRE F 9 35 28 36 3 NC/ 27 26 25 24 23 V SS RC7/RX/DT/SDO RD4/SPP4RD5/SPP5/P1B RD6/SPP6/P1C 32 V DD RE2/AN7/OESPPRE1/AN6/CK2SPP RE0/AN5/CK1SPPRA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/RCV V SS RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI OSC2/CLKO/RA6 PP(2) (2)/ICV ICPOR T S(2 ) /U OE NC/ 2(1 ) 1 O SI/CCP RC1 /T V US B RC2 /CCP1/P1 A RC6 /TX /CK RC5 /D+/VPRC4 /D-/V M 33
RB3/AN9/CCP212 5 10 11 2 3 6 1 18 19 20 21 22 13 RD1 /SPP1RD0 /SPP0 14 15 38 8 7 44 43 42 41 40 39 16 17 29 RD3 /SPP3RD2 /SPP2 G D(2 ) 40 /T 1 /P1A RC1 38 V US B RC2 /CCP /SPP0 44 43 42 41 39 /UOE RC0/T /SPP2 RD1/SPP1 RD0 VM RD3/SPP3 RD2 29 30 31 32 33 RC5 /D 37 RA (2) /ICP 35 1 O S I/CCP2(1 ) 1 1 O SO/T MC LR/VPP/RE I0 /CSSPP NC/ICDT 1 /KB /AN1 5 /KBI1 /PG M RB4 I2 /PGC RB 6/ KB I3 /PGD RB RB 7/K B G C(2 ) ICCK(2) /ICP V RE F RA1 /AN1RA0 /AN0 36 2 /VRE F 44-Pin QFN PIC18F4455 PIC18F4550 PIC18F4550 V DD 2 3 4 V SS 1 RC7/RX/DT/SDO RD4/SPP4RD5/SPP5/P1B RD6/SPP6/P1C V SS 3 CKIOSC2/CLKO/RA6 OSC1/CLKI 34
28 V DD RB0/AN12/INT0/FLT0/SDI/SDARB1/AN10/INT1/SCK/SCL RB2/AN8/INT2/VMO 12 22 21 20 19 V DD RE2/AN7/OESPPRE1/AN6/CK2SPP RE0/AN5/CK1SPPRA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT/RCV 18 V SS R B3/A N9/C CP 14 2(1) /V P O 5 6 11 V DD Note 1: RB3 is the alternate pin for CCP2 multiplexing. 285 25.0 Special Features of the CPU ....................................................................................................................................................
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1.1.2 UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS (USB)
All of the devices in the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 family offer twelve different oscillator options, allowingusers a wide range of choices in developing application hardware. These include: 8 MHz clock (±2% accuracy) and an INTRC source (approximately 31 kHz, stable overtemperature and V DD ), as well as a range of 6 user-selectable clock frequencies, between125 kHz to 4 MHz, for a total of 8 clock frequencies.
1.2 Other Special Features
Offered as an option in select packages, this feature allows users to develop I/Ointensive applications while retaining the ability to program and debug in the circuit. TABLE 1-2: PIC18F2455/2550 PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED) Pin Name Pin Number Pin Type Buffer Type Description PDIP, SOICLegend: TTL = TTL compatible input CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I = InputO = Output P = Power Note 1: Alternate assignment for CCP2 when CCP2MX Configuration bit is cleared.
2 C™ data I/O
ECIO External Clock with I/O on RA6 Because of the timing requirements imposed by USB, an internal clock of either 6 MHz or 48 MHz is requiredwhile the USB module is enabled. There are numerous options to achieve theUSB module clock requirement and still provide flexibil- ity for clocking the rest of the device from the primaryoscillator source.
2.1.1 OSCILLATOR CONTROL
USB OPERATIONDS39632E-page 24FIGURE 2-1: PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 CLOCK DIAGRAM PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 11 ÷ 10 ÷ 12 11 10 01 00 PL LPo sts ca ler ÷ 2 ÷ 3÷ 4 ÷ 6 USB USBDIVFOSC3:FOSC0 HSPLL, ECPLL, 10 Secondary OscillatorT1OSCEN EnableOscillator T1OSO 01 to r Post scale r ÷ 1 ÷ 2÷ 3 ÷ 4 CPUDIV 1 Peripheral FSEN÷ 4USB Clock Source XTPLL, ECPIO PrimaryClock (4 MHz Input Only) ÷ 1 ÷ 2÷ 3 ÷ 4÷ 5 ÷ 6 X111 110101 100011 010001 000 1 1 ÷ 2PL LPr es ca ler MU 96 MHz PLLPLLDIV CPUDIV SleepPrimary Oscillator XT, HS, EC, ECIO T1OSCCPU Peripherals
FOSC3:FOSC08 MHz Internal Oscillator(INTOSC) Clock INTRC SourceInternal Oscillator Block Clock Source Option for Other ModulesOSC1 OSC2 1 OSCTUNE<7> and Two-Speed Start-up 8 MHz 31 kHz (INTRC) IDLEN IN T OSC Po sts ca ler MU X MU X Control OSCCON<1:0>Source 4 MHz 2 MHz 1 MHz 500 kHz125 kHz 250 kHz OSCCON<6:4> 111110 101100 011010 001000 31 kHz 8 MHz
WDT, PWRT, FSCM
00 Oscilla8 MHz Internal Oscillator(INTOSC) Clock INTRC SourceInternal Oscillator Block Clock Source Option for Other ModulesOSC1 OSC2 1 OSCTUNE<7> and Two-Speed Start-up 8 MHz 31 kHz (INTRC) IDLEN IN T OSC Po sts ca ler MU X MU X Control OSCCON<1:0>Source 4 MHz 2 MHz 1 MHz 500 kHz125 kHz 250 kHz OSCCON<6:4> 111110 101100 011010 001000 31 kHz 8 MHz 2.2.2 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR/CERAMIC TABLE 2-1: CAPACITOR SELECTION FORRESONATORS
In HS, HSPLL, XT and XTPLL Oscillator modes, a Typical Capacitor Values Used: crystal or ceramic resonator is connected to the OSC1 Mode Freq OSC1 OSC2 and OSC2 pins to establish oscillation. Note: Use of a series cut crystal may give a fre- quency out of the crystal manufacturer’sThese capacitors were tested with the resonators specifications.listed below for basic start-up and operation.
The user should test (XT, HS OR HSPLL the performance of the oscillator over the expected CONFIGURATION) V DD and temperature range for the application. To InternalResonators Used: Logic XTAL (3) R F 4.0 MHz Sleep 8.0 MHz (2)R S (1) PIC18FXXXX 16.0 MHz C2 OSC2 When using ceramic resonators with frequencies Note 1: See Table 2-1 and Table 2-2 for initial values of above 3.5 MHz, HS mode is recommended over XT C1 and C2.mode.
2: A series resistor (R S ) may be required for AT
If HS is selected, the gain of the strip cut crystals.oscillator may overdrive the resonator. Therefore, a 3: R F varies with the oscillator mode chosen.series resistor should be placed between the OSC2 pin and the resonator.
System (HS Mode) XT 4 MHz 27 pF 27 pF Open OSC2 HS 4 MHz 27 pF 27 pF 8 MHz 22 pF 22 pF 2.2.3 EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT 20 MHz 15 pF 15 pFThe EC, ECIO, ECPLL and ECPIO Oscillator modes Capacitor values are for design guidance only.require an external clock source to be connected to the These capacitors were tested with the crystals listedOSC1 pin. The user should testfrequency divided by 4 is available on the OSC2 pin.the performance of the oscillator over the expected This signal may be used for test purposes or to V and temperature range for the application.
