UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE ALAGOAS INSTITUTO DE COMPUTAÇÃO PROGRAMA DE PÓS GRADUAÇÃO EM INFORMÁTICA

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Biblioteca Central Divisão de Tratamento Técnico

O48m Oliveira, Thyago Tenório Martins de. Um modelo de avaliação por pares gamificado para ambientes educacionais online: um experimento com o meu tutor / Thyago Tenório Martins de Oliveira. –2015.190 f. : il.Orientador: Ig Ibert Bittencourt Santana Pinto. Dissertação (Mestrado em Informática) – Universidade Federal de Alagoas.Instituto de Computação, Maceió, 2015.Bibliografias: f. 166-172.Apêndices: f. 173-190. 1. Ambientes online – Modelagem – Educação. 2. Avaliação por pares. 3. Gamificação – Técnicas. I. Título.CDU: 004.42:37 ➚ ❉❡✉s✱ ♣♦✐s s❡♠ ❡❧❡ ❡✉ ♥ã♦ t❡r✐❛ ❢♦rç❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛ ❧♦♥❣❛ ❥♦r♥❛❞❛✳ ➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✱♣❡❧♦ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♠❡ ❞❡r❛♠✱ ❡✱ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❛ ❡s♣❡r❛♥ç❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛♣❛r❛ s❡❣✉✐r✳ ➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥♦✐✈❛✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r ❡ ✐♥✈❡st✐r ❡♠ ♠✐♠✳ ❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❡ t✉❞♦✱ ❛❣r❛❞❡ç♦ à ❉❡✉s ♣♦✐s s❡♠ ❡❧❡ ❡stá ❥♦r♥❛❞❛ ♥ã♦ t❡r✐❛ s✐❞♦ ❝✉♠♣r✐❞❛✳❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ à ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ q✉❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ♠❡ ❛♣♦✐♦✉ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ♠❡✉s ♣❛✐s q✉❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ❡st✐✈❡r❛♠ ❝♦♠✐❣♦✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❡ ❞❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ ♣♦r t❡r❡♠ ♠❡ ♣r♦♣✐❝✐❛❞♦ ❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛r ❡ s❡♠♣r❡❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r ❡♠ ♠❡✉ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧✳ ➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥♦✐✈❛ ❘❡❣✐♥❛ ❙t❡✐♥✱ ♣♦r t♦❞♦ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦ ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛çã♦ ❡ ③❡❧♦✱♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❡♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ♠❛✐s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ✐♠❡♥✲ s❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦s s❡✉s ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❊ ❛ s✉❛ ♠ã❡✱ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❛♠✐❣❛ ❈é❧✐❛ ❘❡❣✐♥❛✱ ♣♦r t♦❞❛❛ ❛❥✉❞❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ❡♠ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❡✉ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡✐✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ ♣r❡❝✐♦s♦ t❡♠♣♦♣❛r❛ ♠❡ ❛❥✉❞❛r✳ ❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r ■❣ ■❜❡rt✱ ❝✉❥♦s ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠✱ sã♦ ❡ s❡rã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❛♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡✉ ❢✉t✉r♦ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝♦ ❡ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❖❜r✐❣❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❛❣✉ç❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✧✐♥q✉✐❡t❛çã♦✜❧♦só✜❝❛✧❡ ♣♦r ♠❡ ♠♦str❛r ♦✉tr❛s ♠❛♥❡✐r❛s ❞❡ t❡♥t❛r ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞❡r ❛q✉✐❧♦ q✉❡ ❛♣❛r❡♥t❡✲♠❡♥t❡ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡①♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ♣♦r ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r ❡♠ ♠❡✉ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❡ ♣❡❧♦s ♣✉①õ❡s❞❡ ♦r❡❧❤❛ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✱ ♠❡ tr❛③❡♥❞♦ ❞❡ ✈♦❧t❛ ❛♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❡♠ q✉❡❢♦✐ ♣r❡❝✐s♦✳ ❆♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ t✐✈❡ ❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❝♦♠❡❧❡s✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♥❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝❛ ❡ ♣♦r t❛♥t❛ ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢✉t✉r❛ ✈✐❞❛♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✐♥t❡❣r❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ◆❊❊❙✱ ❛♦ q✉❛❧ ♣❡rt❡♥ç♦❞❡s❞❡ ♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦✱ ❡ ❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✭❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❖❧❛✈♦ ❍♦✲❧❛♥❞❛✱ ❊♥❞❤❡ ❊❧✐❛s ❡ ▼❛r❝❡❧♦ ◆✉♥❡s✮✳ P✉❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r ♥♦ss❛s ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛s✱ ❤♦r❛s❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❢♦❝♦ ❡♠ ♥♦ss♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦✱ ❛♣♦✐♦✱❝♦♥✈❡rs❛s✱ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡✱ ❡♥✜♠✱ ♣♦r t✉❞♦ q✉❡ ♣✉❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r✱ ❞❡s❞❡ ❛ ❝♦♥✈✐✈ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛s❛❧❡❣r✐❛s✱ ❛s ❢r✉str❛çõ❡s ❡ ❛s ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛s✳ ➱ ♠✉✐t♦ ❞✐❢í❝✐❧ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s q✉❡ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♠♦❞♦✱ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s s❡r❡♥♦s❡✴♦✉ ❛♣r❡❡♥s✐✈♦s✱ ✜③❡r❛♠ ♦✉ ❢❛③❡♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✳ P♦r ✐ss♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡ç♦ à t♦❞♦s ❞❡❝♦r❛çã♦✳ ❊P❮●❘❆❋❊ ◆ã♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ✈✐❞❛ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r r✉✐♠✱ s❡♠♣r❡ ❡①✐st❡ ❛❧❣♦ q✉❡ ✈♦❝ê ♣♦❞❡ ❢❛③❡r✱ ❡ tr✐✉♥❢❛r✳❊♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❤á ✈✐❞❛✱ ❤á ❡s♣❡r❛♥ç❛✳ ✭❙t❡♣❤❡♥ ❍❛✇❦✐♥❣✮ ❘❊❙❯▼❖◆♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ✭❚■❈✮ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠ s❡ t♦r♥❛❞♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡✳ ❉✐✈❡rs♦s ♣❛ís❡s ❛❞❛♣t❛r❛♠ s✉❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❡ s✉♣♦rt❛r ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛st❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ♣r❡s❡♥❝✐❛✐s q✉❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✳ ◆♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ à❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s t❡♠ ❝r❡s❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ t♦r♥❛ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ✐rã♦ ❣❡r❛r ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛✲❞❡s ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛s✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ár❞✉❛ ❛♦♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❊ss❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❝r❡s❝❡ ❡①♣♦♥❡♥❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡ q✉✐s❡r♠♦s ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❛❜❡rt❛s✭❡s❝r✐t❛s✮✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ às s✉❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r✐❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦r ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ é ✉♠❛ ♦♣çã♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s❛ ❡ ♣♦✉❝♦ ❡❢❡t✐✈❛✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ♣♦r ❡❧❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉✲❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛❝❛rr❡t❛♥❞♦ ♥❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛ ♣r♦❞✉çã♦ t❡①t✉❛❧✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡rã♦ ❢❡✐t❛s ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ♠❛♥✉✲❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡ t♦r♥❛r✐❛ r❛♣✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥✈✐á✈❡❧✳ ❊①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉s❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❞❡ t❛❧ ♠❛✲♥❡✐r❛ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦s ❝✉st♦s ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦s às ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡st❛s✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛t✉❛♠ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❣❛♥❤❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛❡ ❧✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❣❡r❛ ✉♠❛✐♥s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❧❡✈❛r ❛ ✉♠ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✐♥❝♦rr❡t♦ ❡❡♥❣❛♥♦s♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❣❡r❛ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s ♣♦r♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡♥❞♦ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❣❛❥❛r ♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✧✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r✑ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❡♠♦❝✐♦♥❛❧✴❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✉♥✐r ❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱❡❝♦♥♦♠✐③❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ❡s❢♦rç♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ q✉❡ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✱ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s✱ s❡♠ ♦ ✈✐és ❞❛ ❞❡s♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ ♣r♦✲❝❡ss♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ❡①♣❛♥sã♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝❡♥t❡♥❛s ♦✉ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ s❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛r❛r❛♠ às ❞♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♠❡♥♦s t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛♦❜tê✲❧❛s ❡ ❛ ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✼✷✪ ♠❡♥♦r✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✐♥✢✉❡♥✲❝✐♦✉ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛✱ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✶✶✳✼✻✪ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❡ ❡♠ ✻✹✳✷✽✪ ♦♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛✉♠❡♥t♦✉ ✶✵✳✺✸✪ ❡❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ❝r❡s❝❡✉ ❡♠ ✷✵✪✳ ❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚■♥ r❡❝❡♥t ②❡❛rs✱ t❤❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ✭■❈❚✮ ❛♣♣❧✐❡❞ ✐♥❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ❤❛s ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣❧② ✉s✉❛❧✳ ❙❡✈❡r❛❧ ❝♦✉♥tr✐❡s ❤❛✈❡ ❛❞❛♣t❡❞ t❤❡✐r ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤❡s t♦ ♣r♦♠♦t❡ ❛♥❞ s✉♣♣♦rt t❤❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ✐♥ ❜♦t❤❝❧❛ssr♦♦♠ ❝♦✉rs❡s ❛s ✐♥ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❝♦✉rs❡s✳ ■♥ t❤❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t ♦❢ ❉✐st❛♥❝❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ t❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ✉s❡rs ❤❛s ❣r♦✇♥ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❜❧②✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ♠♦r❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✱❣✐✈❡♥ t❤❛t t❤❡s❡ ✇✐❧❧ ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s t♦ ❜❡ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t❡❞✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠❛♥✉❛❧❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss ❛ ❝❤♦r❡ t♦ t❡❛❝❤❡r✳ ❚❤✐s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ❣r♦✇s ❡①♣♦♥❡♥t✐❛❧❧② ✐❢ ✇❡ ✇❛♥t✐♥❝❧✉❞❡ ♦♣❡♥ ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥ts ✭✇r✐tt❡♥✮✱ s✐♥❝❡ t❤❡✐r ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s ✇♦✉❧❞ ❢✉rt❤❡r ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡r✬s ✇♦r❦✱ ❞✉❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❢❛❝t t❤❛t ♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❜② ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s t②♣❡ ♦❢ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ✐s❛ ❧❛❜♦r✐♦✉s ❛♥❞ ❧❡ss ❡✛❡❝t✐✈❡ ♦♣t✐♦♥✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐♠♣❧✐❡s t❤❛t ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s ❛r❡ ♠❛❞❡ ❜② t❤❡♠✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧❧②✱ r❡s✉❧t✐♥❣ ✐♥ ♦✈❡r✇♦r❦ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❧② ❤✐❣❤ ❝♦sts ❢♦r ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❡①t♣r♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥✳ ❲✐t❤ t❤❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ st✉❞❡♥ts✱ ♠♦r❡ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ♠❛❞❡ ❡✈❡r②♥♦✇ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ❜② t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡rs ♠❛♥✉❛❧❧② ✇♦✉❧❞ q✉✐❝❦❧② ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ✐♥❢❡❛s✐❜❧❡✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ✐s❛ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡ ✇✐❞❡❧② ✉s❡❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ ❝❛❧❧❡❞ ♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t t❤❛t ❡♥❛❜❧❡s t❤❡ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐♦♥♦❢ t❤❡ ✇r✐tt❡♥ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥s ✐♥ s✉❝❤ ❛ ✇❛② t❤❛t ✐t ✐s ♥♦t ♥❡❝❡ss❛r② t♦ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ t❤❡ ❝♦sts❧✐♥❦❡❞ t♦ t❤❡s❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s✱ ♦♥❝❡ t❤❡ st✉❞❡♥ts t❤❡♠s❡❧✈❡s ✇♦✉❧❞ ❛❝t ✐♥ t❤❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥♣r♦❝❡ss✱ ❣❛✐♥✐♥❣ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❢r❡❡ t♦ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡r✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤✐s t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡ ✉s✉❛❧❧② ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡s ❛ st✉❞❡♥t ❞✐ss❛t✐s❢❛❝t✐♦♥✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝❛♥ ❧❡❛❞ t♦ ✐♥❝♦rr❡❝t ❛♥❞♠✐s❧❡❛❞✐♥❣ r❡s✉❧ts✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐♥❞✐❝❛t❡s t❤❛t t❤❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛s♣❡❝t ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡s ✐♥❛♣♣r♦♣r✐❛t❡❜❡❤❛✈✐♦✉r ❜② st✉❞❡♥ts✱ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠✐s✐♥❣ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t s②st❡♠✳ ❚❤✉s✱ ✇❡ ♥❡❡❞ ❛♠❡❝❤❛♥✐s♠ t♦ ❡♥❣❛❣❡ t❤❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥ts ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t ♠♦❞❡❧✱ ✉s✐♥❣ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s t❤❛t❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ❛❜✐❧✐t② t♦ ✧✐♥✢✉❡♥❝❡✧ ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❡♠♦t✐♦♥❛❧✴❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈❡ st❛t❡ ♦♥ t❤❡ st✉❞❡♥t✳ ■♥ t❤✐s s❡♥s❡✱ t❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦s❡s ❛♥ ♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t ♠♦❞❡❧ ✇✐t❤ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✳ ❲✐t❤t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ ♠♦❞❡❧✱ ✐t ✐s ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ t♦ ✉♥✐t❡ t❤❡ ❛❞✈❛♥t❛❣❡s ♦❢ ❜♦t❤ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✱ r❡❞✉❝✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♦✈❡r✇♦r❦ ♦❢ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡r✱ s❛✈✐♥❣ t❤❡✐r t✐♠❡ ❛♥❞ ❡✛♦rt t♦ ✇❤❛t ✐s r❡❛❧❧② ♥❡❝❡ss❛r②✱ ❛♥❞❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❧② r❡❞✉❝✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❝♦st ❛ss♦❝✐❛t❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s ✇✐t❤♦✉t t❤❡ ❜✐❛s ♦❢ ❞❡✲♠♦t✐✈❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ st✉❞❡♥ts ✐♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛❧❧♦✇s t❤❡ ❡①♣❛♥s✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s ❢♦r ❤✉♥❞r❡❞s♦r ❡✈❡♥ t❤♦✉s❛♥❞s ♦❢ ✉s❡rs✳ ❚❤r♦✉❣❤ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥ts✱ ✇❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉❞❡❞ t❤❛t t❤❡ ❣r❛❞❡s ♦❜t❛✐♥❡❞✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ ♠♦❞❡❧ ✇❡r❡ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t t♦ t❤♦s❡ ♦❢ t❡❛❝❤❡rs✱ ✉s✐♥❣ ❧❡ss t✐♠❡ t♦ t♦ ♦❜t❛✐♥ t❤❡♠ ❛♥❞ ❛t ❛ ❝♦st ❛♣♣r♦①✐♠❛t❡❧② ✼✷✪ ❧❡ss✳ ❋✉rt❤❡r♠♦r❡✱ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ ❤❛❞ ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡✐♠♣❛❝t ❜② ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ t❤❡ r❡❣✐st❡r ♥✉♠❜❡r ✐♥ ✶✶✳✼✻✪ ❛♥❞ ✻✹✳✷✽✪ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ❧♦❣✐♥s✳▼♦r❡♦✈❡r✱ t❤❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ r❡❛❧✐③❡❞ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡❞ ✶✵✳✺✸✪ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ❝♦rr❡❝t❡❞❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡❞ ❜② ✷✵✪✳❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ P❡❡r ❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t✳ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥✳ ❖♥❧✐♥❡ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts✳ ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ■▲❯❙❚❘❆➬Õ❊❙❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❛♦ ❡rr❛r ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ✲ ✈í❞❡♦s r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛❞♦s ❈♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥♦ ❋❛❝❡❜♦♦❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✻ ✕ ❊st✉❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ✲ ❊①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ s♦❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✾❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✺ ✕ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❞❡ ▼❛t❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✹ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✸ ✕ ❱✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✷ ✕ ❊t❛♣❛s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✶ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✼ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✽ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦s♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✾❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✺ ✕ ❈❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ P❡❡r ❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t✳♦✇❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✹ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✸ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✷ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈♦ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✶ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✹❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✵ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✸❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✾ ✕ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❋❧✉①♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✰ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♠❛tr✐❝✉❧❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛s ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽ ✕ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼ ✕ ❚✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ s✉❛ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺ ✕ P❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣♦r ❜❛s❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹ ✕ ❙❚■ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸ ✕ ❙✉❜❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛s ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✺✾❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✳ ❊st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ às ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ✳ ✳ ✺✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼ ✕ ❊st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ✳ ✺✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻ ✕ ❊st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ r❡♠♦çã♦ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸ ✕ ❚✐♣♦s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣♦r ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✻ ✕ ✳ ✶✷✾❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✵ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✹ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✺ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✸❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✻ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✹❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✼ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✹❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✽ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✾ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✶ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❆❝❡ss♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✷ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✸ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✹ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦✭❆✮ ♥❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❚✶ ✭❛③✉❧✮ ① ❚✷ ✭✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦✮ ✶✹✾❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✺ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❋ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✻ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ✭❘❋✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✼ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ✭❘❋✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✸ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✾❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✷ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❧✐st❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ t❡♠❛s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✲ P❛rt❡ ✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✼ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✽ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✹❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✾ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✵ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❝♦rr✐❣❡ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✶ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✷ ✕ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✸ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✹ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❡♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✺ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✹❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✻ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ① ❚✷ ✶✶✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✼ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✽ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✾ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✵ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❚✶ ✭❛③✉❧✮ ① ❚✷ ✭✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦✮ ✳ ✶✶✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✶ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✶ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ✭❘❋✮ ♥❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❚✶ ✭❛③✉❧✮ ① ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✽ ✕ ❚✷ ✭✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✷ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛ ✭❘❈✮ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✾ ✕ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✷ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛ ✭❘❈✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✵ ✕✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✸ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛ ✭❘❈✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✶ ✕✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✹ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✷ ✕✳ ✶✺✺ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❋❡✐t❛s ✭❘❋✮ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✸ ✕ ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✼ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ✭❘❈✮ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛✲ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✹ ✕ ♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✾ ❈❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ▲❡❛r♥❡r✳♦✇❧ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✺ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✽ ❈❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡✳♦✇❧ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✻ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✾ ❈❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳♦✇❧ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✼ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✵ Pr♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❝r✐❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✽ ✕✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✼ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥♦s ♣❛rê♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞♦ ❊◆❊▼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✾ ✕✶✽✾ ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❚❆❇❊▲❆❙❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❆❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮✳ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❡♠♣♦ ✶✸✵❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✽ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❈✉st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✷❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❈✉st♦ ✶✸✸❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✵ ✕ ◆í✈❡✐s ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✵❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✶ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✶✹✵❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✷ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✶❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✸ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✹❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✹ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❉❡t❛❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✜③❡r❛♠✴❝♦rr✐❣✐r❛♠ ① r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✳ ✶✹✺❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✺ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❆❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✽❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✻ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❋❡✐t❛s ✭❘❋✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✶❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✼ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ✭❘❈✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✹❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✽ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❆❝❡ss♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✻❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✾ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❆❝❡ss♦ ✶✺✻❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✵ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❋❡✐t❛s ✭❘❋✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✾❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✼ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✽❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✻ ✕ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✽ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❙tr✐♥❣ ♥❛s ❜❛s❡s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ♣❛ís❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹ ✕ ❋✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺ ✕ ▲♦♦♣s ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✻ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✸❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✼ ✕ ◆í✈❡✐s ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s✳ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❚✲t❡st ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ◆♦t❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✻❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✾ ✕ ❈✉st♦✱ ♥♦t❛ ❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❞♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ✭♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♦✉ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s✮ ❡ t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✭▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ♦✉ ◗✉❡st✐♥❛r✐♦ ♦♥ ❧✐♥❡✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✵ ✕ ▼❡❞✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ ❞❛s ❛♠♦str❛s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✸❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ◆♦t❛ ✭◆✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✽❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✷ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❚❡♠♣♦ ✭❚✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✷❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✸ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❈✉st♦ ✭❈✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✺❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✹ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ◆♦t❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✼❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✺ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✽ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡✲ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✶ ✕ ❞❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ✭❘❋✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✽ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✷ ✕ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ✭❘❈✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✾ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡✲ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✸ ✕ ❞❛çã♦ ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛ ✭❘❈✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✵ ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❆❇❘❊❱■❆❚❯❘❆❙ ❊ ❙■●▲❆❙❆❆❆▲ ❆♥②✇❤❡r❡✱ ❆♥②t✐♠❡✱ ❆♥②♣❡rs♦♥ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✴❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❤♦r❛ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❧✉❣❛r ♣❛r❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❡ss♦❛❆❈▼ ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡r②✴❆ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛❆❱❆ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠❈❙❈▲ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r✲s✉♣♣♦rt❡❞ ❝♦❧❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✴❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛ s✉♣♦rt❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❉▲ ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ❧♦❣✐❝✴▲ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦❉❚❖ ❉❛t❛ tr❛♥s❢❡r ♦❜❥❡❝t✴❖❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s❊❆❉ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛❊◆❊▼ ❊①❛♠❡ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦❊❘ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦●◗▼ ●♦❛❧✱ q✉❡st✐♦♥✱ ♠❡tr✐❝✴ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s■◆❊P ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❊st✉❞♦s ❡ P❡sq✉✐s❛s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s▲P❙ ▲✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞❡ s♦❢✇❛r❡▼❖❖❈ ▼❛ss✐✈❡ ♦♣❡♥ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s✴❈✉rs♦s ♠❛ss✐✈♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❡ ❛❜❡rt♦s❖❲▲ ❲❡❜ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✴▲✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❲❡❜P❍P ❍②♣❡rt❡①t Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss♦r✴Pré✲Pr♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r t❡①t♦❘❉❋✲❙ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ s❝❤❡♠❛✴❊sq✉❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛r❝❛❜♦✉ç♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉s♦s❘❉❋ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✴❆r❝❛❜♦✉ç♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉s♦s❙❖❆P ❙✐♠♣❧❡ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❆❝❝❡ss ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧✴ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s s✐♠♣❧❡s❙❚■ ❙✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡❚■❈ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦❲❙❉▲ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✴ ▲✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜❳▼▲ ❊①t❡♥s✐❜❧❡ ▼❛r❦✉♣ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✴ ▲✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ❡①t❡♥sí✈❡❧ ❙❯▼➪❘■❖✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✶✳✶ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✶✳✷ Pr♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵✶✳✸ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✶✳✹ ❊s❝♦♣♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷✶✳✺ ❈♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸✶✳✻ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹✷ ❋❯◆❉❆▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❚❊Ó❘■❈❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺✷✳✶ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺✷✳✶✳✶ ❱❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻✷✳✶✳✷ ▲✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼✷✳✷ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽✷✳✷✳✶ ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾✷✳✷✳✷ ❇❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶✷✳✷✳✸ ❈r✐❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷✷✳✸ ❙✐st❡♠❛s t✉t♦r❡s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸✷✳✸✳✶ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❙❚■ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹✷✳✸✳✷ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦s ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❚✉t♦r❡s ■♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺✷✳✹ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼✷✳✹✳✶ ❇❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽✷✳✹✳✷ ❖❲▲ ❡ ♣r♦té❣é ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾✸ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❘❊▲❆❈■❖◆❆❉❖❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷✸✳✶ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸✸✳✶✳✶ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸✸✳✶✳✷ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺✸✳✶✳✸ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❊st✉❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✸✳✶✳✸✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ❊st✉❞♦s Pr✐♠ár✐♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✸✳✶✳✸✳✷ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❞❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ✸✳✷ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵✸✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷✸✳✹ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵✹ ❆ P❘❖P❖❙❚❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸✹✳✶ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ✹✳✶✳✶ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ① ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸✹✳✶✳✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ✶✵✹ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✸ ❯♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✺✳✷ ◆❛rr❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼✺✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✾✺✳✸✳✶ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶✺✳✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✹✺✳✸✳✸ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✺✺✳✹ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✻✻ ❱❆▲■❉❆➬➹❖ ✲ ❊❳P❊❘■▼❊◆❚❖ ●❆▼■❋■❈❆➬➹❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✼✻✳✶ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✼✻✳✶✳✶ P❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✽✻✳✷ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✸✻✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✹✻✳✸✳✶ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✹✻✳✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✺✻✳✸✳✸ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✹✻✳✹ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✵✼ ❈❖◆❈▲❯❙Õ❊❙ ❊ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❋❯❚❯❘❖❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✷ ✶✵✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✻ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❛♠❡❛ç❛s à ✈❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✺ P❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✹ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✳✶✳✷✳✶ ❆ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✶✵✷ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✷ ❋❛t♦r❡s ❡ ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✶ ◗✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ✹✳✷✳✷ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✷✹✳✷✳✸ ■♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✷✺ ❱❆▲■❉❆➬➹❖ ✲ ❊❳P❊❘■▼❊◆❚❖ P❘❖❈❊❙❙❖ ❆❱❆▲■❆➬➹❖ P❆❘❊❙ ✾✽✺✳✶ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✽✺✳✶✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✾✺✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ■♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶✺✳✶✳✸ P❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶ ✼✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✳✷✳✶✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼ ✹✳✷ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺✹✳✷✳✶ ❖ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺ ✼✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ❘❊❋❊❘✃◆❈■❆❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✻ ❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❆ ✕ ▲■❙❚❆ ❈❖▼ ❖❙ ❆❘❚■●❖❙ ❙❊▲❊❈■❖◆❆❉❖❙P❆❘❆ ❘❊❱■❙➹❖ ❙■❙❚❊▼➪❚■❈❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✸ ❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❇ ✕ ▼❖❉❊▲❆❉❊▼ ❯❙❆◆❉❖ ❖◆❚❖▲❖●■❆❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✽❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❈ ✕ ❊❳❊▼P▲❖ ■◆❚❊❘❋❆❈❊ ❲❙ P❘❖❱■❉❆ P❊▲❖ ▼❖❉❊▲❖ ✲ ■❲❘■❚■◆●❊❱❆▲❯❆❚■❖◆❲❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✶❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❉ ✕ P❘❖P❖❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❘❊❉❆➬➹❖ ❈❘■❆❉❆ P❊▲❖ ❊❙✲ P❊❈■❆▲■❙❚❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✻❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❊ ✕ ❋❖❘▼❯▲➪❘■❖ ❉❊ ❆❱❆▲■❆➬➹❖ P❆❉❘➹❖ P❆❘❆ ❘❊❉❆➬Õ❊❙ ❉❖ ❊◆❊▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✽❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❋ ✕ ❆❘❚■●❖❙ P❯❇▲■❈❆❉❖❙✴P❘❊❱■❙❚❖❙ ❆❖ ▲❖◆●❖ ❉❖ ▼❊❙❚❘❆❉❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾✵ ✶✻ ✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖❆ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ✭❚■❈✮ ♥❛ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❞❡st❛❝❛❞❛ ❡ ❧❡✐t♠♦t✐✈ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✲❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ◆♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s❛♥♦s✱ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣❛ís❡s tê♠ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ s✉❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❡ s✉♣♦r✲ t❛r ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s t❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ♣r❡s❡♥❝✐❛✐s q✉❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✳◆♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❉✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✭❊❆❉✮ ✲ ✉♠❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♠❡❞✐❛❞❛ ♣♦r t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❡♠ q✉❡ ❞✐s❝❡♥t❡s ❡ ❞♦❝❡♥t❡s ❡stã♦ s❡♣❛r❛❞♦s ❡s♣❛❝✐❛❧ ❡✴♦✉ t❡♠♣♦r❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦✉s❡❥❛✱ ♥ã♦ ❡stã♦ ✜s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣r❡s❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✲❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✭▼❖❘❆◆✱ ✷✵✵✽✮ ✲ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡st❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s s❡ t♦r♥❛ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛♠❛♥t❡r ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✈✐❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❆t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s q✉❡ ❛♣ó✐❛♠ ❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s t✉t♦r❡s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ✭❙❚■s✮✭❙▲❊❊▼❆◆❀ ❇❘❖❲◆✱ ✶✾✽✷✮✱ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥✲ ✶ ✷ ✸ t❡s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✭❆❱❆✮ ✭❡①✿ ▼♦♦❞❧❡ ✱ ❙❖▲❆❘✱ ❚❡❧❊❞✉❝ ✱ ❇❧❛❝❦❜♦❛r❞ ✱❙❛❦❛✐ ✹✺ ✮✱ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛ s✉♣♦rt❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ✭▼■❨❆❑❊✱ ✻ ✷✵✵✼✮ ❡ ♠❛✐s r❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❝✉rs♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❛❜❡rt♦s ❡ ♠❛ss✐✈♦s ✭❲❯▲❋ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮ ✭❡①✿ ✼ ✽ ✾ ❊❉❳ ✱ ❈♦✉rs❡r❛ ✱ ❯❞❛❝✐t② ✮✳ ❆s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♥st✐t✉❡♠✉♠❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ♥♦ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♣❛ss❛♠♦s ❛ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡r ✉♠❛ ❞❡s❝❡♥tr❛✲❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦✱ ❛♥t❡s ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦ às ❛✉❧❛s ♣r❡s❡♥❝✐❛✐s✳ ■ss♦✈❡♠ ♦❝♦rr❡♥❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♠❡❞✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ q✉❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ♦❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❡ss♦❛✱ ✶✵ ❆❆❆▲ ✭❇■❚❚❊◆❈❖❯❘❚ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✳✶✳✶ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❈♦♠ ♦ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❊❆❉✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s t❡♠❝r❡s❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛t✐♥❣✐♥❞♦ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✺✱✽ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ❞❡ ♠❛trí❝✉❧❛s ❡♠ ✷✵✶✷ ♥♦❇r❛s✐❧ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❈❡♥s♦ ❊❆❉✳❇❘ ✷✵✶✷✱ ❞✐✈✉❧❣❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❆ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❇r❛s✐❧❡✐r❛ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦❛ ❉✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✭❆❜❡❞✮✱ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✶✳ ❆ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ s✉r❣✐r❛♠ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ t♦r♥♦✉ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ q✉❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❡ss♦❛ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ à✶ ✐♥t❡r♥❡t s❡ ✐♥s❝r❡✈❛ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐tár✐♦✱ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❣r❛t✉✐t♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛ ♦✷ ▼♦♦❞❧❡✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣s✿✴✴♠♦♦❞❧❡✳♦r❣✴ ✸ ❚❡❧❡❞✉❝✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳t❡❧❡❞✉❝✳♦r❣✳❜r✴ ✹ ❇❧❛❝❦❜♦❛r❞✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❜❧❛❝❦❜♦❛r❞✳❝♦♠✴ ✺ ❙❛❦❛✐✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❛❦❛✐♣r♦❥❡❝t✳♦r❣✴ ✻ ❚r❛❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✐♥❣❧ês✿ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r✲s✉♣♣♦rt❡❞ ❝♦❧❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ✲ ❈❙❈▲ ✼ ❚r❛❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✐♥❣❧ês✿ ▼❛ss✐✈❡ ❖♣❡♥ ❖♥❧✐♥❡ ❈♦✉rs❡ ✲ ▼❖❖❈ ✽ ❊❉❳✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣s✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❡❞①✳♦r❣✴ ✾ ❈♦✉rs❡r❛✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣s✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❝♦✉rs❡r❛✳♦r❣✴ ✶✵ ❯❞❛❝✐t②✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣s✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✉❞❛❝✐t②✳❝♦♠✴ ❙✐❣❧❛ ❡♠ ■♥❣❧ês ♣❛r❛✿ ❆♥②✇❤❡r❡✱ ❆♥②t✐♠❡✱ ❆♥②♦♥❡ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ✶✼❣r❛♥❞❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ♥♦ ❜r❛s✐❧ ❡ ♥♦ ♠✉♥❞♦✭❊❆❉✮✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶ ✕ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♠❛tr✐❝✉❧❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❈❡♥s♦ ❊❆❉✳❇❘ ✷✵✶✷ P♦r ✉♠ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ❛❧t♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♠❛trí❝✉❧❛s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ❤♦✉✈❡ ✉♠❣r❛♥❞❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♦❢❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r ✏❆❝❡ss♦ P❛rt✐❝✐♣❛t✐✈♦ ❡❯♥✐✈❡rs❛❧ ❞♦ ❈✐❞❛❞ã♦ ❇r❛s✐❧❡✐r♦ ❛♦ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✑✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♠❡t❛s ❞♦ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥t✐t✉✲❧❛❞♦ ✏●r❛♥❞❡s ❉❡s❛✜♦s ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ✷✵✵✻ ✲ ✷✵✶✻✑ ✭❈❆❘❱❆▲❍❖❀ ▲❊❖◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✱❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❇r❛s✐❧❡✐r❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s t♦r♥❛ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♠❛✐s❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❛♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r❡♠ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✱ ✐rã♦ ❣❡r❛r ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛ s❡r❡♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦s✳ ❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ❞❡ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡ ❛❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✱ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ár❞✉❛ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✴t✉t♦r ❞❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♦✉s♦ ❞❡ ❚■❈s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r ❡st❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡✱❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣♦✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛✐s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♥♦✈❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ❢♦r♠❛s ❡s❝❛❧á✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ❝♦♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛✱ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ❢ór✉♥s s♦❝✐❛✐s ❡ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛r ♦ ♣r♦❣r❡ss♦ ❞♦❛❧✉♥♦ ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✱ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛♠♦s ❧✐♠✐t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♥♦ss❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❡ ❞❛r❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❡ ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ❛❜❡rt♦s ✭❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s❡s❝r✐t❛s✮✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦✈❛s ♠❛t❡♠át✐❝❛s✱ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✭P■❊❈❍ ❡t ❛❧✳✱✷✵✶✸✮✳ ✶✽❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞❡ t❛❧ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡✱ ❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♦❢❡r❡✲ ❝❡♠ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s ❛♦s s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈❛s ❝♦♠♦ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛✱ ✈❡r❞❛❞❡✐r♦ ♦✉ ❢❛❧s♦✱ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤❡r ❧❛❝✉♥❛s ♦✉ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛r ❝♦❧✉♥❛s✱✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♣✉✲ t❛❞♦r✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✱❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❣❡r❛r✐❛ ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ♥♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ■ss♦ é ♦❝❛s✐♦♥❛❞♦ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦r ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ✉♠❛ ♦♣çã♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s❛ ✭❡♠ ❝♦♥tr❛st❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦✈❛s ❝♦♠ q✉❡stõ❡s❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✮✱ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡st❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡❥❛♠❢❡✐t❛s ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❛❝❛rr❡t❛ ✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛♣r♦❞✉çã♦ t❡①t✉❛❧✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ❝♦♥✲ s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡♥❞♦ ❢❡✐t❛s ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦❞❡❧❛s ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✴t✉t♦r❡s s❡ t♦r♥❛r✐❛ r❛♣✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥✈✐á✈❡❧✳ P❛r❛ s✉♣r✐r ❡st❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r♣❛r❡s✱ ❞♦ ✐♥❣❧ês ✧♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t✧✳ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s é ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♣❡❧♦ q✉❛❧ ♦s❛❧✉♥♦s ♦✉ s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s ❛tr✐❜✉❡♠ ♥♦t❛s ♦✉ t❡st❡s ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ❡♠ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ✭❙❆❉▲❊❘❀ ●❖❖❉✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ ❆ ♣rát✐❝❛ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s❛❧✈❛r ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞♦s ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s❞♦ ❝✉rs♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛s s✉❛s ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ♠❡t❛❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈❛s ✭▼❆▲❊❍❖❘◆✱ ✶✾✾✹✮✱❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❛ s✉❛ ♣r♦❞✉t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❖s ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✲ q✉❡ ❤✐st♦r✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ✉s❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❧♦❣ís✲ t✐❝❛✱ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝❛s✱ ♠❡t❛❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈❛s ❡✱ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦✱ ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❛❢❡t✐✈♦s✭✭❙❆❉▲❊❘❀ ●❖❖❉✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✮ ✲ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡♠ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♠✐ss♦r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❡s❝❛❧❛r ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✲✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❝♦♠ ❞❡③❡♥❛s ♦✉ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ❝❡♥t❡♥❛s ❞❡ ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✱ s❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦s❝✉st♦s✳ ❖ s❡✉ ✉s♦ tr❛③ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦✿ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ r❡s♣♦♥✲ s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❛✉t♦♥♦♠✐❛❀ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s s❡ ❡s❢♦r❝❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ♠❛✐s❛✈❛♥ç❛❞❛ ❡ ♣r♦❢✉♥❞❛ ❞♦ ❛ss✉♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛s ❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s❀ tr❛③ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣❛♣❡❧❛t✐✈♦ ♥❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠❀ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥❛ r❡✢❡①ã♦ ❝rít✐❝❛ ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ♥♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ s✉❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ s✉❜❥❡t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❥✉❧❣❛♠❡♥t♦✭❘❊❆❉■◆●✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ◆♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❊❆❉✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♣ró✲♣r✐♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❝♦rr✐❣❡♠ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s✳❊①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❢♦r♠❛t✐✈❛s ✭❖❘❙▼❖◆❉✯❀ ▼❊❘❘❨❀ ❈❆▲▲❆●❍❆◆✱ ✷✵✵✹✮✱ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ♣r♦❜❛✲❜✐❧íst✐❝♦s ✭P■❊❈❍ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮ ❡ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ✉s❛♥❞♦ r❡❞❡s ❜❛②❡s✐❛♥❛s ✭❲❆◆●❀❱❆❙❙■▲❊❱❆✱ ✷✵✵✸✮✳ ❊st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ♥❡st❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ é ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣r♦♠✐ss♦r❛❝♦♠♦ ❞❡s❡st❛❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦r❛ ❞♦ ♣❛♣❡❧ ♣❛ss✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ❡st❡ ❛ss✉♠❛ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐✲❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦r s✉❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱ ❜✉s❝❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛♣r✐♠♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ s✉❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ❛t✐✈❛✳ ✶✾❈♦♠♦ ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ r❡s✉❧t❛ ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❡ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ✭❙❆❉▲❊❘❀ ●❖❖❉✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥❞♦✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r♣❛r❡s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣r♦♣ós✐t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛t✐✲✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❛✐♥❞❛ é ❧✐♠✐t❛❞♦ ❡ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ❛♦ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧❛é ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡♠ ❛❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❖ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐t✉❞❡ ♦❝♦rr❡ ♣♦r❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s ❡ ❡♠♦❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ té❞✐♦✱ ❞❡s♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♦❜t❡r r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s r❛♣✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✭❇❆❑❊❘ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✳ P❛r❛ r❡s♦❧✈❡r ❡st❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✧✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r✧♣♦s✐t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❡♠♦❝✐♦♥❛❧✴❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ s❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❛♥✲ t❛çã♦✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛r ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✉♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ q✉❡ t❡♠ ❡st❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✲ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ é ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❝â♥✐❝❛✱ ✐❞❡✐❛s ❡ ❡stét✐❝❛ ❞❡❥♦❣♦s ✭❡✳①✳ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ rá♣✐❞♦✱ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦✱ ❢❛s❡s✱ ❝♦♥q✉✐st❛s✱ ♣♦♥t♦s ❡ ❡t❝✳✮✱ ♣❛r❛❡♥❣❛❥❛r ♣❡ss♦❛s✱ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ❛çõ❡s✱ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦ ❡ s♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❛r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ✭❑❆PP✱✷✵✶✷✮✳ ❊st❡ t❡r♠♦ é ❝♦♠✉♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣r❡ss❛r ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s✭❡♥r❡❞♦✱ ♣♦♥t✉❛çã♦✱ ♥í✈❡✐s✱ ♠✐ssõ❡s✱ tr♦❢é✉s ❡ r❛♥❦✐♥❣s✮ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❞❡❥♦❣♦s ✭❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✮ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ♦✉ ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r❡♠ ✉♠❛❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❊st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ s✉❛ t❡♥❞❡♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ ♠❛✐s ❜❛✐①♦ ❞❡✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❛ ♦✉tr❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❥♦❣♦s✳ ■ss♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡♣♦rq✉❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛❧❣✉♥s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s sã♦ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✭❈❯◆❍❆❀ ●❆❙P❆❘■◆■❀ ❇❊❘❑❊◆❇❘❖❈❑✱ ✷✵✶✸❛✮ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ tr❛③ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛✳ ❈♦♠✐ss♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ✉♠ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♥❡ss❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✱ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡rá s❡r ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞♦ ♥❡ss❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✱♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s✱ s❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦s ❝✉st♦s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✱ ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛♥❞♦ t❛♥t♦ ♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ s✉♣õ❡ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛❞♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ t♦r♥❛ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♠❛✐s ♣♦❞❡r♦s♦ ❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦✱ ❡✈✐t❛♥❞♦❡✴♦✉ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡♠ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❖s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❛♥❞♦✲♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✲❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛s♦❜t✐❞❛s ✭♣♦♥t♦s✱ ♥í✈❡✐s✱ tr♦❢é✉s✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✮✳ ✷✵✶✳✷ Pr♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ ❖s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ sã♦ ✐♥str✉♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ t❡♥t❛♠ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ✉♠❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐✲③❛❣❡♠ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❝❧❛r♦s ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡✐♥st✐t✉✐çõ❡s q✉❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡♠ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♦✉ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ✭▼❊❙❙❆✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ❖ ✉s♦❞❡ s♦❧✉çõ❡s t❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝❛s ✈❡♠ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✲❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ❡♠ ❝♦♥✲ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦s❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✈❡♠ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❝♦♠ ❡ss❡ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✭❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s r❡s♣♦♥❞✐❞❛s✮ ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❝r❡s❝❡ ❡①♣♦♥❡♥❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r r❡s♣♦st❛s rá♣✐❞❛s ❡ q✉❡ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛❥✉❞❡♠ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡♠ s✉❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✴t✉t♦r ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ❣r❛❞❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❝r❡s❝❡✱ s❡ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ r❛♣✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥✈✐á✈❡❧ ✭s♦❜r❡❝❛rr❡❣❛♥❞♦ s✉❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✮✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ t♦r♥❛✲s❡❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r ❡st❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣♦✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐✲♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛✐s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ ❊st❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✈✐♥❞♦s ❞❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♥♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ❛s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r✱ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r ❡ ❡♥✈✐❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s út❡✐s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱ ❣❡r❛❞❛s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s é ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ q✉❡✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛♠♦s✳ P❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡ ♣♦ss❛ ♦❜t❡r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ❞❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❡ss❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r s❡❥❛ ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s✭r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✮ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠❛♥✉❛❧✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s t♦r♥❛ ✐♠♣♦ssí✈❡❧ q✉❡ ✐ss♦ s❡❥❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ ❤á❜✐❧ ❞❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦✳ ❆♦ s❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r ❝♦♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ❛ t❛r❡❢❛❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❣❡r❛ ✉♠❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ♥♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ♣♦✐s✱ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♦✉tr❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛✮✱ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝♦rr✐✲❣✐❞❛s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛✱ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡st❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡❥❛♠❢❡✐t❛s ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛❝❛rr❡t❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛♣r♦❞✉çã♦ t❡①t✉❛❧✳ ❆ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s s❡r✐❛ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✴t✉t♦r❡s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥✲ t❡s ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐r ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛✱ ♣♦ré♠ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s t❡♥❞❡ ❛ ❝r❡s❝❡r❡①♣♦♥❡♥❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳ ◆♦ ❇r❛s✐❧✱ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ q✉❡ t❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣r♦♣ós✐t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♥❛ t❡♥t❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ r❡❞✉③✐r ♦s❝✉st♦s✱ ❧✐♠✐t❛♠ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❢❛③❡r ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❈♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥❡ss❡s q✉❡st✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ s✉r❣❡ ❛ ♥♦ss❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛✳◗✶✲ ❈♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡❄❊st❡ é ♦ ❡r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❖ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r♠♦s ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ✷✶ t❡①t✉❛❧ ❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ❛tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐✲❞❛❞❡s ❛ ❡❧❡✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❡ ❡st❛✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ t❛❧ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❝✉st♦ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦ às ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s❞❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❡ q✉❡ ❡st❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ♠❛✐s ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❡ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥✲❞❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ▲❡✈❛♥❞♦ ✐st♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦✱é ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛❧ q✉❡ ❤❛❥❛ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛s❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ✈✐s❛ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡❛♣❧✐❝á✲❧♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦✈❛s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❯s❛♥❞♦ ❡st❡ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❊❆❉✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✜❝❛rá r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ❢❡✐t❛s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ s❡♠✐✲❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ♦s♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❝♦rr✐❣❡♠ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐rá q✉❡ s❡✉s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡st✉❞❡♠ ❡ ♣r❛t✐q✉❡♠ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❛✈❛✲❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ♥♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❯s❛♥❞♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❞❡s❛tr❡❧❛r ♦❝✉st♦ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❡ s❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝✐t❛❞♦s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ t❡♠ ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ r❡❞✉③ ❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ P♦ré♠✱✉♠ ❞♦s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ❛♦ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧❛ é ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡♠ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❊ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡stá ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦r ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♠ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ s✉r❣❡ ♦ ♥♦ss♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳ ◗✷✲ ❈♦♠♦ ❡♥❣❛❥❛r ❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s❄ ❖ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉✐r ♥♦✈❛s r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❛♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♦❝❛s✐♦♥❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥❛✲❞❡q✉❛❞♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❖ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐t✉❞❡ ♦❝♦rr❡ ♣♦r❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s ❡ ❡♠♦❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ té❞✐♦✱ ❞❡s♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡ ♥❡❝❡s✲ s✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♦❜t❡r r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s rá♣✐❞♦s ✭❇❆❑❊❘ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✧✐♥✲✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r✏ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❡♠♦❝✐♦♥❛❧✴❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❧❡✈❛♥❞♦✲♦ ❛ ❛❣✐r ❞❡ ✉♠❛♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ♠❛✐s ♣r♦✈❡✐t♦s❛ ❛ s✐ ♠❡s♠♦ ❡ ❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣♦✉❝♦ ❡①♣❧♦r❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ t❡♠ ❡st❡♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✲ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♠ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❢❛③❡r ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ♠❡❝â♥✐❝❛✱ ✐❞❡✐❛s ❡ ❡stét✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s✭❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦✱ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦✱ ❢❛s❡s✱ ♣♦♥t♦s✮ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦❞❡ ❡♥❣❛❥á✲❧♦✱ ♠♦t✐✈❛♥❞♦ ❛çõ❡s ❜❡♥é✜❝❛s✱ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡♥❞♦ s❡✉ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦ ❡ s✉❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❡ s♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❛r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ✈✐s❛ r❡s♦❧✈❡r ❛s ❞✉❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s✱ s♦❧✉❝✐♦✲♥❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦✱ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❊ss❡s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦s s❡✉s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s✳ ◆❛ s❡çã♦ ✷✷ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r❡♠♦s ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡ss❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✳✶✳✸ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❖ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✭♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦✮ é ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡✱♦♥❞❡ ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❝✉st♦ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✱ s❡♥❞♦❡st❛s ❢❡✐t❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s❡♠✐✲❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞♦ ✭♦♥❞❡ ♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐✲♣❛rã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✮ ❡ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✭♥ú♠❡r♦ q✉❡ t❡♥❞❡ ❛ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✮✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐rá q✉❡ s❡✉s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡st✉❞❡♠ ❡ ♣r❛t✐q✉❡♠ ♦s ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ q✉❡stã♦✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ♦❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♠❛✐s ✢❡①í✈❡❧✳ ❖s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ sã♦✿❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛rt❡ ♥♦ q✉❡ ❞✐③ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❛♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐✲ ✶✳✹ ❊s❝♦♣♦❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ tr❛t❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♣r♦♣♦s✐çã♦✱ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱❛ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ✭q✉❡stõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s✱ r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ❡♥tr❡♦✉tr❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✮ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❙✐t✉❛✲s❡ ♥❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❞❡❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞♦ ▼❡str❛❞♦ ❡♠ ■♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✱ ❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳ ❊st❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ tr❛t❛ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✱♠ét♦❞♦s ♥✉♠ér✐❝♦s ❡✴♦✉ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❢♦r♠❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s❛ s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ s❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✐♥t❡r❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r✱❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ár❡❛s ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ✲ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛s ♣❡❡r✲t♦✲♣❡❡r✱ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❝♦♦♣❡r❛t✐✈♦ s✉♣♦rt❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛ ✭s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ✷✸❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❆❈▼ ✭❆❈▼✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✮ ✲ ❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡s♣❡✲❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✱ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ♥❛❡❞✉❝❛çã♦✳ ❊st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ t✉t♦r❡s ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♠❡❞✐❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r✱❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡✜❝❛③ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡rá s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✱ ❡✈✐t❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ s❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ♠❛✐s ❛❣✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❡ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❛♦❛❧✉♥♦✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦✲♦ ♠❛✐s ❛t✐✈♦ ❡♠ s❡✉ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡❛♣r❡❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❊ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ s❡rá ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ♥♦s ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦s✱ é ❛♣❡♥❛s♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❥á ❡①✐st❡♥t❡ ♥❛s ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♥❡ss❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❝♦♠♦ ♣r❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✭❝❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✮✱✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ❝✐t❛❞❛s ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♥ã♦ ❡stã♦ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞❛s ❡♠ ♥♦ss❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s❞❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❡ ♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❛ r❡♣✉t❛çã♦❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞❛s ❡ ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ❜❛s❡❛❞❛s ❡♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦ ❢♦❝♦ ❞❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ s❡rá ♥❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛s ❡ s✉❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦♥♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳✶✳✺ ❈♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ■♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ♥❛ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡rá s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✴✐♥✲❝♦r♣♦r❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s à ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s❡s❝r✐t❛s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✈✐á✈❡❧✱ ❡ tr❛③❡♥❞♦ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✴t✉t♦r ❡ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛s s❡çõ❡s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♦✉tr❛ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❛ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥✲ t❛çã♦ ❡ ❢✉t✉r❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ❢❛❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞♦ ❛♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳❊ss❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦✐ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❡①♣❡r✐✲♠❡♥t♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ❛ ❡✜❝á❝✐❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦✉tr❛ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❊st❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ t❡✈❡❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛r ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❥á ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ár❡❛✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❛s ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛s ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣♦❞❡rã♦ s❡r✈✐r ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ♥♦✈❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ♥❛s ár❡❛s ❡♥✈♦❧✲✈✐❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛s ♣❡❡r✲t♦✲♣❡❡r✱ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❝♦♦♣❡r❛t✐✈♦ s✉♣♦rt❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ❡❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛rt❡❢❛t♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✷✹♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❝r✐❛❞❛✱ sã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s❝♦♠♦ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐❛s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❡♠ ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦❥❡t♦s❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦♣ós✐t♦s✳✶✳✻ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❆ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛q✉✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♥té♠ s❡t❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦s ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦s ❡ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s ❞❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛✿❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶✿ ◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ✉♠❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦✱ ♣r♦✲ ✷✺ ✷ ❋❯◆❉❆▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❚❊Ó❘■❈❆◆❡ss❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ s❡rã♦ ❛❜♦r❞❛❞♦s ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s tó♣✐❝♦s ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ♦s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t♦s t❡ór✐❝♦s ❞❡ss❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✱ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛✳ ❆ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥✲ t❛çã♦ t❡ór✐❝❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ss❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ s❡r✈✐rá ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ t❡ór✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦ ❞❡ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ s✉❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❛s s❡çõ❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛s ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ s❡❣✉❡✳ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦✲♠❡♥t♦✱ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❡♠ s❡✉ ✉s♦ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✷✳✶✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✱ s❡rá ❡①♣❧✐❝✐t❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ♦s s❡✉s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❡ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉s❛❞♦s❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ♣❛r❛❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦❞❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❜r❡✈❡ ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s t✉t♦r❡s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✷✳✸ ❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✷✳✹✳✷✳✶ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❆ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s é ✉♠ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❢❡✐t❛ ♣❡❧♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥✲ t❡s✱ ♦♥❞❡ sã♦ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦s ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ ❢♦r♠❛t✐✈♦s ❡✴♦✉ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ s✉♠❛t✐✈❛✳ P❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡♦s ✐♥str✉t♦r❡s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❡♠ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦♠ s❡✉s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ➱ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ✐♥♦✈❛❞♦r❛ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛r ❛❧✉✲♥♦s✭▼❈❉❖❲❊▲▲❀ ▼❖❲▲❀ ●■❇❇❙✱ ✶✾✾✺✮✳ P♦❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ♥ã♦ só♥❛s ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ✜♥❛✐s ❛❝❡r❝❛ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢❡✐t♦s✱ ♠❛s t❛♠❜é♠ ♥❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ♣ré✈✐❛ ❞❡ ❝r✐tér✐♦s❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡ ♥❛ s❡❧❡çã♦✴❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ✭❇■●●❙❀ ❚❆◆●✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r✐♠♦r❞✐❛❧ ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s é ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ ❛ q✉❛❧✐✲❞❛❞❡ ♠❛✐s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛ ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛r❡s é q✉❡ ❡❧❛ é ♣♦❞❡r♦s❛ ✭❚❖PP■◆●✱ ✷✵✵✾✮✳ ❖s❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ❛♦ ❝♦♠❡♥t❛r ❡ ❥✉❧❣❛r ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞♦s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s✱ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤❛♠ ✉♠ ♣❛♣❡❧ ✈✐t❛❧♥❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛t✐✈❛✱ ❛t✐❣✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡s❡❥á✈❡✐s ❞❛ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❣❡r❛❧✱ q✉❡é t♦r♥❛r ♠❛✐♦r ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡ ❢❛③❡r ❥✉❧❣❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❖s ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ✉s❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❧♦❣íst✐❝❛✱ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❤❛❜✐❧✐✲❞❛❞❡s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝❛s✱ ♠❡t❛❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈❛s ❡✱ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦✱ ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❛❢❡t✐✈♦s ✭❙❆❉▲❊❘❀ ●❖❖❉✱✷✵✵✻✮✳ ❘❡❧❛tór✐♦s ❞♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣❡❧♦s ♣❛r❡s é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛✜♥s s✉♠❛t✐✈♦s ✐♥❝❧✉❡♠ r❡❞❛çã♦✱ ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❝❧í♥✐❝❛s✱ ♣❛❧❡str❛s ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çõ❡s ♦r❛✐s✱ ♣r♦✲❥❡t♦s ❛rq✉✐t❡tô♥✐❝♦s✱ ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥t❡r♣❡ss♦❛✐s✱ ❢♦t♦❣r❛✜❛ ❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦s ❣r✉♣♦s✭❋❆▲❈❍■❑❖❱✱ ✶✾✽✻✮✳ ❆ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s t♦♠❛♥❞♦ ❛ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ tr❛❜❛✲❧❤♦ ❞❡ s❡✉s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✳ ❊❧❡s ♣♦❞❡♠✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ✷✻ s❡r ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t✐❞♦s ❡♠ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ ❛♦s s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s✳ ➱ ✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ♣♦❞❡r♦s❛ ♣❛r❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛t✉❛r❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✬♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✬ ❡ ❣❛♥❤❛r ✉♠❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ♠❡❧❤♦r ♦s❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ tr❛♥s❢❡r❡ ✉♠ ❝❡rt♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦♣❛r❛ ❡❧❡s✱ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❛ s✉❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡ ❡♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊♠ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❝♦♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ é ♠✉✐t♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ q✉❡ ♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ✭✉♠❛❧✉♥♦ ❡♠ q✉❡stã♦✮ ❝♦♥❤❡ç❛ ❜❡♠ ♦s ♠♦t✐✈♦s ❡ ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ s❡rá ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛✱ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡❡❧❡ ❝♦♥s✐❣❛ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❯♠❛ ✈❡③ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❡ss❡s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦♣❛ss♦ é ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ ❡st❡s q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛❝❧❛r❛ ❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✉s❛r ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦s ❡s❢♦rç♦s ❡ ❛s ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♠♣❧❛ ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛✐s✳ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧♣r♦❥❡t❛r ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣❛r❛ s❡r ❢❡✐t❛ ❛❜❡rt❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡❞✐s❝✉ssã♦✱ ♦✉ ❛♥♦♥✐♠❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✳ ❖ ♣♦♥t♦✲❝❤❛✈❡ é ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ ♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ✭t❛♥t♦ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ s❡✉s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s✮ ❡♥t❡♥❞❛♠ ♦ ♣r♦♣ós✐t♦❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛r❡s ❡ ♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❡s♣❡r❛ ❞❡❧❡s✳ ❆ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ ❛❥✉❞❛♥❞♦♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ s✐ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❡ ♦s s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s ❛s r❡❛❧✐③❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ r❡❛❧✐st❛✱ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❡✲♥❛s ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❛♥❞♦✲♦s s❡♠♣r❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♥t❛r ❝♦♠ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❉♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱♦❢❡r❡❝❡♠ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♠✐ss♦r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❡s❝❛❧❛r ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❝♦♠ ❞❡③❡♥❛s ♦✉ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ❝❡♥t❡♥❛s ❞❡ ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✱ s❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦s ❝✉st♦s ❞❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛✲❝✐♦♥❛❧✳✷✳✶✳✶ ❱❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❙ã♦ ♠✉✐t❛s ❛s ❛✜r♠❛çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ♣♦ré♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♥❛ ❧✐✲ t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❛t✉❛❧ ❤á ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ♠❛✐s ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛s s♦❜r❡ q✉❛✐s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡ ❡♠ q✉❡ ♠❡❞✐❞❛✳ ❊st❡s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s sã♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧✲♠❡♥t❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❡ ✉♠ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ♥❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ ❛ss✉♠✐r ♠❛✐s r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❡❧❛ s✉❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱ ✐st♦ é✱ t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ♠❛✐s❛t✐✈♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❖s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♣♦♥t♦s ❢♦rt❡s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s sã♦ ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ❞❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✱ ❛♣r♦♠♦çã♦ ❛♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❛❥✉❞❛ ♥❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ❞❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ s♦❜r❡❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡♥tr❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ ❉❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠❡♥♦s ❝♦♥✈✐♥❝❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s sã♦ ♠❛✐s♣r♦♣❡♥s♦s ❛ ❛❝❡✐t❛r ❛ ❝rít✐❝❛ ❞♦ s❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ tr❛t❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s✱ ❡♠ ✈❡③❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ✭❇▲❆❈❑ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✸✮✳ ❆ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡ tr❛③❡r ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛✐s ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✐♥t❡r✲✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✴❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦ é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ q✉❡✱ ❝♦♠ ♦✉s♦ ❞❡st❛ ♣rát✐❝❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛t✐✈❛✱ ❣❛♥❤❛✲s❡ ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ✭❇▲❆❈❑❀ ❲■▲■❆▼✱ ✷✵✵✾✮✿ ✷✼✶✳ ❖s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛♣r❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ s❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s✱ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ s✉❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❥✉❧❣❛♠❡♥t♦❀✷✳ ❖s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❝♦♠❡ç❛♠ ❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ❤á❜✐t♦s ❡ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦ ♥❛s ❛♣r❡♥✲ ❞✐③❛❣❡♥s❀✸✳ ❖s ❛❧✉♥♦s t♦r♥❛♠✲s❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s✱ ❡ ♥ã♦ ✧✈ít✐♠❛s✧♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛✜r♠❛r q✉❡ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s é ✉♠ ✐♥str✉♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦❞❡r♦s♦ ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s✳ ❯♠❛ ♦✉tr❛✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ q✉❛♥❞♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ❞❡ ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡①t❡r♥♦s❣❡♥ér✐❝♦s✱ é ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ♠❛✐s ♣r♦❢✉♥❞❛ ❞♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦ s❡✉✉s♦ tr❛③ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦✿ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡❡ ❛✉t♦♥♦♠✐❛❀ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s s❡ ❡s❢♦r❝❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ♠❛✐s ❛✈❛♥ç❛❞❛❡ ♣r♦❢✉♥❞❛ ❞♦ ❛ss✉♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛s ❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s❀ tr❛③ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❛t✐✈♦ ♥❛❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠❀ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥❛ r❡✢❡①ã♦ ❝rít✐❝❛ ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ♥♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ s✉❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ s✉❜❥❡t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❥✉❧❣❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭❘❊❆❉■◆●✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❛♠❜é♠ tr❛③ ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✉♠❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ❞❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡rã♦ ❢❡✐t❛s ♣❡❧♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❝❛❜❡♥❞♦ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❛♣❡♥❛s ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛r❡ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❆ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉s❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛❥✉❞❛r ♦s✐♥str✉t♦r❡s ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡♠ s❡✉s ❝✉rs♦s✳✷✳✶✳✷ ▲✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❆ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❝♦♥t❡①t♦s ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛❞♦s✳ ❆ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s é t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ❝♦♠♦ ♦♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ♠❛✐s ❡❢❡t✐✈♦ ❡ ❡✜❝❛③ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ✐♥t❡❣r✐❞❛❞❡ ❡❝♦♥s✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝❛✳ ❆s ❧✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❢❛❧❤❛s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ à ❢r❛✉❞❡ ❡ ♣❧❛❣✐❛r✐s♠♦✱ ❡♠❜♦r❛ r❡❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛s✱ ♥ã♦ ❞✐♠✐♥✉❡♠ s❡✉ ❧❛r❣♦ ❡♠✲♣r❡❣♦✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♥ã♦ s❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡ ♦✉tr♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ✭▼❯▲▲■●❆◆❀ ❍❆▲▲❀❘❆P❍❆❊▲✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❯♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❝♦♥❞✉③✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✹✳✵✸✼ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ❡♠ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♠✉♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ r❡✲❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ r❡✈✐s♦r❡s✱ ❛♣♦♥t♦✉ q✉❡ ❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛❧ à ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛✱ ❡ ♥♦✈❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❞❡③ ❛✜r♠❛r❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛ s❡✉s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ♠❛♥✉s❝r✐t♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♦ ❞✉♣❧♦✲❝❡❣♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦♠❛✐s ❡❢❡t✐✈♦ ♣♦r ✼✻✪ ❞♦s r❡s♣♦♥❞❡♥t❡s✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s✲❝❡❣♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦❡❢❡t✐✈♦ ♣♦r ✹✺✪ ❞♦s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ✹✼✪ ❛♣♦✐❛♠ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♣ós✲♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡❝♦♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ✭▼❯▲▲■●❆◆❀ ❍❆▲▲❀ ❘❆P❍❆❊▲✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♣❡❧♦s ♣❛r❡s ♥ã♦ ♣r♦t❡❣❡ ❝♦♥tr❛ ♠á✲❝♦♥❞✉t❛✳ ❊❧❡♣♦❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❡rr♦s✱ ♠❛s ❛ss❡♥t❛ ♥❛ ❤♦♥❡st✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❡✱ ♣♦r ✐ss♦✱ ♣♦❞❡ ❢❛❧❤❛r ✷✽♥♦ r❡❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦ ❢r❛✉❞✉❧❡♥t❛ ❞❡❧✐❜❡r❛❞❛✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡❝t✐✈♦ ❞❡ r❡❞✉③✐r❛ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡st❛s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s✱ sã♦ ✈ár✐❛s ❛s ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çõ❡s q✉❡ tê♠ ✈✐♥❞♦ ❛ ♣r♦❞✉③✐r ❇♦❛sPrát✐❝❛s ❞❡ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦ ✭❙❈❖❚❚✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳✷✳✷ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❆ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡stá ❢♦rt❡♠❡♥t❡ ❧✐❣❛❞❛ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♠♦❝✐❛❧ ❞♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✳ ❆ ❝♦❣♥✐çã♦✱ ❛ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❡ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ t♦♠❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❞♦ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦ ❡stã♦✐♥tr✐♥s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❧✐❣❛❞♦s às ❡♠♦çõ❡s ✭❈❨❚❖❲■❈✱ ✷✵✵✷✮✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s q✉❡ s❡ s❡♥t❡♠❛♥s✐♦s♦s✱ ❝❤❛t❡❛❞♦s ♦✉ ❞❡♣r✐♠✐❞♦s ♥ã♦ ❛ss✐♠✐❧❛♠ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡✱ ♣♦r ❝❛✉s❛❞✐ss♦✱ ❛❝❛❜❛♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♠♣ró♣r✐♦s q✉❡ ❞✐✜❝✉❧t❛♠ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✭❇❆❑❊❘ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✳ ❊♠ ❝♦♥tr❛♣❛rt✐❞❛✱ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ s❡ s❡♥t❡♠ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s✱ ❞❡s❛✜❛❞♦s ❡✐♥tr✐❣❛❞♦s t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ ♦❜t❡r ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✭❱❆◆▲❊❍◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳ ❆♦ s❡ s❡♥t✐r❡♠ ❛♠❡❛ç❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s rá♣✐❞♦s✱ ♦✉ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ♣♦r ❢❛t♦r❡s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t❛✐s ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❝♦♠♦❞❡s♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✱ ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ♦✉ té❞✐♦✱ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❝♦♠❡ç❛♠ ❛ t❡r ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡♠ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❊ss❡s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s sã♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s❝♦♠♦ ✧❣❛♠✐♥❣ t❤❡ s②st❡♠✧✱ ❡①♣r❡ssã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛t♦ ❞❡ tr❛♣❛❝❡❛r ♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❡①t❡r♥❛❧✐③❛r ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❝✉♠♣r✐r ✉♠❛t❛r❡❢❛ ❡①✐❣✐❞❛ ✭❆◆❉❘❆❉❊ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✱ ✐♥t❡r❢❡r✐♥❞♦ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦ ❞❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ss❡s ❡st✉❞♦s✱ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡✲s❡ q✉❡ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ t❡♥t❡♠ ❡✈✐t❛r ❡st❡s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s ❡ ❛♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♠♦t✐✈❡✱ ❞❡s❛✜❡ ❡✐♥tr✐❣✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ✐♥st✐❣❛♥❞♦✲♦s ❛ t❡r❡♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✳ ❯♠❛ ❞❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ t❡♠ ❡ss❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❉✉r❛♥t❡ ♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s✱ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ✉♠tó♣✐❝♦ ❞❡ t❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡ ✉♠ ❛ss✉♥t♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛♣♦✐❛r ♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭❉❊❚❊❘❉■◆●❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✶✮ ✭❍❯❖❚❆❘■❀ ❍❆▼❆❘■✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ ♦❜t❡♥❞♦ ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ❞❡ s✉❛ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ s♦❝✐❛❧ ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♥❞♦ ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♣r♦❞✉t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✭❍❆▼❆❘■❀ ▲❊❍❉❖◆❱■❘❚❆✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ◆❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦❛ s❡❣✉✐r✱ é ❞❡st❛❝❛❞♦ ♦ s❡✉ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❡♠ ✐♥✈♦❝❛r ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛s ♣s✐❝♦❧ó❣✐❝❛s ❝♦♠♦❥♦❣♦s ✭❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡✮ ❢❛③❡♠ ✭❍❯❖❚❆❘■❀ ❍❆▼❆❘■✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ é ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❝â♥✐❝❛✱ ✐❞❡✐❛s ❡ ❡stét✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s ✭❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❝♦♥✲ t❡①t♦✱ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ rá♣✐❞♦✱ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦✱ ❢❛s❡s✱ ❝♦♥q✉✐st❛s✱ ♣♦♥t♦s ❡ ❡t❝✳✮✱ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❣❛❥❛r ♣❡ss♦❛s✱♠♦t✐✈❛r ❛çõ❡s✱ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦ ❡ s♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❛r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ✭❑❆PP✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡s✲ s❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ♦ t❡r♠♦ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ ✧❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s✧✱ ✉♠❛s ❞❛s✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❡rr❛❞❛✳ ❖ ✉s♦ ❝♦rr❡t♦ ❞❡st❡ t❡r♠♦ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s à ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❞❡s✐❣♥ ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s ❡♠ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡♦❜t❡r ♠❛✐♦r ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❛ss✉♥t♦ ♦✉ ✷✾❝♦♥t❡①t♦✳ ❊ss❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ♣♦❞❡ ❡♥tã♦ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠♣r❡s❛r✐❛✐s✱ ❡s❝♦❧❛s✱❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛çã♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝❛ ❡ ❛té ❡♠ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ❝♦t✐❞✐❛♥♦ ✭❆◆❉❘❆❉❊ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❊st✉❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s ❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s ❡♠ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ✈ê♠ s❡♥❞♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s❤á ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞é❝❛❞❛s ✭▼❆▲❖◆❊❀ ▲❊PP❊❘✱ ✶✾✽✼✮ ✭❈❖❘❉❖❱❆❀ ▲❊PP❊❘✱ ✶✾✾✻✮ ✭●❊❊✱✷✵✵✸✮ ✭❙❍❆❋❋❊❘✱ ✷✵✵✻✮ ✭❑▲❖P❋❊❘✱ ✷✵✵✽✮ ✱ ♣♦ré♠ ♥♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s ♦ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ♣❡❧♦ t❡♠❛ ✈❡♠ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ r✐t♠♦ ❛❝❡❧❡r❛❞♦ ✭❑❆PP✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ❆ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❛tr❛✈és❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s às ✉s❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❥♦❣♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❧❛❝❛r❡s ❡ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦s ✭❋▲❆❚▲❆ ❡t❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✱ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s s❡ s✐♥t❛♠ ♥♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s ❡ s❡ ♠♦t✐✈❡♠❝♦♠ ❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❛ s❡r❡♠ ❝✉♠♣r✐❞❛s ✭P❆❱▲❯❙✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ❖ ✉s♦ ❝♦rr❡t♦ ❞❡st❡s❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛ ♦ s✉❝❡ss♦ ♦✉ ♦ ❢r❛❝❛ss♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❥♦❣♦ ♦✉ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦✭❑❆PP✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳✷✳✷✳✶ ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❆ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡♥❣❧♦❜❛ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ t♦r♥❛♠ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ s✐♠✉❧❛r ♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❞❡ ✶ ✉♠ ❥♦❣♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❥♦❣♦✳ ❖ t❡r♠♦ ❥♦❣♦ é ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❛♠❜í❣✉♦ ❡❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛❞♦s ♥❛s ♠❛✐s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✳ ❯♠ ❥♦❣♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ♦s ❥♦❣❛❞♦r❡s s❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥✢✐t♦ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧✱ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣♦r r❡❣r❛s ❡ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ q✉❛♥t✐✜❝á✈❡❧ ✭❙❆▲❊◆❀ ❩■▼▼❊❘▼❆◆✱ ✷✵✵✹✮✳ ❙❡❣✉♥❞♦❡st❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦✱ ✉♠ ❥♦❣♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ três ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s✿ ❞❡s❛✜♦✱ ❛s r❡❣r❛s ❡ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦✭❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦✮ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❤á ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❥♦❣♦✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ♦s❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ q✉❛tr♦ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s✿ ▼❡❝â♥✐❝❛✱ ❍✐stór✐❛s✱ ❊stét✐❝❛ ❡ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛✭❙❈❍❊▲▲✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ❊st❛s ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s sã♦✿ ▼❡❝â♥✐❝❛✿ ❚❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ❛s r❡❣r❛s ❡ ❛çõ❡s ✭♣r♦❝❡❞✐♠❡♥t♦s✮ ❞♦ ❥♦❣♦ ✐♥t❡r❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❥♦❣♦ ✭✐✳❡✳ ❥♦❣❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✮ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❉♦ ✐♥❣❧ês ●❛♠❡ ✸✵❈❛❞❛ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛ ❞❡s❝r✐t❛ ❛❝✐♠❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ s❡r✐❡ ❞❡ s✉❜❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡ t♦r♥❡ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❥♦❣♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦✳ ❆ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ r❡s✉♠✐❞❛ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞❡ss❡s s✉❜❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷ ✕ ❙✉❜❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛s ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❆◆❉❘❆❉❊ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❞❡ss❡s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ✭♦s ♠❛✐s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s✮ sã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ✭❑❆PP✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✿❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✿ ❙ã♦ ❛s ♠❡t❛s q✉❡ ✉♠ ❥♦❣❛❞♦r ❞❡✈❡rá ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ❛♦ ❧♦❣♦ ❞♦ ❥♦❣♦✳ ❊st❛s ✸✶❉❡♥tr❡ ❛s r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ❥♦❣❛❞♦r❡s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❞❡st❛❝❛r ❛❧❣✉♠❛s q✉❡ sã♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s✳ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❞❡ss❡s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s❞❡st❛❝❛r sã♦ ✭❩■❈❍❊❘▼❆◆◆❀ ❈❯◆◆■◆●❍❆▼✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✿ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s✿ ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s t❛r❡❢❛s q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛✱ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ é ➱ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❞❡st❛❝❛r q✉❡ ❡st❡s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❡st❛ s❡çã♦ sã♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛❧❣✉♥s❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❝♦♠♣♦r ✉♠ ❥♦❣♦✳ ❯♠ ❥♦❣♦ ♥ã♦ ♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡❝♦♠♣õ❡ t♦❞♦s ❡ss❡s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♥ã♦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r t♦❞♦s ♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛q✉✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s✴❞❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦r❛✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r t❛♠❜é♠ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s✱ ✐♥s❡r✐r ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r t✐♣♦ ❞❡ s✐t✉❛çã♦✳ P❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡ ♦❜t❡♥❤❛ s✉❝❡ss♦❛♦ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛r ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡ ✉♠❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♣r♦♣♦r té❝♥✐❝❛s ❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥❛s ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛s ❛t✉❛✐s✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ s❡♣♦ss❛ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧❛s ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛✱ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❡ ❡✜❝❛③ ✭❆◆❉❘❆❉❊ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳✷✳✷✳✷ ❇❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❖ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ t♦r♥❛r ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦ tr❛③ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s q✉❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡rã♦ ❞❡❝♦♠♦ ✭❡ q✉❛✐s✮ ♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ sã♦ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞♦s ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❉✐✲✈❡rs♦s ❡st✉❞♦s ❛✈❛❧✐❛♠ ♦ ✐♥❝r❡♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ s❡✉s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ✭▲■ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✭❉❊◆◆❨✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✭◆■❑❑■▲❆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ◆❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛✱ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦✉ ❛♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ❡ ♦ ❡♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❆ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦❧❛✲❜♦r❛t✐✈♦s ♣♦❞❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❡♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✲✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✭❈❯◆❍❆❀ ●❆❙P❆❘■◆■❀ ❇❊❘❑❊◆❇❘❖❈❑✱✷✵✶✸❜✮✳ ❙❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❡st✉❞♦✱ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥✲ tr✐❜✉✐ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❞❛ ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❛ s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦✱ ♦ ♣r❛③❡r✱ ❛ ✸✷❞✐✈❡rsã♦✱ ♦ ❡♥tr❡t❡♥✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✱ ❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✱ ❛ s❡♥s❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❛✜♦✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠ ❡st❡s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜✲❝❛çã♦✱ s❡✉ ✉s♦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❢❡✐t♦ ❝♦♠ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❤á r✐s❝♦s ❡♠ s✉❛✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ✐♥trí♥s❡❝❛ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣❡❧❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡①trí♥s❡❝❛✭◆■❈❍❖▲❙❖◆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡❝❡❜❡r r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛s ✭♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡①trí♥s❡❝❛✮✱ ❡♠ ✈❡③ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧♦ ♣♦✐s ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✐rá tr❛③❡r ❛❧❣✉♠❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦ ✭♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ✐♥trí♥s❡❝❛✮✳ ◆♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✲✜❝❛çã♦ é ♦ s❡✉ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ rá♣✐❞♦✱ ✐st♦ é✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ♦s❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❝♦♥s✐❣❛♠ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ❡❢❡✐t♦ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ rá♣✐❞❛✳❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s s❡♥t❡♠ q✉❡ s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s ❢❛③❡♠ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❛✉s❛ ♠❛✐♦r✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ❡st❡s ♥ã♦ ❡st❡❥❛ ✈❡♥❞♦ ❡❢❡t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♥❛ s✉❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱ ❡❧❡s s❡♥t❡♠ q✉❡ s❡✉s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛❧❣♦ ♠❛✐♦r❡ ♠❛✐s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡✳✷✳✷✳✸ ❈r✐❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❆ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡①✐❣❡ q✉❡ s❡ ♣❡♥s❡ ❡♠ ♠✉✐t♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡ t❡♥❤❛ ✉♠ s✉❝❡ss♦ ❡♠ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦✳ ❊ss❡s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❜❡♠ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛❞♦s ❡ ❜❡♠❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❞♦s✳ ❖ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ❡❧❡s sã♦ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❝r✐❛r ❡ss❡ ♣❧❛♥♦✱ ♣♦ré♠ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✻❉✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝✉rs♦ ❞♦ ✷ ❈♦✉rs❡r❛ ✱ ♣♦r ❑❡✈✐♥ ✇❡r❜❛❝❤✬s ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ P❡♥s✐❧✈â♥✐❛✳❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❜❛st❛ s❡❣✉✐r ❡ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ✻ q✉❡stõ❡s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛✐s ✭❛s ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ✻❉✮✳ ❈❛❞❛ q✉❡stã♦ ✈✐s❛ ❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❧❡✈❛rã♦ ❛♦ s❡✉ s✉❝❡ss♦✳ ❆s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ✭♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ✐♥❣❧ês✮❡ s❡✉s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s q✉❡st✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s sã♦ ✭❲❊❘❇❆❈❍❀ ❍❯◆❚❊❘✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✿ ✶✳ ❉❡✜♥❡ ❇✉s✐♥❡ss ❖❜❥❡❝t✐✈❡s✿ ❊st❛ q✉❡stã♦ ✈✐s❛ ❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛✿✏P♦rq✉❡ ✈♦❝ê ❡stá ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛♥❞♦❄✑✱ ❛♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡♠♣♦ q✉❡ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ✏◗✉❛❧ é ♦ s❡✉♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦❄✑✳ ❉❡✈❡✲s❡ ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛r ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡❞❡t❛❧❤❛r ♦s ♠❡✐♦s❀ ✷✳ ❉❡❧✐♥❡❛t❡ t❛r❣❡t ❜❡❤❛✈✐♦rs✿ ❊st❛ q✉❡stã♦ s❡ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦r❡s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❘❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s ✏❖ q✉❡ ✈♦❝ê q✉❡r q✉❡ s❡✉s ❥♦❣❛❞♦r❡s ❢❛ç❛♠❄✑ ❡ ✏◗✉❛✐s sã♦ ❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐rá q✉❡ ✈♦❝ê ♣♦ss❛ ♠❡❞✐r❡ss❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦❄✑✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡✈❡♠ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ✷ s❡✉s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦s❀ P❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ q✉❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ❝✉rs♦s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ à ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣❛ís❡s ✸✸✸✳ ❉❡s❝r✐❜❡ ②♦✉r ♣❧❛②❡rs✿ ❊st❛ q✉❡stã♦ s❡ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❘❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ✏◗✉❡♠ sã♦ ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s q✉❡ ✐rã♦ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r❞❛ s✉❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛❞❛❄✑ ❡ ✏◗✉❛❧ é ❛ s✉❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s❄✑❀ ✹✳ ❉❡✈✐s❡ ②♦✉r ❛❝t✐✈✐t② ❧♦♦♣s✿ ❊st❛ q✉❡stã♦ s❡ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝♦♠♦✳ ❉❡✈❡✲s❡❡①♣❧♦r❛r ❡♠ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡t❛❧❤❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✈♦❝ê ✈❛✐ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ♦s s❡✉s ❥♦❣❛❞♦r❡s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❧♦♦♣s❡♥❣❛❥❛❞♦s ❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❡ssã♦✳ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❢❡❡❞✲❜❛❝❦s q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✈❛✐ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ❛♦s ❥♦❣❛❞♦r❡s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❛r ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s✱ s❡♠ ❞❡✐①❛r ❞❡ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛r ❝♦♠♦ ❡ss❡ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ ✈❛✐ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r ♣❛r❛ ♠♦t✐✈á✲❧♦s❀ ✺✳ ❉♦♥✬t ❢♦r❣❡t t❤❡ ❢✉♥✿ ❊♠❜♦r❛ ♠❛✐s ❛❜str❛t♦ ❞♦ q✉❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s✱é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ ♦ s❡✉ s✐st❡♠❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦ s❡❥❛ tã♦ ❞✐✈❡rt✐❞♦ q✉❛♥t♦ ♦s ♦✉tr♦s❛s♣❡❝t♦s❀ ✻✳ ❉❡♣❧♦② t❤❡ ❛♣♣r♦♣r✐❛t❡ t♦♦❧s✿ P♦r ✜♠✱ ✈♦❝ê ❥á ❞❡✈❡ t❡r ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦ ✈ár✐♦s ❞♦s❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ❥♦❣♦ ❡ ♦✉tr❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ s❡✉ s✐st❡♠❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦✳ ❘❡s♣♦♥❞❡à ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ✏◗✉❛✐s sã♦ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ❥♦❣♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❡ q✉❛❧ s❡rá ❛ s✉❛❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❥♦❣❛❞♦r❡s❄✑✳ ✷✳✸ ❙✐st❡♠❛s t✉t♦r❡s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s❖s ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❚✉t♦r❡s ■♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ✭❙❚■✮ tê♠ ✉♠❛ ❤✐stór✐❛ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛♥t❡✱ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❞❛ ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ■♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ✭■❆✮✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❛ ❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡❙❚■✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ❙❚■ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❛■❆ ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❧❡✈❛r ❛ t❡r♠♦ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✭❙▲❊✲❊▼❆◆❀ ❇❘❖❲◆✱ ✶✾✽✷✮✳ ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭●■❘❆❋❋❆✱ ✶✾✾✾✮✱ ♦ ❙❚■ é ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ■♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ t❡♥t❛r ❝r✐❛r ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ❧❡✈❡ ❡♠❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦ ♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❡st✐❧♦s ❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❊①✐st❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ✉♠❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ♠❛✐s❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r ♦s ❙❚■ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s q✉❡✱ ✐♥t❡r❛❣✐♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛♠ s✉❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ✭❛♣r❡♥❞❡♠✮✱ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡♠ ❛s ✐♥t❡r✈❡♥çõ❡s ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛r ❛s ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥r♦❧❛r ❞♦ ❞✐á❧♦❣♦✭❱■❈❆❘■✱ ✶✾✽✾✮✳ ❖s s✐st❡♠❛s t✉t♦r❡s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❝♦♠ ❡♥♦r♠❡ ♣♦✲ t❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❡♥❣❧♦❜❛♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛ràs ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✲s✐st❡♠❛✱♦ q✉❡ é ❞❡ ❡①tr❡♠❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♥❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ✉♠ ❙❚■ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ❡♠ s✉❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❜ás✐❝❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❛♠ ❛ss❡❣✉✐♥t❡s q✉❡stõ❡s✿ ❖ q✉❡ ❡♥s✐♥❛r❄ ❈♦♠♦ ❡♥s✐♥❛r❄ ❊ ❛ q✉❡♠ ❡♥s✐♥❛r❄ P❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❡ss❛s q✉❡stõ❡s é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✉♠ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥t❡r❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r✱ ❡♥✈♦❧✲✈❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✱ ♣s✐❝♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦✳ ❯♠ ❙❚■ ❡♥tr❛❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡ss❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s✱ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ✸✹❣❛♥❤♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡rá✈❡❧ ♥❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸ ✐❧✉str❛ ♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❙❚■s ♥❛s ❞✐s✲❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❝✐t❛❞❛s ❛❝✐♠❛✳ ❊st❡s s✉♣r❡♠ q✉❛s❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡❛ ❝♦❜❡rt✉r❛ ❞❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ✭❲❖❖▲❋✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸ ✕ ❙❚■ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✭❲❖❖▲❋✱ ✷✵✶✵✮ ❈❛❞❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛✱ ✐s♦❧❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✱ t❡♠ ✉♠ ♣r♦♣♦s✐t♦ ❜❡♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✳ ❆ ■♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❛rt✐✜✲❝✐❛❧ tr❛t❛ q✉❡stõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ♣♦r ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆ Ps✐❝♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r♠❡♥t❡ ❛ s✉❜ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈❛✱ tr❛t❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ♣❡♥s❛♠ ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡♠✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❢♦❝❛ ❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣♦✐❛r♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❢♦r♠❛✳ P♦r ❡st❡ ♠♦t✐✈♦✱ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❙❚■ r❡q✉❡r✉♠ ❡s❢♦rç♦ ❝♦♥❝❡♥tr❛❞♦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❞✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s✱ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ✉♠❛❡q✉✐♣❡ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r✱ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❛ ■♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✱ P❡❞❛❣♦❣✐❛✱ ❈♦♠✉♥✐✲❝❛çã♦✱ Ps✐❝♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ ♦✉tr❛s ár❡❛s✱ ✈✐st♦ q✉❡ ❛ ■❆ é ✉♠❛ ár❡❛ t✐♣✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥t❡r❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r✭❱■❈❆❘■❀ ●■❘❆❋❋❆✱ ✷✵✵✸✮✳✷✳✸✳✶ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❙❚■ P❛r❛ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❡❧❡ ❞❡✈❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛✐s✳ ❊ss❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s sã♦ ❛❞✈✐♥❞❛s ❞❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❙❚■✳ ❯♠ ❙❚■ ❞❡✈❡ ♣❛ss❛r ❡♠ três ✏t❡st❡s✑ ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ✭❏❖◆❆❙❙❊◆❀ ❲❆◆●✱ ✶✾✾✸✮✿ ✶✳ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞♦ t❡♠❛ ♦✉ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❝♦❞✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣♦ss❛❛❝❡ss❛r ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ ❢❛③❡r ✐♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ♦✉ r❡s♦❧✈❡r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s❀ ✸✺✷✳ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡st❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧✉♥♦❀✸✳ ❆s ❡str❛té❣✐❛s t✉t♦r✐❛✐s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡❞✉③✐r ❛ ❞✐s❝r❡♣â♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✳❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ✉♠ ❙❚■ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✭▲❖■◆❆❩✱ ✷✵✵✶✮✿ ❖ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡stá r❡str✐t♦ ❡ ❝❧❛r❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛rt✐❝✉❧❛❞♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❣❡♥ér✐❝❛✱ ♦s ❙❚■ s❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛♠ ♣♦r r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r s❡♣❛r❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡❛ ♠❛tér✐❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥s✐♥❛ ✭♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✮ ❡ ❛s ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡♥s✐♥á✲❧❛ ✭♠♦❞❡❧♦♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦✮✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛♠ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✭❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✮ ❝♦♠ ♦♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ♦❜t❡r ✉♠ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ❖✉tr❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♠❛r❝❛♥t❡ é ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐✲❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ s❡r ✉♠ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❜❡♠ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛❞♦✱ ❞❡ ❢á❝✐❧ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛çã♦✱ ❡ q✉❡ ❢❛✈♦r❡ç❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ t✉t♦r✲❛❧✉♥♦✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠ ❙❚■ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r ✢❡①í✈❡❧✱ t❡r ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ s❡✉ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ tr❛♥s♠✐t✐r ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐✲♠❡♥t♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✱ ❞❡✈❡ ✐♥❢❡r✐r s♦❜r❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✲❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ P♦r ♣r♦♣✐❝✐❛r❡♠ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡❡st❡ ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♦s ❙❚■ tê♠ s❡ ♠♦str❛❞♦ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❡ ❞❛♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✭❈❖❙❚❆✱ ✶✾✾✾✮✳✷✳✸✳✷ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦s ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❚✉t♦r❡s ■♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ❖ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦s ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❚✉t♦r❡s ■♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s é ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❛❞❛♣✲ t❛❞♦ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ t❡♥t❛♥❞♦ s❡ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛r ❞♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❤✉♠❛♥♦ ♥❛s❛❧❛ ❞❡ ❛✉❧❛✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐③❛r ❛ s✉❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦✱ ❢❛③✲s❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r t❡♥❤❛ ❡♠❜✉t✐❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❛ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s❜❡♠ ❞✐st✐♥t♦s✳ ❊st❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ❜✉s❝❛♠ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛s três q✉❡stõ❡s❜ás✐❝❛s✿ ♦ q✉❡ ❡♥s✐♥❛r✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥s✐♥❛r ❡ ❛ q✉❡♠ ❡♥s✐♥❛r✳ ❚❛✐s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡sá❣✉❛♠ ❡♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ❛ s❡❣✉✐r ✭▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❉♦♠í♥✐♦✱▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❆♣r❡♥❞✐③ ❡ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ P❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦✮ ✭❲❖❖▲❋✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ❆ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❢♦r♠❛♠ ❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳ ✸✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹ ✕ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✭❲❖❖▲❋✱ ✷✵✶✵✮ ❊st❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ é ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❝❧áss✐❝❛ ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❢✉♥çã♦ tr✐♣❛rt✐❞❛♦✉ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❙❚■✳ ❖ t❡r♠♦ tr✐♣❛rt✐❞♦ s❡ r❡❢❡r❡ às ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛s ❛♦s♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞♦ t✉t♦r✱ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✳ ❊ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s tê♠ ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s✱ t❛✐s❝♦♠♦✿ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❉♦♠í♥✐♦✿ ❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❡rr♦s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠✉♥s❀▼♦❞❡❧♦ P❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦✿ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ❡ tát✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✱ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❛ P♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ♥❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✱ q✉❡ ❡❧❛ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡✉ ❣r❛♥❞❡s ❛✈❛♥ç♦s♥❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❙❚■✮✱ ♣♦✐s ❤♦✉✈❡ ✉♠❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❛ s✉❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛çã♦ ✭❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✮✳ ❈♦♠✐ss♦✱ ❛s ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛s ❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡✳ ✸✼✷✳✹ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❯♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ é ✉♠❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❡ ❡①♣❧í❝✐t❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t✉❛çã♦ ✭●❘❯✲❇❊❘✱ ✶✾✾✺✮✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❡ r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ❞♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❡ r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❡ s✉❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s✱ ♣r♦✲♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡ r❡str✐çõ❡s ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛①✐♦♠❛✳ ❆s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s sã♦ út❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ❛♣♦✐❛r❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛✳ ❆ ♣❛❧❛✈r❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✈❡♠ ❞♦ ●r❡❣♦ ♦♥t♦s ❡ ❧♦❣♦s✱ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ s❡r✳ ❊♠✜❧♦s♦✜❛✱ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞♦ s❡r✳ ❊♠ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✱ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛❧✱ ✉♠❛♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡✜♥❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❡ s✉❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❛ t❡r♠✐♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✭✈♦✲❝❛❜✉❧ár✐♦ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✮✱ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❡①♣❧í❝✐t❛ ❞♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s✱ s✉❛s ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çõ❡s✱ t❛✲①♦♥♦♠✐❛s✱ r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❡ ❛①✐♦♠❛s ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ❤✐❡r❛rq✉✐❛s ❡ r❡str✐çõ❡s ✭❉❊❱❊❉➎■❈✱✷✵✵✻✮✳ ❯♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s ❡ s✉❛s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡ s❡✉s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐✲♠❡♥t♦ é ❡①♣❧í❝✐t♦✳ ❊st❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ é ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ à ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ár❡❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❯♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❤á ✉♠❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧✱ ❡①✐st❡ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡✈✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❡ ✐♥t❡❣rá✲❧❛s ❡♠ ♦✉tr❛s ár❡❛s ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡✲❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ✭❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ♦✉tr❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✮✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♠♦str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳ ❖✉tr❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠❞❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ é q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ♣♦r ♠áq✉✐♥❛s✱ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛♥❞♦✱ ❛ss✐♠✱❛ ❛✉t♦♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺ ✕ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❍❊❆❚❍✱ ✷✵✶✸✮ ✸✽❆s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s t✐♣♦s✱ ❛ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡r ❞❡ s❡✉ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✜♥❛❧✳ ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ s❡✉ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❡❧❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❡♠ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ✭t♦♣ ❧❡✈❡❧✮✱ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✱ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ t❛r❡❢❛s ❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻ ✕ ❚✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ s✉❛ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭●❯❆❘■◆❖✱ ✶✾✾✽✮ ❆s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♠ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ♠✉✐t♦ ❣❡r❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❡s♣❛ç♦✱ t❡♠♣♦✱♠❛tér✐❛✱ ♦❜❥❡t♦✱ ❡✈❡♥t♦✱ ❛çã♦✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ ❊❧❡s sã♦ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣❛rt✐✲❝✉❧❛r ♦✉ ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✳ ❆s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡ t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♠✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦✈♦❝❛❜✉❧ár✐♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❣❡♥ér✐❝♦ ✭❝♦♠♦ ❛ ♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❛✱ ♦✉ ❛✉t♦♠ó✈❡✐s✮ ♦✉ ❛✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❣❡♥ér✐❝❛ ♦✉ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ✭❝♦♠♦ ❞✐❛❣♥♦st✐❝❛r ♦✉ ✈❡♥❞❛✮✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♠ ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ❡ t❛r❡❢❛ ❡♠♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✳✷✳✹✳✶ ❇❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ❡ ❢♦r♠❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ tr❛③ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s❛♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❥á ❝✐t❛❞❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ❆❧❣✉♠❛s r❛③õ❡s♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ sã♦ ✭▼❈❈❯■◆◆❊❙❙✱ ✷✵✵✺✮✿ ❆✉t♦♠❛çã♦ ✲ P❛r❛ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r ♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✸✾❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❡ ✉s❛r ❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛❣r❡❣❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦♦✉ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s❀❘❡✉s♦ ✲ P❛r❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✿ s❡ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s t❡♠ ✈ár✐♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❛✉t♦♠❛çã♦✱✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ é r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛ s✉❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦♣❡❧❛s ♠áq✉✐♥❛s✳ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s tê♠ s✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❡♠ ✈ár✐❛s ár❡❛s ❞❛ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛✲çã♦✱ ❞❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✿ ❘❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♥❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t❀ Pr♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ▲✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠◆❛t✉r❛❧❀ ●❡stã♦ ❞♦ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦❀ ❲❡❜✲❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛❀ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ár❡❛s✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s tr❛③ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♦✉tr❛s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✿ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ✭❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛♠ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦❡♥tr❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❛❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣♦✐s ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ r❛❝✐♦❝í♥✐♦ ❡ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐✲♠❡♥t♦ s♦❜r❡ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✮ ❡ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ✭❆s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❢♦r♠❛♠ ✉♠✈♦❝❛❜✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s❡♥s♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡♠ s❡✉♥í✈❡❧ ♠❛✐s ❛❧t♦ ❞❡ ❛❜str❛çã♦✮✳✷✳✹✳✷ ❖❲▲ ❡ ♣r♦té❣é ❖ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ é ♠✉✐t♦ ❛❜str❛t♦ ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ P❛r❛ ❝r✐❛r❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ q✉❡❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛ q✉❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❡ s✉❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ t❡♠♦s❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❖❲▲ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛♣r♦té❣é s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ s✉❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦✳ ❆ ❲❡❜ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡ ✭❖❲▲✮ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡✉ ♣❛r❛ r❡s♦❧✈❡r ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❧✐♠✐t❛çã♦❞❡ ♣♦❞❡r ❡①♣r❡ss✐✈♦ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡ ♥❛s ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s ❘❉❋ ❡ ❘❉❋ ❙❝❤❡♠❛✳ ❖❲▲ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡ ❛ ✉♠❛❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉t♦r✐❛ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✳ ➱✉♠❛ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❲✸❈ ❞❡s❞❡ ❋❡✈❡r❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✵✹ ❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉s❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s q✉❡♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r ♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦✱ ❡♠ ✈❡③ ❞❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛✲❧❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s s❡r❡s ❤✉♠❛♥♦s✳ ❖❲▲ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ s✉♣♦rt❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❳▼▲✱ ❘❉❋ ❡ ❘❉❋ ❙❝❤❡♠❛ ✭❘❉❋✲❙✮✱ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♥❞♦ ✈♦❝❛❜✉❧ár✐♦❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❢♦r♠❛❧✳ ❖❲▲ s❡ ❜❛s❡✐❛ ♥❛ ❧ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ✭❉▲✮❡ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r três s✉❜❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s q✉❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡♠ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦s❝❡♥ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✳ ❆s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❖❲▲✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ✹✵❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s s✉r❣✐r❛♠ ❝♦♠ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ❣rá✜❝❛s♠✉✐t♦ ❛♠✐❣á✈❡✐s✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ✈ár✐❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ❧✐st❛ ❝♦♠ ✈ár✐❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ✭❈❆❘❉❖❙❖✱✷✵✵✼✮✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼ ✕❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❈❆❘❉❖❙❖✱ ✷✵✵✼✮ ❉❡st❡ ♠♦❞♦✱ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r♦té❣é✳ Pr♦té❣é é ✉♠❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❧✐✈r❡✱ ❞❡ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❛❜❡rt♦ q✉❡ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡♠ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ✸ ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✭❙❈■❊◆❈❊❙✱ ✷✵✶✸✮ ✳Pr♦t❡❣❡ é ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❏❛✈❛✱ é ❡①t❡♥sí✈❡❧✱ ❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣❧✉❣✲❛♥❞✲♣❧❛② q✉❡ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ s❡❥❛ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ✢❡①í✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦t♦t✐♣❛❣❡♠ rá♣✐❞❛ ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s✳❖ ❡❞✐t♦r Pr♦té❣é✲❖❲▲ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❝r✐❛r ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ ❡♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r ♥❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❖❲▲✳ ❯♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❖❲▲ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s✱ ♣r♦✲ ✹ ♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡ s✉❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ✭❙▼■❚❍❀ ❲❊▲❚❨❀ ▼❈●❯■◆◆❊❙❙✱ ✷✵✵✹✮ ✳ ❆❧❣✉♠❛s t❡❧❛s♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛s ❡♠ s❡✉ s✐t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽✳ ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ Pr♦té❣é ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❜❛s❡❛❞❛s ❡♠♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s s✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛s✳ ❖s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r ❛ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦ Pr♦té❣é❝♦♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ r❡❣r❛s ♦✉ ♦✉tr♦s s♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠❛ ❛♠✲♣❧❛ ❣❛♠❛ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ s✉❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❛ ❡ ❛ ✈❛st❛❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ Pr♦té❣é ❡stá s❡♠♣r❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❛ ❛❥✉❞á✲❧♦✳ ❆ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✱ ✸ ❡s❝♦♣♦✱ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ q✉❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛✱ ✉♠❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ q✉❡ ❣✉✐❛rá ♦ ♣r♦✲✹ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠ ❤tt♣✿✴✴♣r♦t❡❣❡✳st❛♥❢♦r❞✳❡❞✉ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇✸✳♦r❣✴❚❘✴♦✇❧✲❣✉✐❞❡✴ ✹✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽ ✕ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❙❈■❊◆❈❊❙✱ ✷✵✶✸✮ ❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦✳ P♦r ❡st❛r ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ❡s❝♦♣♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♥ã♦ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛s♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✳ ✹✷ ✸ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❘❊▲❆❈■❖◆❆❉❖❙❆ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛s✱ ❡♠ ✉♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ t❛♠❜é♠ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s ❥á r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♠❛♥❡✐r❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ss❡ t✐♣♦✱❡♠ ❣❡r❛❧ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦❞❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ♣♦ss✉❛ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝♦✱ é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ s❡❥❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝♦ q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡t❛♣❛s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s❛ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✭●❆▲❱➹❖❀ ❙❆❲❆❉❆❀ ❚❘❊❱■❩❆◆✱ ✷✵✵✹✮✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡✲ t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r s❡✉s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡ ♦s♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✳ ❯♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦✉tr♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦✱ é ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ s♦❜r❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ t❡♠❛✭❙❆▼P❆■❖❀ ▼❆◆❈■◆■✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳ ➱ ✉♠ ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r✱ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❡ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛r t♦❞❛s ❛s♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ár❡❛ t❡♠át✐❝❛♦✉ ❢❡♥ô♠❡♥♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❡ t❡♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ s✐♥t❡t✐③❛r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❥✉st❛✱ s❡♠ q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s s❡❥❛♠ t❡♥❞❡♥❝✐♦s♦s ✭❑❊❊▲❊✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳ ❆s r❡✈✐sõ❡s s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡❜✉s❝❛ ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞❛✳ ❉✉r❛♥t❡ ✉♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡✈❡♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❡ r❡❧❛t❛r q✉❛✐s ❡st✉❞♦s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛ s✉❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡✈❡♠✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❡ r❡❧❛t❛r ❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❡stã♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛ s✉❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛✳ ❆ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ é q✉❡ s✉❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ é ❜❡♠ ❞❡✲✜♥✐❞❛✱ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✐ss♦ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ♠❡♥♦s ♣r♦✈á✈❡❧ q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s s❡❥❛♠ t❡♥❞❡♥❝✐♦s♦s✱ ❛♣❡s❛r❞❡ ♥ã♦ ♣r♦t❡❣❡r ❝♦♥tr❛ ♦ ✈✐és ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♥♦s ❡st✉❞♦s ♣r✐♠ár✐♦s✳ ❆ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞❡s✈❛♥✲ t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sõ❡s s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛s ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ é q✉❡ ❡❧❛s ❡①✐❣❡♠ ✉♠ ❡s❢♦rç♦❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡ ♠❛✐♦r ❞♦ q✉❡ ❛s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s r❡✈✐sõ❡s ❞❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ✭❑❊❊▲❊✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳ P❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ r❡❧❡✈â♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❞❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✳ ❆ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ r❛③ã♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡st❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ é ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞♦♥♦ss♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r✐♠ár✐♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❧✐st❛r ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐♦s✿ ❘❡s✉♠✐r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛❀ ✹✸❯♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ♣♦r t❡r ✉♠❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❜❡♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛✱ s❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❝❧áss✐❝❛ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❜❡♠❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ q✉❡ ❞✐③ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ à ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦ ♣r❡✈✐❛♠❡♥t❡❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ❡ ❝❧❛r❛ ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✭❑❊❊▲❊✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛✲s❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳❊st❡ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦ ❡ ♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥❞✉③✐r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st♦ ❝♦♠♦♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✳ ◆❛ t❡♥t❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ r❡❞✉③✐r ♦ ✈✐és ❝❛✉s❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r ❡ ♣❛r❛ ❢❛③❡r ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ s❡❥❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ r❡♣❧✐❝á✈❡❧✱ é♠✉✐t♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ s❡❥❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✱❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ s✉❜s❡çã♦ ✸✳✶✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ é ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ♣ré✲❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞❛s ♥♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦✳ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ s✉❜s❡çã♦ ✸✳✷✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♥❛ s✉❜s❡çã♦ ✸✳✸✳✸✳✶ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛❞❛✳ ➱ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❡ é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ q✉❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❝❧❛r❛s ❡♠ s✉❛❞❡✜♥✐çã♦✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛✭s✮♣❡r❣✉♥t❛✭s✮ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❛✭s✮ ❙tr✐♥❣✭s✮ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛✱ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦s ❡st✉❞♦s ❡ ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ❡♥❣❡♥❤♦s ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛❡ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s✳ ❚♦❞❛s ❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s ❡ ❞❡✜♥✐rã♦ ♦ s✉❝❡ss♦ ❡ ❛ r❡♣r♦❞✉t✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✳ ❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛s s✉❜s❡çõ❡s ❛ s❡❣✉✐r ❞❡✜♥❡♠ ❡st❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛✳ ❆ s✉❜s❡çã♦ ✸✳✶✳✶ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞♦♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦✱ s❡✉s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s✳ ❆ s✉❜s❡çã♦ ✸✳✶✳✷✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ❞❡✜♥❡ ❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❛ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛✱ ❛ ❙tr✐♥❣ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❡q✉❛✐s ❜❛s❡s ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦s ❡ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ✭✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦✮ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞♦s sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ s✉❜s❡çã♦ ✭✸✳✶✳✸✮✳✸✳✶✳✶ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ é ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❛ s❡r ❛❜♦r❞❛❞♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦ é ❡❧✐❝✐t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡♣❡sq✉✐s❛s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✿ ✹✹❚❡♠❛✿ ❯♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦✿ ❖ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ é ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r♣❛r❡s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✭❤✐❣❤ ❧❡✈❡❧ q✉❡st✐♦♥✮✿ ❈♦♠♦ ❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❡♠ ✶ s✐❞♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡❄❖ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❞❡✜♥✐r ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡ ♥♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦✳ ❆s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s q✉❡stõ❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s✿◗P✶✿ ❊♠ q✉❛✐s ❝♦♥t❡①t♦s ❡ ♥í✈❡✐s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ◗P✷✿ ❈♦♠ q✉❡ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ◗P✸✿ ❍á ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ❛♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡ ♦ q✉❛♥t♦ ❡st❡ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r✳ ❊ss❛s ❡✈✐✲❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡✈❡♠ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❡ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦❡♠♣ír✐❝❛✳ ❊♠ ❝❛s♦ ❛✜r♠❛t✐✈♦✱ ♦ q✉❛♥t♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❡ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❛s♣❡❝t♦✳◗P✹✿ ❍á ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦s ❊st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ s❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❡①♣❧♦r❛tór✐❛✱ ❜✉s❝❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦✴❡s❝❧❛r❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❆♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡♠♣♦ é❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛tór✐❛✱ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ✏❈♦♠♦ ❳ é❄✑ ✹✺♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❊ss❛s ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡✈❡♠ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❡ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛✳ ❊♠ ❝❛s♦❛✜r♠❛t✐✈♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✳◗P✺✿ ❍á✴❍♦✉✈❡ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❊st❛ q✉❡stã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❛♣♦♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦s ❡st✉✲❞♦s ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❊ss❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛❝✐♠❛ sã♦ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛✳ ❊❧❛s ♥♦s ❞❛rã♦ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❝♦♠♦ é ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐✲❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡ s✉❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❡ss❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ✭◗P✶ ❡ ◗P✷✮✱ s❡✉s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s t❛♥t♦ ❛♦s♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧✉♥♦s ✭◗P✸ ❡ ◗P✹✮✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ♥❛ s✉❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✭◗P✺✮✳✸✳✶✳✷ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❆♥t❡s ❞❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛r♠♦s ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ✉♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛♣❛r❛ ♦s ❡st✉❞♦s ♣r✐♠ár✐♦s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ❡st✉❞♦s ❡♠♣ír✐❝♦s q✉❡ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛♠ ✉♠❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ✭❑❊❊▲❊✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✮✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ❞✉❛s❡t❛♣❛s✿ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❞❡✜♥❡ ❛s ♣❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡ ❡ ❛ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❀ ❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛✱ ♣♦r s✉❛✈❡③✱ ❞❡✜♥❡ q✉❛✐s ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❞✐❣✐t❛✐s✱ r❡✈✐st❛s ❡ ❝♦♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦♥t❡❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦s✳ ❊ss❛s ❞✉❛s ❡t❛♣❛s s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✳ ◆❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r q✉❛✐s sã♦ ❛s ♣❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ❊st❛s ♣❛❧❛✈r❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛s q✉❡s✲tõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥ô♥✐♠♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡❧❛s✳ ❆s♣❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡ ✭❡ s❡✉s s✐♥ô♥✐♠♦s✮ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛❞❛s ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✿ P❡❡r ❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t ✭P❡❡r ❘❡✈✐❡✇✱ ❈♦✲❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t✱ P❡❡r ●r❛❞✐♥❣✱ ❙❡❧❢ ❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t✮❀ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞✐ss♦✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ❛ ❙tr✐♥❣ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛s ✸✷ ♣❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡ ❡ ❞❡ s❡✉s s✐♥ô♥✐♠♦s✱ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦s ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ❧ó❣✐❝♦s ✭❖❯✮ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s s✐♥ô♥✐♠♦s✸ ❚❡r♠♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡ r❡❢❡r✐r ❛ ✉♠ t❡①t♦ ❚r❛❞✉çã♦ ❡♠ ♣♦rt✉❣✉ês ❞♦ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r ❧ó❣✐❝♦ ❖❘ ✹✻ ✹ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦s✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ♦ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r ✭❊✮ s❡rá ✉s❛❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♣❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡✳ ❈♦♠♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❢♦✐ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❙tr✐♥❣ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s♣❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡ ❡ ❞❡ s❡✉s s✐♥ô♥✐♠♦s✿ ❙tr✐♥❣ ❂ ✭✏♣❡❡r r❡✈✐❡✇✑ ❖❘ ✏♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t✑ ❖❘ ✏❝♦ ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t✑ ❖❘ ✏♣❡❡r ❣r❛✲❞✐♥❣✑ ❖❘ ✏s❡❧❢ ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t✑✮ ❆◆❉ ✭✏♠❛ss✐✈❡ ♦♣❡♥ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s✑ ❖❘ ✏♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t✑ ❖❘ ✏✐♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t t✉t♦r✐♥❣ s②st❡♠✑ ❖❘ ✏❝♦❧❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✑ ❖❘ ✏❈❙❈▲✑❖❘ ✏♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s✑ ❖❘ ✏▲▼❙✑ ❖❘ ✏▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t s②st❡♠✑✮ ❆◆❉ ✭✭st✉❞❡♥t ❖❘❧❡❛r♥❡r✮ ❖❘ ✭t❡❛❝❤❡r ❖❘ t✉t♦r✮✮ ❆ ❧✐♠✐t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❢♦✐ ♣r♦♣♦s✐t❛❧✱ ♣♦✐s ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❛♣❡✲♥❛s ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ❡ss❡s ❞♦✐s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❆♣ós ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❣❡r❛✐s ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✱❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❙tr✐♥❣ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛✱ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❞❡✜♥✐r ❡♠ q✉❛✐s ❜❛s❡s ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s ❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ s❡rá r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛✳ ➱ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ♣♦ss✉❛ ❛❧❣✉♠♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞♦s ✐♥❞❡①❛❞♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❛t❡♥❞❛ ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞❛s ♥❡st❛ r❡✈✐sã♦✿ ❉✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♥❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s❀ ❆❈▼ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ▲✐❜r❛r② ✭❤tt♣✿✴✴♣♦rt❛❧✳❛❝♠✳♦r❣✮ ■❙■ ❲❡❜ ♦❢ ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ✭❤tt♣✿✴✴✇♦❦✐♥❢♦✳❝♦♠✮ ✹✼✸✳✶✳✸ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❊st✉❞♦s ❖ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❞❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✱ ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s✱ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✭✐♥❝❧✉sã♦✱ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✮ ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱❙tr✐♥❣ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❡ ❜❛s❡s ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s ❛ s❡r❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ✭❑❊❊▲❊✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳ ❊st❡s ❝r✐tér✐♦s sã♦ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❡①tr❛í❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ❡st❡ss❡r❡♠ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦s ♦✉ ❡①❝❧✉í❞♦s ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✳ ❯♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦ ♥❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s✉❛ r❡❧❡✈â♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛✭s✮ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s s❡rã♦ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦sq✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❛♠ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛♦ t❡♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❞♦✳ ❖s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s❢♦r❛♠✿ ❊st✉❞♦s r❡✈✐s❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s q✉❡ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♠ r❡s♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s ❞❡ P♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦ sã♦ ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ ✐rã♦ r❡t✐r❛r ♦s ❡st✉❞♦s ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✳ ●❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ sã♦ ❡st✉❞♦s q✉❡✱ ♣♦r ❛❧❣✉♠ ♠♦t✐✈♦✱ ♥ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ r❡❧❡✈â♥❝✐❛s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✳ ❖s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠✿ ❊st✉❞♦s ♥ã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦s ❡ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❧❛❝✉♥❛s ♥♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡✴♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✹✽❊st✉❞♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ✐♥❝❧✉❡♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s❀ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❛❧t♦ ❞❡ ❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦❀ ✸✳✶✳✸✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ❊st✉❞♦s Pr✐♠ár✐♦s❆♣ós ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❞❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞♦s ♣r✐✲ ♠ár✐♦s✱ ❡ ❞♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ♣r✐♠ár✐♦s✱ ♦ q✉❛❧ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✳ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛s ❜✉s❝❛s ♥❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞❛s✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❡①tr❛í❞♦s✱❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❜✐❜t❡① ❝♦♠ ❛s r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s✱ ❡ ✐♠♣♦rt❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❙t❛rt✳ ❙t❆rt ✭❙t❛t❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❆rt t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❙②st❡♠❛t✐❝ ❘❡✈✐❡✇✮ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛r s✉♣♦rt❡❛♦ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r✱ ❛♣♦✐❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✳ ❆ ✈❡rsã♦ ❛t✉❛❧❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❙t❆rt ❛♣♦✐❛ ❛s três ❡t❛♣❛s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♥♦ P❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r ♣r❡❡♥❝❤❡ ♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦✳ ◆❛ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ♦ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛ ❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛ ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s q✉❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ❡ ❡①tr❛✐ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ sã♦ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ❛♦ tó♣✐❝♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ✹✾❛❜♦r❞❛❞♦✳ ◆❛ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❣rá✜❝♦s ❡ t❛❜❡❧❛s q✉❡ ❞ã♦ ✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♠ ❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛rt❡ ❞♦ t❡♠❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦ ✭❩❆▼❇❖◆■ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ❆♣ós ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ❝❛♥❞✐❞❛t♦s ❛ ❡st✉❞♦s ♣r✐♠ár✐♦s✱ ❡st❡s ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❞❡❢♦r♠❛ ❛ ❡①❝❧✉✐r ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♥♦ q✉❡ ❞✐③❡♠ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❛ ♥♦ss❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ❛♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s❞❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦✱ s❡rá r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞♦s ❝♦♥t✐❞♦s ♥❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❝♦♠❜❛s❡ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞❛✳ ❖s ❡stá❣✐♦s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡❡st✉❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✈✐st♦s ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✿ ✶✳ ❊①❝❧✉✐r ❡st✉❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥♦s s❡✉s tít✉❧♦s❀✷✳ ❊①❝❧✉✐r ❡st✉❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥♦s s❡✉s r❡s✉♠♦s ✭❛❜str❛❝ts✮❀✸✳ ❊①❝❧✉✐r ❡st✉❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥❛ s✉❛ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ❡ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦❀✹✳ ❖❜t❡r ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣r✐♠ár✐♦s ❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❝r✐t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦s ❡st✉❞♦s✳ ❉✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ P❛ss♦ ✶✱ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❡①❝❧✉í❞♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦s ❡st✉❞♦s q✉❡ ❝❧❛r❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥ã♦ ❡stã♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ t❡♠❛ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❝✉❥♦ ♦s tít✉❧♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ ❝❧❛r❛♠❡♥t❡ q✉❡❡stã♦ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ❡s❝♦♣♦ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❡①❝❧✉í❞♦s✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♥❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ♦s tít✉❧♦s✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ ❝❧❛r❛♠❡♥t❡ s♦❜r❡ ♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❛rt✐❣♦ ❡stá tr❛t❛♥❞♦✳ ◆❡ss❡s ❝❛s♦s✱ ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦s ♣❛r❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♥❛ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ✭P❛ss♦ ✷✮✳ ❖ ♠❡s♠♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡✈❡ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡r ❝❛s♦ ❛❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡s✉♠♦s ♥ã♦ ✐♥❞✐q✉❡ ❝❧❛r❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ❢❡✐t♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦❡st✉❞♦✳ ❊st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ✐rá r❡❞✉③✐r ❞r❛st✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦s ✐rr❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡s✉♠♦s✱ ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♣r♦✈❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ s✉❜♠❡t✐✲❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ♥♦ P❛ss♦ ✸✱ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❡ ❛ ✐♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s s❡rã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛s✳ ❆♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ ♦s ❡st✉❞♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❡ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①❝❧✉í❞♦s♥❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s s❡rã♦ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭P❛ss♦✹✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ s❡rã♦ ❡①tr❛í❞❛s✳✸✳✶✳✸✳✷ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❞❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❆♣ós ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦✱ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ r❡s✉♠♦❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦♣❡❧❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳ ❊st❡ r❡s✉♠♦ tr❛t❛ ❞❡ q✉❡stõ❡s r❡❧❛t✐✈❛s ❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛❞❛✳❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ s❡rá ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♦❜t❡r ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❧❡✐t✉r❛ ❞♦ t❡①t♦❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♥❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✳ ❉✉r❛♥t❡ ❡st❛ ❢❛s❡✱♦s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❡①tr❛í❞♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦s ♥❡st❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ❞❡❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✱ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✳ ❊ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛♣❡r♠✐t❡ r❡❣✐str❛r ♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❡♠ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡ s❡r ♠❛✐s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ s♦❜r❡❝♦♠♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s ❛❜♦r❞♦✉ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❛ ♥♦ss❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳ ✺✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶ ✕ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❉❛❞♦s ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✶ ■❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ■❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ú♥✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ✷ ❉❛t❛ ❞❛ ❡①tr❛çã♦✸ ❆✉t♦r❡s✱ ❛♥♦✱ tít✉❧♦ ❡ ♣❛ís ✹ ❚✐♣♦ ❞♦ ❛rt✐❣♦ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧✱ ❝♦♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛✱ r❡✈✐st❛s✺ ❈♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ■♥❞ústr✐❛✱ ❆❝❛❞❡♠✐❛ ✻ ▼ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦✱ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ✭❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✭❊❆❙❚❊❘❇❘❖❖❑ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✮ s✉r✈❡②✱ ❡t♥♦❣r❛✜❛✱ ❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ✐❧✉str❛t✐✈♦✱ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❧✐❝á✈❡❧✼ ◗P✶✲ ❈♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❙❛ú❞❡✱ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ ▲❛③❡r✱ ❏♦❣♦s ✳✳ ✽ ◗P✶✲ ◆í✈❡❧ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❇ás✐❝♦✱ ❋✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✱ ▼é❞✐♦ ❡ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐tár✐♦✾ ◗P✷✲ ❋✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❈♦rr✐❣✐r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s✱ ❡①❡r❝í❝✐♦s ❆♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦✈❛s✱ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ❡✴♦✉s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦✉tr♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❡t❝ ✶✵ ◗P✸✲ ❊✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ P♦s✐t✐✈❛✴◆❡❣❛t✐✈❛ ❝♦♠ ♦✉ s❡♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛ ✶✶ ◗P✹✲ ❊✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r P♦s✐t✐✈❛✴◆❡❣❛t✐✈❛ ❝♦♠ ♦✉ s❡♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛ ✶✷ ◗P✺✲ ❊✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡ P♦s✐t✐✈❛✴◆❡❣❛t✐✈❛ ❝♦♠ ♦✉ s❡♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ✸✳✷ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛❆♣ós ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✱ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❛ s✉❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✳ ❈♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✸✳✶✳✸✳✶✱ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞♦s✱❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s ❜❛s❡s ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❡ ❛ ❙tr✐♥❣ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛✳ ❊st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t♦♠❛♥✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣r♦✈✐❞❛s ♣♦r ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❜❛s❡s✳ ❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❜❛s❡s ❡ ♦ t♦t❛❧ ❡stá r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❙tr✐♥❣ ♥❛s ❜❛s❡s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✳ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❇❛s❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❆rt✐❣♦s ✭❝♦♠ ✜❧tr♦✮✶ ❆❈▼ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ▲✐❜r❛r② ✸✶✷ ✷ ■❊❊❊ ❳♣❧♦r❡ ✽✷✶✸ ❊❧s❡✈✐❡r ✭❙❝✐❡♥❝❡ ❉✐r❡❝t✮ ✷✼✷ ✹ ❙❝♦♣✉s ✽✶✽✺ ❙♣r✐♥❣❡r ▲✐♥❦ ✼✻✵ ✻ ❈♦♠♣❡♥❞❡① ✻✾✼ ■❙■ ❲❡❜ ♦❢ ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ✻✷ ❚❖❚❆■❙ ✸✶✶✹ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❛s ❜✉s❝❛s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉s❛❞♦s ♦s ✜❧tr♦s ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦❛♥♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✵✹ ❡ ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✳ ❆ ✜❣✉r❛ ✾ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❞❛s ❜❛s❡s✳ ❚♦❞♦s ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦s ♥❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛❙t❛rt✳ ✺✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾ ✕ P❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣♦r ❜❛s❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❆♣ós ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❡ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦s ❝❛♥❞✐❞❛t♦s ❛ ❡st✉❞♦s ♣r✐♠ár✐♦s ♥❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❙t❛rt✭✸✶✶✹ tít✉❧♦s✮✱ ❡st❡s ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❡①❝❧✉✐r ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♥ã♦ r❡❧❡✲✈❛♥t❡s✳ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❙t❛rt ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝♦✉ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ✶✶✷ ❡st✉❞♦s❞✉♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s✱ r❡❞✉③✐♥❞♦ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ t♦t❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ✸✵✵✷ ❡st✉❞♦s✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❢♦r❛♠❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s s❡✉s tít✉❧♦s ✭♣❛ss♦ ✶ ❞❛ s❡çã♦ ✸✳✶✳✸✳✶✮✳ ❊st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ q✉❡ ❣❡✲ r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ r❡❞✉③ ❞r❛st✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ✐rr❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✱ ❡①❝❧✉✐✉ ✷✽✸✶ ❡st✉❞♦s✱❞❡✐①❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✷✽✸ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✳ ❖s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❛♣r♦✈❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ tít✉❧♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡♥tã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s s❡✉s r❡s✉♠♦s✭♣❛ss♦ ✷ ❞❛ s❡çã♦ ✸✳✶✳✸✳✶✮✳ ❖s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ✐rr❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①❝❧✉í❞♦s✳ ❉❡st❡s✷✽✸ ❡st✉❞♦s✱ ✷✵✾ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①❝❧✉í❞♦s ♥♦ t♦t❛❧✱ s❡♥❞♦ ✸✽ ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s✱ ✶ s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐♦✱ ✾ s❤♦rt✲♣❛♣❡rs✱ ✷ ♥ã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ✷✸ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱ ✶✸✶ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥✲❧✐♥❡✱ ✷ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡ ✸ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦s ❞❡ ❧✐✈r♦✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ✼✹ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ♣❛r❛❛ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛✳ ❖s ❛rt✐❣♦s q✉❡ t✐✈❡r❡♠ s❡✉s r❡s✉♠♦s ❛♣r♦✈❛❞♦s ♣r♦ss❡❣✉✐r❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛✳◆❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s t♦❞♦s ♦s ✼✹ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ❡♠ s✉❛ ✐♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦✭♣❛ss♦ ✸ ❞❛ s❡çã♦ ✸✳✶✳✸✳✶✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①❝❧✉í❞♦s ✸✵ ❛rt✐❣♦s ✭✶ ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✱ ✶ s❤♦rt♣❛♣❡r✱✼ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❡ ✷✶ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✮✱ r❡st❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✹✹ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❛ s❡r❡♠❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❡ ✉s❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊♠ r❡s✉♠♦✱ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✸✳✶✳✸✳✶✱ ✸✵✼✵ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❢♦r❛♠❡①❝❧✉í❞♦s✱ r❡st❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✹✹ ❡st✉❞♦s✳ ❆ ❧✐st❛ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❡stá ♥♦❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❆✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❡stã♦ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦s✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠❛✐s ✺✷❝❧❛r❛✱ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵✳ ❖ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❡①tr❛✐r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡st❡s ❛rt✐❣♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ r❡♠♦çã♦ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ✸✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s❯♠ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✹✹ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣r❡❡♥❝❤❡r❛♠ ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❞❡ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✭❡ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①❝❧✉í❞♦s ♣♦r ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ❝r✐tér✐♦ ❞❡ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦✮✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ s❡✉s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①tr❛í❞♦s ❡❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s✳ ❆♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡ ❛s ❛♥á❧✐s❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ r❡✈✐s❛♠♦s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ❞❛r ✉♠❛ ❜r❡✈❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s❣❡r❛✐s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✳ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❣❡r❛✐s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦s ♥❛ r❡✈✐sã♦✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r✱ s❡rá ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❡st❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✳ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♠r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦✳ ❖s ❛rt✐❣♦s r❡✈✐s❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❡♥tr❡ ✷✵✵✹ ❡ ✷✵✶✹✭❡♠ ✉♠ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ✶✵ ❛♥♦s✮✳ ❆ ✜❣✉r❛ ✶✶ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s♣♦r ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦✳ ✺✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣♦r ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ❡stã♦ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ t❡♠❛✱♠❛s é ❞✐❢í❝✐❧ ❛✜r♠❛r q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ t❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞♦ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥♦s ú❧✲ t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♥♦t❛r q✉❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡st❛ r❡✈✐sã♦❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❛ ♠❡t❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✹✱ ✉♠❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s s❡r✐❛❡s♣❡r❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✷✵✶✹✳ ❆ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦✳ ❖s ❛rt✐❣♦s ✐♥✲❝❧✉í❞♦s ♥❡st❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ❝♦♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ✭✇♦r❦s❤♦♣s✮ ♦✉ ❥♦✉r♥❛❧s✳❆ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❡❧❡s sã♦ ❞❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s✴✇♦r❦s❤♦♣s ✭✼✵✳✹✺✪❀ ✸✶❛rt✐❣♦s✮✱ s❡❣✉✐❞♦ ♣♦r ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ❥♦✉r♥❛❧s ✭✷✾✱✺✺✪❀ ✶✸ ❛rt✐❣♦s✮✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ✜❣✉r❛ ✶✷✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷ ✕ ❚✐♣♦s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❆ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❡ ú❧t✐♠❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❣❡r❛❧ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ♣❛ís❡s ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛✲ ✺✹❛✉t♦r ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ s❡ ❡st❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❝♦♥t✐✈❡r ♥♦ ❛rt✐❣♦✳ ❈❛s♦ ❝♦♥trár✐♦✱ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛♦ ♣❛ís❞♦ ❡✈❡♥t♦✴❥♦✉r♥❛❧ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ♦ ❛rt✐❣♦ ❢♦✐ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦✳ ❆ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ♣❛ís❡s ❜❡♠❝♦♠♦ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ♣❛ís❡s P❛ís ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s❚❛✐✇❛♥ ✻ ❊❯❆✺ ■tá❧✐❛✹ ❍♦❧❛♥❞❛✸ ❆✉strá❧✐❛✸ ❆❧❡♠❛♥❤❛✷ P♦rt✉❣❛❧✱ ❘❡✐♥♦ ❯♥✐❞♦✱ ❉✐♥❛♠❛r❝❛✱ ❏❛♣ã♦✱ ❙❡r❜✐❛✱ ➪✉str✐❛✱ ❊s♣❛♥❤❛✱ ❯❣❛♥❞❛✱ ●ré❝✐❛✱ ❙✐♥❣❛♣♦r❡✱ ■sr❛❡❧✱ ❋r❛♥ç❛✱ ❈❤✐♥❛✱ ❈❛♥❛❞❛✱ ■♥❞✐❛♥❛ ✶ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ q✉❡ ❤♦✉✈❡ ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❣❡♦❣rá✜❝❛✱ ❛t✐♥❣✐♥❞♦✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♣❛ís❡s ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❝♦♥t✐♥❡♥t❡s✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♣❛ís❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❚❛✐✇❛♥✱ ❊❯❆✱■tá❧✐❛✱ ❍♦❧❛♥❞❛ ❡ ❆✉strá❧✐❛ s❡ ❞❡st❛❝❛r❛♠ ♣♦r ♣♦ss✉✐r ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❞♦ q✉❡ três♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❛ ❆❧❡♠❛♥❤❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐✉ ❞✉❛s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ s❡❣✉✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ r❡st❛♥t❡ ❞♦s♣❛ís❡s ❝♦♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦✳ ◆♦ t♦t❛❧✱ s❡✐s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦s ❞❡✈✐❞♦à ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ss❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♥♦s ♠❡t❛❞❛❞♦s✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❣❡r❛✐s✱ ✈❛♠♦s ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s às q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♥❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ◗P✶✿ ❊♠ q✉❛✐s ❝♦♥t❡①t♦s ❡ ♥í✈❡✐s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ♠❛✐s ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s♦♥❧✐♥❡❄✳ P❛r❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❡ss❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r t❛♥t♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ q✉❛♥t♦ ♦s❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❉♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s à ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ q✉❡ ✸✷ ✭✼✷✱✼✪✮ ❞❡❧❡s ❡r❛♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ❛❝❛❞❡♠✐❛ ✭✉♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡✮✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✺ ✭✶✶✱✹✪✮ ❞❡❧❡s ❡r❛♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s✈♦❧t❛❞♦s ❛ ✐♥❞ústr✐❛✳ ◆♦ t♦t❛❧✱ ✼ ✭✶✺✱✾✪✮ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♥ã♦ ❞❡✐①❛r❛♠ ❝❧❛r♦ ♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ♥♦ q✉❛❧❡st❛✈❛ ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦✳ ❊ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❡stã♦ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ✶✺ ✭✸✹✱✶✪✮ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❡r❛♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦♠ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✻ ✭✶✸✱✻✪✮ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❡♥✲✈♦❧✈✐❛♠ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ ♠é❞✐♦✳ ❖✉tr♦s ✺ ❛rt✐❣♦s ✭✶✶✱✹✪✮ ❡r❛♠ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦s ❛ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❞❡❧í♥❣✉❛ ❡str❛♥❣❡✐r❛ ❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✶ ✭✷✱✸✪✮ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❛ ❝✉rs♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❙♦♠❛♠ ✶✼ ✭✸✽✱✻✪✮ ❛rt✐✲❣♦s ♦♥❞❡ ♥ã♦ ❤❛✈✐❛ ♥í✈❡❧ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❞❡✐①❛ ❝❧❛r♦ q✉❛❧ ♥í✈❡❧ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✉t✐❧✐③❛r❛♠✳ ❊ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❡stã♦ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹✳ ❆♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❛✜r♠❛r q✉❡ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣❡r✲ ✺✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ s♦❜ ✉♠ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛❞♦ ❡♠❝✉rs♦s ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ s✉♣❡r✐♦r✳ ❊ss❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s❡stá ♠✉✐t♦ r❡str✐t♦ ❛ ❛❝❛❞❡♠✐❛ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❛ ✐♥❞ústr✐❛✳ ■ss♦ ♥♦s ❧❡✈❛ ❛ q✉❡st✐♦♥❛r s❡ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ é ✈✐á✈❡❧ ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ✐♥❞ústr✐❛❧ s♦❜ ♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s❝r✐tér✐♦s ❛❞♦t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ✐♥❞ústr✐❛ ✭❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦✱❣❛♥❤♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✮✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❡♠ ♥í✈❡❧ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ♣♦❞❡ ♥♦s ✺✻✐♥❞✐❝❛r ✉♠❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣ré✈✐♦ ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✱ ✐st♦ é✱ s❡rá q✉❡ ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♦✉ ♠é❞✐♦ s❡♠♠❛✐♦r❡s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s❄ ❆❣✉♥s ❡st✉❞♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧❛ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♥í✈❡❧❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ◗P✷✿ ❈♦♠ q✉❡ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ♥♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡❄✳❆♣ós ❛ ❧❡✐t✉r❛ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ✜❝♦✉ ❝❧❛r♦ q✉❡ ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s é ♠✉✐t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛❝♦♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✉♠ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❆ t❛❜❡❧❛ ✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❡st✉❞❛❞♦s✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹ ✕ ❋✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❋✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡❆rt✐❣♦s s❡♠ ❞❛❞♦s ✾ P❡r♠✐t❛r ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ✻ ▼❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛s ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✹ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡①t♦s ❡s❝r✐t♦s ✭❛rt✐❣♦s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝♦s✱ ❧✐♥❣✉❛ ❡str❛♥❣❡✐r❛✮ ✾❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝✉rs♦ ✶✷ ❈♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✹ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ q✉❡ ❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉s♦ é ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✲✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝✉rs♦✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❞❡♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦✱ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣♦rt❢ó❧✐♦✱ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈♦③ ❡ ❝❛rt❛s✱ ❡♥tr❡♦✉tr❛s✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❞❡st❛❝♦✉✲s❡ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡①t♦s ❡s❝r✐t♦s✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❧í♥❣✉❛ ❡str❛♥❣❡✐r❛ ❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡♠ t❡r❝❡✐r♦✱✈❡✐♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣❛r❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r q✉❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❝r✐❡♠ s❡✉s ❝✉r✲ s♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❝♦♠ ♠❛✐s ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛s ú❧t✐♠❛s ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡r❛♠ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ ❊ss❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❥á ❡r❛ ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s s✉r❣✐✉ ❞❛♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐r ♦s ❝✉st♦s ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦s ❛ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ♠❛✐s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s❛s ❡ q✉❡ ❞❡ ❝❡rt❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①✐❣✐❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♠❛✐s ❡s♣❡❝✐❢í❝♦✳ P♦r ❡ss❡ ♠♦t✐✈♦✱ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s♣❡❝✐❢í❝❛s ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦ s✉♣❡r✐♦r é ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ♦♣çã♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r t❛✐s té❝♥✐❝❛s❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ ❙❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❡r❛ ◗P✸✿❍á ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ♦♥❧✐♥❡❄✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❜❡♠ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛♥t❡s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❛ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s✳ ✺✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺ ✕ ❊st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ❡♠ ✶✾ ✭✹✸✪✮ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❤♦✉✈❡r❛♠ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ✉♠❛♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♥♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛♦ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❝♦♠♣r♦✈❛❞❛s ❝♦♠❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝♦s✳ ❉❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ♠❡❧❤♦r❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝✐t❛r✿ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♠✲♣❡♥❤♦ ❡ ❛t✐t✉❞❡s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❈❙❈▲❀ ❧❡✈❛r✐❛ ❛ ✉♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛❡q✉✐♣❡✱ ♠❛✐s s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ❣r✉♣♦✱ ♦s ♥í✈❡✐s ♠❛✐s ❜❛✐①♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✢✐t♦ ♥♦ ❣r✉♣♦❀ ❛t✐t✉❞❡s ♠❛✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈❛s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ à ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦❀ ❛❥✉❞❛ ❛ r❡❢♦rç❛r ❛s ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s tr❛♥s❢❡rí✈❡✐s✱ ❝♦♠♦❛ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦❀ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s❀ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♦✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ♥❛s ❧❡✐t✉r❛s❀ ❛❥✉❞❛ ❛ ✐♠♣✉❧s✐♦♥❛r ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠❀ ❣❛♥❤❛ ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ❧❡✐t✉r❛❝rít✐❝❛❀ ▼❡❧❤♦r❛ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❥✉❧❣❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ❤♦✉✈❡r❛♠ ✽ ✭✶✽✪✮ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛s s❡♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❉❡ss❛s ♣♦❞❡♠♦s❝✐t❛r✿ t❡♠ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛❞♦ ❣❛♥❤♦s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✐♠♣r❡ss✐♦♥❛♥t❡s ♥♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❞❡ ♠❛t❡♠át✐❝❛❡ ❝✐ê♥❝✐❛s❀ ❣❛♥❤♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s❡♥t✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦❀ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡ ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠❀ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❣❡♥ér✐❝❛s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡♠ ❡q✉✐♣❡❀ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ❞❛s t❡♥sõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❣r✉♣♦s ❝✉❧t✉r❛✐s❀ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛ ♣rát✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❡s❝r✐t❛ ❡st✐❧♦ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝❛❀❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡♠ ✶✻ ✭✸✼✪✮ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♥ã♦ ❤♦✉✈❡r❛♠ ♥❡♥❤✉♠❛ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♥❡♠♣✐♦r❛ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♣rát✐❝❛✳ ❊ ❤♦✉✈❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✶✭✷✪✮ ❛rt✐❣♦ ❝✉❥♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♠♣r♦✲✈❛❞♦ ❡♠♣✐r✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ♦s ❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s ❞♦s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ♥ã♦ tê♠ ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛ s♦❜r❡♦s ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡ r❡✢❡①ã♦✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ◗P✸ ❛✜r♠❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❡①✐s✲ t❡♠ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ✭♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡✮ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛✲❣❡♠ ❡♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✻✵✪ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s✳ ✺✽❆ ♣ró①✐♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ◗P✹✿ ❍á ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s❄✳ ◆❡ss❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❤♦✉✈❡r❛♠ ♣♦✉❝♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s q✉❡ tr♦✉①❡r❛♠ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❝♦♥❝r❡t❛s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻ ❛♣r❡✲s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻ ✕ ❊st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ✭❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ✷✾ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦✉ ✻✻✪✮✱ ♥ã♦❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ♥❡♥❤✉♠❛ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛ ❡✴♦✉ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈❛ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞♦✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✱ ❝♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ❛rt✐❣♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s♥❡❣❛t✐✈❛s✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ✾ ✭✷✵✪✮ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛s s❡♠ ❛✈❛✲❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛✳ ❉❡♥tr❡ ❡ss❛s ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝✐t❛r✿ ❛❧✐✈✐❛r ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r♥❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❛❜❡rt❛s❀ ❉✐♠✐♥✉✐r ❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❀ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ♣❛r❛❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡♠ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛ ❡ ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ t❡♠♣♦❀ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡♠♦r❛❞❛❀ ❘❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ❡s❢♦rç♦❀ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✻ ✭✶✹✪✮ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛ ❝♦♠♣r♦✈❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛s ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❉❡♥tr❡❡ss❛s ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝✐t❛r✿ ❝✉♠♣r❡ ❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❜❡♠✲s✉❝❡❞✐❞❛❀ P❡r♠✐t✐r ❛❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❢á❝✐❧❀ r❡❞✉③✐r ❛s ❝❛r❣❛s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡♥♦t❛s❀ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❀ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳ ▼❡s♠♦ ❤❛✈❡♥❞♦ ♣♦✉❝♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s q✉❡ ❡①♣❧♦r❛♠ ♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r♣❛r❡s ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ✭❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ✶✺ ♦✉ ✸✹✪✮✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛ss✐♠ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡♠♠✉✐t♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❡ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ◗P✹ ❛✜r♠❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡♠❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ✺✾❆ ú❧t✐♠❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❛ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♥♦ss❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ é ◗P✺✿ ❍á✴❍♦✉✈❡ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠✲❜✐❡♥t❡s ♦♥❧✐♥❡❄ ◆❡ss❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❤♦✉✈❡r❛♠ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❡♥♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s q✉❡ tr♦✉①❡r❛♠ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s❝♦♥❝r❡t❛s✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ✉♠ ♣♦✉❝♦ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛❞❛✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❡st❛✲ tíst✐❝❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼ ✕ ❊st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ às ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ✭❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ✸✶ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦✉ ✼✵✪✮✱♥ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ♥❡♥❤✉♠❛ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛ ❡✴♦✉ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈❛ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ❝♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ❛rt✐❣♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ ❡✈✐❞ê♥✲❝✐❛s ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛s✴♥ã♦ ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛s ♥❡❣❛t✐✈❛s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ❛rt✐❣♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛s ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛s✳ ❊♠ ✶✸ ✭✸✵✪✮ ❛rt✐❣♦s✱ ❤♦✉✈❡r❛♠ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛s ♥ã♦ ❡♠♣ír✐❝❛s ❞❡ q✉❡ ❤♦✉✈❡r❛♠❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ ❉❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♣r✐♥✲❝✐♣❛✐s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝✐t❛r✿ ➱ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ✉♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ✻✵❯♠❛ ❜♦❛ ♣r❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡ ❛♣♦✐♦ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♦ s❡✉ s✉❝❡ss♦ ✭❉❖▼■◆✲ ❊ss❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s r❡♣r❡s❡t❛♠ ♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❞❛ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡❧❛s✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛s ú❧t✐♠❛s ❞❛ ❧✐st❛ s❡ ❞á ♣❡❧♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ❜❛✐①❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡ ✐♥s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ❞❡❧❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❛✜r♠❛r q✉❡ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ♣♦✉❝♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s tr❛t❡♠ ❞❡ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ té❝♥✐❝❛✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s✱ ❝✐t❛❞❛s ❛❝✐♠❛✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ tr❛③❡r ❣r❛♥❞❡s ♣r❡❥✉í③♦s ♥♦ ❢✉t✉r♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ◗P✺ é q✉❡❤♦✉✈❡ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♥♦s❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❡♠ ♣❡❧♦ ♠❡♥♦s ✸✵✪ ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s✳✸✳✹ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❈♦♠ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ❊st❡s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥✲t❛♠✱ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s ❛♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛q✉✐♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ é tr❛t❛❞♦ ❛q✉✐ s♦❜r❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♠♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s às ✐❞❡✐❛s❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❡ss❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✳ ❖s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦s ❛q✉✐ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❋♦♠♦s ❝❛♣❛③❡s ❞❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝â♥❝✐❛✳ ❱✐♠♦s q✉❡ ♦✉s♦ ❞❡ss❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s é ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡✳P♦❞❡♠♦s ❝✐t❛r ❛❧❣✉♥s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❡♠ ✭❉❖▼■◆●❯❊❩ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ♦♥❞❡ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛✳ ✭❈❍❆◆●❀ ❚❙❊◆●❀▲❖❯✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ❛♣❧✐❝❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♣♦rt❢ó❧✐♦s ❡♠ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦ q✉❡ ✻✶❝✉rs❛♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ✭❑❆❲❆■✱ ✷✵✵✻✮ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈♦③ ❡ ❝❛rt❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ❧í♥❣✉❛ ❡str❛♥❣❡✐r❛✳ ◆♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛q✉✐ ♥❡ss❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠♦s ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r♣❛r❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❡♠ ❣❡r❛❧✱ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞❡ q✉❛❧ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ s❡rá r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❖✉tr♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣ró♣r✐❛s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦❞❡ s✉♣♦rt❛r ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ ❊♠ ✭❙❚❊❘❇■◆■❀ ❚❊▼P❊❘■◆■✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✱é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❖♣❡♥❆♥s✇❡r q✉❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ✉s❛♥❞♦ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ❛❧❣♦ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❛♦♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❛q✉✐ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❡ss❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ♥ã♦ é ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛r✐❛ q✉❡ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s t✐✈❡ss❡♠ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♠❛✐s ✉♠❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ só ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s✳❊♠ ♥♦ss❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡♠♦s q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s s❡❥❛ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦ ❞✐r❡t♦ ♥♦❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ s❡♠ ❡ss❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s s✐st❡♠❛s✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♥♦ss❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❡①✐❣❡ ♠❛✐s t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛❞❛ ❞♦ q✉❡ ❡ss❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛✳ ❖✉tr♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ✭❈❯◆❍❆❀ ❋■●❯❊■❘❆✱ ✷✵✵✾✮✱ ✭●❖❯▲■❀ ●❖●❖❯▲❖❯❀ ●❘■●❖❘■❆✲❉❖❯✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✱ ✭▼■❆❖❀ ❑❖P❊❘✱ ✷✵✵✼✮ ❡ ✭❚❘❆❍❆❙❈❍✱ ✷✵✵✹✮ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s✳❊ss❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s s✉♣♦rt❛♠ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❛❧é♠ ❞❛s ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❜ás✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✴✲❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✴❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡✲ s✉❧t❛❞♦s✱ ❡❧❛s t❛♠❜é♠ s✉♣♦rt❛♠ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧ ❡ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❡❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s❀ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ♦✉ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s❀ ❛ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦ ❞❡❛✉t♦r❡s ❡✴♦✉ ❛ss❡ss♦r❡s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ sí♥❝r♦♥❛ ♦✉ ❛ssí♥❝r♦♥❛❀ ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s❞❡♣♦✐s ❞♦s ❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s ❞♦s ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r❡s❀ ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ r❡❣✐♠❡ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦✳ ❙ã♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣♦❞❡r♦s❛s✱ ❝♦♥✲t✉❞♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r❡♠ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❡stã♦ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛s ❛♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ t❡♥❞♦ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✭❙❚❊❘❇■◆■❀ ❚❊▼P❊❘■◆■✱✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛q✉✐ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❛✈❛✲❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡ s✐♠ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡rá s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦s❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❛q✉✐ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛✲❧❤♦✳ ❈❧❛r♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛r ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❛q✉✐ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ é ♠❛✐s ❛❧t♦ ❞♦ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐✲③❛r ❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ❝♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱❡st❡ s❡ t♦r♥❛rá ♠❛✐s ♣♦❞❡r♦s♦ ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐rá q✉❡ ♠❛✐s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡❥❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛✳ ❙❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s✳ ❊♠ ✭❑■●❖❩■ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ♣r♦❥❡t❛r❛♠ ❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r❛♠ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦é ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡✱ ❛♣♦✐❛♥❞♦✲♦ ♣❡❞❛❣♦❣✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ s✉❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❊♠ ✻✷✭❚❖❙■❈❀ ◆❊❏❑❖❱■❈✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✱ é ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❞♦s❛❧✉♥♦s ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛✳ ❖✉tr♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ♣r♦♣õ❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s❡♠ r❡❞❡s ❜❛②❡s✐❛♥❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❡♠ ✭❙❚❊❘❇■◆■❀ ❚❊▼P❊❘■◆■✱ ✷✵✶✸✮ ❡ ✭❲❆◆●❀ ❱❆❙❙■▲❊❱❆✱✷✵✵✸✮✳ ❚♦❞♦s ❡ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s sã♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦❝♦♠ s✉❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♣♦ré♠ ♥ã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ s❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ s❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♠ ❞❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♥❡ss❡ ❛s♣❡❝t♦✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝✐t❛r ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦s ❢✉♥❞❛❞♦r❡s ❞♦ ❈♦✉rs❡r❛✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♠❛✐♦r❡s♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ❞♦ ♠✉♥❞♦✱ ❡♠ s❡✉ ❛rt✐❣♦ ✭P■❊❈❍ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❖ ❈♦✉rs❡r❛✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❢♦rt❡♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✈❡r ❝✉rs♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❡♠ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♠✉♥❞♦✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❡♠ s❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♣❛rt❡s ❞♦s❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ r❡♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❛s ♥♦t❛s ✜♥❛✐s✱ ♥ã♦ ♣r♦♣♦♥❞♦✴♥ã♦ ❝♦♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ s♦❜r❡♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❡❧❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠✱ ❞❡✐①❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❧✐♠✐t❛❞♦✳ ✻✸ ✹ ❆ P❘❖P❖❙❚❆❆ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❡ss❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ é ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥✲ t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦ ♥❛s s❡çõ❡s❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✱ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♠✐ss♦r❛ tr❛③❡♥❞♦ ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s t❛♥t♦s ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ✭r❡✲❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✮ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✭♠❛✐♦r ❡♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛♣r❡♥✲❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❡ss♦❛❧✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✮✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ r❡❞✉③✐r ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❝✉st♦s ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s t❡①t✉❛✐s✳ ◆❛s s✉❜s❡çõ❡s ❞❡ss❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ s❡rá ❡①♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱✐♥✐❝✐❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♠ s✐ ❡ s❡✉ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✹✳✶✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✹✳✷ s❡rá ♠♦str❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳✹✳✶ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳P♦ré♠✱ ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ❢❛❧❛r s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♠ s✐✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ✉♠ ♣♦✉❝♦ s♦❜r❡ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦♣r♦♣♦st♦ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛r✐❛ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡❧❡✳ ❊ss❡ ✢✉①♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡rá ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✹✳✶✳✶✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ s❡çã♦✹✳✶✳✷✳✹✳✶✳✶ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ① ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❯♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❡♥s✐♥❛r ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❡♥s✐♥❛r ❛❧❣✉♠❛✭s✮ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛✭s✮ q✉❡✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❛ss✉♥t♦s✳❯♠ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❜ás✐❝❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ♣r❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣♦ss❛ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧♦✳ ❊ss❛ ♣r❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡ r❡s✉♠❡ ♥❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s❞✐❞át✐❝♦s✱ q✉❡stõ❡s✱ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s✳ ●❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦s ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦s sã♦ ♣❛r❛ s✉♣r✐r ❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❆♣ós ❡ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐st❛r❡❢❛s ❞♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✱ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦✱ é ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛✐s ❞❡ s❡✉s❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡♥❞♦ ❛❥✉❞❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊ss❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❢❡✐t❛ ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡✴♦✉ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r q✉❡ ♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ s❡❥❛ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ●❡✲ r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ é ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦✈❛s ✭s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦s✮ ❝♦♠ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s❡s❝♦❧❤❛s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♦✉ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ✭♥♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ s❡ ❡st❡ s✉♣♦rt❛r✮✳ ❈♦♠ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ss❛ ♣r♦✈❛✱ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐rá ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ s❡✉s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✳❆♣ós ❡ss❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ✻✹❖ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ é ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ✭❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ♦✉ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♦✉tr♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧✮ ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❝r✐❛❞♦s ❡ ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛❞❛✳ ❆sq✉❡stõ❡s ❝r✐❛❞❛s ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s✉♣r✐r ❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛s ♥❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡❤❛❥❛ ✉♠ ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦✳ ❆♣ós ✐ss♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❞❡✈❡ tr❡✐♥❛r✴❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛r ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s♣❛r❛ ✉s❛r ♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ✐♥s❡rçã♦ ❞❡st❛s ❡ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✐rã♦ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❝♦♠♦s ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦rr✐❣❡ ❛s❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ t❛♥t♦ ❛♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❊st❡✱ ♣♦r s✉❛✈❡③✱ ♣♦❞❡ r❡❛✈❛❧✐❛r s❡✉ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡ ❛❧t❡rá✲❧♦ s❡ ❢♦r ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ tr❛t❛ ❞❡ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ✭❛❜❡rt❛s✮✱ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❛t✉❛✐s ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉❡♠ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ✉♠ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝♦ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐❛ ❡✱♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❡①✐❣✐r✐❛♠ ✉♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❞♦♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❣❡r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ✉♠ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛tr❛s♦ ♥♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✈✐s❛ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r ❡ss❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s❡♠✐✲❛✉t♦♠át✐❝♦✱ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛♥❞♦ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ♣❡❧♦s♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡ss❡ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❖s ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s três ♣❛ss♦s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✱ sã♦ ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞❡ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ q✉❡ ❛♥t❡❝❡❞❡♠ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐t♦ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❙ã♦ ❡ss❛s❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ✐rã♦ ❞❡✐①❛r ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣r♦♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ s❡✉ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖s ú❧t✐♠♦s três♣❛ss♦s ❥á ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♠ ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❈♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❡①♣❧❛♥❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ❡t❛♣❛s sã♦ ❜❡♠ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✳ ❆ ♣r✐✲♠❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛ é ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❊st❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❝✉rs♦ ✭❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛✱ ❛ss✉♥t♦s✮✱ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦s ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦✱ ✐♥s❡rçã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❡♥tr❡♦✉tr❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡ ❤❛❥❛ ✉♠❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ❛♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ t❡st❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳ ◆❛ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ✲ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ✲ é ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ✭❛s q✉❡stõ❡s❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ♦✉ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♦✉tr♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧✮ ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❝r✐❛❞♦s ❡ ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡✱ ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ♦✉ r❡❝✉rs♦ ❝r✐❛❞♦✱é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ s❡rá ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ➱❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ss❡ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✐rã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s✳ ❆♣ós ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ s❡r ❝♦♥❝❧✉í❞♦✱ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❡①♣❧✐❝❛r s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ s✉❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛✱ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛r ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ✭q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♥♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✮✱ ❜❡♠❝♦♠♦ ❛ss❡❣✉r❛r q✉❡ ♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❛♣t♦s ❛ ✉s❛r ♦ r❡❝✉rs♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s❡ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛çõ❡s ✭❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❢❡✐t♦ ❡♠ t✉t♦r✐❛✐s ❡①♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s✮✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ss❡ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❥á ❡stã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❥á❡stã♦ ❛♣t♦s ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧♦s✳ ❖s r❡❝✉rs♦s s❡rã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♠❡❞✐❛♥t❡ ❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛♥♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ s❡rá ❢❡✐t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✭❛ s❡r ♠❡❧❤♦r ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✹✳✶✳✷✮ ❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✻✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✰ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ♦❜t✐❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ q✉❡ s❡❥❛♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛✐s ❞❡ s❡✉s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❡ ❡st❡ ♣♦ss❛ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ❛❥✉❞❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ♥♦s ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳✹✳✶✳✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ◆❛ s✉❜s❡çã♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❣❡r❛❧ ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡❡♠ s❡✉ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ ✈✐s❛❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐t♦✱ ✐st♦ é✱ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛♠❛✐s ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛✳ ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✱ ❛ q✉✐♥t❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❡r❛ ✉s❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❝♦♠♦❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❛r ❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❛t✐✲✈✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r❡♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡❢❡t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉s❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s q✉❡❜r❛r ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❡♠ ❝✐♥❝♦ ♦✉tr❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st♦ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✶✾✳ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s s❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛ ❧♦❣♦ ❛♣ós ❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ s✉❛ ❞❡✈✐❞❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛çã♦✴tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞♦ ❢✉♥❝✐✲♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ ❖s r❡❝✉rs♦s sã♦ s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ✻✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦ r❡❝✉rs♦ ❛t✉❛❧ q✉❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ❊stá❞❡❝✐sã♦ ♣♦❞❡ ✈✐r ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♦✉ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❖ r❡❝✉rs♦ ❛t✉❛❧ s❡rá ❡♥tã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❡ ❡st❡s ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ✐rã♦ r❡s♣♦♥❞ê✲❧♦s ❡ ❡♥✈✐❛r ❛s s✉❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♥❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ✲ ❛ s✉❜♠✐ssã♦ ❞❡❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❖ ♣r❛③♦ ❞❡❞✐❝❛❞♦ ❛ ❡st❛s s✉❜♠✐ssõ❡s é ✜①♦ ❡ ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♥❛❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✉❧❛✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s r❡❝❡❜❡rã♦ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ✭❞❡ s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s✮ ❡ ✐rã♦❝♦rr✐❣✐✲❧❛s✱ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♣❛r❛ ❛q✉❡❧❛❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❖ ♣r❛③♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ t❛♠❜é♠ é ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ➱ ♥❡ss❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛❡t❛♣❛✱ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✱ q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛tr✐❜✉❡♠ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ❛♦s s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s✱ s❡♠♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡r ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♥❡♠ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❆♣ós ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡rá ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛r ❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛r ❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ ❛ s❡r ❞❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛q✉❡❧❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ♥❛ q✉❛rt❛ ❡t❛♣❛✳ ➱ ♥❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛ t❛♠❜é♠ q✉❡ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♠ s✉❛s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❡♠ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡r❡❧❛tór✐♦s✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ♥❛ q✉✐♥t❛ ❡ ú❧t✐♠❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣♦ss❡ ❞♦ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦❞❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ✐rã♦ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♦s s❡✉s ♣♦♥t♦s ❢r❛❝♦s ❡ r❡✢❡t✐r✲s❡ s♦❜r❡ ♦s❡rr♦s ❝♦♠❡t✐❞♦s ♥❛q✉❡❧❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❊st❡ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ♥♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ ❛té ✻✼ q✉❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❥á t❡♥❤❛♠ s✐❞♦ ❢❡✐t❛s✳ ❚♦❞♦ ❡ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ é ♠❛♥t✐❞♦ ❡♠ s❡✉❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s✳ P❛r❛ ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ♠❡❧❤♦r ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✐♥❝r❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣♦ss❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧❛✱ ❡ ❝♦♠♦ s❡rá ♦ s❡✉ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❈♦♠♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈❡r ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵✱ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✲✈❛s ❢❡✐t❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡rã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❯♠❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡♥✉♥❝✐❛❞♦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♠❛✐s q✉❡stõ❡s ✭❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s ❛❜❡rt❛s✮✱♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✐rá r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r✳ ❯♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ tít✉❧♦ ❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡stõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❝❛❞❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❝♦♥té♠ ✉♠♦✉ ♠❛✐s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❊ss❡s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r✿ ❇♦♦❧❡❛♥♦✿ ➱ ✉♠ ❝r✐tér✐♦ q✉❡ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ❛❝❡✐t❛ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❜♦♦❧❡❛♥♦s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ✈❡r❞❛❞❡✐r♦ ♦✉ ✻✽ ❆s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ♦s ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦s ❞❡✈❡rã♦✱ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ s❡r❡♠ ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ✭❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦s✮ ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ✐ss♦✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③ ✐rá❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛r ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❛♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡r r❡s♣♦♥❞✐❞❛✱ ✐♥✐❝✐❛✲s❡ ♦♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ s✉❜♠✐ssõ❡s ✲ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♣❛ss♦✳ ❊ss❡ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❡stá ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♥♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❖s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s r❡s♣♦♥❞❡rã♦ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ♥♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ P❛r❛✐ss♦✱ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡✈❡rá ❛❝❡ss❛r ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✱ q✉❡ s❡rá ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦s ♦✉tr♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s✴❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ✭s❡❥❛ ❢❡✐t❛♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦✉ ♣❡❧♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✮✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛rá ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ q✉❡ ✐rá r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r❝♦♠ ♦ s❡✉ t❡①t♦✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ s✉❜♠❡t❡rá s✉❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ❡st❡ s❡rá r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧♣❡❧♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❡st❛✳ ◆♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦✱ ❡♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❛ ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✐rã♦ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛ ❡✱ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ss❡♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♥✈✐❛rá ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❡s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s q✉❡✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡ss❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ✭▼❖❘❊■❘❆✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✱ ✭❈❆❱❆▲❈❆◆❚■✱✷✵✵✽✮ ❡ ✭❙❯◆● ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✺✮✳ ◆♦ ✜♥❛❧✱ ❡ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r❢❡✐t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ✭❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✮✿ ✶✳ ❉❡✜♥❛ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s✱ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♥✉♠▼✐♥❀✷✳ ❉❡✜♥❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❛r❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❢♦❧❣❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♥✉♠❋♦❧❣❀✸✳ ❉❡✜♥❛ ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♥✉♠▼❛①❀✹✳ ❘❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ✉♠❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ✭♥✉♠▼✐♥ ✰ ♥✉♠❋♦❧❣✮ q✉❡ ✜③❡r❛♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡✱ ❡♠ ♦r❞❡♠ ❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐✲❞❛❞❡s ❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛s❀ ✺✳ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❡st❡s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ✭♣❛r❛ ♥ã♦ ❡①❝❡❞❡r♦ ♥✉♠▼❛①✮❀ ✻✳ ❘❡♠♦✈❡r ❞❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ ❥á ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ♣❡♥✲ ✻✾✼✳ ❙❡ ♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❛ ❧✐st❛ ❢♦r ♠❛✐♦r ♦✉ ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ ♥✉♠▼✐♥✱ r❡t♦r♥❡ ♦s ♥✉♠▼✐♥ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❧✐st❛✽✳ ❙❡♥ã♦✱ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❝♦♠ ♠❛✐♦r ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r ✭❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ t❡♠ ♠✉✐t❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ❡ ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s✮✱ ❛té ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛r ♥✉♠▼✐♥✳❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ✭♥✉♠▼✐♥ ❞♦ P❛ss♦ ✶✮ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ é ♠✉✐t♦ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛✳❚❡♦r✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ q✉❛♥t♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❡ss❡ ♥ú♠❡r♦✱ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♥✜á✈❡❧ s❡rã♦ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ q✉❛♥t♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❢♦r✱ ♠❛✐s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ s❡rá ❣❡r❛❞♦ ❛♦s ♣❛r❡s✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ s❡r♣r❡❥✉❞✐❝✐❛❧ ❛♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ tr❛❞✲♦✛ ♥❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞❡ss❡♥ú♠❡r♦✳ ❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❛ ♠❛r❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❢♦❧❣❛ ✭♥✉♠❋♦❧❣ ❞♦ P❛ss♦ ✷✮ s❡r✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ r❡s❡r✈❛❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡✳ ◗✉❛♥t♦ ♠❛✐s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❢♦r❡♠ ❝❛rr❡❣❛❞♦s✱♠❛✐s ❧❡♥t♦ s❡ t♦r♥❛rá ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦✱ ♣♦ré♠ ❣❛r❛♥t✐rá ♠❛✐♦r ♣r❡❝✐sã♦✳ P♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❛ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✭♥✉♠▼❛① ❞♦ P❛ss♦ ✸✮ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ♥ã♦ s♦❜r❡❝❛rr❡❣❛r ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✳ P♦r ♣❛❞rã♦✱ ❡ss❡s ♥ú♠❡r♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❡st✉❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✳❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❢♦✐ ✷✳ ❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❢♦❧❣❛ ❢♦✐ ✶ ❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✸✳ ❆ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛ ❢♦✐ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♠ ✷ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s❥á é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s s❡ ❡❧❡s ❢♦r❡♠ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✳ ❈❛s♦ ❤❛❥❛ ❞✐✈❡r❣ê♥❝✐❛✱ ✉♠ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ❝♦rr❡t♦r é ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦✳ ❆ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ s❡rá ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞♦s ❞♦✐s ❝♦rr❡t♦r❡s q✉❡ ♠❛✐s s❡❛♣r♦①✐♠❛r❡♠✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦❝♦♠♦ ✸ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❡s♣❡r❛♠♦s q✉❡ ✉♠ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❝♦rr✐❥❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♠❡♥♦s ✸ r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ s❡♥❞♦♥♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞á✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❡ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♥♦ q✉❛rt♦ ♣❛ss♦✱ ♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥❛ ❡t❛♣❛❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ✐rã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s✱ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡s✲ s♦r✳ ❖ ♣r❛③♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ✭❝♦rr❡çã♦✮ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ➱ ♥❡st❡ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛✈❛❧✐❛rã♦ s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s ❡ ❡♥✈✐❛rã♦ ❛s♥♦t❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ P❛r❛ ❛tr✐❜✉✐r s✉❛ ♥♦t❛✱ ♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ r❡❝❡❜❡rá ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ✐rá ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ s♦❜ ♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ✭❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❢❛r✐❛✮ ❡ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛ ❜❛st❛♣r❡❡♥❝❤❡r ♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❝♦♠ s✉❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s✳ ❊ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s❡rá r❡♣❡t✐❞♦ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❤♦✉✈❡✲ r❡♠ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛q✉❡❧❡ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ❡ss❡ ♥ú♠❡r♦ t❡♥❞❡ ❛ s❡r ✉♠ ♠é❞✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ♣❛r❛ ♥ã♦ s♦❜r❡❝❛rr❡❣❛r♥❡♥❤✉♠✳ P♦ré♠✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ q✉❡ ❤❛❥❛ ♣❡q✉❡♥❛s ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s✳ ◆♦ q✉✐♥t♦ ♣❛ss♦✱ ♣❛r❛ s❡ t❡r ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ♥❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧✱ ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s❛ r❡♣✉t❛çã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ❡ ♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛❝r✐tér✐♦✳ ❖ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❛ r❡♣✉t❛çã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ❞❡✈❡rá ❧❡✈❛r ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦ ❛s ✼✵ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✭♦♥❞❡ ✰ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ ✉♠ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❡ ✲s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ ✉♠ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦✮✿ ❆❝❡ss♦ ❢r❡q✉ê♥t❡ ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛❀ ❆❧t♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s❀ ❆❧t♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❢❡✐t❛s❀ ❇❛✐①❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛❀ ❆❧t♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ❆❧t♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ❝♦♠ ❜❛✐①♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡sP❛r❛ s❡ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛r ♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❝r✐tér✐♦ ❞❡✈❡✲ s❡ ♦❧❤❛r s❡✉ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❢❡✐t❛s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r❛♠ ❛q✉❡❧❡ ❝r✐tér✐♦✳ ❈❛s♦ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss✉❛ ❞❛❞♦s✱ s❡✉ ♥í✈❡❧ s❡rá ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ♥❡✉tr♦✳ ❈❛s♦ ♣♦ss✉❛ ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❤✐stór✐❝♦✱ ❡st❡ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r s❡ ♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❡✴♦✉ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦❛ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡r ❞❛s ♥♦t❛s ❞♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❝á❧❝✉❧♦s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛rá❛ ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ ♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ♥♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❡♣♦❞❡rá ❡♥tã♦ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛r ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♥ã♦ é ♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❛ r❡♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♠❛s ❡st❡ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ t❡♠ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ ❜✉s❝❛♠♦s ❡st✉❞♦s♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ s♦❜r❡ ❡ss❡ t❡♠❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦✱ ❞❡✜♥✐♠♦s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛rí❛♠♦s ♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✭P■❊❈❍ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✱ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧íst✐❝♦s✳ ❙❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛♠♦s❡st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ♣♦✐s ❡❧❡ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥❝❡❜✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦♣ós✐t♦s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s ❛♦ ❞♦ ♥♦ss♦♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❈♦✉rs❡r❛✱ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❝♦♠♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ ❡s①✐st❡♠ ♦✉tr♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ r❡♣✉t❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✭❲❆◆●❀ ❱❆❙❙■▲❊❱❆✱ ✷✵✵✸✮✱ ✭❲❆◆●❀ ❱❆❙❙■▲❊❱❆✱✷✵✵✺✮ ❊♠ r❡s✉♠♦✱ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ P●✶ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❡ ✧●r❛❞❡r ❜✐❛s✧❡ ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✳◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ é ❛ss✉♠✐❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛ ♣r✐♦r✐ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❧❛t❡♥t❡s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❛ ♣r❡♠✐ss❛ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ❜✐❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✵✱ ♣♦ré♠❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t♦s ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r❡s s❡♠♣r❡ t❡♥❞❡ ❛ ③❡r♦✳ ❊♠ r❡s✉♠♦✱ ❛s ❢♦r♠✉❧❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s sã♦✿v ∼ G(α , β ) ✭❈♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✮ τ ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ✈✱ v ∼ N (0, 1/η )✭❇✐❛s✮ b ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ✈✱ u ∼ N (µ , 1/γ )✭◆♦t❛ ✈❡r❞❛❞❡✐r❛✮ s ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✉ ❡ v ∼ N (s u + b v , 1/τ v )✭◆♦t❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞❛✮ z u ♣❛r❛ t♦❞❛ ♥♦t❛ ❞❡ ♣❛r ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞❛✱ , β♦♥❞❡ G r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❣❛♠♠❛ ❝♦♠ ❤✐♣❡r♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s α ✜①❛❞♦s✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ η ❡ γ sã♦ ❤✐♣❡r♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❛ ♣r✐♦r✐ ❞❡ ❜✐❛s❡s ❡ ♥♦t❛ ✈❡r❞❛❞❡✐r❛✱ ✼✶ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ▼❛✐♦r❡s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❡ss❛s ❢♦r♠✉❧❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✶ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛s ♥♦ s✐t❡ ❞♦ ❛rt✐❣♦ ✳❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♥♦ s❡①t♦ ♣❛ss♦✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡rá ❣❡r❛r ✉♠ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ q✉❡ s✉❜♠❡t❡✉ ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❊st❡ r❡❧❛tór✐♦❞❡✈❡rá s❡r ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❝r✐tér✐♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✳ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s ❡ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ♥❛s ♥♦t❛s ♣♦r♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ s✉❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ ❊st❡ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③ ✐rá ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❢r❛❝♦s ❡ ✉s❛r ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ♠❛✐s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s ♠❛t❡r✐❛✐s ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦✱ r❡❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♥♦✈❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡✴♦✉ ❝♦rr✐❣✐♥❞♦ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛❝✐♠❛ ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❡ ♣♦s✐❝✐✲♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s r❡s✉♠✐r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡t❛♣❛s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❡❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❊ss❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❡stã♦ ✐❧✉str❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✶✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✶ ✕❊t❛♣❛s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❝❡❜❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❖ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛s❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❥á ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ❛ q✉❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ s❡rá ❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛ ♣❛r❛❝♦rr❡çã♦ ✭❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✮✳ ■ss♦ ❣❡r❛rá✱ ❝♦♠♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧✱ ✉♠❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡♥♦t❛s ♣❛r❝✐❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❞❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❊ss❛ ❧✐st❛ s❡r✈✐rá ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛❛ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ q✉❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛r ❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛ ✶ ❞♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r✱ ❛tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣❡s♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♥♦t❛✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ t❡r❡♠♦s ❝♦♠♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠ ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇❡❜✳st❛♥❢♦r❞✳❡❞✉✴⑦❝♣✐❡❝❤✴❜✐♦✴♣❛♣❡rs✴❛♣♣❡♥❞✐❝❡s✴❡❞♠✶✸❴❛♣♣❡♥❞✐①✳♣❞❢❃ ✼✷ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡ ♥♦t❛s ❝♦♠ ✈❛❧♦r ♣♦♥❞❡r❛❞♦✳ ❊♠ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛ ú❧t✐♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛r ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛❞♦ ❛s ♥♦t❛s♣♦♥❞❡r❛❞❛s✱ ❣❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ❡st❡s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✜♥❛✐s✳✹✳✶✳✷✳✶ ❆ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❆s s❡çõ❡s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r❛♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s♦❜ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ♥❡❧❡✳ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦é ✐♥❝❧✉í❞❛ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛ s❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✳✸✳ ❖ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❢♦✐❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✻❉✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✳✸✳ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦ ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ✐st♦ é✱ q✉❛❧ é ♦ ♥♦ss♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦❄ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦❧✉❣❛r✱ ❡st❛♠♦s ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ✉♠❛ ❧✐♠✐t❛çã♦ ❞❡♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡ ♥❡❧❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ ♣r❡❥✉❞✐❝❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✳ ❖ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ é ❢❛③❡r ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s s❡ s✐♥t❛♠ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r t❛♥t♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❛♥t♦ ❝♦rr✐❣✐♥❞♦✲❛s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✜♥❛✐s s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s❝✐t❛r✿ ✶✳ ❋❛③❡r ♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r❡♠ ♠❛✐s❀✷✳ P❛r❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❛ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛r ✭♦✉ ❞❡ ✈♦❧t❛ ♣❛r❛✮ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐✲ ❞❛❞❡s❀✸✳ ❆ ✜♠ ❞❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦r❛ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛r✳ ❆♣ós✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❞❡❧✐♥❡❛r ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ❛❧✈♦s ✭❛s ❝♦✐s❛s q✉❡ ♥ós q✉❡r❡♠♦s q✉❡ ♦s✉s✉ár✐♦s ❢❛ç❛♠✮✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦❝♦ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✜♥❛✐s ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❡ss❡s❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♣♦r ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❛✉t♦r ❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ♥ã♦ t❡♥❞♦❡♠❜❛s❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝♦ ♣❛r❛ t❛✐s ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s✳ ❚♦❞♦s ❡ss❡s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s sã♦ ❛ t❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛❞♦ q✉❡ s❡r✐❛❧ ✐❞❡❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛❣✐r ❡ ❛ss✐♠ ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛r t❛♥t♦ ❡❧❡ q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦✳ ❖s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s sã♦✿ ✶✳ P❛r❛ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ✐t❡♠ ✶✿❛✮ ❊st✐♠✉❧❛r ♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❝♦♠ ♠❛✐s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s❀ ❜✮ ❉❡s❛✜❛r ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♠ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ tr♦❢é✉✳❖ ❛t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❝♦♠ ♠❛✐s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❛ s❡r❡♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ✐♥❞✐❝❛✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦❡♠ q✉❡stã♦✳ ❉❡s❛✜❛r t❛✐s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s tr♦❢❡ús✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧✲♠❡♥t❡ ❛q✉❡❧❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✐rá ✐♥❝❡t✐✈❛r ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛ ✼✸✷✳ P❛r❛ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ✐t❡♠ ✷✿ ❛✮ Pr♦✈❡r ♠❡❞❛❧❤❛s ❛♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♠ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s❀❜✮ Pr♦✈❡r tr♦❢é✉s ♦✉ ♣♦♥t♦s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r❡♠✴❝♦rr✐❣✐r❡♠ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s❀ ❝✮ Pr♦♠♦✈❡r ✉♠ r❛♥❦✐♥❣ ♣❛r❛♠❡tr✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥❝❧✉✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❛♠✲❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❊ss❛s t❛r❡❢❛s t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ s❡ t♦r♥❛r ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ✉♠ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ❞❡s♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ♣r♦♠♦çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❞❛❧❤❛s ❛♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ tr♦✲❢é✉s ❡ ❡♥✉♠❡rá✲❧♦s ❡♠ r❛♥❦✐♥❣s ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ ♠❛✐s ✜③❡r❡♠ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡r✈✐rá ❝♦♠♦✉♠ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛q✉❡❧❡s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✜❝❛r❡♠ ❞❡s♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦❛té ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ ♣♦r ❛❧❣✉♠ ♠♦t✐✈♦ ❞❡s✐st✐r❛♠ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r t❛✐s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ✭tr❛③❡♥❞♦✲♦❞❡ ✈♦❧t❛ ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ ♥❛ t❡♥t❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✷✮✳ ✸✳ P❛r❛ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ✐t❡♠ ✸✿❛✮ ❊st✐♠✉❧❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ❝♦♠ r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛s ❛♦s ✈❡♥❝❡❞♦r❡s❀ ❜✮ ❘❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛r ♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♣♦r s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❡s♣❡r❛❞❛✳❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✷ t❡♥t❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ❛ ❡st✉❞❛r✳ ❈♦♠♦ t❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♠✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s s❡♠♣r❡ ❝♦♠♣❡t❡♠ ❝♦♠ s❡✉s ❛♠✐❣♦s✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ t❡♠♦s❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛❧✈♦ ❡st✐♠✉❧❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ✉♠❛❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦ s❛✉❞á✈❡❧ ❧❡✈❛ ❛ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r❛♠✱ ❛q✉❡✲❧❡s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r s❡ s❛ír❡♠ ♥❛ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦ ✐rã♦ r❡❝❡❜❡r r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛s✳ ❆❧é♠❞✐ss♦✱ ❛çõ❡s ✐♥❡s♣❡r❛❞♦s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡♠ r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛r ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡✐rá ♠♦t✐✈❛r ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ❛ s✉❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦✳ ❖ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❞♦ ✻❉ é ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ❥♦❣❛❞♦r❡s✳ ◆♦ ♥♦ss♦ ❝❛s♦ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s s❡rã♦ ❡st✉✲❞❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❊♠ ❣❡r❛❧ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♥❡♥❤✉♠ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ s✐✳P♦❞❡♠♦s ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ♦ ♣❡r✜❧ ❞❡ss❡s ✉s✉ár✐♦s s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡♠ ✭❑■▼✱ ✷✵✶✹✮❝♦♠♦✿ ❊①♣❧♦r❛❞♦r❡s✿ sã♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❡①♣❧♦r❛♥❞♦ ❢r♦♥t❡✐✲ ✼✹❈♦♠♣❡t✐❞♦r❡s✿ sã♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s ♣♦r t❡st❛r s✉❛s ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ✈❡r ❝♦♠♦ ❡❧❡s s❡ ❝♦♠✲ ❖s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❥♦❣❛❞♦r❡s ❞♦ ♥♦ss♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡r✐❛♠♦s ❡①♣❧♦r❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦s❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦r❡s✳ ❖s ❡①♣❧♦r❛❞♦r❡s ♣♦r q✉❡ ❡❧❡s t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛s t♦❞❛s ❛s ❛çõ❡s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❣♦st❛♠ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r t♦❞♦s ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✳ ❖s ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦r❡s✱♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ♣♦rq✉❡ ❡❧❡s t❡♠ ♦ ✐♥st✐♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❥✉❞❛r s❡✉s ❛♠✐❣♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ é ✉♠ ♣♦♥t♦ ♠✉✐t♦❢♦rt❡ ❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❡ ❞❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛✳ ✷ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ❧♦♦♣s ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠ ▲♦♦♣ ❞❡❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ✭▲❆✮ ♣♦ss✉✐ três ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s✿ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✱ ❛çã♦ ❡ r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛✳ ❆♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❧♦♦♣✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ❛ s✉❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ❝r✐❛❞♦✳ ❆ ❛çã♦❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳ ❊ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛ é ♦ q✉❡♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✐rá ❣❛♥❤❛r ❝❛s♦ ❡❧❡ ♣♦ss✉❛ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦✳ ✸ ❯♠ ❧♦♦♣ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉♠ ▲♦♦♣ ❞❡ ❊♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭▲❊✮ ♦✉ ✉♠ ▲♦♦♣ Pr♦❣r❡s✲ ✹ s✐✈♦ ✭▲P✮ ✳ ❆ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ é q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❣r❡ss✐✈♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ t❡♠♣♦r❛❧✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✈❛✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❧♦♦♣ ❛♦s ♣♦✉❝♦s ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❧♦♦♣ ❞❡ ❡♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛♥❛ ❤♦r❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❡s♣❡r❛❞❛✳ ❆ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ❧♦♦♣s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♥♦ ♥♦ss♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ♦ t✐♣♦ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛♦ t✐♣♦ ❞♦ ❧♦♦♣❝r✐❛❞♦ ❡ ❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ♠❛✐s ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦ ✭q✉❡ ❡stã♦❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✮✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✶❆ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✶ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ✏❛✑✳ ❆ ❡t❛♣❛ ✺ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✻❉ ♥♦s ❞✐③ ♣❛r❛ ♥ã♦ ❡sq✉❡❝❡r ❛ ❞✐✈❡rsã♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rsã♦ t❡♠♦s ✐♥❝r❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦s ❧♦♦♣s ✼ ❡ ✶✵✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❣❛♥❤❛rã♦ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❡s♣❡r❛❞❛ ♣♦r r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞❡ s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❡st✐♠✉❧❛r ✉♠❛❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦ ❡♠ s✐ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡r ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s ♣♦s✐çõ❡s ♥♦s r❛♥❦✐♥❣s ❡ tr♦❢é✉s ❡ ♠❡❞❛❧❤❛s✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♥❛ ú❧t✐♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡rã♦✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ✈✐st♦ ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✲✜❝❛çã♦✿ ♣♦♥t♦s✱ tr♦❢é✉s✱ ♠✐ssõ❡s✱ r❛♥❦✐♥❣s ❡ ♠❡❞❛❧❤❛s✳ ❚♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✷ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐✲❧♦s ❡stã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛s ♥❛ ♠❡s♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛✳✸ ❉♦ ✐♥❣❧ês ✏❆❝t✐✈✐t② ▲♦♦♣✑✳ P❛ss♦ ✹❉ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✹ ❉♦ ✐♥❣❧ês ✏❊♥❣❛❣❡♠❡♥t ❧♦♦♣✑ ❉♦ ✐♥❣❧ês ✏Pr♦❣r❡ss✐✈❡ ❧♦♦♣✑ ✼✺ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺ ✕ ▲♦♦♣s ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❚✐♣♦ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❆çã♦ ❘❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛✶ ▲P ✶❆ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ✸ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s P♦♥t♦s ✷ ▲P ✶❆ ❈♦rr✐❣✐r ✸ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s P♦♥t♦s✸ ▲P ✶❆ ▲♦❣❛r ♣♦r ✸ ❞✐❛s ❝♦♥s❡❝✉t✐✈♦s P♦♥t♦s ✹ ▲❊ ✶❆✱✷❇ ❘❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ P♦♥t♦s✺ ▲❊ ✶❆✱✷❇ ❈♦rr✐❣✐r ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ P♦♥t♦s ✻ ▲❊ ✶❆✱✷❇ ▲♦❣❛r ✶✵ P♦♥t♦s✼ ▲❊ ✸❇ ❆çã♦ ✐♥❡s♣❡r❛❞❛ P♦♥t♦s ✽ ▲P ✶❆✱✶❇✱✷❇ ❘❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ✺ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❚r♦❢é✉ ✏❖ ❡s❝r✐t♦r✑✾ ▲P ✶❆✱✶❇✱✷❇ ❈♦rr✐❣✐r ✺ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❚r♦❢é✉ ✏❖ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r✑ ✶✵ ▲❊ ✷❈✱ ✸❆ ❋✐❝❛r ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✶✵ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s ♥♦ r❛♥❦✐♥❣ ❚r♦❢é✉ ✏◆♦ t♦♣♦✑ ✶✶ ▲❊ ✷❆ ❋✐❝❛r ❡♥tr❡ ♦s três ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ▼❡❞❛❧❤❛ ❖✉r♦✱ Pr❛t❛ ♦✉ ❇r♦♥③❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ✹✳✷ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s❆ ❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✶ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♣r♦✲ ♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ✈✐st♦ ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❡st❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉✲❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡ s✉❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦✹✳✷✳✶✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ s❡rá ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✷✳✷✳ ❊ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ s❡rá ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✷✳✸✳✹✳✷✳✶ ❖ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✳ ❊st❡ ❢♦✐❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❜♦♠ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à s✉❛ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ ♣♦r ♣♦ss✉✐r ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❥á ♣r❡♣❛r❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛♠✐✜✲❝❛çã♦✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ♠❛✐s ❢á❝✐❧ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❡st❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ t✐♥❤❛ ✉♠❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ✭❝♦♠ ♣r♦✈❛s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦✮ q✉❡ s❡rá ♠❡❧❤♦r ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ♥❛❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✷✳✸✳ ✺ ❖ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r é ✉♠ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✱ s❡❞✐❛❞❛♥❛ ✐♥❝✉❜❛❞♦r❛ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ❞❡✜♥✐✲❧♦✱ ❞❡❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✸✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡✱ q✉❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛r ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛✱❣❛r❛♥t✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❆✈❡rsã♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛ ❛ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ✺ ♠é❞✐♦ ❛ s❡ ♣r❡♣❛r❛r❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❊①❛♠❡ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❊♥s✐♥♦ ▼é❞✐♦ ✭❊◆❊▼✮✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ❆ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❡stá ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❧✐♥❦✿ ✇✇✇✳♠❡✉t✉t♦r✳❝♦♠✳❜r ✼✻♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ❝✉rs♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s às ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦rt✉❣✉ês✱♠❛t❡♠át✐❝❛✱ ❢ís✐❝❛✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝✐t❛r✿ ✐✮ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡♦r✐❛s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝❛s❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❧❛r❣❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡♥❞♦ ♦❡♥s✐♥♦ ❞❡ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❚❡♦r✐❛ ❞❡ ❘❡s♣♦st❛ ❛♦ ■t❡♠ ✭❋▲❊❚❈❍❊❘✱ ✶✾✾✹✮ ❡ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭▼❊❘❈❊❘❖◆❀ ❨❆❈❊❋✱ ✷✵✵✺✮❀ ✐✐✮ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛ t♦r♥❛r ♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❡ ✐♥t❡r❛❣✐r ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡❀ ✐✐✐✮ ❛ rá♣✐❞❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ✐✈✮ ❛ ❛✉t♦❣❡stã♦ ❞❛❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ♥♦s ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦s✳ ❖ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ t❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❢♦rt❡ três ❜❛s❡s✿ ❛♠✲❜✐❡♥t❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦✱ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ s♦❝✐❛❧✳ ❖ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❥á❡①♣❧❛♥❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❛ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛r s❡✉s❡st✉❞♦s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞❛ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ é ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❡♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s✉s✉ár✐♦s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s àq✉❡❧❛s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❥♦❣♦s ✭❋▲❆❚▲❆ ❡t❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✱ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s s❡ s✐♥t❛♠ ♥♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❛çõ❡s ❡ s❡ ♠♦t✐✈❡♠❝♦♠ ❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ✭P❆❱▲❯❙✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✷ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭❥♦❣♦s✮♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✱ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❢♦ss❡ ✉♠ ❥♦❣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐✲③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ ❆ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❡ ♥í✈❡✐s♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡✈♦❧✉✐r ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❡ ♥♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ✭◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡stá♥♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ✺✮✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ❣❛♥❤❛r ♣♦♥t♦s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✭❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛❞❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ é r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♣♦♥t♦s✮✱ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ t❛♠❜é♠♣♦❞❡ ❣❛♥❤❛r ✉♠ ❜ô♥✉s ❛♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛r ♠✐ssõ❡s s✉❣❡r✐❞❛s✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ✈ár✐♦s tr♦❢é✉s q✉❡ r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛♠ ❛çõ❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ✐rã♦ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r q✉❡❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❡ss❛s ❡ ❝♦❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r✳ ▼❡❧❤♦r ❞♦ q✉❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ❣❛♥❤❛r ♣♦♥t♦s✱ ♣❛ss❛r ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ ❡ ❝♦❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r tr♦❢é✉s✱ é♣♦❞❡r ❝♦♠♣❛r❛r t♦❞❛s ❛s r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s✳ ◆♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼✱ ♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛r s❡✉ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s s❡✉s ❛♠✐❣♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐r❝♦♠ ❡❧❡s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ r❛♥❦✐♥❣s✳ ❙♦❜ ♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦✱ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛✱ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼✱ ❛s q✉❡s✲ tõ❡s ❡ ✈í❞❡♦✲❛✉❧❛s s❡ ❛❞❡q✉❛♠ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ q✉❡stõ❡s ♥♦ ❡st✐❧♦❊◆❊▼✱ ♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣r❛t✐❝❛r s❡✉ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ r❡s♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ✈ár✐♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛❛ss✉♥t♦ ♥❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ➚ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ r❡s♦❧✈❡ ❝♦rr❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛✱ s❡✉ ♣r♦❣r❡ss♦ ♥♦ ❛ss✉♥t♦ ❝r❡s❝❡✳ ❙❡ ❡rr❛r ❛ q✉❡stã♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈í❞❡♦✲❛✉❧❛ s❡rá r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡❧❡ s✉♣r✐r s✉❛ ❞❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛✳ ❆ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛ t❡♠ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ♠ét♦❞♦s✱ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❡ t❡❝♥♦✲❧♦❣✐❛s ❝♦♠ ✈✐st❛s ❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❧✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ♦✉❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❉❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❛❜♦r✲❞❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ✼✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✷ ✕ ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❤❡r❞❛r ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣♦r s❡r ✉♠ ❙❚■✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✭❲■❚❚❊◆❀ ❋❘❆◆❑✱ ✷✵✵✺✮✳ ❈♦♠ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉❡✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❡ s❛♥❛r ❛❧❣✉♥s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ P♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧✈❡r✐✜❝❛r q✉❛✐s ❛çõ❡s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝❛s sã♦ ✐♥❡✜❝❛③❡s ❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♠ét♦❞♦s q✉❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❡♠1 ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✭P❆■❱❆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ◆♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼✱♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❛♦ ❡st✉❞❛r ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✱ t❡♠ s❡✉ ♣❡r✜❧ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r q✉❛✐s ♦s s❡✉s ♣♦♥t♦s ❢r❛❝♦s ✭❡ ❢♦rt❡s✮✱ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛♥❞♦✱ ❛ss✐♠✱ q✉❛❧♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ r❡❝✉rs♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦ ❛ ❡❧❡✿ s❡❥❛ ♦✉tr♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛❞❡s❛✜á✲❧♦✱ s❡❥❛ ✉♠ ✈í❞❡♦ ♣❛r❛ s✉♣r✐r s✉❛ ❞❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ s♦❜r❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛✷✸ ✐❧✉str❛ ♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ✈í❞❡♦s sã♦ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❡❧❡ ❡rr❛ ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦✳ ❖ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼ t❛♠❜é♠ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦✈❛s ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦❛❧✉♥♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤❡r q✉❛✐s ❛ss✉♥t♦s✱ ❞❡ q✉❛✐s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s✱ ❡❧❡ q✉❡r t❡st❛r s❡✉ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❣❡r❛ ❛ ♣r♦✈❛ ❡ s✐♠✉❧❛ ✉♠ ❡①❛♠❡ r❡❛❧✳ ❊♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✱ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❛ss✉♥t♦s r❡♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡✈❡ t❡r ♣❛r❛ ❡st❛r ♣r❡♣❛r❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❊◆❊▼✳ ❆ t❡❧❛✐❧✉str❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✹ ♠♦str❛ ❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❛ss✉♥t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❞❡ ▼❛t❡♠át✐❝❛✳◗✉❡♠ ❞✐t❛ ♦ r✐t♠♦ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ é ♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡✱ ♣r❛t✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ♦♣r♦❣r❡ss♦ ❞❡❧❡ ♥♦ ❛ss✉♥t♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ❡✱ ❛♦ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ✉♠ ❛ss✉♥t♦✱ ❡❧❡ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉❡ ❞❡s❜❧♦q✉❡❛r♥♦✈♦s ❛ss✉♥t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡st✉❞❛r✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ r❡❧❛tór✐♦s ♥♦ ♣❡r✜❧✱ ♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡ ✼✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✸ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❛♦ ❡rr❛r ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ✲ ✈í❞❡♦s r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛❞♦s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ✈❡r q✉❛♥t♦s ❛ss✉♥t♦s ❡❧❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦✉✱ q✉❛♥t❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s ❡❧❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡✉✱ q✉❛♥t♦s ♣♦♥t♦s❣❛♥❤♦✉✱ q✉❛♥t♦s tr♦❢é✉s ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐✉ ❡ ♠✉✐t♦ ♠❛✐s✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❡ss❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼ ✈❡♠ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s t✉t♦r❡s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s✳ ❖ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼ é✉♠ ❙❚■ q✉❡ ✉s❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s té❝♥✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ t✉t♦r❛r ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳ ❉❡♥✲ tr❡ ❡ss❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛♠✲s❡ ❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❣❡♥ét✐❝♦s✭▼■❚❈❍❊▲▲✱ ✶✾✾✽✮ ❡ ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ tr❛❝✐♥❣ ✭❑❖❇❙❆✱ ✶✾✾✹✮ ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ♥♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ✭❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ s♦❝✐❛❧✮✱ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ♠❛♥té♠ ❛ ♣r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s❛❧✉♥♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭❞✐s❝✉t✐r ❡ ❡st✉❞❛r ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❛ss✉♥t♦ ♦✉ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❥✉♥t♦s✱ ❝♦♥s✲ tr✉✐♥❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦✮✱ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♥❞♦ r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣♦❞❡r♦s♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛ ❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❊♥tr❡ ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ❛♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❡stá ❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ ❞❡ ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ ❡s✲ t✉❞♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♥✈✐❞❛r ♦✉tr♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣r❛t✐❝❛r ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦❛ss✉♥t♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✺ ♠♦str❛ ❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s r❡s♣♦♥❞❡♠ q✉❡stõ❡s ❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡♣♦✐s ❞❡ ❞❡❜❛t❡r ❡ ❡♥tr❛r ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♥s❡♥s♦✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ q✉❡ ❡stá ♥❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ❡st✉❞❛♥❞♦✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼✱❞✐✜❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ só ❡st❛rá ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ✐ss♦✳ Pr♦✈❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡❧❡ ✈❛✐ ♥❛✈❡❣❛r ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ s♦❝✐❛❧❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❋❛❝❡❜♦♦❦ ✭❛❝❛rr❡t❛♥❞♦ ♥❛ ❞✐str❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦✮✳ ❚♦❞❛✈✐❛✱ ❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼ é t♦t❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❋❛❝❡❜♦♦❦✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❡ s✉❛s❝♦♥q✉✐st❛s ♥❛ r❡❞❡ s♦❝✐❛❧✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❋❛❝❡❜♦♦❦ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❛❧✐❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❤♦r❛ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛r✳ ✼✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✹ ✕ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❞❡ ▼❛t❡♠át✐❝❛ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✻ ♠♦str❛ ♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣❛ss❛ ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳✹✳✷✳✶✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼ ❖ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✻ ✉♠❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ✭▲P❙✮ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ✉♠ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞❡✉♠❛ ▲P❙ ✭❙■▲❱❆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ t♦❞❛s ❛s s✉❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥t❡r♥❛s sã♦ s✉s❝❡♣tí✈❡✐s ❛ ✈❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ t♦r♥❛ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❜❛st❛♥t❡✢❡①í✈❡❧✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝t❛r q✉❡ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♥ã♦ ❡stá t❡♥❞♦ ❣❛♥❤♦s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡rá✈❡✐s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❛♦ ✉s❛r ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ♣❡❞❛✲❣ó❣✐❝❛ ❡ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛r ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛❡str❛té❣✐❛ ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr❛✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ t♦❞❛ ❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ t❡✈❡ ❞❡ s❡r ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s✉♣♦rt❛r ❛ ♥❡✲❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s✳ P♦r ❡st❡ ♠♦t✐✈♦✱ t♦❞♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡✲♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ✲ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡s q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠ ✉♠❛ sér✐❡ ❞❡❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ✲✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❈❖❙▼❖❙ ✭❙■▲❱❆✱ ✷✵✵✸✮✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠ ❝♦♠✲♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ♥❡st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s r❡q✉❡r✐❞❛s✱ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ♣r♦✈✐❞❛s ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✳ ✻ ❆ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s é ❢❡✐t❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ♣r♦✈✐❞❛✲r❡q✉❡r✐❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❯♠❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉t♦s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ q✉❡ tê♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s t❡♥❞♦ ❡st❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ❡ ✈❛r✐❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛❧❣✉♥s❛s♣❡❝t♦s✳ ✽✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✺ ✕ ❊st✉❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ✲ ❊①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ s♦❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ♣r♦✈❡r ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ q✉❡ é r❡q✉❡r✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡✳P♦r q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ❡ ♣♦r ♥ã♦ s❡r ♦ ❢♦❝♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❢♦✐ ♦♠✐t✐❞♦✱ ♠❛s ❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✼✳❈♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛✱ ❤♦✉✈❡ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛❧ ▼✐❝r♦❦❡r♥❡❧ ✭❇❯❙❈❍▼❆◆◆❀ ❍❊◆◆❊❨❀ ❙❈❍■▼❉❚✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ s❡♣❛✲ r❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ✭❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s✮ ❞♦ ♥ú❝❧❡♦ ❡ ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s s❛té❧✐t❡s✳ ❚♦❞♦s♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✈❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ sã♦ ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ▼✐❝r♦❦❡r♥❡❧ ❞❛❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛✳ ❊ss❡s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♦❜r✐❣❛tór✐♦s✱ ♣♦✐s ❡❧❡s ❡stã♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼ ✭♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s❝♦♠♦ ▲♦❣✐♥ ❡ ❈❛❞❛str♦✮✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s♦❢r❡r ✈❛r✐❛✲çõ❡s ✜❝❛♠ ❞❡ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ▼✐❝r♦❦❡r♥❡❧ ✭♦s s❛té❧✐t❡s✮✳ ❊st❡s sã♦ ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ✈ã♦ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡r ❞♦❝♦♥❡❝t♦r ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❡❝t♦r é ❜❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ ✈❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s✱♣r♦✈❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ❝❤❛✈❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ q✉❛❧ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ✈❛✐ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r✲♠✐♥❛❞♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ♦s ❝♦♥❡❝t♦r❡s sã♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣♦r ❝❤❛✈❡❛r q✉❛❧ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ s❛té❧✐t❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♠✐❝r♦❦❡r♥❡❧✳ P♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛ ✉♠❛ q✉❡s✲tã♦ ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞♦✉✱ ♠❛s ♥ã♦ s❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛ ❛ ❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛❀ ♥❡st❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♦ ❝♦♥❡❝t♦r r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ♣♦❞❡ ♠✉❞❛r♦ s❛té❧✐t❡✱ q✉❡ ❛♥t❡s ❡r❛ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛✱ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ✈❡r❞❛❞❡✐r♦ ♦✉ ❢❛❧s♦✱ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦❛ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛✳ ✽✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✻ ✕ ❈♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥♦ ❋❛❝❡❜♦♦❦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✼ ✕ ❱✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❍❖▲❆◆❉❆✱ ✷✵✶✹✮ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼✐❝r♦❦❡r♥❡❧ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③♦✉♦✉tr♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛❧✿ ♠✉❧t✐❝❛♠❛❞❛✳ ❊st❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❢✉♥çã♦ s❡♣❛r❛r ❛s r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐✲❞❛❞❡s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♦ ▼✐❝r♦❦❡r♥❡❧ ❢♦✐ ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ três ❝❛♠❛❞❛s✿ ❈❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✿ ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ❡♠ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ❡ ♣r♦✈❡r ✽✷❈❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ◆❡❣ó❝✐♦✿ ❊♥❝♦♥tr❛♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❛ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♥♦t❛r q✉❡ ❤á ✉♠❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜✱ ❛ q✉❛❧ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦✲♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝r✐❛r ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡♠P❍P ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜✳✹✳✷✳✷ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r♣❛r❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s♦❢r❡✉ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛s t❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝❛s ✈✐♥❞❛s ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ❢♦✐ ❞❡st✐♥❛❞♦✳ ❊♥tr❡ ❡ss❛s✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❡stã♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❛ s✉❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠✱ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦❞♦ ♥ú❝❧❡♦ ❡♠ ❏❛✈❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❈❖❙▼❖❙✱ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❡♠ ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❡ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐✲♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ ❡♠ ❲❙❉▲✴❙❖❆P✱ ♦♥❞❡ s❡rã♦ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞❛s t♦❞❛s ❛s❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ s❡r ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼✱ ✈❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ é ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠❛✈❡③ q✉❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ ❢❛③❡r ❛s ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛r ♦s r❡t♦r♥♦s ✭❖❜❥❡t♦s s❡r✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✮ às s✉❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ s❡rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ♠♦str❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼✱♦ q✉❛❧ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡♠ P❍P✳ ❆♥t❡s ❞❡ ♠♦str❛r ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❡ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s às❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✷✳✶✳✶✱ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ❡♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛ ♠♦❞❡✲❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❛ q✉❛❧ s❡ r❡❢❡r❡ ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ♣❡rs✐stê♥❝✐❛✳ P❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦❞♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❡ s✉❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞♦s ✈ár✐♦s ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ✭❊❘✮ ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♣r❡❝✐s❛✱ ❡♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝❛❞❛str❛r ❛❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡s❝r✐t❛ ❡ ♦s ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡rá ✉s❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥❛ ❤♦r❛ ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛r✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ s❡rá ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❆♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡♠♣♦✱ s❡rá ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠♣❛r❛ s✉♣♦rt❛r ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s às q✉❡stõ❡s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳❆ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✽ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞♦♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❝♦♠♦♥í✈❡❧ ✭♥í✈❡❧ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛✮✱ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡ ✭❢á❝✐❧✱ ♠é❞✐♦ ❡ ❞✐❢í❝✐❧✮✱ s❡ ❡stá ♦✉ metodo order item ✽✸resolucão Resolução Opção Discursiva ativado dica Dica tem tem possui contém Comentario comentario ordemtags sugeridas Problema Discursivo token data hora enunciadocontexto ativado dificuldade nivel ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✽ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ♥ã♦ ❛t✐✈❛❞♦ ❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦✱ ✉♠ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ s❡✉ ❡♥✉♥❝✐❛❞♦ ✭❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ♦✉ t❡①t♦✮ ❡ ❛❧❣✉✲♠❛s t❛❣s s✉❣❡r✐❞❛s ✭s✉❜❛ss✉♥t♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✮✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ t❡♠ ❉✐❝❛s ✭q✉❡♣♦ss✉❛ ❛ ❞✐❝❛ ❡ ✉♠❛ ♦r❞❡♠ ❞❡ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦✮✱ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❘❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ✭❛ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❛ q✉❡stã♦♣r♦♣r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐t❛ ❡ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r✮✱ ❡ t❡♠ ❈♦♠❡♥tár✐♦ ✭❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s❢❡✐t♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❞❛t❛ ❡ ❤♦r❛ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛ q✉❡stã♦✮✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✈ár✐❛s ❖♣çõ❡s ❉✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s✱ ♦ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♦♣çã♦ ❛ s❡r r❡s♣♦♥❞✐❞❛♣❡❧♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❖♣çã♦ ❉✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ s❡✉ ✐t❡♠ ✭❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❡♠ s✐✮✱ ✉♠❛ ♣r♦♣r✐✲❡❞❛❞❡ ❛t✐✈❛❞♦ q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ s❡ ❛q✉❡❧❛ ♦♣çã♦ ✐rá ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r ❛♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ❡ ❛ ♦r❞❡♠ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ✐rá ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r✳ ❈♦♠ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❛s q✉❡stõ❡s✱ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ q✉❡ é ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡st❡s ❖ r❡s♣♦♥❞❛♠✱❥✉❧❣❛♥❞♦ ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❆ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✾ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞♦✉s✉ár✐♦✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✉♠ tít✉❧♦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❛t❛ ❞❡ ❝r✐❛çã♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ é ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ✉s✉ár✐♦✭✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✮✳ ❖ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❝♦♥té♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ◗✉❡stõ❡s✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ❝❛❞❛ data criação Cria Usuário envia ✽✹ titulo Formulário de Avaliação tem Resposta Formulário enunciado Questão tem Resposta Questão Contém contém possui contémCritério tem Resposta Criterio resposta criterio peso comentario❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✾ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ✉♠❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳ ❈❛❞❛ ◗✉❡stã♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♦❡♥✉♥❝✐❛❞♦ ❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❈r✐tér✐♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❈r✐tér✐♦✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱♣♦ss✉✐ ♦ t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ❝r✐tér✐♦ ❡ s❡✉ ♣❡s♦ ♥❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ✉♠ ❯s✉ár✐♦ ✭✉s✉ár✐♦ ❝♦♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦✮ ♣♦❞❡rá ❡♥✈✐❛r ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s❞❡ss❡s ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✭q✉❡ s❡rá ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ♠❛✐s ❛❢r❡♥t❡✱ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✸✵✮✳ ❆ ❘❡s♣♦st❛ ❞♦ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❜❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♥té♠ ♦ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✲✈✐❞♦ ❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❘❡s♣♦st❛s ❞❛s ◗✉❡stõ❡s✳ ❯♠❛ ❘❡s♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ◗✉❡stã♦✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱❝♦♥té♠ ❛ ◗✉❡stã♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❘❡s♣♦st❛s ❞♦s ❈r✐tér✐♦s✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠❛❘❡s♣♦st❛ ❈r✐tér✐♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♦ ❈r✐tér✐♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ❡ ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❡ ♦s ❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ✉♠ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛♦ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❡♥✈✐❛rá s✉❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ ❡st❡❞❡✈❡rá ❛r♠❛③❡♥á✲❧❛s✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✵ ♠♦str❛ ❛ ♠♦❞❡✲❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❞♦ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❛ s❡r ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ ❡❧❡ q✉❛♥❞♦ s✉❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❢♦r ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❘❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❊s❝r✐t❛ ❢❡✐t❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ t❡①t♦ ✭s✉❛ r❡s♣♦st❛✮ ❡ ✉♠ st❛t✉s✱ q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛rá s❡ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❥á ❢♦✐ ♦✉ ♥ã♦❝♦♥❝❧✉í❞❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♦ Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❉✐s❝✉rs✐✈♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✭❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✽✮❡✱ ❝❛s♦ ♦ st❛t✉s s❡❥❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦✱ ❛ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣♦ss✉✐rá ✉♠ ❘❡❧❛tór✐♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❈r✐tér✐♦✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ Problema Discursivo✽✺status Resolução Avaliação Escrita possui contém Relatório texto possui resultado final tem possui Informação Avaliação por pares Critério possui Resultado Critério resultado Respostas Formulario Usuários tem ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✵ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❝r✐tér✐♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♥❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ ❘❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❊s❝r✐t❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ■♥❢♦r♠❛✲ çã♦ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ ❊ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❣r❛✈❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❛s ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s✳ ❊♥tr❡ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡st❛❝❛❞❛s✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛✲s❡♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❘❡s♣♦st❛s ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞♦s ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦s ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ♣♦r♦✉tr♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ❘❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❊s❝r✐t❛ ❛t✉❛❧ ❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❯s✉ár✐♦ q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❝♦♠♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s q✉❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ s❡❥❛♠❣✉❛r❞❛❞❛s ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣♦ss❛ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡❢❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛✸✶ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♥♦t❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ■♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♥té♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞❡ s❡✉s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❆s ■♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ❡st❡ r❡❛❧✐③♦✉✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ♣♦r ❡❧❡✱ s✉❛ ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ s✉❛ r❡♣✉t❛çã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ q✉❡ s❡r✈✐rá ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧✳ ❊ss❛s ■♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s t❛♠❜é♠❝♦♥té♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ■♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦❞♦s ❝♦♥t❡①t♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❈❛❞❛ ■♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✱ ❛ r❡♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥❛q✉❡❧❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡ ❛ ❞❛t❛ ❞❡ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s♣❛r❛ ❡❧❡✳ reputação geral confiabilidade ✽✻Usuário tem Informação Objetivo numero atividades realizadas numero de atividades corrigidas contexto Informação Contexto reputacao contém data atualizacao ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✶ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r P♦r ú❧t✐♠♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ❆ ♠♦❞❡✲❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞❛ ❡♠ ❞✉❛s ♣❛rt❡s✳ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ é r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠❞♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ❞♦✻❉ ✭❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✳✸✳ ❆ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ♣❛rt❡ é r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✐♥t❡r❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✷❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ♣❛rt❡✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ♦s ▲♦♦♣s ❞❡ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ s✉❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛çõ❡s✳descrição duração modelonível de dificuldade Loop de Atividade nome possui Historico tem ação Loop de Engajamento Loop de Progressão tem tem vezes Mecânica Mecânica Restrição possui Feedback Motivação possui tem Narrativa ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✷ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ✽✼P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠ ▲♦♦♣ ❞❡ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ♥♦♠❡✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ✉♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡✱ ✉♠❛ ❞✉r❛çã♦ ❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❯♠ ▲♦♦♣❞❡ ❊♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ é ✉♠❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ▲♦♦♣ ❞❡ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❤❡r❞❛♥❞♦ s❡✉s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❡ ❛❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♠❛✐s ❛çõ❡s ▼❡❝â♥✐❝❛✳ ❯♠❛ ▼❡❝â♥✐❝❛✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✻❉✱ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❞❡s❛✜♦✱ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐çã♦✱ ❝♦♦♣❡r❛çã♦✱ r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛ ♦✉ ❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦ ▲♦♦♣ ❞❡ ❊♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♠❛✐s r❡str✐çõ❡s ✭❧✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❞❛q✉❡❧❡❧♦♦♣✮✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✏❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ✈❡③✑✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❋❡❡❞❜❛❝❦✱ q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ❛s r❡❝♦♠♣❡♥s❛s q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✐rá ❣❛♥❤❛r ❝❛s♦ ❝♦♥s✐❣❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛q✉❡❧❡ ❧♦♦♣✳ ❯♠❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉♠ ❛✈❛t❛r ♥♦✈♦✱ tr♦❢é✉✱ ❝♦❧❡çã♦✱ ♥í✈❡❧✱ ♣♦♥t♦s✱ ❞❡s❜❧♦q✉❡✐♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s✱❛✉♠❡♥t♦ r❛♥❦✐♥❣✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ ❊ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ ❧♦♦♣ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡st❡ s❡❥❛ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ❯♠ ▲♦♦♣ ❞❡ Pr♦❣r❡ssã♦✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ❤❡r❞❛ ❞♦s ▲♦♦♣s ❞❡ ❊♥❣❛❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ t♦❞❛s ❛s s✉❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s✱ ♣♦ré♠✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❧♦♦♣✱ ❤á ✉♠❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ t❡♠♣♦r❛❧✱ ❡❧❡❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ◆❛rr❛t✐✈❛✱ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈❡③❡s q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✐rá r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛s ♠❡❝â♥✐❝❛s ❡ ✉♠ ❍✐stór✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡st❡ ❝♦♥s✐❣♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛r♦ ❧♦♦♣✳ ❊ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ú❧t✐♠❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❧✐❣❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❡ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆ ✜❣✉r❛ ✸✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ❊ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✈ã♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✈❛✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦♦s ❧♦♦♣s✳ pontos requeridos typeLevel tem nivel Avatar Usuário possui Informação Gamificação possui pontos atuais pontos habilidade❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✸ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ♥♦t❛r q✉❡ ♦ ❯s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ■♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❊st❛s✱♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ❝♦♥tê♠ ♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❛t✉❛❧ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✭▲❡✈❡❧✮✱ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ❳P✱ ❛ ✽✽❣❛♥❤❛♥❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦s ❞♦s ❧♦♦♣s✱ s❡✉s ♣♦♥t♦s ✈ã♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦✱ ❛ ♠❡❞✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ s❡✉ ▲❡✈❡❧ ❡ s❡✉ ❆✈❛t❛r ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛♠ ❝♦♠ ❡✈♦❧✉çõ❡s✳ ❚♦❞❛ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛❝✐♠❛ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❖❲▲✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉✲❚✉t♦r✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞❛s ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♥s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ q✉❡ ❛♥t❡s ♥ã♦ ❡①✐st✐❛ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❆ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦✲❣✐❛s ❡ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❖❲▲ s❡ ❞❡✉ ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦rq✉❡ ❡st❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛❞❛♣t❛çõ❡s ♥❛ ♦♥t♦✲❧♦❣✐❛ ▲❡❛r♥❡r✳♦✇❧✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ❡ ♦ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ◆❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s✭❘❡s♦✉r❝❡✳♦✇❧✮✱ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s✳ ❆ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳♦✇❧✮ ❢♦✐ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s✉♣♦rt❛r ♦s ❧♦♦♣s ❡ ❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ P♦r q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ❧✐♠✐t❛çã♦ ❡ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s❝ó❞✐❣♦s ❡ ✐❧✉str❛çõ❡s ❞❡st❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❇✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❛s ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛♣❛r❛ s✉♣♦rt❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦ ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞❛ ❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ P❡❡r❆ss❡s✲ s♠❡♥t✳♦✇❧✳ ❊st❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❝♦♥té♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦s❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛s s✉❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ♣❡❧♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s✱ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❝✐t❛❞❛✳ ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛♠ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✾✳ ■st♦ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s s✉❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♥❡ss❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❡stã♦ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❛❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✵✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❛♣ós t♦❞❛s ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s s❡rã♦ ❝r✐❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❛s ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♥s ❞♦s ❞✐✲❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✱ ❡st❛s ❢♦r❛♠ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛s ❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✐❧❛çã♦✱ ♦♥❞❡✱ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s✱ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡ r❡❧❛✲❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♥❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❣❡r❛❞❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s ❏❆❱❆ q✉❡ ♦s r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ✯✳❥❛r ❛ s❡r ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦❞❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱ q✉❡ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ♣❡rs✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡s❝r✐t❛ ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❢♦✐ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✳ ❆ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❥á ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ✉t✐❧✐③♦✉ ❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❏❆❱❆ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❡str✉✲ t✉r❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❈❖❙▼❖❙✳ ❆ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ t❛♠❜é♠✉t✐❧✐③♦✉ ♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛❧ ❡♠ ❝❛♠❛❞❛s✱ r❡s♣❡✐t❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ ♣❡rs✐stê♥❝✐❛✱ ♥❡✲❣ó❝✐♦ ✭♠❣t✮✱ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✭✇s✮✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ três ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s✿ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ✽✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✹ ✕ ❈❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ P❡❡r ❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t✳♦✇❧ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❛ ✭P❡❡r ❆ss❡ss✲♠❡♥t✮❀ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈♦s ✭♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s❡s❝r✐t❛s✮ ✭❲r✐t✐♥❣ ❊✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥✮❀ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭●❛♠✐✜❝❛✲ t✐♦♥✮✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❞♦✐s ♦✉tr♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞♦s✿ ✉♠ ♣❛r❛ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛r ❛ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✭❙❡❝✉r✐t②✮ ❡ ♦✉tr♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥✈❡rt❡r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ✈✐♥❞♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛ s❡r❡♠ tr❛♥s✲❢❡r✐❞♦s ✈✐❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ ✭❈♦♥✈❡rt❉❚❖✮✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛r ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ três ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦✱ ✉♠ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ♣r✐♥✲❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❛❝✐♠❛✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞♦s ♠❛✐s três ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s✿ P❡❡r❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t ▼❣t✱ ❲r✐t✐♥❣ ❊✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ▼❣t ❡ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ ▼❣t✳ ❚♦❞♦s ❡❧❡s ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ❛ ❝♦✲♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❘❉❋ ✭❇❛♥❝♦ q✉❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛ ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✮ ❡ ♦s❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆ ✜❣✉r❛ ✸✺ ♠♦str❛ ✉♠ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠ ♦s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s✱ s✉❛s ✐♥t❡r❧✐❣❛çõ❡s ❡ s✉❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s r❡q✉❡r✐❞❛s ❡ ♣r♦✈✐❞❛s✳P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ❛ ❝❧❛r❛ ❞✐✈✐sã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦ s✐s✲ t❡♠❛✳ ◆❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦✱ ♦s três ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s sã♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣♦r ♠❛♥t❡r ❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛ss✐♠ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s✱ ❝r✐❛çã♦✱ r❡♠♦çã♦ ❡ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥✲❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♣ró♣r✐❛✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ P❡❡r❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t ▼❣t ♦❢❡r❡❝❡♥❞♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ■P❡❡r❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t▼❣t✱ ❛ q✉❛❧ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♠ét♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✾✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✺ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦s♣♦st♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦s✱ q✉❡stõ❡s✱ ❝r✐tér✐♦s✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♠ét♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝r✐❛r ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s❞❡st❡s ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦s ❡ ♦s r❡❧❛tór✐♦s ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❲r✐t✐♥❣ ❊✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ▼❣t ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ■❲r✐t✐♥❣❊✲✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥▼❣t✱ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦s✱ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈♦s✱ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s✱ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈♦✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐✲❞❛❞❡s✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛❝❛♦ ▼❣t ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❧♦♦♣s✱ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s❡ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉s ❤✐stór✐❝♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❆ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛✱ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛✱ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❧ó❣✐❝❛ ❞♦♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ❖s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s sã♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣♦r ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s r❡❛✐s ❛♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✜♥❛✐s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ♦✉tr♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ◆❡st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ t❡♠♦s ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❡ s✉❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s✿ P❡❡r ❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t✿ ❈♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r t♦❞❛ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞❛ ✾✶❝♦♠♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❛ ❡st❡s ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦s✳ P♦ss✉✐ ❛ ✐♥t❡r✲❢❛❝❡ ♣r♦✈✐❞❛ ■P❡❡r❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♥❞♦ ❡st❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ r❡q✉❡r ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡■❈♦♥✈❡rt❉❚❖✱ ■❙❡❝✉r✐t② ❡ ■❲r✐t✐♥❣❊✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s✳❲r✐t✐♥❣ ❊✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥✿ ❊st❡ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ■❲r✐t✐♥❣❊✲ ➱ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♣r♦✈✐❞❛ ■▼❛♥❛✲❣❡r✳ ■ss♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❈❖❙▼❖❙✱ ❡ ❡st❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛r♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ♣r♦✈✐❞❛s✴r❡q✉❡r✐❞❛s ♣♦r ❡❧❡✳❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ t❛♠❜é♠ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ r❡q✉❡r✐❞❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r✲❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ✭♣♦✐s ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❛❝❡ss❛r ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦✮✳❊st❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ r❡q✉❡r✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛ é ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡♣r♦✈✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ss❡s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦ ❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ s✉❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ❥á ❞❡s❝r✐✲ t❛s✱ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ sã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ✈✐❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜♥❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✇❡❜ ❡♠❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♥❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ três ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞❛s ❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐✲③❛❞❛s✳ ❈❛❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ t❡♠ ❛ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦✈❡r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ s❡✉s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ✐♠✲♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛♠ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❲❊❇✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❢♦✐ ✐♥❝r❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ♥♦✈❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✭❝♦♠ s✉✜①♦❲❙✱ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐á✲❧❛ ❞❛ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧✮ q✉❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s✳ P♦r q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ✾✷❡s♣❛ç♦✱ ✈✐st♦ q✉❡ ♦s ❝ó❞✐❣♦s ❞❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ♦❝✉♣❛♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ♠✐❧ ❧✐♥❤❛s✱ ♥ã♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛r ♦ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❞❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ❲❙ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ss❡ t❡①t♦✳❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♥♦ ❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❈ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❏❛✈❛ ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ■❲r✐t✐♥❣❊✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥❲❙✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ é ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ❡♠ ❲❙❉▲✱❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❙❖❆P ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ ✭❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ q✉❡❢❛rá ❛s r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s✮ ❡ ♦ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ✭♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦✮✳ ❆ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❢♦✐❡♥tã♦ ❝♦♠♣✐❧❛❞❛✱ ✈✐r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ✯✳✇❛r ❡ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ❣❧❛ss✜s❤ ❡ ❡stá ✼ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♦♥❧✐♥❡✱ ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳❚❛♥t♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✹✳✶✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✷ ❢♦r❛♠ ♣❡♥s❛❞♦s ❡ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛✲❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛✱❜❛st❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✈✐❛ ❙❖❆P ❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛❞♦✳ ❆ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✭❲❙❉▲✮ ❡stã♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛❝❡ss❛❞❛s✳✹✳✷✳✸ ■♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ◆❛s s✉❜s❡çõ❡s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❜❡♠❝♦♠♦ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❖ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉✲❚✉t♦r s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣♦r ♣♦ss✉✐r ❝❛r❛❝t❡rís✲ t✐❝❛s ❢❛✈♦rá✈❡✐s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❥á ❝✐t❛❞❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❡①♣❧❛♥❛❞♦✱ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r t❡♠❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❡♥s✐♥❛r ♦s ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s ❞❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s ❞♦ ❊◆❊▼✱ ❝♦♥t✉❞♦ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s❝♦❜r❛❞♦s ♥❡st❡ ❡①❛♠❡ é ✉♠❛ ♣r♦✈❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦✳ ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ♥ã♦ t✐♥❤❛ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛ r❡❞❛çõ❡s✳ P♦r ❡ss❡ ♠♦t✐✈♦✱ ♦s ✐❞❡❛❧✐✲③❛❞♦r❡s ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ t✐♥❤❛♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ✉♠ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞❡♥tr♦❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡✉s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣✉❞❡ss❡♠ ♣r❛t✐❝❛r r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♠✐ss♦r❛✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ♦ s✉✲♣♦rt❡ ❛ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♥♦ss♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❡r❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛r ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ♣❛r❛ s✉♣♦rt❛r r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ❢♦✐ ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ❡♥tã♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♠❛✐s ✉♠ ♣❛ss♦ ♥❛ ♥♦ss❛❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r✴✐♥❝r❡♠❡♥t❛r ❛s t❡❧❛s ❡♠ P❍P ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✭✈❡r ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✼✮✱ ❞❡ t❛❧ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ q✉❡ s✉♣♦rt❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✭❢❛③❡♥❞♦❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ❛♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✮✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❤♦✉✈❡r❛♠ ❞♦✐s ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ t❡❧❛s q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛r❛♠ s❡r ❝r✐❛❞❛s✴❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛s✿ ❛s t❡❧❛s ❞♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❛s t❡❧❛s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ◆♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❢✉♥❝✐♦✲♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s sã♦ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡♠❛s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ✭t❡❧❛ ✐❧✉str❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✻✮✱ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♣r♦♣r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐t❛ ✭❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✼ ✮ ❡ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✸✻✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r três t❡♠❛s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝r✐❛❞♦s ✭◆❛t✉r❡③❛✱ P♦❧ít✐❝❛ ❡ ✼ ❆t✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s✮✳ ◆❡ss❛ t❡❧❛✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s t❡♠❛s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✭✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❆ ❧✐st❛ ♥❛✈❡❣á✈❡❧ ❝♦♠ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡stá ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ❤tt♣✿✴✴r❡❞❛❝❛♦✳♠❡✉t✉t♦r✳❝♦♠✳❜r✿✽✵✽✵✴r❡❞❛❝❛♦✴✇s ✾✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✻ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❧✐st❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ t❡♠❛s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❜♦tã♦ ❛③✉❧ ✏❈❛❞❛str❛r t❡♠❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦✑✮✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❧✐st❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ♣♦r t❡♠❛ ❡ ❛❡❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ t❡♠❛ ♣r❡✈✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✼ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✸✼✱ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♣♦❞❡rá ❝❛❞❛str❛r ✉♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞✐❣✐t❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s s❡✉ tít✉❧♦ ❡ s❡✉ t❡①t♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❥á s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥♦✉ ♣r❡✈✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ t❡♠❛ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❡stá❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛✳ ➱ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ✉♠ t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❢♦r♠❛t❛çõ❡s✭♥❡❣r✐t♦s✱ ✐tá❧✐❝♦✱ s✉❜❧✐♥❤❛❞♦✱ ❛❧✐♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦✮✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡r ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❡ ❡♠♦t✐❝♦♥s✳ ✾✹❉♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❡st❡ ❛♦ ❡♥tr❛r ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ ❝❧✐❝❛r ♥♦ ♠❡♥✉ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❜❛rr❛ s✉♣❡r✐♦r✱ ✐rá ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r s❡ ❤á ❛❧❣✉♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡r r❡s♣♦♥❞✐❞❛ ♣♦r ❡❧❡✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✽✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✽ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✽✱ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✈❡rá q✉❡ ❡stá ♥❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ✭❛❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ s✉❜♠✐ssã♦✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❡❧❡ ❞❡✈❡rá r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✭r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r✮ ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ▲♦❣♦❛❜❛✐①♦✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ tít✉❧♦ ❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❡st❛rá ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦♣♦❞❡rá ✐♥✐❝✐❛r ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❝❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♥♦ ❜♦tã♦ ✏■♥✐❝❛r ❘❡❞❛çã♦✑✳ ❆♦ ❝❧✐❝❛r ❡♠ ✐♥✐❝✐❛r r❡❞❛çã♦ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛rá t♦❞❛ ❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❡ ♣♦❞❡rá ❡s❝r❡✈❡r s✉❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ t❡❧❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡✲s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ✐♥str✉çõ❡s q✉❡ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡✈❡rá r❡s♣❡✐t❛r ❛♦ ❝r✐❛r s✉❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✾✳ ❊♥tr❡ ❛s r❡str✐çõ❡s ❡stã♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡✈❡rá r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ♥♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ s❡✐s ❧✐♥❤❛s ❡ ❛✐♠♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♣✐❛r t❡①t♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ r❡❝❡❜❡rá ♥♦t❛ ③❡r♦ t♦❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ q✉❡ ❢✉❣✐r ❞♦ t❡♠❛ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❡s❝r❡✈❡r t❡①t♦ ❛r❣✉♠❡♥t❛t✐✈♦✲❞✐ss❡rt❛t✐✈♦✱ ❝♦♥tr❛✲r✐❛r ♦s ❞✐r❡✐t♦s ❤✉♠❛♥♦s ❡✴♦✉ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r t❡①t♦ ❞❡❧✐❜❡r❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡s❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦ ❞♦ t❡♠❛❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✳ ❆♣ós ❡♥✈✐❛r ❛ s✉❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡✈❡rá ❛❣✉❛r❞❛r ♦♣r❛③♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ✲ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✳ ❊st❡ ♣r❛③♦ é ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❛♦ ❝❛❞❛str❛r ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✳ ❊♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ♣r❛③♦ ♥ã♦ s❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛✱ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡rá ♣❛r❛♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✉♠ ❝r♦♥ô♠❡tr♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❛♥t♦ t❡♠♣♦ r❡st❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ✾✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✾ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r❛③♦ ❞❡ s✉❜♠✐ssã♦ ❛❝❛❜❛✱ ❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s s❡ ✐♥✐✲❝✐❛✳ ◆❡ss❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✈❡rá q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡♠ ♦✉tr❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ❝♦rr✐❥❛ ✭❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡❞✉❛s ♦✉ três ♦✉tr❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s✮✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡✈❡rá ❛✈❛❧✐❛r✱ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✵✳ ❖ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❡✈❡rá ❡♥tã♦ ❧❡r ❝❛❧♠❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝rít✐❝❛ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉ ♣❛r✱ ❥✉❧❣❛♥❞♦✲❛ s♦❜ ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡✱ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❞❡✈❡rá ♣r❡❡♥❝❤❡r ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s♣❛r❛ ♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ s❡✉ ❥✉❧❣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ❝❧✐❝❛♥❞♦✱ ❛♦ ✜♥❛❧✱ ♥♦ ❜♦tã♦ ✏❊♥✈✐❛r ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✑✳ ✾✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✵ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❝♦rr✐❣❡ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛rá ✉♠ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ ❜r❡✈❡ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ❛s ♥♦t❛s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❡✱ ❛♣ós ❝♦♥❢❡r✐r ❛s s✉❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s✱ ❡st❡ ❞❡✈❡rá ❝♦♥✜r♠á✲❧❛s ❡ ❡♥✈✐❛r❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❊st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r r❡♣❡t✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❛té q✉❡ ❡❧❡ t❡♥❤❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉í❞♦ ❛❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛s ❛ ❡❧❡✳ ◆♦ ✜♥❛❧✱ ♥ã♦ ❤❛✈❡rá ♠❛✐s ♥❛❞❛ ❛ s❡r❢❡✐t♦ ♥❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛♣ós ♦ ♣r❛③♦ ❞❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ s❡r ✜♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦✱ t♦❞❛s ❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❡st❛rã♦❝♦♠ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❝♦♥❝❧✉í❞❛s ❡ s❡rá ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ✲ q✉❡ é ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✜♥❛✐s✳ ❊st❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞❡ s✉❜♠✐ssã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✳ ❖ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡♥tã♦ ♣♦❞❡rá ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ s❡✉ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ ✜♥❛❧✱ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❝r✐tér✐♦❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✶✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✶ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♥♦ q✉❛❧♦ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ s❡ r❡❢❡r❡✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❡ q✉❡ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❢♦✐ ✻✵✵✳✵✵ ✭s❡✐s❝❡♥t♦s ✾✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✶ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ♣♦♥t♦s✮✳ ❊ss❛ ♥♦t❛ é ❛ s♦♠❛ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛ ❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❝r✐tér✐♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❛ ✜❣✉r❛ é ❛♣❡♥❛s✐❧✉str❛t✐✈❛✱ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❝r✐tér✐♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ✶✷✵ ✭❝❡♥t♦ ❡ ✈✐♥t❡✮✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❝r✐tér✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ é r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ três ❝♦❧✉♥❛s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❝♦❧✉♥❛ ♦ t❡①t♦ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❛❧ é ♦ ❝r✐tér✐♦ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦✱ ❛s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❝♦❧✉♥❛ ❝♦♠ s✉❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ ❡ ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✴❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ à ♥♦t❛ ❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛✳ ✾✽ ✺ ❱❆▲■❉❆➬➹❖ ✲ ❊❳P❊❘■▼❊◆❚❖ P❘❖❈❊❙❙❖ ❆❱❆▲■❆➬➹❖ P❆❘❊❙❆ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ t♦❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ♦ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r s❡✉s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s r❡s✉❧t❛✲ ❞♦s ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦s q✉❡ ✈✐❡r❡♠ ❛ s✉r❣✐r✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝♦s✳ ◆❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤❡♠♦s ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❡♠ r❡s✉♠♦✱ é ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡rá s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✳ ◆♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r s✉❛❡✜❝á❝✐❛✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞♦s ❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞♦✐s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❖ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛ ❛ ❡❢❡t✐t✐❞❛❞❡❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♦ q✉❛❧ s❡rá ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦♥❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✳ ❖ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛ ♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❛♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r❡♠ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❊st❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✭❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✻✮✳ P♦r ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦✱ ✉♠ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♦✉ ❡st✉❞♦ q✉❡ r❡s✉❧t❛ ♥❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞❡ ❞❛✲❞♦s✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡ ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛s ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛♥t❡❝❡❞ê♥❝✐❛✳ ●❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s sã♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❡♠ q✉❡ ♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ ♠❛✲♥✐♣✉❧❛r ❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛r ♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s q✉❡ sã♦ ✐rr❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ✭❨❆◆●❀ ❊▲✲❍❆■❑✱ ✷✵✵✸✮✳ ❖ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥❞✉③✐❞♦ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦❛❧❣✉♥s ♣r✐♥❝í♣✐♦s ❞❛ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ✭❲❖❍▲■◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ❖ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛❛t❡♥❞❡r ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s✳ P❧❛♥❡❥❛r ✉♠ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦rr❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ é♠✉✐t♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❝♦rr❡t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❡ ♣♦❞❡r ❞❛❛♠♦str❛ s❡❥❛♠ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r às q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠❛✐s ❝❧❛r❛ ❡ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✭❨❆◆●❀ ❊▲✲❍❆■❑✱ ✷✵✵✸✮✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❡♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ❛✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳❖ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡stá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✶✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❡st❡ s❡❣✉✐✉ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✷✳ ❆ s❡çã♦ ✺✳✸ ♠♦str❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡❧❡s✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦s✳✺✳✶ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛✈❛❧✐❞❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❆ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡stá ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦♣r♦❥❡t♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✱ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✷✳✶✳ ❖ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❥á ❢♦✐ ❡①♣❧❛♥❛❞♦✱ é ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ♣❛r❛❡♥s✐♥♦ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ✶✵ ♠✐❧ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ❝✉❥♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ❢❛③❡r ✉♠ ✾✾❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧✐③❛❞❛✱ ❢♦❝❛♥❞♦ ♥❛ q✉❛✲❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❡ ♥♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❣❡stã♦ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥✲❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❖ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ❞❡❧✐♥❡❛r ❜❡♠ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛❞♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó✲❝✐♦ ❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s té❝♥✐❝♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✳ ❊ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ s❡rã♦❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✶✳✶✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞♦s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✶✳✷✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✶✳✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✱ ❢❛t♦r❡s ❡ ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛✱♥í✈❡✐s ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s✱ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✱ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s✱ ❞❡s✐❣♥ ❞❡ ❡①✲♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ✐♥str✉♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❛♠❡❛ç❛sà ✈❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳✺✳✶✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❊ss❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ tr❛t❛❞♦ ♥❡ss❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❈♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❡①♣❧❛♥❛❞♦✱ ♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡stá ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✳ ❊st❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛ s❡ ♣r❡♣❛r❛r❡♠♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣r♦✈❛ ❞♦ ❊◆❊▼✳ ❆ ♣r♦✈❛ ❞♦ ❊◆❊▼✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞❛ ❡♠ ✺ ❣r❛♥❞❡s ár❡❛s❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆s ár❡❛s ❡ s✉❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦ sã♦✿ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ◆❛t✉r❡③❛ ❡ s✉❛s ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s✿ ❋ís✐❝❛✱ ◗✉í♠✐❝❛ ❡ ❇✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ❞✐❛s ✭■♥st✐t✉t♦ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❊st✉❞♦s ❡ P❡sq✉✐s❛s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭■◆❊P✮✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❖❊◆❊▼ é ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦rt❛ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡s ❢❡❞❡r❛✐s ❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ♣❛rt✐❝✉✲❧❛r❡s✳ ❆ r❡❞❛çã♦✱ ♥❡ss❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ❛❧t❛✱ ♣♦✐s ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛ ✷✵✪❞❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧✳ ◆♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦✱ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼ ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❛ ♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦ ❛s✹ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ár❡❛s ❝✐t❛❞❛s✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✈í❞❡♦ ❛✉❧❛s✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱♦♥❞❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❡r❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ♣♦r s❡ tr❛t❛r ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛❡s❝♦❧❤❛✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❤♦✉✈❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡❞❡✈✐❞♦ à s✉❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛✳ P❛r❛ s❡ t❡r ✉♠❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ ❞❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦✈❛s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❛ ✐♥✈✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s✉❛ ✶✵✵❞♦ ❊♥s✐♥♦ ▼é❞✐♦✮✱ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ❛♥✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ✉♥✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♥♦s♣r♦❝❡ss♦s s❡❧❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛s ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡s ♣ú❜❧✐❝❛s ❢❡❞❡r❛✐s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❡t❛♣❛s é ✉♠❛♣r♦✈❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✐♥s❝r✐çõ❡s s✉♣❡r♦✉ ❛ ♠❛r❝❛ ❞❡ ✼ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ✭♠❛✐s ♣r❡❝✐s❛✲♠❡♥t❡✱ ✼✳✶✼✸✳✺✼✹✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❊st✉❞♦s ❡ P❡sq✉✐s❛s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✲■◆❊P✭✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r tí♥❤❛♠♦s q✉❡ ❆ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s ✭r❡❞❛çõ❡s✮ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼ ❡r❛ ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛✈❛ ✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡ ✉♠❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ♥♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ s❡ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ✐♥✈✐á✈❡❧ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛♣r♦❞✉çã♦ t❡①t✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❉❡ss❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛✱ ❞❡s❡❥❛✈❛✲s❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❛ t❡♥t❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ s✉♣r✐r ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ✐♥❝❧✉í♠♦s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❥á ❡①♣❧❛♥❛❞♦♥❛ s❡çã♦ ✹✳✷✳✸✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞❡ s✉♣♦rt❛r r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❊ss❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♥♦s ❧❡✈♦✉ ❛ q✉❡st✐♦♥❛r ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ❛ s❡✲❣✉✐♥t❡ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛✿ ✏❈♦♠♦ ♥ós ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛s♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s❄✑ ❡✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ✏❡ss❛s ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛s ❝♦♠✉♠❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ✭♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✮❄✑✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ♥♦s q✉❡st✐✲♦♥❛♠♦s s♦❜r❡ ✏❙❡rá q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥❡ss❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❛♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝✐t❛❞♦s❄✑ ✭❘❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✮✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛ ❛♦s q✉❡st✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞❡✈❡♠♦s ❝♦♠❡ç❛r ❛ ❞❡st❛❝❛r ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ♠étr✐✲❝❛s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ ♥♦s ❧❡✈❛r ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞❡ t❛✐s ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✿ ❙❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛❡♥tr❡ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧❛❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s❀ ❈✉st♦ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s❀ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❣❛st♦♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡♠ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦❀ ●r❛✉ ❞❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡❀ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳ ❊ss❛s ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦s♠♦t✐✈❛ ❛ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛r ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s té❝♥✐❝♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✳ ❱✐s❛♥❞♦ ❛ r❡s♦❧✈❡r ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡♥❡❣ó❝✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡ ✭❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦✉ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✮✱ ❞❡s❡❥❛✲s❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r s❡ ♦♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ é ✐❞❡❛❧ às ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❛♦ ♣❡r✜❧ ❞♦s✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✱ ❞❡ t❛❧ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❤❛❥❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛❡♥tr❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦✱ ❣❛r❛♥t❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ❛♣r❡♥✲❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❛ ✉♠❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦✱ s❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❖ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ té❝♥✐❝♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦s ❧❡✈♦✉ às s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s✿❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ é ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦ ❛ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✶✵✶❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ sã♦ ❆s r❡s♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s té❝♥✐❝♦s ❡ s✉❛s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛s ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ss❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛s ❙❡çõ❡s✺✳✸ ❡ ✺✳✹✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ s❡rã♦ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞♦s✱ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s✳✺✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ■♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦ ❆ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❛ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ é ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧✱ ❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r❊◆❊▼✱ ❝♦♠ ♠✉✐t♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s ❡①❡❝✉çõ❡s s❡rã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s s♦❜ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ♠étr✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝✉st♦✱ r❡❞✉çã♦❞❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❛❧✉♥♦ ① ❝✉st♦ ❡ ❛ ❡✜❝á❝✐❛ ❞❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ P❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ ❡✜❝á❝✐❛ s❡rá r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦❡♥tr❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣♦r❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s✳ ❋♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♥♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ●◗▼ ❝♦♠♦❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐á✲❧♦ ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞❡ s❡✉ ❝✉st♦✱ ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✴❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✳ ❈♦♠♦ ✐ss♦✱ t❡♠♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ✐t❡♥s✿❆♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞♦ ●◗▼✱ ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❡♠ s✉❛ ❡①❡❝✉✲ ✺✳✶✳✸ P❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦◆❡st❛ s❡çã♦✱ s❡rá ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❉❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✲s❡ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ✶✵✷❞❡r✐✈❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✱ ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ❡ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s✱ ❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦❞❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ❡ ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ q✉❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✱ ❡♥tr❡♦✉tr♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✱ q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦s ♥❛s s✉❜s❡çõ❡s ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✳ ❖ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛❞♦t❛❞♦ é ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ s❡rá ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ s❡♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❖ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ✐♥✲❞✉str✐❛❧✱ ♣♦st♦ q✉❡ s❡rá ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛ ✐♥❞ústr✐❛✱ ❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s r❡❛✐s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♥❡ss❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ◆❛s♣ró①✐♠❛s s✉❜s❡çõ❡s✱ ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ s❡rá ❞❡s❝r✐t♦✳✺✳✶✳✸✳✶ ◗✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❈♦♠♦ ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♥♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ❡st❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✈✐s❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❝✉st♦✱ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡ ❡✜❝á❝✐❛✳ ▲❡✈❛♥❞♦✐st♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❡ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s✳ ❆ ❡✜❝á❝✐❛ t❡♥t❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r s❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ tã♦ ♦✉ ❛té ♠❛✐s❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛✐♥❝❧✉✐r r❡❞❛çõ❡s ♥♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✭s❡♠ ✉s❛r ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r♣❛r❡s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s sã♦ ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ♣♦r ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s✮ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ✈✐s❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r s❡ ✉s❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ é ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♥♦t❛r ❛ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧ê♥❝✐❛ s❡ ❡❧❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❡♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛ s✉r❣❡ ♥♦ss❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳ P✶ ✲ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛✱✐st♦ é✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s❄ ❖ q✉❡ ♥♦s ❧❡✈❛ às s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✿❍✶✲✵✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ é ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳❍✶✲✶✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥ã♦ é ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ t❡♥t❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r s❡ ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ♥♦t❛s ❞❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ♣❛r❡s ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ❞❡ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ❡♠ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✭♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✮✳ ❈❛s♦ ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ s❡❥❛ r❡❢✉t❛❞❛ ✲ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❤á ✉♠❛ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧ê♥❝✐❛ ♥♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✲ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ✐❞❡♥✲ t✐✜❝❛r ❡♠ q✉❛❧✴q✉❛✐s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ss✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ✈❛♥t❛❥♦s❛s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❛♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ❝✉st♦♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠❛♥t❡r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❣❛st♦ ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❊ss❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s sã♦ ❛♠♣❧❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❝♦♠♦ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐❛s❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦✱ t❡♠♦s ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ à ❡ss❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ✶✵✸P✷ ✲ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ♥❛s ♠é✲ tr✐❝❛s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ♥ã♦ ✉s❛r ❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦❄❖ q✉❡ ♥♦s ❧❡✈❛ às s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✿❍✷✲✵✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥ã♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧❍✷✲✶✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧P✸ ✲ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ♥❛s ♠é✲ tr✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝✉st♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ♥ã♦ ✉s❛r ❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦❄❖ q✉❡ ♥♦s ❧❡✈❛ às s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✿❍✸✲✵✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥ã♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❞❡ ❝✉st♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧❍✸✲✶✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ ❝✉st♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧P♦r ✜♠✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✜♥❛✐s ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ s❡❥❛♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞✐❞♦s✱ s❡r✐❛ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛♥t❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡r ❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❡ ❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s r❡s♣♦st❛s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱❞❡s❡❥❛♠♦s s❛❜❡r q✉❛❧ ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ♠❛✐s r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ♥❛s s❛í❞❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♥❛s ❡①❡❝✉çõ❡s ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ú❧t✐♠❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ❞♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ♠♦❞♦✿ P✹ ✲ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❢❛t♦r q✉❡ ♠❛✐s ❡①♣❧✐❝❛ ❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ♥❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s✲r❡s♣♦st❛ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❄✲ P❛r❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❡ss❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡st✐♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s✳❋♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✻✳ ❆s ❢✉♥çõ❡s ◆✱ ❚ ❡ ❈✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛✱ r❡t♦r♥❛♠ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦✈❛❧♦r ❞❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧✱ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❣❛st♦ ❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✱ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼✶ ♦✉ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ▼✷✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊✶ ♦✉ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ s❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❊✷ ✭♣❛r❛ ❡❢❡✐t♦s❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ P✹✮✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✻ ✕❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡ ◆✉❧❛ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡ ❆❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ ❍✶ ❍✶✲✵✿ ◆✭▼✶✱❊✶✮ = ◆✭▼✷✱❊✶✮ ❍✶✲✶✿ ◆✭▼✶✱❊✶✮ 6= ◆✭▼✷✱❊✶✮❍✷ ❍✷✲✵✿ ❚✭▼✶✱❊✶✮ = ❚✭▼✷✱❊✶✮ ❍✷✲✶✿ ❚✭▼✶✱❊✶✮ 6= ❚✭▼✷✱❊✶✮ ❍✸ ❍✸✲✵✿ ❈✭▼✶✱❊✶✮ = ❈✭▼✷✱❊✶✮ ❍✸✲✶✿ ❈✭▼✶✱❊✶✮ 6= ❈✭▼✷✱❊✶✮ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ✶✵✹✺✳✶✳✸✳✷ ❋❛t♦r❡s ❡ ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❆♣ós ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦ss❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❝♦♥t✐❞❛s ♥❡❧❡✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ t❡♠♦s ❞♦✐s t✐♣♦s ❞❡✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s✿ Pr✐♠❡✐r♦✱ ❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❢❛t♦r❡s✱ sã♦ ❛q✉❡❧❛s♥♦ q✉❛❧ q✉❡r❡♠♦s ❛✈❛❧✐❛r❀ ❙❡❣✉♥❞♦✱ ❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s✱ sã♦ ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ t❡♠♦s✿▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✿ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s q✉❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✼ ✕ ◆í✈❡✐s ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s✳ ❋❛t♦r ◆í✈❡❧ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦▼♦❞❡❧♦ ▼✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ▼✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❊✶ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❊✷ ❙❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❆s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ✭♠étr✐❝❛s✮ sã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦✿❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ ✭◆✮✿ ❊st❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♠ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✸ ❯♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ♥♦ss♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦✳ ❊♠ ♥♦ss♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱❛♣ós ❞❡✜♥✐r ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s✱ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❡ ❢❛t♦r❡s ❡ ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❞❡✜♥✐r q✉❛❧ s❡rá ❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛✳ ◆♦ ♥♦ss♦ ❝❡♥ár✐♦✱ ❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ é ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛✳ ❆ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥✲ t❛❧ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ é ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✱ ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ✶✵✺❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❖ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ r❡❞❛çã♦ ✰ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ é ✉♠❛ ❛♠♦str❛ q✉❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐✲③❛❞❛ s♦❜ ❛ q✉❛❧ ♦ ✏tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✑ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✭❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢❛t♦r❡s✮ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡♦❜t❡r ❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s r❡s♣♦st❛ ✭❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s✮ ❝✐t❛❞❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ➱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡st❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ s❡rá ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♦❜t❡r ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ✉♠❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ❛❜❛✐①♦✳ ❆ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♣r♦✈❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ t❡♠❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧✳ ❊ss❡ t❡♠❛ ❢♦✐❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛ ❡ ❢♦✐ s♦❧✐❝✐t❛❞♦ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛✳❆ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❝r✐❛❞❛ ❡stá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❉✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❝r✐❛❞❛✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✱ ❛ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❤♦r❛ ❞❡ s✉❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✳ ❊ss❡ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❝♦♥té♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ s❡✉s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❡ ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s✳ ◆♦❝❛s♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r é ❊◆❊▼✱ ❡st❡ ❥á ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♦♥❞❡ s✉❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♦♣t❛♠♦s ♣♦r ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡ss❡❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❡♠ ♥♦ss❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❡stá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❊✳✺✳✶✳✸✳✹ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ❖ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡r à ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦s ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦s✳ ❖s ♣r♦❥❡✲ t♦s ❞❡ss❛ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛ sã♦ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ♦♥❞❡ q✉❡r❡♠♦s t♦♠❛r ✉♠❛ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❛r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢❛t♦r ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ✭♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡st❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✮ ❝♦♠ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ sér✐❡ ❞❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s✱ ♥❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ♠❡♥♦s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈♦s✭❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✮✳ ❖s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❢❛t♦r✐❛✐s sã♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉s❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ✈ár✐♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s♣❛r❛ ♦s q✉❛✐s é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❡st✉❞❛r ♦ ❡❢❡✐t♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛✳ ◆♦ ♥♦ss♦❝❛s♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ t❡♠♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❝♦♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✷ ♥í✈❡✐s ❝❛❞❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ k❢❛t♦r✐❛❧ 2 s❡♠ r❡♣❡t✐çã♦✱ r❡t✐r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ q✉❡ é ✐♠♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❞❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛✭q✉❡ é ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ▼✷ ❡♠ ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❊✷✮✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ t❡♠ ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ r❡❧❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛❧t♦ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❡①✐❣✐r ❜❛st❛♥t❡ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ ❞❡♠❛✐s ❡s❢♦rç♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ❝♦♥✲❝❧✉sã♦✳ P♦r ❡st❡ ♠♦t✐✈♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ✉♠ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❢❛t♦r✐❛❧ s❡♠ r❡♣❡t✐çã♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦ t❡♠♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s ✸ ❡♥s❛✐♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ✈❡③✱ t♦t❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦três tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ três ❡①❡❝✉çõ❡s✳ ❆ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✽ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❝❛❞❛✉♠ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳✺✳✶✳✸✳✺ P❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ s❡rá ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛s s❡çõ❡s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✳ ❆ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣❛ss♦s✿ ✶✵✻ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✽ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡✶ ❚✶ ▼✶ ❊✶ ✷ ❚✷ ▼✷ ❊✶✸ ❚✸ ▼✶ ❊✷ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ✶✳ Pr❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉t✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✿■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣r❡♣❛r❛r ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉t✉t♦r ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ❝❛❞❛str❛r ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❆♣ós ❡ss❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦✱ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ s❡rá ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ✶ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ❞❛ ❛♠❛③♦♥ ❊❈✷ ❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✐♥t❡r♥❡t✷✳ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s q✉❡ ✐rã♦ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✿ ❖ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✐rã♦ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ s❡rã♦ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✸✵ ✭tr✐♥t❛✮ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛r❛♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r✳ ✸✳ ❆❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✿ ❉❡st❡s tr✐♥t❛ ✉s✉ár✐♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✱ ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❝r✐❛✲❞♦s três ❣r✉♣♦s ❝♦♠ ✶✵ ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❣r✉♣♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛rá ✉♠ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳❉♦✐s ❞❡ss❡s ❣r✉♣♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛rã♦ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ♣❛r❛ ❢❛③❡r ❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ✉♠❣r✉♣♦ ❢❛rá ❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ✹✳ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s✿ ❊♠ ♥♦ss♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s q✉❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ♣♦r ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ❡♠ ✷✴✸ ❞♦s ❝❛s♦s ✭tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✶ ❡ ✸✮✳ ◆❡ss❡❝❛s♦✱ s❡rá ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ✷ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r ❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s✳ ✺✳ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐❛❞♦r✿ ➱ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✉♠❛ ♣❡ss♦❛ q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥✲ t❡r♠❡❞✐❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ✢✉✐❞❡③ ❡❝♦rr❡t✉❞❡ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ✻✳ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✿ ❖s ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s s❡rã♦ ✐♥str✉í❞♦s ❡ ♣♦❞❡rã♦ ❡①❡✲❝✉t❛r s❡✉s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣r♦♣♦st♦s✳ ❖ ♠❡❞✐❛❞♦r ❡①♣❧✐❝❛rá ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❣r✉♣♦ ♦ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r ❢❡✐t♦✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s s❡rã♦ ❡♥✈✐❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s✱ ♣❛r❛q✉❡ ❡st❡s ❛s ❝♦rr✐❥❛♠ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ s❡✉s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ✼✳ ❈♦❧❡t❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✿ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❛♣ós ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❤♦✉✈❡r s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦♦❜t✐❞♦s ✈✐❛ q✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦✳ ◆♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❤♦✉✈❡r s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ♦❜✲ t✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ s❡❥❛ ✉♠ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡♥tr♦✶ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ s❡rã♦ ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣♦r q✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳r❡❞❛❝❛♦✳♠❡✉t✉t♦r✳❝♦♠✳❜r ✶✵✼✽✳ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✿ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r ❢❡✐t❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ s❡rã♦ s✉♠❛r✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛❘ ❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①✐❜✐çã♦ ❣rá✜❝❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❡✴♦✉ ❜♦①♣❧♦t✱ ❝♦♠ ♦♣r♦♣ós✐t♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦✳ ◗✉❛♥t♦ ❛♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s✱ ❞❡s❡❥❛✲s❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛♠étr✐❝♦ ✭❆◆❖❱❆✮ ❝❛s♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♠❛t❡♠át✐❝♦ ♦❜t✐❞♦ s❡❥❛ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦ ❡ ❝✉♠♣r❛ ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞♦ t❡st❡✳ ❙❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♠❛t❡♠át✐❝♦ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦✱ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ t❡st❡ ♥ã♦✲♣❛r❛♠étr✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ t❡st❛r ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✳ ❊♠♥♦ss♦ ❝❛s♦✱ q✉❡r❡♠♦s ✉♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♣❡❧♦ ♠❡♥♦s ✾✺✪✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛ss♦s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✱ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡rã♦ s❡r ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦s❡♥tr❡ s✐✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❡stã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s♥❛s ❙❡çõ❡s ✺✳✸ ❡ ✺✳✹✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✳✺✳✶✳✸✳✻ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❛♠❡❛ç❛s à ✈❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❊♠❜♦r❛ t♦❞♦ ♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ t❡♥❤❛ s✐❞♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛r ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❛♠❡❛ç❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❛♠ s✉❛s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✳❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❛♠❡❛ç❛ é ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❞❡ ✸✵ ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ r❡s✉❧t❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✶✵ ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✱ é ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦♣❡q✉❡♥♦✳ ❖ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ♥ã♦ t❡r r❡♣❡t✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦s ❝✉st♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡ t❛♠❜é♠✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛✐①♦ ♣♦❞❡r ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ■ss♦ ♦❝♦rr❡✉ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ às r❡str✐çõ❡s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❝✉st♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♥ã♦ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❛✐s r❡♣❡t✐çõ❡s ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ q✉❡ ♦s ♥í✈❡✐s ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✭♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✮♥ã♦ s❡❥❛♠ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ ❡✜❝á❝✐❛ ❡✴♦✉ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✳ ❉❡ss❡ ♠♦❞♦✱ t❡♠♦s ✉♠❛ ❛♠❡❛ç❛ à ✈❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❝❛✉s❛❞❛♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♥❢✉sã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❝♦♥str✉❝t♦s ❡ s❡✉s ♥í✈❡✐s✳ ❊ss❛ ❧✐♠✐t❛çã♦ ❡stá ♠❡❧❤♦r ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ♥❛s❧✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ s❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦✳ ❆ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❢♦✐ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ❢♦♥t❡✱ q✉❡♣♦❞❡ t❡r ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣ró♣r✐❛s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ✈❛❧❡♠ ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦s ❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s✳▲♦❣♦✱ ❤á ✉♠❛ ❛♠❡❛ç❛ à ✈❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①t❡r♥❛ ♥❛ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡❞✐✜❝✉❧t❛r ❛ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛❧é♠ ❞♦ ❡s❝♦♣♦ ❡st✉❞❛❞♦✳✺✳✷ ◆❛rr❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❊ss❛ s❡çã♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛r ❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼ ❝♦♠ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❝r✐❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛✲❧✐st❛ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ s❡✉ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ P❛r❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛r ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❡❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛r ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ✶✵✽❚♦❞❛s ❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛❞❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❞❛ ❛♠❛③♦♥ ❊❈✷ ✭♣❛r❛ r❡❞✉③✐r ♦s ❝✉st♦s✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦✿■♥stâ♥❝✐❛✿ ♠✸✳♠❡❞✐✉♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦rr❡t♦ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✳ ❖s s♦❢t✇❛r❡s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦s sã♦✿✶✳ ❱✐rt✉♦s♦ ❘❉❋ ❙t♦r❡ ✭♦♣❡♥s♦✉r❝❡✮ ✲ ✵✻✳✵✶✳✸✶✷✼✷✳ ●❧❛ss❋✐s❤ ❙❡r✈❡r ❖♣❡♥ ❙♦✉r❝❡ ❊❞✐t✐♦♥ ✹✳✶ ✭❜✉✐❧❞ ✶✸✮✸✳ ❏❛✈❛✭❚▼✮ ❙❊ ❘✉♥t✐♠❡ ❊♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t ✭❜✉✐❧❞ ✶✳✽✳✵❴✹✵✲❜✷✺✮✹✳ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❍❚❚P ❙❡r✈❡r Pr♦❥❡❝t ✷✺✳ P❍P ✺ ✰ ❧✐❜❛♣❛❝❤❡✷✲♠♦❞✲♣❤♣✺ ❖ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ▼❡✉t✉t♦r ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ✶ ❡ ✷ ❡stá ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ✳ ❖ ✈✐rt✉♦s♦ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❤tt♣ ♥❛♣♦rt❛ ✶✶✶✶✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣♦❞❡rã♦ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛r ❝♦♠ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦✳ ❆ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✸ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛❞❛ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ✷✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ ❡stá ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛çã♦ ✹ ❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛❞❛ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦s s♦❢t✇❛r❡s ✺ ✹ ❡ ✺ ❡ ❡stá ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♥❛ ✇❡❜ ✳❆♣ós ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✱ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❢♦✐ ❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦s ❛❧✉✲ ♥♦s q✉❡ ✐r✐❛♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✸✵ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞♦▼❡✉❚✉t♦r q✉❡ ❣♦st❛r✐❛♠ ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞❡ss❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖s ✉s✉ár✐♦s sã♦ ❛❧✉♥♦s r❡❝é♠✐♥❣r❡ss❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ s✉♣❡r✐♦r✱ s❡♥❞♦ ✷✵ ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ♠❛t❡♠át✐❝❛ ✈❡s✲♣❡rt✐♥♦ ❡ ✶✵ ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦t✉r♥♦ ❞❛ ✉❢❛❧✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ t♦❞♦s♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❞❛ ♥❡st❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦♥✈✐❞❛❞♦s ❞♦✐s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ❡♠ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦s ❛q✉✐♣♦r ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ✶ ❡ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ✷✳ ❆♠❜♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ❡♠ ♥í✈❡❧ s✉♣❡r✐♦r✱ ✷ s❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ❡♠ ❤✐stór✐❛✳✸ ❉✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❧✐♥❦ ❤tt♣✿✴✴r❡❞❛❝❛♦✳♠❡✉t✉t♦r✳❝♦♠✳❜r✿✽✽✾✵ ✹ ❆❞♠✐♥✐str❛çã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ❤tt♣✿✴✴r❡❞❛❝❛♦✳♠❡✉t✉t♦r✳❝♦♠✳❜r✿✹✽✹✽ ✺ ❱✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❲❙❉▲ ♣❡❧♦ ❡♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ❤tt♣✿✴✴r❡❞❛❝❛♦✳♠❡✉t✉t♦r✳❝♦♠✳❜r✿✽✵✽✵✴r❡❞❛❝❛♦✴✇s P❛r❛ ❛❝❡ss❛r ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ❧✐♥❦ ❤tt♣✿✴✴r❡❞❛❝❛♦✳♠❡✉t✉t♦r✳❝♦♠✳❜r ✶✵✾❖ ❣r✉♣♦ ❝♦♠ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r❛♠ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✸✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ✜③❡r❛♠ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ✭s❡♠ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❊✷✮ ❡ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❡ s✉❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ✶✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡ ♠❛t❡♠át✐❝❛ ✜③❡r❛♠ s✉❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉t✉t♦r ✭❊✶✮ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❧✐♥❦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ❆s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡ s✉❛sr❡❞❛çõ❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s t❛♥t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✭tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✷✮ q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✭tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✶✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛✷✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✸✱ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✜③❡r❛♠ s✉❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❡ ❡♥tr❡❣❛r❛♠ ❛♦ ♠❡❞✐❛❞♦r ❛❢♦❧❤❛ ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛✳ ❊st❡✱ ❛♦ r❡❝♦❧❤❡r t♦❞❛s ❛s ❢♦❧❤❛s ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛s✱ ❡♥tr❡❣♦✉ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛✶ ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❖ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ✶ t❡✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❡ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤❡r✉♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ●♦♦❣❧❡❋♦r♠s✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❡ss❡ ♥ã♦ t❡♠ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✷ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ✶✳ ❖ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ✭✐❞✮ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❝♦♥tê♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝r✐tér✐♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❊◆❊▼✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ t❛♠❜é♠ é♣❡r❣✉♥t❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ❛ ❞✉r❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✱❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✸✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♣❧❛♥✐❧❤❛s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✱ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ●♦♦❣❧❡ ❞❡❞❡♣♦✐s ❡①♣♦rt❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣❧❛♥✐❧❤❛s ❡♠ ❡①❝❡❧✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ✶ ❡ ✷✱ ❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✳ ■ss♦ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t♦✉ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡❜❛st❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ❡✈✐t❛♥❞♦ ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❉❡ss❛❢♦r♠❛✱ ❡♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❝r✐❛r❛♠ s✉❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡✸ ❞✐❛s✳ ◆♦ t♦t❛❧✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞❛s ✶✽ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✭✷ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡s✐st✐r❛♠ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✮✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❝♦rr✐✲❣✐r❛♠ ❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ ✸ ❞✐❛s t❛♠❜é♠✳ ◆♦ t♦t❛❧ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ✹✼❝♦rr❡çõ❡s✳ ❖ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ss❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s t❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦✐ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡ss❛s ♠❡s♠❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ✷ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ❡st❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦rr✐❣✐✲❧❛s✳ P❛r❛❝❛❞❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✱ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧✱ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ss❡ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ♦❜t✐❞♦s✳✺✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❖ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡♥❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ❛ ♥❛rr❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✷✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❡ ❛❣♦r❛ ❥á ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡✲ r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❘✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s s❝r✐♣ts ♥❡ss❛❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ t✐✈❡r❛♠ ❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡❢❡t✉❛r t❛❧ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ✭❡ss❡s s❝r✐♣ts ❢♦r❛♠ ♦♠✐t✐❞♦s❞❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛s ❞❡ ❝ó❞✐❣♦✮✳ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r✱ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❡ ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❞♦s❞❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❙✉❜s❡çã♦ ✺✳✸✳✶✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥❛ ❡①❡✲ ✶✶✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✷ ✕ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❢♦r♠❛ ❣rá✜❝❛✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦✳❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ t❛♠❜é♠ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦s ✭❜♦①♣❧♦ts✮ ❡♥♦ ✜♥❛❧ ✉♠❛ ❜r❡✈❡ s✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡❞❛❞♦s✳ ❆♦ s❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❜r❡✈❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ t❡r ♥♦çã♦ ❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ✉♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❡♥t❡♥❞✐✲♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❡ ❞❡t❡❝t❛r ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❡✴♦✉ ✐♥❝♦♥s✐stê♥❝✐❛s♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ✶✶✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✸ ✕ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✲ P❛rt❡ ✷❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❛♣ós ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛❙✉❜s❡çã♦ ✺✳✸✳✸ ❛s ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ q✉❡ s❡rá ❢❡✐t❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✳✺✳✸✳✶ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❖s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♣❧❛♥✐❧❤❛s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s✱❝♦♥❢♦r♠❛ ✐❧✉str❛ ❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✾✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✾ ✕ ❈✉st♦✱ ♥♦t❛ ❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❞♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ✭♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♦✉ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s✮ ❡ t✐♣♦s ❞❡❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✭▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ♦✉ ◗✉❡st✐♥❛r✐♦ ♦♥ ❧✐♥❡✮✳ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ♣❡❧♦s ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ◆♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉ ❚✉t♦r ◆♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉ ❚✉t♦r ◗✉❡st✐♦♥❛r✐♦ ♦♥ ❧✐♥❡◆♦t❛ ❈✉st♦ ❚❡♠♣♦ ◆♦t❛ ❈✉st♦ ❚❡♠♣♦ ◆♦t❛ ❈✉st♦ ❚❡♠♣♦ ✻✽✵ ✽✳✾✼ ✶✵✵✾ ✻✷✻ ✶✳✹✾ ✹✺✵ ✹✹✵ ✻✳✵✼ ✽✹✵ ✹✽✵ ✽✳✵✹ ✾✵✺ ✺✼✸ ✶✳✷✸ ✷✼✵ ✹✹✵ ✸✳✵✸ ✹✷✵ ✼✷✵ ✼✳✻✸ ✽✺✽ ✻✽✵ ✶✳✹✾ ✹✺✵ ✻✹✵ ✹✳✸✸ ✻✵✵✹✽✵ ✽✳✵✵ ✾✵✵ ✺✷✵ ✶✳✹✾ ✹✺✵ ✺✷✵ ✸✳✾✵ ✺✹✵ ✹✽✵ ✸✳✾✽ ✹✹✽ ✺✼✸ ✶✳✶✾ ✷✹✵ ✺✻✵ ✹✳✼✼ ✻✻✵✹✵✵ ✺✳✸✸ ✻✵✵ ✸✽✵ ✶✳✷✼ ✸✵✵ ✹✵✵ ✸✳✺✼ ✹✾✹ ✻✹✵ ✶✵✳✹ ✶✶✼✺ ✻✵✵ ✶✳✼✽ ✻✹✺ ✻✽✵ ✻✳✻✷ ✾✶✼✻✽✵ ✶✻✳✷ ✶✽✸✸ ✺✷✵ ✶✳✻✹ ✺✺✺ ✻✵✵ ✹✳✼✼ ✻✻✵ ✼✻✵ ✹✳✼✸ ✺✸✷ ✺✹✻ ✶✳✼✶ ✻✵✵ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ✭❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✾✮ ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s q✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛s t✐♣✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ss✉♠❡♠ ♠✉✐t♦ ✶✶✷✈❛❧♦r❡s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s s✉♠❛r✐③❛r ❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♥str✉✐r ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s✭❇❆❘❇❊❚❚❆❀ ❘❊■❙❀ ❇❖❘◆■❆✱ ✷✵✵✹✮✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✹✳ Professor_MeuTutor Custo Frequência −551015200.000.020.040.060.080.100.120.14( a ) Pares de alunos_MeuTutor Custo Frequência1.01.52.02.50.00.51.01.52.0 ( b ) Professor_Tradicional Custo Frequência24680.000.050.100.150.200.250.30 ( c ) Nota Frequência −200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020( d ) Nota Frequência 200 400 600 800 1000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 ( e ) Nota Frequência 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 ( f ) Tempo Frequência −500 500 1000 1500 0.0000 0.0004 0.0008 0.0012( g ) Tempo Frequência −200 200 400 600 800 1000 0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025 ( h ) Tempo Frequência 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 ( i ) ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✹ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❡♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❈♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥❡ss❡s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✹ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡♠♦s ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ q✉❡♦s ❝✉st♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s ❡♥tr❡ s✐✱ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ♦ ❝✉st♦❞❛s ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❛ ✶✶✸❞❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ❡st✐♠❛❞❛✳ ❆s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ◆♦t❛s ❡ ❚❡♠♣♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛❜❡♠ s✐♠✐❧❛r❡s q✉❛♥t♦ ❛♦s três ♠ét♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛③❡r ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈❛s✳❆✐♥❞❛ ❡①♣❧♦r❛r❡♠♦s ♠❛✐s ❡st❡s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✸✳✷✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❛♣❛r✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ❞❡✈❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r❛❧❣✉♠❛s ♠❡❞✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✭❱❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✮✳ ❆ ✈❛r✐â♥❝✐❛✱ ♦ ❞❡s✈✐♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❡♦ ❝♦❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ sã♦ ❛s ♠❡❞✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s✳ ❆ ✈❛r✐â♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛ é ✉♠❛ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ ❞❛ s✉❛ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉ã♦ ❧♦♥❣❡ ❡♠ ❣❡r❛❧ ♦s s❡✉s✈❛❧♦r❡s s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛♠ ❞♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦ ✭✈❛❧♦r ♠é❞✐♦✮ ❡ é ❝❛❧❝✉❧❞❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ n X2 12 S = Y i − Y ,(n − 1) i =1 ♦♥❞❡ Y é ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❛ ❛♠♦str❛✭❇❆❘❇❊❚❚❆❀ ❘❊■❙❀ ❇❖❘◆■❆✱ ✷✵✵✹✮✳❖ ❞❡s✈✐♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡✜♥❡✲s❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ r❛✐③ q✉❛❞r❛❞❛ ❞❛ ✈❛r✐â♥❝✐❛✳ ❖ ❝♦❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✈❛✲ r✐❛çã♦ é ✉♠❛ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ q✉❡ s❡ ♣r❡st❛ à ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥✲t❡s✳ ❖ ❞❡s✈✐♦✲♣❛❞rã♦✱ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ r❡❧❛t✐✈♦ à ♠é❞✐❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❞✉❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉✐✲çõ❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ t❡r ♠é❞✐❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✱ ♦ ❞❡s✈✐♦ ❞❡ss❛s ❞✉❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rá✲✈❡✐s✭❇❆❘❇❊❚❚❆❀ ❘❊■❙❀ ❇❖❘◆■❆✱ ✷✵✵✹✮✳ ❆ s♦❧✉çã♦ é ✉s❛r ♦ ❝♦❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ S amostral = .é ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛♦ ❞❡s✈✐♦✲♣❛❞rã♦ ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ♠é❞✐❛✿ CV ❖ ❝♦❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ é Y❛✐♥❞❛ ♠✉❧t✐♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✶✵✵✱ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ❛ s❡r ❡①♣r❡ss❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❡r❝❡♥t❛❣❡♠✳ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠♦s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✵✳ ❈♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥❡st❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♥♦t❛r ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❝♦❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ é út✐❧ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛r ❛ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦✭✈❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✮ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♣❡r❝❡❜❡r q✉❡ ♦ ❣r✉♣♦❝♦♠ ♠❛✐♦r ✈❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ é ♦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦❞❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✳ ❙❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛ss❡♠♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦ ❞❡s✈✐♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡st❡❣r✉♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❝✉st♦✱ t❡rí❛♠♦s ❛ ✐♠♣r❡ssã♦ ❡rrô♥❡❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ ❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ é♣❡q✉❡♥❛✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♦ ❝♦❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ 58.9% r❡✈❡❧❛ q✉❡ ❡ss❛ é ❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❝♦♠♠❛✐♦r ✈❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♥♦✈❡ ❛♠♦str❛s ❡st✉❞❛❞❛s✳ ◆ã♦ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ ❧✐♠✐t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡✜♥✐r♦ q✉ã♦ ❞✐s♣❡rs❛ é ✉♠❛ ❛♠♦str❛✱ ♠❛s q✉❛♥t♦ ♠❡♥♦r s❡✉ ❝♦❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ✭♣♦ré♠❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ③❡r♦✮ ♠❛✐s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❝♦♥té♠ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡st✉❞❛❞♦✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✵ ✕ ▼❡❞✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ ❞❛s ❛♠♦str❛s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❈✉st♦ ◆♦t❛ ❚❡♠♣♦●r✉♣♦s ❱❛r ❉❡s✈✐♦ ❈♦❡❢✳ ✈❛r✳ ❱❛r ❉❡s✈✐♦ ❈♦❡❢✳ ✈❛r✳ ❱❛r ❉❡s✈✐♦ ❈♦❡❢✳ ✈❛r✳58.9% 31.5% 58.8% ❚✶ ✶✷✳✻ ✸✳✻ ✸✼✻✼✸✳✷ ✶✾✹✳✶ ✶✺✾✾✺✾✳✸ ✸✾✾✳✾18.1% 22.7% 38.6% ❚✷ ✵✳✶ ✵✳✷ ✶✼✷✷✼✳✽ ✶✸✶✳✸ ✸✼✹✸✺✳✸ ✶✾✸✳✺23.9% 16.9% 23.9% ❚✸ ✶✳✸ ✶✳✷ ✽✷✹✽✳✾ ✾✵✳✽ ✷✺✺✵✽✳✺ ✶✺✾✳✼ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ✶✶✹✺✳✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❈♦♠♦ ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❡ ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♥♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦r❛♠✿ ◆♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ✭◆✮✿ ◆♦t❛ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ✈❛r✐❛♥❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ✵ ❡ ✶✵✵✵ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ é ❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ ✭◆✮✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛♠étr✐❝❛ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ ◆ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸✳ BoxPlot de Notas referentes ao experimento de avaliação de questões discursivas1200 1000 Q3 + 1.5IQR + Y +3 S × Max=960 Y3 S × 800 Q3= 750.0 Md= 660.0 Max=880 Y = 615 Q3= 624.5 Q3 + 1.5IQR Y 578 = Q3= 560.0 Max=680 Q3 + 1.5IQR + Y 3 × S 400 600 Q1= 490.0 Md= 573.0 Q1= 520.0 Q1 − 1.5IQR Q1= 440.0 Md= 520.0 Min=400.0 Y 524.4 = 200 Min= 80.0 Q1 − 1.5IQR Y − 3 × S Y − 3 × S Q1 − 1.5IQR Y − ×3 S Prof_MeuTutor Aluno_MeuTutor Prof_Trad ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✺ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡❚✸❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r P♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ✭♠é❞✐❛ ✭❚✶✮❂✻✶✺ ❝♦♥tr❛ ♠é❞✐❛✭❚✷✮❂✺✼✽✮ ❡ ♠❡❞✐✲❛♥❛ ✭♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✻✻✵ ❝♦♥tr❛ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✷✮❂✺✼✸✮✱ ♥♦s ❞♦✐s ❝❛s♦s✱ ❡stã♦ ❜❡♠ ♣ró①✐♠❛s✳❊st❛ ✜❣✉r❛ s✉❣❡r❡ q✉❡ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✈❛r✐❛✲çõ❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♥♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ✉♠❛ ❝❡rt❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛ ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ◆♦ ✶✶✺❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❣❡r❛❞❛s ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✜r♠❛r ✐ss♦✳ ❚❛✐s ❛✜r♠❛✲çõ❡s só ♣♦❞❡rã♦ s❡r ❢❡✐t❛s q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❢♦r❡♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ✭❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡♥❛ s✉❜s❡çã♦ ✺✳✸✳✸✮✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r t❛♠❜é♠ q✉❡ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ✭♠é❞✐❛✭❚✸✮❂✺✷✹✳✹✮ ❡ ❛ ♠❡✲❞✐❛♥❛ ✭♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✸✮❂✺✷✵✮ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦❚✷✱ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠❡♥♦r ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ♥❡ss❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛✲ r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❞♦✐s✳ ❊ss❛ ♣r♦①✐♠✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✱✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛✱ ❝♦♥t✉❞♦ ♥❛❞❛ s❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❛✜r♠❛r ♥♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡❞✐t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ❈♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❞❡ ♥♦ss❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ é ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❡♥tã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝r✐❛r✉♠ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♣♦r ❛♠❜♦s ♦s♠♦❞❡❧♦s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✻ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♥♦t❛s♦❜t✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s q✉❛♥❞♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✭❚✶ ① ❚✷✮✳ Diferença entre as notas obtidas no tratamento T1 x T2400 200erença Dif −200 −400T1 − T2❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✻ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ① ❚✷ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❞❛s ♥♦t❛s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷✱ ♥❛♠é❞✐❛ ✭♠é❞✐❛✭❚✶ ✲ ❚✷✮❂ ✸✼✱✽✮ ❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ ✭♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✶ ✲ ❚✷✮❂ ✹✵✮✱ ❡stã♦ ❜❡♠ ♣ró①✐♠❛s❞❡ ✵ ✭③❡r♦✮✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ sã♦ ❜❡♠ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡s✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦ ❤á ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ✉♠ ♣♦✉❝♦♠❛✐s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♦✉t❧✐❡r✳ ❊ss❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r s✐❞♦ ♦❝❛s✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛❡s❝❛❧❛ ❞❡ ✹✵ ♣♦♥t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❛s ♥♦t❛s ♥♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ■ss♦♣♦❞❡ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛r ♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ ✜❝❛r❛♠ ♣❡rt♦ ❞❡ss❡ ✈❛❧♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ✶✶✻ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❞♦✐s ❝♦rr❡t♦r❡s✱ ♠❡s♠♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠❛tr✐❜✉✐r ♥♦t❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✱ ♣♦ré♠ ♣ró①✐♠❛s✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ❛❧t❛ s✉❜❥❡t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s✳ ◆♦ ●❡r❛❧✱ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✈❛r✐♦✉ ❡♥tr❡ ✲✼✾✱✼✺ ✭♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❢♦✐ ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✮ ❛ ✶✶✵ ✭r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❢♦✐ ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ❛♥♦t❛ ❞♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛✮✳ ❙❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r♠♦s ❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❞❡ ♥♦t❛s ❡♥tr❡ ✵ ❡ ✶✵✵✵✱ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ❛s❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ✈❛r✐❛♠ ❡♥tr❡ ✼✳✾✪ ❛ ✶✶✪✳ ❖ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ s❡rá ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦ ♣♦st❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛❞❡ s✉❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❛♣❛r✐çã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s✳ ❆s ❋✐❣✉r❛s ✹✼✱ ✹✽ ❡✹✾ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸✱♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✼ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❡st❡s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s q✉❡ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦❚✶ ❡ ❚✷✱ ❞❡s❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♦✉t❧✐❡r✱ t❡♠ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣ró①✐♠❛s ❛ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❛r❡♥t❛ s❡r ♥♦r♠❛❧ ❡ ♥❡♠ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ só ❝♦♠ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s s❡rá ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛✜r♠❛r s❡ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s é ♥♦r♠❛❧ ♦✉ ♥ã♦✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s é♣ré✲r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞❡ q✉❛❧ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✳ ❉❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ✜③❡♠♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❜♦①♣❧♦ts✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s ❤✐st♦✲ ✶✶✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✽ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✾ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✵ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ✭❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❝♦r ❛③✉❧✮ ❡ ❚✷✭❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❝♦r ✈❡r♠❡❧❤❛✮✳ ❆ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦❚✶ ❡ ❚✷✱ ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦s✐t❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✶✶✽♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✜❣✉r❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❛s t❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ♠✉✐t♦ s❡♠❡✲❧❤❛♥t❡s✱ ❝♦♠ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ♠✉✐t♦ ♣❛r❡❝✐❞❛s✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧ê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❍á ❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ♦✉t❧✐❡rs✱ t❛♥t♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ q✉❛♥t♦ ♥♦ tr❛✲t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✳ ◆♦ ❣❡r❛❧✱ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❡ ❛ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ ✜❝❛r❛♠ ♣ró①✐♠❛s ❞♦s ✻✵✵ ♣♦♥t♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❛♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ ❚✷ ✉♠ ♣♦✉❝♦ ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ ❚✶✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✵ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❚✶ ✭❛③✉❧✮ ① ❚✷ ✭✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦✮ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❊♠ r❡s✉♠♦✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥♦s ❣rá✜❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ✭◆✮ ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ✭❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸✮ ❡stã♦ s✉♠❛r✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✶✱ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛♠❡❧❤♦r ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ◆♦t❛ ✭◆✮✳ ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✐♥✳ ✶st ◗✉✳ ▼❡❞✐❛♥ ▼❡❛♥ ✸r❞ ◗✉✳ ▼❛①✳❚✶ ✽✵✳✵ ✹✾✵✳✵ ✻✻✵✳✵ ✻✶✺✳✻ ✼✺✵✳✵ ✽✽✵✳✵ ❚✷ ✸✽✵✳✵ ✺✷✵✳✵ ✺✼✸✳✵ ✺✼✼✳✼ ✻✷✹✳✺ ✾✻✵✳✵❚✸ ✹✵✵✳✵ ✹✻✵✳✵ ✺✹✵✳✵ ✺✸✻✳✵ ✺✾✵✳✵ ✻✽✵✳✵ ❚✶ ✲ ❚✷ ✲✹✵✵✳✵✵ ✲✼✾✳✼✺ ✹✵✳✵✵ ✸✼✳✽✾ ✶✶✵✳✵✵ ✹✽✵✳✵✵ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❆ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ é ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❣❛st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ✭❚✮✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ s❡rá❢❡✐t❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❥á ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❝✉st♦✳ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ✶✶✾ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡✱ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ t♦❞♦ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡❝♦rr✐❞♦ ❞❡s❞❡ q✉❡❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ ❡♥tr❡❣✉❡ ❛♦ ❝♦rr❡t♦r✴❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ❛té q✉❛♥❞♦ s✉❛ ♥♦t❛ ❢♦✐ ❞❡✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ✭s❡❥❛ ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❬tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶❪ ♦✉ ❛♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❬❝❛s♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦❚✸❪✮✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❤á ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦rr❡t♦r ✭❝♦♠♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✮✱ ♦s❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ❝♦rr❡t♦r ♠❛✐s ❧❡♥t♦✱✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡✱ s✉♣♦♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♦s ❝♦rr❡t♦r❡s ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❝♦rr✐❣✐♥❞♦ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡♠♣♦ ✭❡♠ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧♦✮✱ ❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧ só ♣♦❞❡rá s❡r ♦❜t✐❞❛ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ ú❧t✐♠♦ ❝♦rr❡t♦r t❡r♠✐♥❛rs✉❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❡s♣❡r❛r s❡✉ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛ ✜♥❛❧✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✶ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦✭❚✮ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸✳ BoxPlot de Tempos referentes ao experimento de avaliação de questões discursivas 2000 1500 Q3 + 1.5IQR + Max=1833 Y 3 × S 1000 Q3= 750.0 Md= 660.0 Q3= 624.5 Y = 615 Max=960 Q3 + 1.5IQR + Y 3 × S + Q3= 560.0 Md= 520.0 Y = 524.4 Max=917 Q3 + 1.5IQR Y3 S × 500 Q1= 490.0 Min= 80.0 Q1= 520.0 Md= 573.0 Y 578 Q1= 440.0 = Min=400.0 Q1 − 1.5IQR Y − 3 × S −500 − × Q1 − 1.5IQR Y3 S Q1 − 1.5IQR Y − 3 × S Prof_MeuTutor Aluno_MeuTutor Prof_Trad❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✶ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❆♦ s❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♠é❞✐❛ ❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♠ q✉❡ ❤á ✉♠ ♣r♦❢❡s✲ s♦r ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✭♠é❞✐❛✭❚✶✮❂✻✼✾✱✸ ✴ ♠é❞✐❛✭❚✸✮❂✻✻✾✱✶ ❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✶✮❂✻✵✵ ✴♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✸✮❂✻✻✵✮✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r q✉❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ❜❡♠ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✱ ❝♦♥t✉❞♦ ❛♣r❡✲ ✶✷✵ s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦✴❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ ♠❛✐♦r ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ❞❛❞♦s❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✳ ❙❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛r♠♦s ❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✭♠é❞✐❛✭❚✷✮❂✺✵✶✱✻ ✴♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✷✮❂✹✼✷✱✺✮✱ ♥♦t❛♠♦s q✉❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ é s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❞♦✐s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s s❡ ✐♥t❡r❝❡♣t❛♠✱ é♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ♦ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s♣❛r❛ t❡r ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡st❛t✐st✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ✈á❧✐❞❛✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞♦s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s à ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❡♠♣♦✱ ♣❛r❛✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ♠❛✐s ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ❞❡❧❡s✳ ❆s ✜❣✉r❛s ✺✷✱ ✺✸ ❡ ✺✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✷ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r✱ ♥❛s ✜❣✉r❛s ❞❡ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s✱ q✉❡ ♦s❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ t❡♠ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s ❛ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦♥♦r♠❛❧✱ s❡ ❞❡s❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r♠♦s ♦ ♦✉t❧✐❡r ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✳ ❉❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ♦s❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✱ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛♠♦s q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ♠✐st✉r❛ ❡♥tr❡ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦♥♦r♠❛❧ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛✉❞❛ ❧♦♥❣❛ ❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ✉♥✐❢♦r♠❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱❡♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝❛s♦s sã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♥t❡s❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛r s❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ✉♠❛❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ✶✷✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✸ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✹ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❉❡ ❢♦r♠❛ r❡s✉♠✐❞❛✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥♦s ❣rá✜❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❡♠♣♦ ✭❚✮♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ✭❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸✮ ❡stã♦ s✉♠❛r✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✷✱♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ✶✷✷ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✷ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❚❡♠♣♦ ✭❚✮✳ ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✐♥✳ ✶st ◗✉✳ ▼❡❞✐❛♥ ▼❡❛♥ ✸r❞ ◗✉✳ ▼❛①✳❚✶ ✶✺✸✳✵ ✸✽✷✳✽ ✻✵✵✳✵ ✻✼✾✳✸ ✽✽✾✳✺ ✶✽✸✸✳✵ ❚✷ ✷✹✵✳✵ ✸✸✼✳✺ ✹✼✷✳✺ ✺✵✶✳✼ ✺✽✽✳✽ ✾✵✵✳✵❚✸ ✹✷✵✳✵ ✺✺✺✳✵ ✻✻✵✳✵ ✻✻✾✳✶ ✼✽✵✳✵ ✾✶✼✳✵ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ú❧t✐♠❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ é ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ✭❈✮✳ ❖ ❝✉st♦❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♥❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❡stá ❢♦rt❡♠❡♥t❡ ❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ✉♠❛✈❡③ q✉❡ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♥ã♦ ❣❡r❛ ❝✉st♦s ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ P❛r❛ ❡❢❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ✈❛♠♦s ✉s❛r ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛❞❛ ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s q✉❡❡❢❡t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ✜③❡r❛♠ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣♦r ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ❞❛ ❛♠❛③♦♥ é❘✩✵✱✷✶✴❤♦r❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ s❡✐s ❞✐❛s ✭✸ ❞✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡s❝r❡✈❡r ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ s♦♠❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♠❛✐s ✸ três ❞✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✮✱ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♥♦s ✻ ❞✐❛s✱ ♦✉ ♥❛s ✶✹✹ ❤♦r❛s✱ ❢♦✐ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛ ❘✩ ✸✵✱✷✹✳ ❉✐✈✐❞✐♥❞♦ ❡ss❡ ✈❛❧♦r♣♦r ✶✽ ✉s✉ár✐♦s q✉❡ ❡❢❡t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ✜③❡r❛♠ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s✱ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣♦r✉s✉ár✐♦ ❢♦✐ ❘✩ ✶✱✻✽✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛♥❞♦ ❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✭♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛✲♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸✮ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❡❧❡✈❛❞♦✳ ❖s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦❜r❛♠ ♣♦r ❤♦r❛❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ s✉❛ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❡❧❡s ✐♥❞✐❝❛r❛♠ q✉❛♥t♦ s❡r✐❛ ❝♦❜r❛❞♦♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ t❡♠♣♦ q✉❡ ❧❡✈♦✉ ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s❢♦r❛♠ ❡♥tã♦ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ✜❣✉r❛ ✺✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❞❡❝✉st♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✭❈✮ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❛s ♠é❞✐❛s ❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛s ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸ ✭♠é❞✐❛✭❚✶✮❂❘✩✻✳✵✸ ✴ ♠é❞✐❛✭❚✸✮❂❘✩✹✱✽✸✮ sã♦ ♣❛r❡❝✐❞❛s✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❛♠❜♦s ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ✉t✐❧✐✲③❛♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ♥❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s✳ ❆ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s s❡ ❞á ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ❝♦❜r❛r❛♠ ♣r❡ç♦s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✳ ❍á ✉♠ ❡s♣❛❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭✈❛r✐❛çã♦✮ ♠❛✐♦r ♥♦s❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ❡ss❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥ã♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦❚✸✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣♦r ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ é ♠❛✐s ✉♥✐❢♦r♠❡ q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦♣♦r ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✳ ●❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦❝♦rr❡ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ♠❛♥té♠ s❡♠♣r❡✉♠ t❡♠♣♦ ✜①♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❡♠ s✉❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s✳ ■ss♦ ❢♦✐ ♦❝❛s✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ♥♦s t❡♠♣♦s✭❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✶✮✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✜①♦✱ ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✺✱ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❞♦✐s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡♣♦❞❡ ♥♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❛♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✭❚✷✮ é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣♦r ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✭❚✶ ❡ ❚✸✮✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱❝♦♠♦ ❥á ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r t❛✐s BoxPlot de Custos referentes ao experimento de avaliação de questões discursivas ✶✷✸15 Q3 + 1.5IQR Max=16.3 Y3 S × ❛✜r♠❛çõ❡s✳❆❧é♠ ❞❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❈✉st♦ ✭❈✮✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❡st❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❛♣❛r✐çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s✳ ❆s ❋✐❣✉r❛s✺✻ ❡ ✺✼✱ ♠♦str❛♠✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♥t❡s ❛♦s❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✻✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝✉st♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✱ q✉❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ❛ ✉♠❛❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✱ s❡ ❞❡s❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r♠♦s ♦ ♦✉t❧✐❡r ❛ ❞✐r❡✐t❛✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦❜s❡r✈❛♠♦s♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✼✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝✉st♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸✱ q✉❡ ❛❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s s❡ ❛ss❡♠❡❧❤❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ♠✐st✉r❛ ❞❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦✉♥✐❢♦r♠❡ ❡ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛✉❞❛ ❧♦♥❣❛ ❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♠❛✐s ✉♠❛ ✈❡③✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❢❡✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❞❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r t❡st❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ❉❡ ❢♦r♠❛ r❡s✉♠✐❞❛✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥♦s ❣rá✜❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ✭❈✮♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ✭❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸✮ ❡stã♦ s✉♠❛r✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✸✱♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛rr❡❞♦♥❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❞✉❛s ✶✷✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✻ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✼ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✸ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❝❛s❛s ❞❡❝✐♠❛✐s✳ ✶✷✺ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✸ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❈✉st♦ ✭❈✮✳ ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✐♥✳ ✶st ◗✉✳ ▼❡❞✐❛♥ ▼❡❛♥ ✸r❞ ◗✉✳ ▼❛①✳❚✶ ✶✳✸✻ ✸✳✹✵ ✺✳✸✸ ✻✳✵✸ ✼✳✾✵ ✶✻✳✷✾ ❚✷ ✶✳✻✽ ✶✳✻✽ ✶✳✻✽ ✶✳✻✽ ✶✳✻✽ ✶✳✻✽❚✸ ✸✳✵✸ ✹✳✵✶ ✹✳✼✼ ✹✳✽✸ ✺✳✻✸ ✻✳✻✷ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ✺✳✸✳✸ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s❆ s❡çã♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❆♣ós❡ss❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ♠❛✐s ❛♣r♦❢✉♥✲❞❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✶✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ s❡çã♦✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❛❧ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ♠❡❧❤♦r✳ P❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r t❛❧ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ s❡rã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ❛❧❣✉♥s t❡st❡s ❡s✲t❛tíst✐❝♦s ❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ s♦❜r❡ ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦❞❡✜♥✐❞❛✳ ❯♠ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ✭■❈✮ é ✉♠ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❡st✐♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡✲ r❡ss❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦✳ ❊♠ ✈❡③ ❞❡ ❡st✐♠❛r ♦ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ✈❛❧♦r✱ é ❞❛❞♦ ✉♠✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❡st✐♠❛t✐✈❛s ♣r♦✈á✈❡✐s✳ ❖ q✉❛♥t♦ ❡st❛s ❡st✐♠❛t✐✈❛s sã♦ ♣r♦✈á✈❡✐s s❡rá ❞❡t❡r✲♠✐♥❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ (1 − α)✱ ♣❛r❛ α ∈ (0, 1)✳ ❊st❡ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❡st✐♠❛❞♦ é❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❛♠♦str❛✳ ❙❡ ❡ss❛s ❛♠♦str❛s✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s sã♦ ♦❜t✐❞❛s r❡♣❡t✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦✱ ❡♥tã♦✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛♣❡r❝❡♥t❛❣❡♠ ✭♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛✮ ❞♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ✐rá ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ♦ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ♣♦♣✉❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡s✲❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ✭❏❆■◆✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❡♠ ♥♦ss❛s❛♥á❧✐s❡s ❞❡st❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ s❡✉ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ é ❞❡ ✾✺✪✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦✉♠ α ✭♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝â♥❝✐❛✮ ❞❡ ✺✪ ♦✉ ✵✱✵✺✳ ❊ss❡s ✈❛❧♦r❡s sã♦ ♦s ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛✳❢ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❞❡ ♣❡s✲ q✉✐s❛ é ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❡♠ s✉❛r❡s♣♦st❛✳ ❆ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♣♦✐s ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛ q✉❛❧ t❡st❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡✳ ❊♠ ❝❛s♦ ❛✜r♠❛t✐✈♦✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ♥♦r♠❛✐s✱ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ t❡st❡ ♣❛r❛♠étr✐❝♦✳ ❈❛s♦ ❝♦♥trár✐♦ ✭♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♥ã♦ sã♦ ♥♦r♠❛✐s✮✱ ♦t❡st❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ♥ã♦✲♣❛r❛♠étr✐❝♦✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♣♦ré♠ ♦♠❛✐s r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s é ♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ✭❙❍❆P■❘❖❀ ❋❘❆◆❈■❆✱✶✾✼✷✮✳ P♦r ❡ss❡ ♠♦t✐✈♦✱ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦s ❝á❧❝✉❧♦s✳ ❇❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡ss❡ t❡st❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ r❡❢✉t❛çã♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❞❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❤✐♣♦tés❡s✿ ✶✷✻❍ ✿ ❆ ❛♠♦str❛ ♣r♦✈❡♠ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ❍ ✿ ❆ ❛♠♦str❛ ♥ã♦ ♣r♦✈é♠ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧ calculado α ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❝rít✐❝♦s ❞❛ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ❲ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ sã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛✮ ❡ valor calculado α valorP ❁ α✳ ❈❛s♦ ❲ ❃ ❲ ❡ P ❃ α✱ ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐♠♦s r❡❥❡✐t❛r ❍ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s é ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❡s❝♦❧❤❡r ✉♠ t❡st❡ ♣❛r❛♠étr✐❝♦ ❡ ✉♠ ♥ã♦ ♣❛r❛♠étr✐❝♦ ❛ s❡r✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♣ós ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✳ P❛r❛ ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ♥♦r♠❛✐s✱✉t✐❧✐③❛r❡♠♦s ♦ ❚✲❚❡st ✭❲❊▲❈❍✱ ✶✾✸✽✮✳ P❛r❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ♥ã♦ ♥♦r♠❛✐s✱ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ ✭❲■▲❈❖❳❖◆✱ ✶✾✹✺✮✳ ❊st❛s ❡s❝♦❧❤❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ s✐♠♣❧✐❝✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ss❡s t❡st❡s ❡ ♣❡❧❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❘✱ ❛ q✉❛❧ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ t♦❞❛ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ s❡rá ❢❡✐t❛ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♥♦t❛✳ ❈♦♥❢♦r♠❡❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✶✱ ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ♥✉❧❛ ❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ sã♦✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✿ ❍✶✲✵✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥ã♦ é ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳❍✶✲✶✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ é ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❛ s❡r ❢❡✐t❛ é ♦❜s❡r✈❛♥❞♦ ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✽ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❡ss❡s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ❝♦♠ ✺✪ ❞❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝â♥❝✐❛✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✽ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛♥❞♦ s♦❜♦ ❡❢❡✐t♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ❝♦♠ ✺✪ ❞❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝â♥❝✐❛✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ♦ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ s❡ s♦❜r❡♣õ❡ q✉❛s❡ q✉❡ t♦t❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛r♠♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❞♦✐s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸✱ q✉❡ ✉s❛♠ ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ tr❛❞✐✲❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣♦r ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛✳ ❉❛❞❛ ❡st❛ s♦❜r❡♣♦s✐çã♦✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ ❤á ❝♦♠♦ ❢❛③❡r q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛✜r♠❛çã♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❉❡ss❛❢♦r♠❛✱ ❤á ✉♠❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❛❧ ❞❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❡♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ♣❛r❛❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r ❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐✲❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡stã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✹✳calculado α valor ❆♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ♥♦t❛r q✉❡ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ❲ ✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✵✳✾✷✷✷✸ ❃ ❲ ✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✾✼ ❡ P ✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✵✳✶✹✶✻ ❃ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♥ã♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ r❡❢✉t❛r ❛❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦ ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❛✜r♠❛r ❝♦♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝â♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✺✪ q✉❡ ❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❚✶ ♣r♦✈é♠ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ✶✷✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✽ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✹ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ◆♦t❛ calculado α valor α ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❲ ❲ P ❚✶ ✵✳✾✷✷✷✸ ✵✳✽✾✼ ✵✳✶✹✶✻ ✵✳✵✺ ❚✷ ✵✳✾✵✸✹✹ ✵✳✽✾✼ ✵✳✵✻✺✾✾ ✵✳✵✺❚✸ ✵✳✾✻✷✵✶ ✵✳✽✹✷ ✵✳✽✵✽✻ ✵✳✵✺ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳calculado ❉❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ s❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✱ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ❲ ✭❚✷✮❂ α valor✵✳✾✵✸✹✹ ❃ ❲ ✭❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✾✼ ❡ P ✭❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✵✻✺✾✾ ❃ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✳ ❆ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✱ ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡❢✉t❛❞❛ ❡ ❛ ❞✐str✐✲❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❚✷ t❛♠❜é♠ é ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ calculado α❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❚✸✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❲ ✭❚✸✮❂ ✵✳✾✻✷✵✶ ❃ ❲ ✭❚✸✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✹✷ valor❡ P ✭❚✸✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✵✽✻ ❃ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐✲s❡ q✉❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❚✸ t❛♠❜é♠ s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s sã♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s♥♦r♠❛✐s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ♦ ❚✲❚❡st✱ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛♥❞♦ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ✶✷✽ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✺ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❚✲t❡st ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ◆♦t❛ ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ t ❞❢ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡❚✶ ① ❚✷ ✵✳✽✺✸✽✸ ✶✼ ✵✳✹✵✺✶ ❚✶ ① ❚✸ ✶✳✹✼✷✽ ✷✺✳✺✹✻ ✵✳✶✺✸❚✷ ① ❚✸ ✵✳✾✽✼✵✹ ✷✹✳✺✷✸ ✵✳✸✸✸✸ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡✭❚✶ ① ❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✹✵✺✶✱ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡✭❚✶ ① ❚✸✮ ❂✵✳✶✺✸ ❡ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡✭❚✷ ① ❚✸✮ ❂ ✵✳✸✸✸✸✱ ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❚✲t❡st✱ sã♦ t♦❞♦s ♠❛✐♦r❡s q✉❡ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠ ✾✺✪ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛✱ ❡st❛t✐st✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡ ❛✜r♠❛r q✉❡♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❡♥tr❡ s✐✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ♥ã♦ ❤á ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s q✉❡ ♠♦str❡♠ ❛ ♥ã♦ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛s ♥♦t❛s✳ ❖ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ss❡s ❝♦❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡s s❡r❡♠ ♠❛✐♦r❡s q✉❡ ♦ α ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s ♥♦t❛s sã♦ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡s ✭✐❣✉❛✐s✮✱ ♥ã♦ s❡♥❞♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❣❡r❛r ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛r❡❢✉t❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❍✶✲✵✱ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ é ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ s❡rá ❢❡✐t❛ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❡♠♣♦ ✭❚✮✳ ❈♦♥✲❢♦r♠❡ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✶✱ ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ♥✉❧❛ ❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ sã♦✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✿ ❍✷✲✵✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥ã♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❍✷✲✶✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✜③❡♠♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛✱ ❡♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ s❡rá ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❣rá✜❝♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♦❜t✐❞♦s❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✾ ✐❧✉str❛ ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦✱ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝â♥❝✐❛✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ ✺✪✳ ❉❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡✉ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛✱ ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s s❡ s♦❜r❡♣õ❡✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛r♠♦s ♦ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✭♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✮ ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✭♠♦❞❡❧♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✮✱ ✈❡♠♦s q✉❡ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❛ s♦❜r❡♣♦s✐çã♦✱ ❤á ✉♠❛ ❧✐❣❡✐r❛✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✳ ❖ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛r♠♦s ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦❚✷ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸✱ ♣♦ré♠✱ ❣r❛✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❚✷ ❛✐♥❞❛ é ♠❛✐♦r♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✳ ■ss♦ s✉❣❡r❡ q✉❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ t❡♥❞❡ ❛ s❡r ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♥♦s ♦✉tr♦s❞♦✐s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❙❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ❚✶ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❚✸✱ t❡♠♦s ✉♠❛ s♦❜r❡♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❚✸❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❚✶✱ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ s✉❣❡r❡ q✉❡ sã♦ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ♥ã♦ ❤á ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♠♦str❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡♥tr❡ ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛✱ ❞❡✲ ✶✷✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✾ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ✈✐❞♦ ❛s s♦❜r❡♣♦s✐çõ❡s✱ ♥ã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❢❛③❡r q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛✜r♠❛çã♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❝♦♠ ❡st❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡❣rá✜❝❛✱ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦✲s❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ✉♠ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱❛♣❧✐❝♦✉✲s❡ ♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ss❡s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❛ ♥♦r✲♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st♦ ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✻✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✻ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❡♠♣♦ calculado α valor α ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❲ ❲ P❚✶ ✵✳✽✾✻✸✼ ✵✳✽✾✼ ✵✳✵✹✾✻✾ ✵✳✵✺ ❚✷ ✵✳✾✶✼✷✹ ✵✳✽✾✼ ✵✳✶✶✺✺ ✵✳✵✺❚✸ ✵✳✾✼✷✹✾ ✵✳✽✹✷ ✵✳✾✶✷✾ ✵✳✵✺ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❆♦ s❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛✱ t❡♠♦s ✉♠ ❝❛s♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✱ ✉♠❛ calculado α valor✈❡③ q✉❡ ❲ ✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✾✻✸✼ ❁ ❲ ✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✾✼ ❡ P ✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✵✳✵✹✾✻✾ ❁ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✳❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s r❡❢✉t❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❛✜r♠❛r ❝♦♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝â♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✺✪ q✉❡ ❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ♥ã♦ ♣r♦✈é♠ ❞❡ ✉♠❛♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ calculado ✶✸✵ α valor ❙❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✱ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ❲ ✭❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✾✶✼✷✹ ❃❲ ✭❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✾✼ ❡ P ✭❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✶✶✺✺ ❃ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦s ❞♦✐s ✈❛❧♦r❡s s❡r❡♠ ♠❛✐♦r❡s✱ ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐♠♦s r❡❢✉t❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ss❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠ s✐❣♥✐✜❝â♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✺✪✱ ♣r♦✈é♠ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ s❡❣✉❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❚✷✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ calculado α valor❲ ✭❚✸✮ ❂ ✵✳✾✼✷✹✾ ❃ ❲ ✭❚✸✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✹✷ ❡ P ✭❚✸✮ ❂ ✵✳✾✶✷✾ ❃ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❚✸ t❛♠❜é♠ s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥ã♦✲♥♦r♠❛❧✱❡♥tã♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r❡♠ ❚✶ ❞❡✈❡r❡♠♦s ✉s❛r ✉♠ t❡st❡ ♥ã♦✲♣❛r❛♠étr✐❝♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❚❡st❡ ❞❡ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❚✷ ① ❚✸❡♥✈♦❧✈❡rá ♦ ❚✲t❡st✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❛♠❜❛s sã♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ♥♦r♠❛✐s✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦❞❡ss❡s t❡st❡s ❡stã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✼✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✼ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚❡st❡ ❯t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✈✴✇ t ❞❢ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡❚✶ ① ❚✷ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ s✐❣♥❡❞ r❛♥❦ t❡st ✇✐t❤ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉✐t② ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ✶✷✷ ✲ ✲ ✵✳✶✶✻✾ ❚✶ ① ❚✸ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ r❛♥❦ s✉♠ t❡st ✇✐t❤ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉✐t② ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ✽✶✳✺ ✲ ✲ ✵✳✼✵✵✼❚✷ ① ❚✸ ❲❡❧❝❤ ❚✇♦ ❙❛♠♣❧❡ t✲t❡st ✲ ✲✷✳✹✻✵✺ ✷✶✳✾✸✽ ✵✳✵✷✷✷✷ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r✱ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✼✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡✭❚✶ ① ❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✶✶✻✾❃ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✱ ❡♥tã♦ ♥ã♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❤á ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❡♥tr❡ ❡ss❡s tr❛t❛✲♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❛♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ♦ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸✱ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡✭❚✷ ① ❚✸✮❂ ✵✳✵✷✷✷✷ ❁ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❤á ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❡♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r✱ ❝♦♠ ✾✺✪ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛✱ q✉❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠ ❚✷ é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠❚✸✳ ❙❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸ ✭♦♥❞❡ ❛♠❜♦s ✉s❛♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐s✲ t❛s✮✱ t❡♠♦s ✉♠ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡ ✭❚✶ ① ❚✸✮ ❂ ✵✳✼✵✵✼ ❃ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♥ã♦ ❤á ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❛ ♥♦ss❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ s❡ ❜❛s❡✐❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✭♦♥❞❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✮✱ t❡♠♦s ❡st❛t✐st✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♥❡❧❡ é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ✭❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ s❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✮ ❝♦♠ ✾✺✪ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛✱ ♣♦ré♠♥ã♦ t❡♠♦s ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ♠♦str❡♠ q✉❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❚✷ s❡❥❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠ ❚✶ ✭❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✮✳ ❉❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❤á ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ r❡❢✉t❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❍✷✲✵ ✭q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❤❛✈❡r✐❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛✮❡ ❛❝❡✐t❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ ❍✷✲✶✱ ❝♦♠ ✾✺✪ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛✱ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❋✐♥❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✱ s❡rã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛s ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ❛ ✶✸✶♠étr✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❝✉st♦ ✭❈✮✳ ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✺✳✶✳✸✳✶✱ ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ♥✉❧❛ ❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ sã♦✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✿ ❍✸✲✵✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥ã♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❞❡ ❝✉st♦❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❍✸✲✶✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s❞❡ ❝✉st♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡❞✐♠❡♥t♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛s ❞✉❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✱ ❡♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦✲♠❡♥t♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✵ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ t❛✐s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛❝♦♠ s✐❣♥✐✜❝â♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✺✪✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✵ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r ❈♦♠♦ s❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r✱ ❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❞♦✐s ❣rá✜❝♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛✱ ♥❡ss❡ ❣rá✜❝♦ ❤á ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡✱ ♥♦❝❛s♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✱ ♥ã♦ ❤á ✉♠❛ s♦❜r❡♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡♠ s❡✉ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸✳ ❖ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❤á s♦❜r❡♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ✶✸✷❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ q✉❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ❡stã♦ ❝❧❛r❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r❡s ❛♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❞♦✐s✱❥á ♥♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛♠✐t♦ é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❞♦✐s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❛✜r♠❛r ❛♣❡♥❛s ✈✐s✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ✾✺✪ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ é ♠❡♥♦r ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡♠ ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸✱ r❡❢✉t❛♥❞♦✱❛ss✐♠✱ ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❍✸✲✵✱ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♥❛ ❛❝❡✐t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ ❍✸✲✶ ❝♦♠✾✺✪ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛✳ ▼❡s♠♦ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❣rá✜❝❛ ❞♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ s❡♥❞♦ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ r❡❢✉t❛r ❛ ❤✐✲♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❍✸✲✵ ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡ ❛❝❡✐t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ ❍✸✲✶✱ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r❡♠♦s t❛❧ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦s✱ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣r♦❝❡❞✐♠❡♥t♦❛❞♦t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❞✉❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ❖ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❡♥tã♦ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r s❡ ❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉✐✲çõ❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ♥♦r♠❛✐s✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❛❧ t❡st❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r✳❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ❡stã♦ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✽✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✽ ✕❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❈✉st♦ calculado α valor α ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❲ ❲ P ❚✶ ✵✳✽✾✻✸✺ ✵✳✽✾✼ ✵✳✵✹✾✻✺ ✵✳✵✺❚✷ ✵✳✷✺✷✻✾ ✵✳✽✾✼ ✶✳✵✺✼❡✲✵✽ ✵✳✵✺ ❚✸ ✵✳✾✼✷✼✻ ✵✳✽✹✷ ✵✳✾✶✺✷ ✵✳✵✺ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❆♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛✱ ♦❜s❡r✈❛♠♦s ❛❣♦r❛ ❞♦✐s ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ❛♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s calculado α❞❛❞♦s✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✱ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ❲ ✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✾✻✸✺ ❁ ❲ ✭❚✶✮ ❂ valor✵✳✽✾✼ ❡ P ✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✵✳✵✹✾✻✺ ❁ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ r❡❢✉t❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❚✶ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥ã♦✲♥♦r♠❛❧ ✭❛♥♦r♠❛❧✮✳ ❖ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ calculado α valor tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❲ ✭❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✷✺✷✻✾ ❁ ❲ ✭❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✾✼ ❡ P ✭❚✷✮ ❂✶✳✵✺✼❡✲✵✽ ❁ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✱ ❧♦❣♦ ❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❚✷ t❛♠❜é♠ é ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥ã♦✲♥♦r♠❛❧✳ calculado P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ❛♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸✱ ✈❡♠♦s q✉❡ ❲ ✭❚✸✮ α valor❂ ✵✳✾✼✷✼✻ ❃ ❲ ✭❚✸✮ ❂ ✵✳✽✹✷ ❡ P ✭❚✸✮ ❂ ✵✳✾✶✺✷ ❃ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♥ã♦❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐♠♦s ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡❢✉t❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❚✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ♥ã♦ s❡r❡♠ ♥♦r♠❛✐s✱❡♥tã♦ ❞❡✈❡♠♦s ✉s❛r ♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥✱ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❚✸ s❡❥❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ■ss♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♦ ❚✲t❡st só ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ s❡ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛s ❢♦r❡♠ ♥♦r♠❛✐s✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❚❡st❡ ❞❡ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ ❝♦♠ ♦s❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ss❡s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡stã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✾✳ ✶✸✸ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❈✉st♦ ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚❡st❡ ❯t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✈✴✇ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡❚✶ ① ❚✷ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ s✐❣♥❡❞ r❛♥❦ t❡st ✇✐t❤ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉✐t② ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ✶✼✵ ✵✳✵✵✵✷✺✷✷ ❚✶ ① ❚✸ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ r❛♥❦ s✉♠ t❡st ✇✐t❤ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉✐t② ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ✶✵✸ ✵✳✺✹✽✻❚✷ ① ❚✸ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ r❛♥❦ s✉♠ t❡st ✇✐t❤ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉✐t② ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ✵ ✶✳✶✶✶❡✲✵✻ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❈♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ♦ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡✭❚✶ ① ❚✷✮ ❂ ✵✳✵✵✵✷✺✷✷ ❁ α ❂✵✳✵✺✱ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❤á ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s❚✶ ❡ ❚✷✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✾✺✪✳ ❉❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ s❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♠♦s ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❡ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡✭❚✷ ① ❚✸✮ ❂ ✶✳✶✶✶❡✲✵✻ ❁ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✱❝♦♥❝❧✉í♠♦s q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ t❛♠❜é♠ sã♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ❝♦♠ ✾✺✪ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ♦❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ❚✷ é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ❚✸✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❡ ♣✲✈❛❧✉❡✭❚✶ ① ❚✸✮ ❂✵✳✺✹✽✻ é ♠❛✐♦r ❞♦ q✉❡ α ❂ ✵✳✵✺✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❤á ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s t❡♠♣♦s ❞❡ ❚✶ ❡ ❚✸✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♥ós q✉❡r❡♠♦s ❛✈❛❧✐❛r é ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✭♦♥❞❡♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✮✱ t❡♠♦s ❝♦♠♣r♦✈❛❞♦ ❡st❛t✐st✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ❡♠ ❚✷é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♦s ❝✉st♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s t❛♥t♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ q✉❛♥t♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✾✺✪✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ t❡♠♦s ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ q✉❡♦ ❝✉st♦ sã♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❡ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐♠♦s r❡❢✉t❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ♥✉❧❛ ❍✸✲✵ ✭♦♥❞❡ ♥ã♦❤❛✈❡r✐❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛✮ ❡ ❛❝❡✐t❛r ❛ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ ❍✸✲✶✱ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✾✺✪✱✐♠♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ ❝✉st♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❈♦♠ ❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❛❝✐♠❛ s❛❜❡♠♦s q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ♠❡♥♦r ❞♦ q✉❡✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♠ét♦❞♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❝♦♥t✉❞♦ ❤á ✉♠❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛r ♦ q✉ã♦ ♠❡♥♦r é❡ss❡ ❝✉st♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦ ❝r✐❛r❡♠♦s ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❣r❡ssã♦ ✭❊❙P■◆❍❊■❘❆❀ ❙■▲❱❆❀ ❙■▲❱❆✱✷✵✶✺✮ ✭❋❊❘❘❆❘■❀ ❈❘■❇❆❘■✲◆❊❚❖✱ ✷✵✵✹✮✳ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❡ ♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r✿ y = Xβ + ǫ = ✭✺✳✶✮        y x x . . . x β ǫ111 12 1k11         y x x . . . x β ǫ 2  21 22 2k   2   2                 ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳ ✳✳✳         y n x n x n . . . x nk β k ǫ n12| {z } x x . . . x k12 ❱❡♠♦s q✉❡ • y é ✉♠ ✈❡t♦r ❞❡ n ♦❜s❡r✈❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡✱ ♦✉ ❛✐♥❞❛✱ y , . . . , y n1é ✉♠❛ ❛♠♦str❛ ❞❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳ X é ✉♠❛ ♠❛tr✐③ n × k ❢♦r♠❛❞❛ ✶✸✹♣❡❧❛s ❝♦✈❛r✐❛❞❛s✳ ◆♦t❡ q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❝♦❧✉♥❛ X é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ n ♦❜s❡r✈❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ❝♦✈❛r✐❛❞❛ x t ✱ t = 1, . . . , k✱ ❛ss✐♠ t❡♠♦s k ❝♦✈❛r✐❛❞❛s✳ X ♥ã♦ é ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛✱ ❡❧❛ é ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞❛ ❡✜①❛✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ t❡♠♦s q✉❡✱ β é ✉♠ ✈❡t♦r ❞❡ k ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ✜①♦s ❡ ❞❡s❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ✭♥ã♦ sã♦ ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛s✮✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ǫ é ✉♠ ✈❡t♦r ❞❡ n ❡rr♦s ❛❧❡❛tór✐♦s ❝♦♠ ♠é❞✐❛ ③❡r♦2 (E)(ǫ ) = 0 i ❡ ✈❛r✐â♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛s ♦❜s❡r✈❛çõ❡s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ var(ǫ ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦ i ) = σ i = 1, . . . , n✳ ❯♠❛ ❞❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s s✉♣♦s✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❧✐♥❡❛r❡s ❞❡ r❡❣r❡ssã♦ é q✉❡E(ǫ) = µ = 0 ǫ ✭✺✳✷✮❆ss✐♠✱ E(y) = E(Xβ) + E(ǫ) ⇔ E(y) = Xβ ⇔ µ = Xβ. ✭✺✳✸✮❊♥tã♦✱ ♥❛ ♣rát✐❝❛ ♦ ♥♦ss♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✜♥❛❧ é µ = Xβ2 ✭✺✳✹✮ var(y) = var(Xβ) + var(ǫ) ⇔ var(y) = σ✭✺✳✺✮ | {z } | {z } σ2 P♦❞❡♠♦s r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♥♦ss♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ i✲és✐♠❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦µ i = β 1 + β 2 x i 2 + β 3 x i 3 + . . . + β k x ik , i = 1, . . . , n.1 , β , . . . , β 2 k P❛r❛ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡r♠♦s ❞❡ ❢❛t♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛❝✐♠❛ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❡st✐♠❛r β ✳ ❚✐♣✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ mui❢❛③❡♠♦s ✐st♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ♠á①✐♠❛ ✈❡r♦ss✐♠✐❧❤❛♥ç❛✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♦❜t❡♠♦s b q✉❛♥❞♦ β , b β , . . . , b β k12♦❜t❡♠♦s b ✱ t❛❧ q✉❡ µ i = b β + b β x i + b β x i + . . . + b β k x ik , i = 1, . . . , n.12233 bi ❆❣♦r❛ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜t❡r ❡st✐♠❛t✐✈❛s ♣❛r❛ µ ✳◆❡st❡ ♣♦♥t♦✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛r ♥♦ss♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❛❧é♠ ❞❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ❋❛③❡♠♦s ✐ss♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❡①♣r❡ssã♦❛❜❛✐①♦✳ g(µ i ) = β + β x i + β x i + . . . + β k x ik12233 ⊲ i )❆q✉✐ g(µ é ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❣❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ❛s ❝♦✈❛r✐❛❞❛s ❡ ♦s β✬s✳ i ) i ∼ N (µ i , σ ) i ) = µ i2 P♦r q✉❡ ✉s❛♠♦s ❡ss❛ g(µ ❄ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ y ✱ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ g(µ ✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛ gé ♦ q✉❡ ❝❤❛♠❛♠♦s ❞❡ ❢✉♥çã♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ■st♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ♣♦rq✉❡ ❛ss✐♠❝♦♠♦ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ q✉❡ ♣❡rt❡♥ç❡ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s r❡❛✐s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ y ∈ (−∞, +∞)✱ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ µ i❝♦♠ s✉❛ ♠é❞✐❛ µ ∈ (−∞, +∞) = IR✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ♦❜t❡♠♦s b ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❝♦✐s❛ ❞❡✈❡ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡r✱ ✶✸✺µ i ∈ (−∞, +∞) = IR µ i ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ b ✳ ❉❛í✱ ♥♦t❡ q✉❡ b ♣♦❞❡ ❛ss✉♠✐r ◗❯❆▲◗❯❊❘ ✈❛❧♦r ❘❡❛❧✳β , b β , . . . , b β k12 ❆ss✐♠✱ b ❡stã♦ ▲■❱❘❊❙ ♣❛r❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ss✉♠✐r q✉❛❧q✉❡r ✈❛❧♦r✳■st♦ ♥ã♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ s❡ ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ r❡s♣♦st❛ s❡❣✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❣❛♠❛✳ P♦rq✉❡✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ q✉❡ ♣❡rt❡♥ç❡ só ❛ss✉♠❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s r❡❛✐s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s✱ ✐st♦ é✱✱ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❝♦♠ s✉❛ ♠é❞✐❛ µ ∈ (0, +∞) = IR ❡ ❉❊❱❊ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡r + y ∈ (0, +∞)+ β ❝♦♠ bµ✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ t❡♠ q✉❡ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡r✿ bµ ∈ (0, +∞) = IR ✳ ❈♦♠ ❡st❛ r❡str✐çã♦ ♦s b ✬s ♥ã♦βX ❡stã♦ ❧✐✈r❡s✱ ♣♦✐s t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ b só ❛ss✉♠❛ ✈❛❧♦r❡s r❡❛✐s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s✳ ❊♠ X ♥ã♦♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♠❡①❡r ✭✜①❛ ❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛✮ ❡♥tã♦ t❡rí❛♠♦s q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡st✐♠❛çã♦ + βX ∈ (0, +∞) = IR❞♦ β✬s ❝♦♠ r❡str✐çã♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ b ✱ ❊ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✳ i i ) ∈ (−∞, +∞) = ❊◆❚➹❖ ❛ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ g ❡♠ µ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ g(µ IR β✳ ❉❛í ❡♥tã♦ ♦s b ✬s ❡stã♦ ▲■❇❊❘❆❉❖❙✳ ❱❛♠♦s ❛♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ ❣❛♠❛✱ s❡❥❛ y ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛ ❝♦♠ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❣❛♠❛✱ ❛q✉✐ ❞❡♥♦t❛❞❛ ♣♦r Y ∼ G(µ, φ)✱ t❛❧ q✉❡ φ∞Z 1 φx φy 1 (φ−1) − t− f (µ,φ) (y) = exp , y ≥ 0, µ > 0, φ > 0, Γ(φ) = t e dt.Γ(φ) µ µ y ❙❡ ♥♦ss❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ r❡s♣♦st❛ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡ ❛♦s r❡❛✐s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❡ ❞❡❝✐❞✐♠♦s ✉s❛r ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦❣❛♠♠❛✱ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❣r❡ssã♦ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦ s❡r✐❛ log(µ ) = β + β x + β x + . . . + β x , i = 1, . . . , n. i1 2 i2 3 i 3 k ik ■st♦ ♣♦rq✉❡✱ ♦ ❧♦❣❛r✐t♠♦ só ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✈❛❧♦r❡s r❡❛✐s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❡ ♦ s❡✉ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦β ❛ss✉♠❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❡♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s r❡❛✐s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❧✐❜❡r❛ ♦s b ✬s✳ ◆♦t❡ q✉❡ log(u) ∈ (−∞, +∞) ♣❛r❛ +t♦❞♦ u ∈ (0, +∞)IR ✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ❝✉st♦ ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ t❡st❛♠♦s ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ i log(µ i ) = β 1 + β2 IndicadoraCustoT 2❡♠ q✉❡ µ é ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞♦ ❈✉st♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ t♦❞♦s ♦s três ❣r✉♣♦s ❡ ■♥❞✐❝❛❞♦r❛❈✉st♦❚✷ é✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❛✈❡❧ q✉❡ ❛ss✉♠❡ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ✉♠ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❣r✉♣♦ é ♦ ❞❡ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❡ ③❡r♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❞♦✐s ❣r✉♣♦s✳ ❈♦♠❛♥❞♦s ♥♦ ❘ ❃❢✐t ❁✲ ❣❧♠✭t✭❈✉st♦✮⑦t✭■♥❞❴❚✷✮✱ ❢❛♠✐❧②❂●❛♠♠❛✭❧✐♥❦❂❧♦❣✮✮★ ❢✉♥çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❣❧♠ ✲ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❡❞ ❧✐♥❡❛r ♠♦❞❡❧ ✲ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❧✐♥❡❛r❡s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ✲ s✉♣♦♥❞♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❣❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❡ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ❧♦❣✳❃ s✉♠♠❛r②✭❢✐t✮ ❈♦❡❢❢✐❝✐❡♥ts✿❊st✐♠❛t❡ ❙t❞✳ ❊rr♦r t ✈❛❧✉❡ Pr✭❃⑤t⑤✮ ✭■♥t❡r❝❡♣t✮ ✶✳✼✷✹✵ ✵✳✵✽✵✾ ✷✶✳✸✶ ❁ ✷❡✲✶✻ ✯✯✯t✭■♥❞❴❚✷✮ ✲✶✳✷✼✺✶ ✵✳✶✷✾✸ ✲✾✳✽✻ ✶✳✵✸❡✲✶✷ ✯✯✯ ✲✲✲❙✐❣♥✐❢✳ ❝♦❞❡s✿ ✵ ✬✯✯✯✬ ✵✳✵✵✶ ✬✯✯✬ ✵✳✵✶ ✬✯✬ ✵✳✵✺ ✬✳✬ ✵✳✶ ✬ ✬ ✶ ✭❉✐s♣❡rs✐♦♥ ♣❛r❛♠❡t❡r ❢♦r ●❛♠♠❛ ❢❛♠✐❧② t❛❦❡♥ t♦ ❜❡ ✵✳✶✽✸✷✹✶✶✮◆✉❧❧ ❞❡✈✐❛♥❝❡✿ ✷✷✳✺✻✶✵ ♦♥ ✹✺ ❞❡❣r❡❡s ♦❢ ❢r❡❡❞♦♠ ❘❡s✐❞✉❛❧ ❞❡✈✐❛♥❝❡✿ ✼✳✶✸✷✸ ♦♥ ✹✹ ❞❡❣r❡❡s ♦❢ ❢r❡❡❞♦♠❆■❈✿ ✶✺✼✳✺✻ ✶✸✻❊♥tã♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛❝✐♠❛ t❡♠♦s q✉❡ ❛ ❝♦✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦r❛ ❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r é ❛❧t❛♠❡♥t❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛✱ ❛ ✉♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ♠❛✐♦r q✉❡ 0.00001✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❞❡ ❢❛t♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s t❡♠ ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞♦s ❝✉st♦ ❞♦s♦✉tr♦s ❞♦✐s ❣r✉♣♦s✳ ❆té ❥á s❛❜í❛♠♦s ✐ss♦✱ t❛♠❜é♠ s❛❜í❛♠♦s q✉❡ ❡r❛ ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ ♠❡♥♦r✱ ♦ q✉❡ é ❝♦♥✜r♠❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ s✐♥❛❧ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ❡st✐♠❛t✐✈❛✳ b β2 = −1.2751✳ ▼❛s✱ ❛❣♦r❛ t❡♠♦s ✉♠❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❣r❡ssã♦✳ ❚❡♠♦s q✉❡ {1 − exp(bβ 2 )} × 100 r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ♣❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❛♦ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛r♠♦s ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ 72.4%✳✺✳✹ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ❖ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛❞♦✱ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ t❡✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦❝♦♠ ❛s ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s✮✱ ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞❡ três♠étr✐❝❛s ✭♥♦t❛ ✭◆✮✱ t❡♠♣♦ ✭❚✮ ❡ ❝✉st♦ ✭❈✮✮ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r❛♠ q✉❡ ❡ss❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s♣✉❞❡ss❡♠ s❡r ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛s s❡♣❛r❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❛♥á❧✐s❡s ❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ✭t❛♥t♦ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❣rá✜❝❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ♣❡❧♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦s ✲ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✱ ❚✲❚❡st ❡❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥✮✱ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r q✉❡✿ ♠❡s♠♦ ✉♠ t❡♠♣♦ ♠❡♥♦r✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♦✉tr♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❧❡✈❛r❛♠ ❛té ♠❛✐s t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛❝♦rr✐❣✐r✳ ✶✸✼ ✻ ❱❆▲■❉❆➬➹❖ ✲ ❊❳P❊❘■▼❊◆❚❖ ●❆▼■❋■❈❆➬➹❖❯♠ ❞♦s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛✐s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ é ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♥❛ t❡♥t❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ tr❛③❡r ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s✳ ❖ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r t✐♥❤❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s tr❛③✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s♦❜ ♦ ♣♦♥t♦❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ♥ã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✳ ❊st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❝❛✉s❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ✈✐st♦ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ é✉♠ ❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛✐s ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡ ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✳ ❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞♦ ❡①♣♦st♦✱ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ q✉❛❧ s❡rá ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✻✳✶✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ é ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦ ♥❛❙❡çã♦ ✻✳✷✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✻✳✸ ♠♦str❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡❧❡s✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✻✳✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❞✐s❝✉ssõ❡s ❛❝❡r❝❛ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❡st❡ ♥♦✈♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳✻✳✶ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❚♦❞♦ ♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛q✉✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ s❡rá ❢❡✐t♦ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼ ✭❞❡s✲❝r✐t♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✷✳✶✮✱ ❡♠ ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❜❡♠ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s às ❥á ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s♥♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♠♦s q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❥á ❡stá ✐♥❝❧✉✐❞♦♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♥♦❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à s✉❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❊①❛♠❡ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❊♥s✐♥♦ ▼é❞✐♦ ✭❊◆❊▼✮✳ ❖s ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s ♣❛ss♦s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ sã♦ ❞❡❧✐♥❡❛r ❜❡♠ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞♦s❛rt✐❣♦s ♥❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✱ ✈✐♠♦s q✉❡ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s❛♦ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s é ♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛r ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣♦st✐✈❛ ♦✉ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈❛ ❡♠ s✉❛s ❛t✐t✉❞❡s ❡ ❝♦♠✲♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❜❡♥é✜❝♦ ♦✉ ♣r❡❥✉❞✐❝✐❛❧ ❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳❆ss✐♠✱ ❡ss❡ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❤♦r❛ ❞❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ q✉❡ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ tr❛③ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❆ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❛ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ t❛♠❜é♠ é ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧✱ ❡ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✲❊◆❊▼✱ ❝♦♠ ♠✉✐t♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❛ ✶✸✽♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s✳ P❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s ❡①❡✲❝✉çõ❡s s❡rã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s s♦❜ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ♠étr✐❝❛s ❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❞♦s❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ✭❧♦❣✐♥s✮✱ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦s✱ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s✱ q✉❛♥✲ t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s✱ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❡ tr♦❢é✉s ❣❛♥❤♦s ❡ ✉s♦ ❡❢❡t✐✈♦ ♥❛♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳ P❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r t❛✐s ♠étr✐❝❛s s❡rá r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❛♥❞♦ ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♥ã♦ ✐♥✢✉ê♥✲❝✐❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❡❧❛✳ ❆♣ós ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ✐♥✐❝✐❛✲s❡ ❛❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ s❡✉ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛ q✉❛❧ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✻✳✶✳✶✳✻✳✶✳✶ P❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❖ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é s✉❛ ♣❛rt❡ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦s✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦❛❞♦t❛❞♦ é ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❆✴❇✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❥á ❞✐③✱ ❞✉❛s ✈❡rsõ❡s sã♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛s ✭❆ ❡ ❇✮✱❛s q✉❛✐s sã♦ ✐❞ê♥t✐❝❛s ❡①❝❡t♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❛♥t❡ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ✐♠♣❛❝t❛r ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦r✳ ❆ ✈❡rsã♦ ❆ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛ ✈❡rsã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✭❝♦♥tr♦❧❡✮✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❛❱❡rsã♦ ❇ é ❛ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛❞❛ ✭tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✮ ✭P❯❘❍❖◆❊◆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛q✉✐ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❛ ✈❛r✐❛♥t❡ ❆ ♥ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛rá ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺ ❡ s❡rá ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛ ❛ ✈❛r✐❛♥t❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ❛✈❛r✐❛♥t❡ ❇ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛rá ♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛ ❛ ✈❛r✐❛♥t❡ ♠♦❞✐✜✲❝❛❞❛✳ ❖ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛ s❡♥❞♦ ✐♥❞✉str✐❛❧✱ ♣♦st♦ q✉❡ s❡rá ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ❡♠✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛ ✐♥❞ústr✐❛✱ ❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s r❡❛✐s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r✱ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s✳ ◗✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✿ ❖ ❢♦❝♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞❡ss❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ tr❛③✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✳ ▲❡✈❛♥❞♦ ✐st♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦✱ ❞❡✜♥✐♠♦s ♥♦ss❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r s❡ ✉s❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉s❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡♠ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆ss✐♠✱♥♦ss❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ é✿ ◗P ✲ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡✲ r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s❄❘❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛ ❡ss❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❡①✐❣❡ ✉♠ ❝❡rt♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❚❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ é ❛❧❣♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ♠❡♥s✉r❛❞♦ ❢❛❝✐❧✲♠❡♥t❡✱ ♥♦ss❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ s❡rá ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥♦s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡♥tr♦❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❛✈❛❧✐❛♥❞♦ s❡ ♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❛r❛♠ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛✲ r❛♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♠♣♦st❛s ✭s❡ ❝❛❞❛str❛r✱ ❛❝❡ss❛r ❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✱ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡ ❝♦rr✐❣✐rr❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✮✳ ✶✸✾◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r q✉❡❜r❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐❛s✳ ❚❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ à q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❢♦r♠✉❧❛r ❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✿P✶ ✲ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ♥❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s❄❖ q✉❡ ♥♦s ❧❡✈❛ às s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✿❍✶✲✵✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♥ã♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ♥❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳❍✶✲✶✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡✲ r❡♥ç❛s ♥❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳❚❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ à r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❢♦r♠✉❧❛r ❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✿P✷ ✲ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ♥❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s❄❖ q✉❡ ♥♦s ❧❡✈❛ às s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✿❍✷✲✵✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♥ã♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ♥❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳❍✷✲✶✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡✲ r❡♥ç❛s ♥❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ às ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♣♦❞❡✲ ♠♦s ❢♦r♠✉❧❛r ❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✿P✸ ✲ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ♥❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s❄❖ q✉❡ ♥♦s ❧❡✈❛ às s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✿❍✸✲✵✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♥ã♦ tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ♥❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳❍✸✲✶✿ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s tr❛③ ❞✐❢❡✲ r❡♥ç❛s ♥❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳P♦r ✜♠✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✜♥❛✐s ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ s❡❥❛♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞✐❞♦s✱ s❡r✐❛ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛♥t❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡r ❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❡ ❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s r❡s♣♦st❛s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱❞❡s❡❥❛♠♦s s❛❜❡r q✉❛❧ ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ♠❛✐s r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ♥❛s s❛í❞❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♥❛s ❡①❡❝✉çõ❡s ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ú❧t✐♠❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ❞♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ♠♦❞♦✿ P✹ ✲ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❢❛t♦r q✉❡ ♠❛✐s ❡①♣❧✐❝❛ ❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ♥❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s✲r❡s♣♦st❛ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❄✲ P❛r❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❡ss❛ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡st✐♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s✳❋❛t♦r❡s ❡ ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛✿ ❈♦♠♦ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ t❡♠♦s✿ ✶✹✵❊ss❡ ❢❛t♦r ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞♦✐s ♥í✈❡✐s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❛ ❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✵✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✵ ✕ ◆í✈❡✐s ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❋❛t♦r ◆í✈❡❧ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦▼♦❞❡❧♦ ▼✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ s❡♠ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ▼✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❆s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s ✭♠étr✐❝❛s✮ sã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦✿❆❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮✿ ❊st❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❧♦❣✐♥s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛✲ ❋♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✶✳ ❆s ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❆✱ ❘❋ ❡ ❘❈✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛✱ r❡t♦r♥❛♠ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦✈❛❧♦r ❞♦s ❛❝❡ss♦s✱ q✉❛t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s✱ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡♠ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭▼✶✮ ♦✉ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭▼✷✮✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✶ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡ ◆✉❧❛ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡ ❆❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛❍✶ ❍✶✲✵✿ ❆✭▼✶✮ = ❆✭▼✷✮ ❍✶✲✶✿ ❆✭▼✶✮ 6= ❆✭▼✷✮ ❍✷ ❍✷✲✵✿ ❘❋✭▼✶✮ = ❘❋✭▼✷✮ ❍✷✲✶✿ ❘❋✭▼✶✮ 6= ❘❋✭▼✷✮❍✸ ❍✸✲✵✿ ❘❈✭▼✶✮ = ❘❈✭▼✷✮ ❍✸✲✶✿ ❘❈✭▼✶✮ 6= ❘❈✭▼✷✮ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ ❯♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✿ ❯♠❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ é ✉♠❛ ❛♠♦str❛ q✉❡ s❡rá✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ s♦❜ ❛ q✉❛❧ ♦ ✏tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✑ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✭❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢❛t♦r❡s✮ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡♦❜t❡r ❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s r❡s♣♦st❛ ✭❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡s✮ ❝✐t❛❞❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ➱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡st❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ s❡rá ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♦❜t❡r ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦✳ ◆♦ ♥♦ss♦ ❝❡♥ár✐♦✱ ❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ é ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛✳ ❆ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❡①✲♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ ❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✰ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞❛s ♠❛✐s três r❡❞❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ✉♠ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ❡✐♥s❡r✐❞❛s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❆ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❛❣♦r❛ sã♦ q✉❛tr♦ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✶✹✶✭❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❉✮✱ ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ✭♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♥♦ ❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❊✮✳ ❖ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼ ❝♦♠ ❡ss❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝❛❞❛str❛❞❛s s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛♦s❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡st❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❋♦r❛♠ s❡❧❡✲❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ✭❞❛s t✉r♠❛s ❞♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❡ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ❛♥♦s✮❞❛ ❡s❝♦❧❛ ✏❆t✉❛❧ ❈✉rs♦s✑✱ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❚❛❜✉❧❡✐r♦ ❞♦s ▼❛rt✐♥s✱ ♥❛ ❘✉❛ ❋♦♥t❛♠ ❞❡ ▼❡❧♦✱♥ú♠❡r♦ ✸✱ ❛ q✉❛❧ s❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③♦✉ ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r✳ ❆ ❡s❝♦❧❛ ❝♦♥té♠ ❡♠ t♦r♥♦ ❞❡ ✶✵✵ ❛❧✉♥♦s♥❛s t✉r♠❛s ❝✐t❛❞❛s✳ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧✿ ❆ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ ♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ é ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣❡rt❡♥✲❝❡r à ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦s ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦s✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ss❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ t❡♠♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ❢❛t♦r ✈❛r✐❛♥t❡ ✭♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✮ ❝♦♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✷ ♥í✈❡✐s✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦sk ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❞❡s✐❣♥ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ✭❢❛t♦r✐❛❧ 2 s❡♠ r❡♣❡t✐çã♦✮✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ r❡♣❡t✐çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ t❡♠ ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ r❡❧❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛❧t♦ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡❡①✐❣✐r ❜❛st❛♥t❡ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ ❞❡♠❛✐s ❡s❢♦rç♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦✳ ❈♦♠ ✉♠ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❢❛t♦r✐❛❧ s❡♠ r❡♣❡t✐çã♦ ❡ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ❢❛t♦r ❝♦♠ ✷ ♥í✈❡✐s✱ t❡r❡♠♦s ❡♥tã♦❛♣❡♥❛s ✷ ❡♥s❛✐♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ✈❡③✱ t♦t❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❞♦✐s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞✉❛s ❡①❡❝✉çõ❡s✳ ❆ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✷ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❞♦s ❞♦✐s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✷ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✶ ❚✶ ▼✶ ❙❡♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✷ ❚✷ ▼✷ ❈♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✿ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ s❡rá ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡❢♦✐ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ss❛ s❡çã♦✳ ❆ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣❛ss♦s✿ ✶✳ Pr❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉t✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼✿ ❉❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣r❡♣❛r❛r ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛✲❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉t✉t♦r t❛♥t♦ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ♥♦✈❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛✱ ✐st♦ é✱❝❛❞❛str❛♥❞♦ ❛s ♥♦✈❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s q✉❛♥t♦ ❡♠ s✉❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s✳ P♦r ♣♦ss✉✐r ❛❣♦r❛❞♦✐s ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡ ❢❛t♦r❡s q✉❡ ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛♠ ♥❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✭❝♦♠ ❡ s❡♠ ❣❛♠✐✲✜❝❛çã♦✮✱ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛r ❞❛s ❞✉❛s ❢♦r♠❛s✳ ◆❡ss❡ ✶✹✷ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❞✉❛s ✈❡rsõ❡s ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛❞❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ❞❛ ❛♠❛✲ ✶ ③♦♥ ❊❈✷ ❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥❛ ✐♥t❡r♥❡t ✳✷✳ ❈❛♣❛❝✐t❛çã♦✿ ❯♠❛ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s s❡rá ❢❡✐t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ◆❛ ♠❡t❛❞❡ ❞♦♣r❛③♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r ❢❡✐t❛ ♣❛r❛ s❛❜❡r❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡ r❡t✐r❛r ❞ú✈✐❞❛s ❞♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s✳ ✸✳ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s q✉❡ ✐rã♦ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✿ ❊st❡ ♣❛ss♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡♥❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✐rã♦ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ s❡rã♦ s❡❧❡❝✐♦✲♥❛❞♦s t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛r❛♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r✱ ❛♣ós ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ✹✳ ❆❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✿ ❈♦♠♦ t❡♠♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞✉❛s ✈❡rsõ❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♠❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✱ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ♣❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ ✈❡rsã♦ s❡♠ ❣❛♠✐✜✲❝❛çã♦ ✭●❈✮ ❡ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡ ✭●❚✮ ♣❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ ✈❡rsã♦ ❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❖❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s s❡rá ❞❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❢♦r♠❛✿