2: When operating below 3V V , or whenDD The ECIO and ECPIO Oscillator modes function like the using certain ceramic resonators at anyEC and ECPLL modes, except that the OSC2 pin voltage, it may be necessary to use thebecomes an additional general purpose I/O pin. characteristics, the user should consult the resonator/crystal manufacturer for FIGURE 2-5: EXTERNAL CLOCK appropriate values of external INPUT OPERATION components.(ECIO AND ECPIO 4: Rs may be required to avoid overdriving CONFIGURATION) crystals with low drive level specification.
RA6 I/O (OSC2)
An internal postscaler allows users to select a clock frequency other than that of the crystal or resonator. Users may select a clock frequency The internal postscaler for reducing clock frequency in of the oscillator frequency, or 1/2, 1/3 or 1/4 of the XT and HS modes is also available in EC and ECIO frequency.modes.
2.2.4 PLL FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER
INTRC is enabled if it is selected as the device clock source; it is also enabled automatically when any of thefollowing are enabled: 2.2.5 INTERNAL OSCILLATOR BLOCKThe PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices include an internal oscillator block which generates two differentclock signals; either can be used as the microcontroller’s clock source. The FIGURE 2-6: PLL BLOCK DIAGRAM (HS MODE) 18.104.22.168 Internal Oscillator ModesWhen the internal oscillator is used as the micro- controller clock source, one of the other oscillatormodes (External Clock or External Crystal/Resonator) must be used as the USB clock source.
22.214.171.124 OSCTUNE Register
REGISTER 2-1: OSCTUNE: OSCILLATOR TUNING REGISTER
DD 126.96.36.199 Internal Oscillator Output Frequency and DriftThe internal oscillator block is calibrated at the factory to produce an INTOSC output frequency of 8.0 MHz. The INTSRC bit allows users to select which internal oscillator provides the clock source when the 31 kHzfrequency option is selected.
188.8.131.52 Compensating for INTOSC Drift
Framing errors indicate that the lated time, the internal oscillator block is running toodevice clock frequency is too high; to adjust for this, fast; to compensate, decrement the OSCTUNE register.decrement the value in OSCTUNE to reduce the clock If the measured time is much less than the calculated frequency. On the other hand, errors in data may sug-time, the internal oscillator block is running too slow; to gest that the clock speed is too low; to compensate,compensate, increment the OSCTUNE register.increment OSCTUNE to increase the clock frequency.
2.3 Oscillator Settings for USB
2.3.1 LOW-SPEED OPERATION
48 MHz N/A
Because of this, the microcontroller can only use a clock frequency of 24 MHz when the USB module isactive and the controller clock source is one of the primary oscillator modes (XT, HS or EC, with or withoutthe PLL). This means that applications can use the primary oscillator for the USB clock while the micro-controller runs from a separate clock source at a lower speed.
4 MHz ÷1 (000)INTSRC bit in the OSCTUNE register (OSCTUNE<7>).Setting this bit selects INTOSC as a 31.25 kHz clock source by enabling the divide-by-256 output of the The Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bits,
2.4 Clock Sources and Oscillator Switching
If none of these bits areset, the INTRC is providing the clock or the internal oscillator block has just started and is not yet stable. 2: It is recommended that the Timer1 oscillator be operating and stable prior to switching to it as the clock source; other-wise, a very long delay may occur while the Timer1 oscillator starts.
2.4.1 OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER
sum of two cycles of the old clock source and three to 2.4.2 OSCILLATOR TRANSITIONS four cycles of the new clock source. This formulaPIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices contain circuitry assumes that the new clock source is stable.to prevent clock “glitches” when switching between Clock transitions are discussed in greater detail in clock sources.
Section 3. 1.2 “Entering Power-Managed Modes”
REGISTER 2-2: OSCCON: OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER (1)
during the clock switch. 2: Source selected by the INTSRC bit (OSCTUNE<7>), see text.3: Default output frequency of INTOSC on Reset.
2.5 Effects of Power-Managed Modes on the Various Clock Sources
Section 28. 2 “DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current”
The 31 kHz INTRC output can be used directly to provide the clock and may be enabled to supportvarious special features regardless of the power-managed mode (see Section 25.2 “Watchdog In secondary clock modes (SEC_RUN andSEC_IDLE), the Timer1 oscillator is operating and providing the device clock. When the HSPLL Oscillator mode is selected, the device is kept in Reset for an additional 2 ms followingthe HS mode OST delay, so the PLL can lock to the incoming clock frequency.
2: Includes INTOSC and INTOSC postscaler, as well as the INTRC source
3.1.3 CLOCK TRANSITIONS AND
If V DD is less than 3V, it is possible to select a higher clock speedthan is supported by the low V The length of the transition between clock sources is the sum of two cycles of the old clock source and threeto four cycles of the new clock source. It acts as the trigger to place thecontroller into either the Sleep mode, or one of the Idle modes, depending on thesetting of the IDLEN bit.
EXAMPLE 3-1: EXECUTING BACK TO BACK SLEEP INSTRUCTIONS
3.2 Run Modes
3.2.1 PRI_RUN MODE
The device clock source is switched to theTimer1 oscillator (see Figure 3-1), the primary oscillator is shut down, the T1RUN bit (T1CON<6>) isset and the OSTS bit is cleared. When the clock switch is complete, the T1RUN bit is cleared, the OSTS bit is set and the primary clock isproviding the clock.
3.2.3 RC_RUN MODE
If V DD is less than 3V, it is possible to select a higher clock speedthan is supported by the low V Note: Caution should be used when modifying a DS39632E-page 38 In RC_RUN mode, the CPU and peripherals are clocked from the internal oscillator block using the IOBST . Clocks to the device continue whilethe INTOSC source stabilizes after an interval ofT If the IRCF bits are changed from all clear (thus, enabling the INTOSC output), or if INTSRC is set, the INTOSC output is not enabled and the IOFS bit will remain clear; there will be no indication of the currentclock source.
DS39632E-page 39FIGURE 3-3: TRANSITION TIMING TO RC_RUN MODE FIGURE 3-4: TRANSITION TIMING FROM RC_RUN MODE TO PRI_RUN MODE Counter Q2 OST(1) OSTS bit Set TransitionMultiplexer T 1 2 n-1 n Clock(2) (1) SCS1:SCS0 bits Changed TPLL OSC . These intervals are not shown to scale.
3.3 Sleep Mode
If the IDLEN bit is set to ‘1’ when a SLEEP instruction is executed, the peripherals will be clocked from the clocksource selected using the SCS1:SCS0 bits; however, theCPU will not be clocked. When a wake event occurs in Sleep mode (by interrupt,Reset or WDT time-out), the device will not be clocked until the clock source selected by the SCS1:SCS0 bitsbecomes ready (see Figure 3-6), or it will be clocked from the internal oscillator block if either the Two-SpeedStart-up or the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor are enabled(see Section 25.0 “Special Features of the CPU”).
3.4.1 PRI_IDLE MODE
clock source is switched to the Timer1 oscillator, the primary oscillator is shut down, the OSTS bit is clearedPRI_IDLE mode is entered from PRI_RUN mode by and the T1RUN bit is set.setting the IDLEN bit and executing a SLEEP instruc- tion. Monitor”) is enabled, the device may begin execution Clock Monitor (see Section 25.4 “Fail-Safe Clock The exit delay time from Reset to the start of code execution depends on both the clock sources beforeand after the wake-up and the type of oscillator if the new clock source is the primary clock.
3.4.3 RC_IDLE MODE
The clocking subsystemactions are discussed in each of the power-managed modes (see Section 3.2 “Run Modes”, Section 3.3 following the wake event, the CPU begins executing code being clocked by the INTOSC multi-plexer. If the IOBST IOFS bit becomes set after the INTOSC output becomes stable, after an interval of T INTSRC bit is set, the INTOSC output is enabled.
3.5 Exiting Idle and Sleep Modes
3.5.1 EXIT BY INTERRUPT
Section 25. 3 “Two-Speed Start-up”) or Fail-Safe
In these instances, the primary clock source either 3.5.4 EXIT WITHOUT AN OSCILLATOR does not require an oscillator start-up delay, since it isSTART-UP DELAY already running (PRI_IDLE), or normally does not Certain exits from power-managed modes do not require an oscillator start-up delay (EC and any internalinvoke the OST at all. However, a fixed delay of interval T following the wake event is still required when CSD is not stopped; and leaving Sleep and Idle modes to allow the CPU to HS modes.
3: Includes both the INTOSC 8 MHz source and postscaler derived frequencies
4: T OST is the Oscillator Start-up Timer period (parameter 32, Table 28-12). t is the PLL lock time-outrc (parameter F12, Table 28-9); it is also designated as T .
Section 5. 1.2.4 “Stack Full and Underflow Resets”
In most cases, these bits can only be cleared by the eventand must be set by the application after the event. This is described in more detail in Section 4.6 “Reset State 4.1 RCON Register A simplified block diagram of the on-chip Reset circuit is shown in Figure 4-1.
REGISTER 4-1: RCON: RESET CONTROL REGISTER (1)
2: The actual Reset value of POR is determined by the type of device Reset. Note 1: It is recommended that the POR bit be set after a Power-on Reset has been detected so that subsequent Power-on Resets may be detected.
2: Brown-out Reset is said to have occurred when BOR is ‘0’ and POR is ‘1’ (assuming that POR was set to ‘1’ by software immediately after POR)DS39632E-page 46 FIGURE 4-2: EXTERNAL POWER-ON
4.2 Master Clear Reset (MCLR) RESET CIRCUIT (FOR
The MCLR pin provides a method for triggering an SLOW V DD POWER-UP) external Reset of the device. R1 MCLR In PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices, the MCLR input can be disabled with the MCLRE Configuration C bit.
4.3 Power-on Reset (POR)
This DDthe voltage drop across R does not violate allows the device to start in the initialized state when the device’s electrical specification. DD3: R1 ≥ 1 kΩ will limit any current flowing into To take advantage of the POR circuitry, tie the MCLR pin MCLR from external capacitor C, in the event through a resistor (1 k . This willΩ to 10 kΩ) to V DD of MCLR/V PP pin breakdown, due to Electro- eliminate external RC components usually needed to static Discharge (ESD) or Electrical create a Power-on Reset delay.
4.4 Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Placing the BOR under software control gives the user the additional flexibility of tailoring the application to itsenvironment without having to reprogram the device to change BOR configuration. 1 DD while the Power-up Timer is running, the chip will go back into a Brown-out Reset and the Power-up Timerwill be initialized.
4.4.1 SOFTWARE ENABLED BOR
1 Unavailable BOR enabled in hardware; must be disabled by reprogramming the Configuration bits
4.5 Device Reset Timers
These timers are: 4.5.1 POWER-UP TIMER (PWRT)The Power-up Timer (PWRT) of the PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 devices is an 11-bit counter which uses the INTRC source as the clock input. A separate timer is used to provide a fixed time-out that is sufficient for thePLL to lock to the main oscillator frequency.
The OST time-out is invoked only for XT, HS andHSPLL modes and only on Power-on Reset or on exit from most power-managed modes. (1) (2) 2 ms (2) 2 ms INTIO, INTCKO 66 ms (2) (1) (1) — — INTHS, INTXT 66 ms (1) 2: 2 ms is the nominal time required for the PLL to lock.
INTERNAL RESETFIGURE 4-5: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO V DD ): CASE 2 V DD MCLR INTERNAL POR T PWRT T OST
OST TIME-OUTINTERNAL RESET DS39632E-page 50 FIGURE 4-6: SLOW RISE TIME (MCLR TIED TO V DD , V DD RISE > T PWRT ) 5V 1V 0V V DD MCLR INTERNAL POR T PWRTPWRT TIME-OUT T OST DD FIGURE 4-7: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POR w/PLL ENABLED (MCLR TIED TO V ) V DD MCLR INTERNAL POR T PWRTPWRT TIME-OUT T OST T PLL OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET Note: T = 1024 clock cycles. First three stages of the Power-up Timer.
4.6 Reset State of Registers
DS39632E-page 52 2: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up).3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h). 2: One or more bits in the INTCONx or PIRx registers will be affected (to cause wake-up).3: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIEL or GIEH bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0008h or 0018h).
5.0 MEMORY ORGANIZATION
The Reset vector address is at 0000h and the interrupt vectoraddresses are at 0008h and 0018h. Accessing a location between the upper boundary of the physically implementedmemory and the 2-Mbyte address will return all ‘0’s (a NOP instruction).
24 Kbyte Devices
The Stack Pointer is first incremented and the location pointed to by the Stack Pointer is written with thecontents of the PC (already pointing to the instruction following the CALL). This is useful for computed offsets to the PC (see Section 184.108.40.206 “Computed Top-of-Stack Registers Stack Pointer When the stack has been popped enough times to 220.127.116.11 Return Stack Pointer (STKPTR) unload the stack, the next pop will return a value of zeroThe STKPTR register (Register 5-1) contains the Stack to the PC and sets the STKUNF bit, while the StackPointer value, the STKFUL (Stack Full) status bit and Pointer remains at zero.
The STKFUL bit is cleared by software or by a POR. Since the Top-of-Stack is readable and writable, the ability to push values onto the stack and pull values offThe action that takes place when the stack becomes the stack, without disturbing normal program execu-full depends on the state of the STVREN (Stack tion, is a desirable feature. The PIC18 instruction setOverflow Reset Enable) Configuration bit.
Section 25. 1 “Configuration Bits” for a description of includes two instructions, PUSH and POP, that permit the TOS to be manipulated under software control
the device Configuration bits.) If STVREN is setTOSU, TOSH and TOSL can be modified to place data (default), the 31st push will push the (PC + 2) value or a return address on the stack.onto the stack, set the STKFUL bit and reset the device. If STVREN is cleared, the STKFUL bit will be set on the 31st push and the Stack Pointer will increment to 31.
REGISTER 5-1: STKPTR: STACK POINTER REGISTERR/C-0 R/C-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 (1) (1) STKFUL STKUNF — SP4 SP3 SP2 SP1 SP0 bit 7bit 0 Legend: C = Clearable bit R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ (1) bit 7 STKFUL: Stack Full Flag bit 1 = Stack became full or overflowed0 = Stack has not become full or overflowed (1) bit 6 STKUNF: Stack Underflow Flag bit 1 = Stack underflow occurred0 = Stack underflow did not occur bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4-0 SP4:SP0: Stack Pointer Location bits Note 1: Bit 7 and bit 6 are cleared by user software or by a POR. DS39632E-page 61
18.104.22.168 Stack Full and Underflow Resets
TheTable Pointer (TBLPTR) register specifies the byte address and the Table Latch (TABLAT) registercontains the data that is read from or written to program memory. To use the Fast RegisterStack for a subroutine call, a CALL label, FAST instruction must be executed to save the STATUS,WREG and BSR registers to the Fast Register Stack.
5.1.3 FAST REGISTER STACK
EXAMPLE 5-1: FAST REGISTER STACK CODE EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE 5-2: COMPUTED GOTO USING AN OFFSET VALUEDS39632E-page 62 5.2.2 INSTRUCTION FLOW/PIPELINING
5.2 PIC18 Instruction Cycle
The instruction fetch and execute are pipe-The microcontroller clock input, whether from an lined in such a manner that a fetch takes one instruction internal or external source, is internally divided by four cycle, while the decode and execute takes anotherto generate four non-overlapping quadrature clocks instruction cycle. If an incremented on every Q1; the instruction is fetched instruction causes the program counter to change (e.g.,from the program memory and latched into the Instruc- GOTO), then two cycles are required to complete the tion Register (IR) during Q4.
EXAMPLE 5-3:INSTRUCTION PIPELINE FLOW
These take two cycles since the fetch instruction is “flushed” from the pipeline while the new instruction is being fetched and then executed. offset value stored in a branch instruction represents theFigure 5-4 shows an example of how instruction words number of single-word instructions that the PC will beare stored in the program memory.
INSTRUCTIONS IN PROGRAM MEMORY
In all necessary for cases when the two-word instruction iscases, the second word of the instructions always has preceded by a conditional instruction that changes the‘1111’ as its four Most Significant bits; the other 12 bits PC. If the instruction is information on two-word instruction in theexecuted in proper sequence, immediately after the extended instruction set.first word, the data in the second word is accessed and EXAMPLE 5-4: TWO-WORD INSTRUCTIONS CASE 1: Object Code Source Code 0110 0110 0000 0000 TSTFSZ REG1 ; is RAM location 0?
5.3 Data Memory Organization
This area is shared between the microcontroller core and the USB Serial Interface Engine (SIE) and is usedto transfer data directly between the two. The eight bits in the instruction show the loca-tion in the bank and can be thought of as an offset from the bank’s lower boundary.
5.3.1 USB RAM
DS39632E-page 66 DS39632E-page 67FIGURE 5-6: USE OF THE BANK SELECT REGISTER (DIRECT ADDRESSING) 00h FFh00h FFh00h FFh00h FFh00h FFh00h FFh 7 BSR(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Bank 3 throughBank 13 Bank 1 Bank 2Bank 14 Bank 15 While the use of the BSR, with an embedded 8-bit address, allows users to address the entire range ofdata memory, it also means that the user must always ensure that the correct bank is selected. Note 1: The Access RAM bit of the instruction can be used to force an override of the selected bank (BSR<3:0>) to the registers of the Access Bank.
5.3.3 ACCESS BANK
When ‘a’ is equal to ‘1’, the instruction uses the BSR and the 8-bit address included in theopcode for the data memory address. When ‘a’ is ‘0’, however, the instruction is forced to use the Access To streamline access for the most commonly used data memory locations, the data memory is configured withan Access Bank, which allows users to access a mapped block of memory without specifying a BSR.
The Reset and interrupt registers 5.3.5 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS are described in their respective chapters, while theThe Special Function Registers (SFRs) are registers ALU’s STATUS register is described later in this used by the CPU and peripheral modules for controllingsection. SFRs start at the top of data memory and extend down- The SFRs are typically distributed among the ward to occupy the top segment of Bank 15, from F60hperipherals whose functions they control.
2 C™ Slave mode. MSSP Baud Rate Reload Register in I
2: The SBOREN bit is only available when BOREN<1:0> = 01; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’.3: These registers and/or bits are not implemented on 28-pin devices and are read as ‘0’. When the port pin is disabled, all of the associated bits read ‘0’.5: RE3 is only available as a port pin when the MCLRE Configuration bit is clear; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’.6: RC5 and RC4 are only available as port pins when the USB module is disabled (UCON<3> = 0).7: I 2 C™ Slave mode only.
DATA7 DATA6 DATA5 DATA4 DATA3 DATA2 DATA1 DATA0 0000 0000 57, 196
When the port pin is disabled, all of the associated bits read ‘0’.5: RE3 is only available as a port pin when the MCLRE Configuration bit is clear; otherwise, the bit reads as ‘0’.6: RC5 and RC4 are only available as port pins when the USB module is disabled (UCON<3> = 0).7: I 2 C™ Slave mode only. For other instructions that do not affect Status bits, seeIf the STATUS register is the destination for an instruc- the instruction set summaries in Table 26-2 andtion that affects the Z, DC, C, OV or N bits, the results Table 26-3.of the instruction are not written; instead, the STATUS register is updated according to the instruction Note: The C and DC bits operate as the Borrow performed.
REGISTER 5-2: STATUS REGISTER
U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x (1) (2) — — — N OV Z DC C bit 7bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 4 N: Negative bitThis bit is used for signed arithmetic (2’s complement). 1 = Result was negative 0 = Result was positivebit 3 OV: Overflow bit This bit is used for signed arithmetic (2’s complement).
C: Carry/Borrow bit
For ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW and SUBWF instructions: 1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred Note 1: For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either bit 4 or bit 3 of the source register.
2: For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the 2’s complement of the second
operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high or low-order bit of the source register.
5.4 Data Addressing Modes
See Section 5.6 “Data Note: The execution of some instructions in the 5.4.3 INDIRECT ADDRESSINGIndirect Addressing allows the user to access a location in data memory without giving a fixed address in theinstruction. This address specifies either a register address in one of the banks of data RAM (Section 5.3.4 “General 5.4.2 DIRECT ADDRESSINGDirect Addressing mode specifies all or part of the source and/or destination address of the operationwithin the opcode itself.
EXAMPLE 5-5: HOW TO CLEAR RAM (BANK 1) USINGINDIRECT ADDRESSING
22.214.171.124 FSR Registers and the
Instructions thatuse the INDF registers as operands actually use the contents of their corresponding FSR as a pointer to theinstruction’s target. Thus, the currentcontents of the BSR and the Access RAM bit have no effect on determining the target address.
7 Data Memory 000h100h 200h300h F00h E00hFFFh Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 2Bank 14 Bank 15 Bank 3 throughBank 13 ADDWF, INDF1, 1 7 Using an instruction with one of the indirect addressing registers as theoperand.... ...uses the 12-bit address stored in the FSR pair associated with thatregister....
126.96.36.199 FSR Registers and POSTINC
They are: (range of -127 to 128) to that of the FSR and uses the new value in the operation. Operations on the FSRs with POSTDEC, POSTINC and PREINC affect the entire register pair; that is,rollovers of the FSRnL register, from FFh to 00h, carry over to the FSRnH register.
5.5 Program Memory and the Extended Instruction Set
Section 5. 2.4 “Two-Word Instructions”
5.6 Data Memory and the Extended Instruction Set
5.6.2 INSTRUCTIONS AFFECTED BY Under these conditions, the file address of the instruc- tion is not interpreted as the lower byte of an address(used with the BSR in Direct Addressing), or as an 8-bit address in the Access Bank. When using the extended instruction set, this addressing mode requires the following: Enabling the PIC18 extended instruction set changes the behavior of Indirect Addressing using the FSR2register pair and its associated file operands.
5.6.1 INDEXED ADDRESSING WITH
The two are added together to Bank 1 obtain the address of the target through register for the instruction. ‘f’ is inter- 100h preted as a location in one of the 16 banks of the data 001001da ffffffff Bank 1 memory space.
5.6.3 MAPPING THE ACCESS BANK IN
Section 5. 3.3 “Access Bank”). An example of Access
Rather than containing just the contents of the bottom half of Bank 0, this modemaps the contents from Bank 0 and a user-defined“window” that can be located anywhere in the data memory space. Addresses in the Access RAM above ADDWF f, d, a SFRs Bank 15 Bank 2through Bank 14 F60h F00hFFFh Bank 1 FIGURE 5-9: REMAPPING THE ACCESS BANK WITH INDEXED LITERAL OFFSET ADDRESSING Data Memory000h 100h200h Although the Access Bank is remapped when the extended instruction set is enabled, the operation of theBSR remains unchanged.
6.0 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
DS39632E-page 81 The Flash program memory is readable, writable and erasable, during normal operation over the entire V DD range. 6.1 Table Reads and Table Writes In order to read and write program memory, there are two operations that allow the processor to move bytesbetween the program memory space and the data RAM: to Flash Program Memory”.
Program Memory (TBLPTR) FIGURE 6-2: TABLE WRITE OPERATIONInstruction: TBLWT* Program Memory Holding Registers(1) Table PointerTable Latch (8-bit) TBLPTRU TBLPTRH TBLPTRL TABLAT Program Memory(TBLPTR) Note 1: Table Pointer actually points to one of 32 holding registers, the address of which is determined byTBLPTRL<4:0>. The process for physically writing data to the program memory array is discussed in Section 6.5 “Writing to Flash Program Memory”.
6.2 Control Registers
When FREE is set, the eraseSeveral control registers are used in conjunction with operation is initiated on the next WR command. On power-up, the WREN bit is clear.
6.2.1 EECON1 AND EECON2 REGISTERS
6.2.3 TABLE POINTER REGISTERWhen a TBLWT is executed, the five LSbs of the Table (TBLPTR)Pointer register (TBLPTR<4:0>) determine which of The Table Pointer (TBLPTR) register addresses a byte the 32 program memory holding registers is written to.within the program memory. The 22nd bit allows access to 16 MSbs of the Table Pointer register (TBLPTR<21:6>) the Device ID, the user ID and the Configuration bits.point to the 64-byte block that will be erased.
6.3 Reading the Flash Program Memory
The Least Significant bit of the address selectsbetween the high and low bytes of the word. Figure 6-4 shows the interface between the internal programmemory and the TABLAT.
MOVF WORD_ODD6.4.1 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
6.4 Erasing Flash Program Memory
OnlyThe sequence of events for erasing a block of internal through the use of an external programmer, or throughprogram memory is: ICSP control, can larger blocks of program memory beBulk Erased. Set the EECON1 register for the erase operation: controller itself, a block of 64 bytes of program memory 3.
6.5 Writing to Flash Program Memory
Since the Table Latch (TABLAT) is only a single byte, the Note: The default value of the holding registers on TBLWT instruction may need to be executed 32 times for device Resets and after write operations iseach programming operation. At the end of updating theindividual bytes of program memory may be 32 holding registers, the EECON1 register must bemodified, provided that the change does not written to in order to start the programming operationattempt to change any bit from a ‘0’ to a ‘1’.with a long write.
6.5.1 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY WRITE
Load Table Pointer register with address of firstThis procedure will require about 8 ms to update one byte being written.row of 64 bytes of memory. Write 32 bytes into the holding registers with code is given in Example 6-3.auto-increment.
EXAMPLE 6-3: WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORYDS39632E-page 88 MOVLW D'64’ ; number of bytes in erase block MOVWF COUNTERMOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_HIGH ; point to buffer MOVWF FSR0HMOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_LOW MOVWF FSR0LMOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; Load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the memory blockMOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRHMOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRL READ_BLOCK TBLRD*+ ; read into TABLAT, and incMOVF TABLAT, W ; get data MOVWF POSTINC0 ; store dataDECFSZ COUNTER ; done? BRA READ_BLOCK ; repeat MODIFY_WORD MOVLW DATA_ADDR_HIGH ; point to bufferMOVWF FSR0H MOVLW DATA_ADDR_LOWMOVWF FSR0L MOVLW NEW_DATA_LOW ; update buffer wordMOVWF POSTINC0 MOVLW NEW_DATA_HIGHMOVWF INDF0 ERASE_BLOCKMOVLW CODE_ADDR_UPPER ; load TBLPTR with the base MOVWF TBLPTRU ; address of the memory blockMOVLW CODE_ADDR_HIGH MOVWF TBLPTRHMOVLW CODE_ADDR_LOW MOVWF TBLPTRLBSF EECON1, EEPGD ; point to Flash program memory BCF EECON1, CFGS ; access Flash program memoryBSF EECON1, WREN ; enable write to memory BSF EECON1, FREE ; enable Row Erase operationBCF INTCON, GIE ; disable interrupts MOVLW 55hRequired MOVWF EECON2 ; write 55h Sequence MOVLW 0AAh MOVWF EECON2 ; write 0AAhBSF EECON1, WR ; start erase (CPU stall) BSF INTCON, GIE ; re-enable interrupts TBLRD*- ; dummy read decrementMOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_HIGH ; point to buffer MOVWF FSR0HMOVLW BUFFER_ADDR_LOW MOVWF FSR0LMOVLW D’2’ MOVWF COUNTER1 WRITE_BUFFER_BACK MOVLW D’32’ ; number of bytes in holding registerMOVWF COUNTER WRITE_BYTE_TO_HREGSMOVF POSTINC0, W ; get low byte of buffer data MOVWF TABLAT ; present data to table latchTBLWT+* ; write data, perform a short write ; to internal TBLWT holding register.DECFSZ COUNTER ; loop until buffers are full BRA WRITE_WORD_TO_HREGS
EXAMPLE 6-3: WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY (CONTINUED)
See Section 25.0 “Special Features of thewrites can stress bits near the specification limit. CPU” for more detail.
Code Protection If a write is terminated by an unplanned event, such asSee Section 25.5 “Program Verification and Code loss of power or an unexpected Reset, the memory Protection” for details on code protection of Flash location just programmed should be verified and repro- program memory.grammed if needed. If the write operation is interrupted by a MCLR Reset or a WDT Time-out Reset duringnormal operation, the user can check the WRERR bit and rewrite the location(s) as needed.
7.0 DATA EEPROM MEMORY
The WRERR bit is set in hardware when the WREN bit is set and clearedwhen the internal programming timer expires and the write operation is complete. These are the sameregisters which control access to the program memory and are used in a similar manner for the dataEEPROM.
Section 28. 0 “Electrical Characteristics”) for exact limits
7.1 EECON1 and EECON2 Registers
To write an EEPROM data location, the address must first be written to the EEADR register and the datawritten to the EEDATA register. 7.3 Writing to the Data EEPROM Memory To read a data memory location, the user must write the address to the EEADR register, clear the EEPGDcontrol bit (EECON1<7>) and then set control bit, RD(EECON1<0>).
EXAMPLE 7-1: DATA EEPROM READ EXAMPLE 7-2: DATA EEPROM WRITE
Refer to Section 25.0 If this is not the case, an array refresh must be “Special Features of the CPU” for additional performed. 7.6 Protection Against Spurious Write A simple data EEPROM refresh routine is shown inThere are conditions when the device may not want to Example 7-3.write to the data EEPROM memory.
EXAMPLE 7-3: DATA EEPROM REFRESH ROUTINECLRF EEADR ; Start at address 0 BCF EECON1, CFGS ; Set for memoryBCF EECON1, EEPGD ; Set for Data EEPROM BCF INTCON, GIE ; Disable interrupts BSF EECON1, WREN ; Enable writesLoop ; Loop to refresh array BSF EECON1, RD ; Read current address MOVLW 55h ;Required MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 55hSequence MOVLW 0AAh ; MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 0AAhBSF EECON1, WR ; Set WR bit to begin write BTFSC EECON1, WR ; Wait for write to complete
This has the MULWF ARG2 ; ARG1 * ARG2 -> advantages of higher computational throughput and ; PRODH:PRODL reduced code size for multiplication algorithms and BTFSC ARG2, SB ; Test Sign Bit allows the PIC18 devices to be used in many applica- SUBWF PRODH, F ; PRODH = PRODH tions previously reserved for digital signal processors. To account for the sign bits of the arguments, the MSb for each argument pair is testedand the appropriate subtractions are done.
For external interrupt events, such as the INTx pins or the PORTB input change interrupt, the interrupt latencywill be three to four instruction cycles. When the interrupt flag, enable bit and appropriate global interrupt enable bit are set, the interrupt willvector immediately to address 000008h or 000018h, depending on the priority bit setting.
9.2 INTCON Registers
Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state ofThe INTCON registers are readable and writable its corresponding enable bit or the globalregisters which contain various enable, priority and flag interrupt enable bit. User software shouldbits.ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt.
REGISTER 9-1:INTCON: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTERR/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-x (1) GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF bit 7bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ When IPEN = 0: 1 = Enables all unmasked interrupts0 = Disables all interruptsWhen IPEN = 1: 1 = Enables all high-priority interrupts0 = Disables all interrupts bit 6 PEIE/GIEL: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bitWhen IPEN = 0: 1 = Enables all unmasked peripheral interrupts0 = Disables all peripheral interruptsWhen IPEN = 1: 1 = Enables all low-priority peripheral interrupts (if GIE/GIEH = 1)0 = Disables all low-priority peripheral interrupts bit 5 TMR0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit1 = Enables the TMR0 overflow interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR0 overflow interruptbit 4 INT0IE: INT0 External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the INT0 external interrupt 0 = Disables the INT0 external interruptbit 3 RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt 0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt bit 2 TMR0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR0 register did not overflowbit 1 INT0IF: INT0 External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The INT0 external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The INT0 external interrupt did not occur (1) bit 0 RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit 1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state (must be cleared in software)0 = None of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state Note 1: A mismatch condition will continue to set this bit. Reading PORTB, and then waiting one additional instruction cycle, will end the mismatch condition and allow the bit to be cleared. DS39632E-page 101
User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling.
User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. This feature allows for software polling.
9.3 PIR Registers
Note 1: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt condition occurs regardless of the state ofThe PIR registers contain the individual flag bits for the its corresponding enable bit or the Globalperipheral interrupts. Due to the number of peripheral Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>).interrupt sources, there are two Peripheral InterruptRequest (Flag) registers (PIR1 and PIR2).
9.4 PIE Registers
The PIE registers contain the individual enable bits for the peripheral interrupts. Due to the number of periph-eral interrupt sources, there are two Peripheral InterruptEnable registers (PIE1 and PIE2).
9.5 IPR Registers
The IPR registers contain the individual priority bits for the peripheral interrupts. Using the priority bits requires that the Interrupt Priority Enable(IPEN) bit be set.
REGISTER 9-8:IPR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER 1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 (1) SPPIP ADIP RCIP TXIP SSPIP CCP1IP TMR2IP TMR1IP bit 7bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ (1) bit 7 SPPIP: Streaming Parallel Port Read/Write Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority0 = Low priority bit 6 ADIP: A/D Converter Interrupt Priority bit1 = High priority 0 = Low prioritybit 5 RCIP: EUSART Receive Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 4 TXIP: EUSART Transmit Interrupt Priority bit1 = High priority 0 = Low prioritybit 3 SSPIP: Master Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 2 CCP1IP: CCP1 Interrupt Priority bit1 = High priority 0 = Low prioritybit 1 TMR2IP: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Priority bit 1 = High priority 0 = Low priority bit 0 TMR1IP: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Priority bit1 = High priority 0 = Low priority Note 1: This bit is reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain this bit clear. DS39632E-page 108
REGISTER 9-9:IPR2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER 2 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1OSCFIP CMIP USBIP EEIP BCLIP HLVDIP TMR3IP CCP2IP bit 7bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ DS39632E-page 109
9.6 RCON Register
REGISTER 9-10: RCON: RESET CONTROL REGISTER
Note 1: If SBOREN is enabled, its Reset state is ‘1’; otherwise, it is ‘0’. bit 3 TO: Watchdog Time-out Flag bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1.bit 2 PD: Power-Down Detection Flag bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1.bit 1 POR: Power-on Reset Status bit RI: RESET Instruction Flag bit For details of bit operation, see Register 4-1.
2: The actual Reset value of POR is determined by the type of device Reset. See Register 4-1 for additional information
9.7 INTx Pin Interrupts
Interrupt priority for INT1 and INT2 is determined by the value contained in the interrupt priority bits, INTxIF, must be cleared in software in the Interrupt Service Routine before re-enabling the interrupt. All external interrupts (INT0, INT1 and INT2) can wake- up the processor from the power-managed modes if bit, INTEDGx bit in the INTCON2 register is set (= 1), the interrupt is triggered by a rising edge; if the bit is clear,the trigger is on the falling edge.
EXAMPLE 9-1: SAVING STATUS, WREG AND BSR REGISTERS IN RAM
Section 25. 1 “Configuration Bits” for details). When
Several PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs, the analog V Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins; writing to it will write to the port latch. The RA6 pinis multiplexed with the main oscillator pin; it is enabled as an oscillator or I/O pin by the selection of the mainoscillator in Configuration Register 1H (see PORTA is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port.
EXAMPLE 10-1:INITIALIZING PORTA
DS39632E-page 113 DS39632E-page 114TABLE 10-1: PORTA I/O SUMMARY Pin Function TRIS Setting I/O I/O Type Description RA0/AN0 RA0 OUT DIG LATA<0> data output; not affected by analog input. Legend: OUT = Output, IN = Input, ANA = Analog Signal, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input,TTL = TTL Buffer Input, x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or is overridden for this option) 1 IN TTL PORTA<6> data input.
Shaded cells are not used by PORTA. Note 1: RA6 and its associated latch and data direction bits are enabled as I/O pins based on oscillator configuration; otherwise, they are read as ‘0’.
10.2 PORTB, TRISB and LATB
Setting awake-up on key depression operation and operations TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-changepin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in feature. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) using the interrupt-on-change feature.will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.e., Pins, RB2 and RB3, are multiplexed with the USB put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).peripheral and serve as the differential signal outputs The Data Latch register (LATB) is also memory for an external USB transceiver (TRIS configuration).mapped.
EXAMPLE 10-2:INITIALIZING PORTB
The pins are compared with ; RB<5:4> as outputs the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. The user, in the Interrupt ServiceRoutine, can clear the interrupt in the following manner: a) Any read or write of PORTB (except with theMOVFF (ANY), PORTB instruction).
b) Wait one T CY delay (for example, execute one NOP instruction)c) Clear flag bit, RBIF DS39632E-page 116
SCL OUT DIG
2 C/SMBus input buffer, TTL = TTL Buffer Input, x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or isoverridden for this option) 2 C/SMB = I I Legend: OUT = Output, IN = Input, ANA = Analog Signal, DIG = Digital Output, ST = Schmitt Buffer Input, 1 IN TTL Interrupt-on-pin change. I INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF 2 C/SMB = I 2 C/SMBus input buffer, TTL = TTL Buffer Input, x = Don’t care (TRIS bit does not affect port direction or isoverridden for this option) Note 1: Configuration on POR is determined by PBADEN Configuration bit.
10.3 PORTC, TRISC and LATC
Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) Note: On a Power-on Reset, these pins, except will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.e.,RC4 and RC5, are configured as digital put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).inputs. To use pins RC4 and RC5 as The RC3 pin is not implemented in these devices.digital inputs, the USB module must be disabled (UCON<3> = 0) and the on-chip The Data Latch register (LATC) is also memoryUSB transceiver must be disabled mapped.
Depending on the configuration of the module, CLRF PORTC ; Initialize PORTC by they can serve as the differential data lines for the on- ; clearing output chip USB transceiver, or the data inputs from an ; data latches external USB transceiver. When configured for MOVWF TRISC ; RC<5:0> as outputs USB operation, the data direction is determined by the ; RC<7:6> as inputs configuration and status of the USB module at a giventime.
10.4 PORTD, TRISD and LATD
For additional information on con- figuration and uses of the SPP, see Section 18.0 Note: PORTD is only available on 40/44-pin devices. Setting a functions of PORTD are automaticallyTRISD bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTD disabled.pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a high-impedance mode).
Read-modify-write operations on the LATD CLRF LATD ; Alternate method register read and write the latched output value for ; to clear output PORTD.; data latches All pins on PORTD are implemented with Schmitt MOVLW 0CFh ; Value used to Trigger input buffers. The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the portpin is configured as a digital output or as one of the other multiplexed peripherals.
10.5 PORTE, TRISE and LATE
When selected as a port pin (MCLRE = 0), itDepending on the particular PIC18F2455/2550/4455/ functions as a digital input only pin; as such, it does not4550 device selected, PORTE is implemented in two have TRIS or LAT bits associated with its operation.different ways. In either configuration, RE3 also functions as the For 40/44-pin devices, PORTE is a 4-bit wide port.programming voltage input during programming.
EXAMPLE 10-5:INITIALIZING PORTE
Clearing a TRISE bit ; data latches CLRF LATE ; Alternate method (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTE pin an output ; to clear output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected ; data latches pin). MOVLW 0Ah ; Configure A/D In addition to port data, the PORTE register MOVWF ADCON1 ; for digital inputs (Register 10-1) also contains the RDPU control bit MOVLW 03h ; Value used to (PORTE<7>); this enables or disables the weak ; initialize data pull-ups on PORTD.; direction MOVLW 07h ; Turn off TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins, even when MOVWF CMCON ; comparators they are being used as analog inputs.
REGISTER 10-1: PORTE REGISTER
R/W-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-x R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 (3)(1,2) (3) (3) (3) — — —RDPU RE3 RE2 RE1 RE0 bit 7bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’(1,2,3) bit 3-0 RE3:RE0: PORTE Data Input bits Note 1: implemented only when Master Clear functionality is disabled (MCLRE Configuration bit = 0); otherwise, read as ‘0’. 2: RE3 is the only PORTE bit implemented on both 28-pin and 40/44-pin devices.
11.0 TIMER0 MODULE
aspects of the module’s operation, including theThe Timer0 module incorporates the following features: prescale selection. A simplified block diagram of the Timer0 module in 8-bit ter in both 8-bit or 16-bit modesmode is shown in Figure 11-1.
REGISTER 11-1: T0CON: TIMER0 CONTROL REGISTERR/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1TMR0ON T08BIT T0CS T0SE PSA T0PS2 T0PS1 T0PS0 bit 7bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ bit 2-0 T0PS2:T0PS0: Timer0 Prescaler Select bits 111 = 1:256 Prescale value110 = 1:128 Prescale value 101 = 1:64 Prescale value100 = 1:32 Prescale value 011 = 1:16 Prescale value010 = 1:8 Prescale value 001 = 1:4 Prescale value000 = 1:2 Prescale value DS39632E-page 127 OSC
11.1 Timer0 Operation
If the TMR0 register is written to, the increment is TMR0H is not the actual high byte of Timer0 in 16-bitinhibited for the following two instruction cycles. TMR0H is updated with the contents of the high byte of Timer0 during a read ofThe Counter mode is selected by setting the T0CS bit TMR0L.
8 PSAInternal Data Bus Note: Upon Reset, Timer0 is enabled in 8-bit mode with clock input from T0CKI maximum prescale. FIGURE 11-2: TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM (16-BIT MODE)OSC F /4 1 Sync with SetTMR0 Internal 1 TMR0L TMR0IF High ByteClocks on Overflow Programmable T0CKI pin 8 PrescalerCY T0SE (2 T Delay) T0CS 3 Read TMR0L T0PS2:T0PS0Write TMR0L PSA 8 8 TMR0H 8 8 Internal Data Bus Note: Upon Reset, Timer0 is enabled in 8-bit mode with clock input from T0CKI maximum prescale.
The prescaler is not directly readable or writable;its value is set by the PSA and T0PS2:T0PS0 bits(T0CON<3:0>) which determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio. TABLE 11-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0Note: Writing to TMR0 when the prescaler is The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h in 8-bit mode, orfrom FFFFh to 0000h in 16-bit mode.
12.0 TIMER1 MODULEshown in Figure 12-1. A block diagram of the module’sThe Timer1 timer/counter module incorporates these operation in Read/Write mode is shown in Figure 12-2.features: The module incorporates its own low-power oscillator oscillator can also be used as a low-power clock source • Readable and writable 8-bit registers (TMR1H for the microcontroller in power-managed operation.and TMR1L) Timer1 can also be used to provide Real-Time Clock (RTC) functionality to applications with only a minimal device clock or Timer1 oscillator internal optionsaddition of external components and code overhead. Timer1 is controlled through the T1CON Control
REGISTER 12-1: T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTERR/W-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0RD16 T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON bit 7bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ bit 2 T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Select bitWhen TMR1CS = 1: 1 = Do not synchronize external clock input0 = Synchronize external clock inputWhen TMR1CS = 0: This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0.bit 1 TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit 1 = External clock from RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI pin (on the rising edge) OSC /4) 0 = Internal clock (F bit 0 TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit1 = Enables Timer1 0 = Stops Timer1 DS39632E-page 131 OSC
12.1 Timer1 Operation
If the Clock Monitor is enabled and theTimer1 oscillator fails while providing the clock, polling the T1RUN bit will indicate whether the clock is beingprovided by the Timer1 oscillator or another source. This provides the user with the ability to accurately read all 16 bits ofTimer1 without having to determine whether a read of the high byte, followed by a read of the low byte, hasbecome invalid due to a rollover between reads.
12.3.3 TIMER1 OSCILLATOR LAYOUT
12.6 Using Timer1 as a Real-Time Clock If either of the CCP modules is configured in Compare mode to generate a Special Event Trigger(CCP1M3:CCP1M0 or CCP2M3:CCP2M0 = 1011), this signal will reset Timer1. FIGURE 12-4: OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT WITH GROUNDED GUARD RING If a high-speed circuit must be located near the oscilla- tor (such as the CCP1 pin in Output Compare or PWMmode, or the primary oscillator using the OSC2 pin), a grounded guard ring around the oscillator circuit, asshown in Figure 12-4, may be helpful when used on a single-sided PCB or in addition to a ground plane.
12.4 Timer1 Interrupt
12.7 Considerations in Asynchronous Counter Mode
This can be doneby monitoring TMR1L within the interrupt routine until it increments, and then updating the TMR1H:TMR1L reg-ister pair while the clock is low, or one-half of the period of the clock source. Assuming that Timer1 is beingused as a Real-Time Clock, the clock source is a32.768 kHz crystal oscillator; in this case, one-half period of the clock is 15.25 μs.
Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module. Note 1: These bits are unimplemented on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
13.0 TIMER2 MODULE
This signal also resets the value of TMR2 to 00h on the next cycle and drives the output counter/post-scaler (see Section 13.2 “Timer2 Interrupt”). Both the prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared on the following events: The Timer2 module timer incorporates the following features: OSC The module is controlled through the T2CON register(Register 13-1) which enables or disables the timer and configures the prescaler and postscaler.
REGISTER 13-1: T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTERU-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0— T2OUTPS3 T2OUTPS2 T2OUTPS1 T2OUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 bit 7bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’ bit 6-3 T2OUTPS3:T2OUTPS0: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits 0000 = 1:1 Postscale0001 = 1:2 Postscale
13.2 Timer2 Interrupt
The unscaled output of TMR2 is available primarily toThe Timer2 output signal (TMR2 to PR2 match) pro- the CCP modules, where it is used as a time base for vides the input for the 4-bit output counter/postscaler. The interrupt isfor the MSSP module operating in SPI mode.enabled by setting the TMR2 Match Interrupt Enable Additional information is provided in Section 19.0 bit, TMR2IE (PIE1<1>).
T2OUTPS3:T2OUTPS0Set TMR2IF Postscaler
2 TCKPS1:TCKPS0TMR2 Output (to PWM or MSSP)TMR2/PR2 Reset Match 1:1, 1:4, 1:16 ComparatorF OSC /4
Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module. Note 1: These bits are unimplemented on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
14.0 TIMER3 MODULEshown in Figure 14-1. A block diagram of the module’sThe Timer3 module timer/counter incorporates these operation in Read/Write mode is shown in Figure 14-2.features: The Timer3 module is controlled through the T3CON options for the CCP modules (see Section 15.1.1
REGISTER 14-1: T3CON: TIMER3 CONTROL REGISTERR/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0RD16 T3CCP2 T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0 T3CCP1 T3SYNC TMR3CS TMR3ON bit 7bit 0 Legend: R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ 1x = Timer3 is the capture/compare clock source for both CCP modules 01 = Timer3 is the capture/compare clock source for CCP2;Timer1 is the capture/compare clock source for CCP1 00 = Timer1 is the capture/compare clock source for both CCP modulesbit 5-4 T3CKPS1:T3CKPS0: Timer3 Input Clock Prescale Select bits 11 = 1:8 Prescale value 10 = 1:4 Prescale value 01 = 1:2 Prescale value00 = 1:1 Prescale value bit 2 T3SYNC: Timer3 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit(Not usable if the device clock comes from Timer1/Timer3.)When TMR3CS = 1: 1 = Do not synchronize external clock input0 = Synchronize external clock inputWhen TMR3CS = 0: This bit is ignored. Timer3 uses the internal clock when TMR3CS = 0.bit 1 TMR3CS: Timer3 Clock Source Select bit 1 = External clock input from Timer1 oscillator or T13CKI (on the rising edge after the first falling edge) OSC /4) 0 = Internal clock (F bit 0 TMR3ON: Timer3 On bit1 = Enables Timer3 0 = Stops Timer3 DS39632E-page 139
14.1 Timer3 Operation
When the bit is set, Timer3 increments on every rising edge of the Timer1 external clock inputor the Timer1 oscillator, if enabled. FIGURE 14-1: TIMER3 BLOCK DIAGRAM FIGURE 14-2: TIMER3 BLOCK DIAGRAM (16-BIT READ/WRITE MODE)T3SYNC TMR3CST3CKPS1:T3CKPS0 Sleep Input (1)F OSC 1, 2, 4, 8 SynchronizeDetect (1)F OSC /4 Internal 1 2 T1OSO/T13CKI T1OSI 1 TMR3ON TMR3L SetTMR3IF on Overflow TMR3 High ByteTimer1 Oscillator Note 1: When enable bit, T1OSCEN, is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain.
When the RD16 control bit(T3CON<7>) is set, the address for TMR3H is mapped to a buffer register for the high byte of Timer3. This provides the user with the ability to accurately read all 16 bits ofTimer1 without having to determine whether a read of the high byte, followed by a read of the low byte, hasbecome invalid due to a rollover between reads.
Each module “Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) contains a 16-bit register, which can operate as a 16-bit Module”, references to the register and bit Capture register, a 16-bit Compare register or a PWM names for CCP modules are referred to gener-Master/Slave Duty Cycle register.ically by the use of ‘x’ or ‘y’ in place of the In 28-pin devices, the two standard CCP modules (CCP1 specific module number. The module control register regardless of whetherECCP implementation is discussed in Section 16.0 the CCP module is a standard or Enhanced “Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) Module”.
15.1 CCP Module Configuration
15.1.1 CCP MODULES AND TIMER
Capture Compare CCP2 can be configured for the Special Event Trigger to reset TMR1 or TMR3 CCP1 Mode CCP2 Mode Interaction Timer2 PWMTimer1 or Timer3Timer1 or Timer3 CaptureCompare INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CCP1 AND CCP2 FOR TIMER RESOURCES CCP/ECCP Mode Timer Resource TABLE 15-2: Changing the pin assignment of CCP2 does not automatically change any requirements for configuringthe port pin. Both modules may be active at any given time and may share the same timerresource if they are configured to operate in the same mode (Capture/Compare or PWM) at the same time.
15.2 Capture Mode
The timer to beused with each CCP module is selected in the T3CON register (see Section 15.1.1 “CCP Modules and Timer 15.2.1 CCP PIN CONFIGURATIONIn Capture mode, the appropriate CCPx pin should be configured as an input by setting the correspondingTRIS direction bit. In Capture mode, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register pair captures the 16-bit value of the TMR1 or TMR3registers when an event occurs on the correspondingCCPx pin.
CCPR1H CCPR1L TMR1H TMR1L
When a match occurs, the CCPx pin mode, the compare operation may not work.can be: 15.3.3 SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE When the Generate Software Interrupt mode is chosen (CCPxM3:CCPxM0 = 1010), the corresponding CCPx I/O latch) if enabled, and the CCPxIE bit is set. Note: Clearing the CCP2CON register will force For either CCP module, the Special Event Trigger resets the RB3 or RC1 compare output latchthe Timer register pair for whichever timer resource is (depending on device configuration) to the currently assigned as the module’s time base.
2: These bits are unimplemented on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear15.4.1 PWM PERIOD
15.4 PWM Mode
PR2 PWM Duty Cycle = (CCPR X L:CCP X CON<5:4>) •Note 1: The 8-bit TMR2 value is concatenated with the 2-bit T OSC • (TMR2 Prescale Value) internal Q clock, or 2 bits of the prescaler, to create the 10-bit time base. The CCPRxH until after a match between PR2 and TMR2 frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the periodoccurs (i.e., the period is complete).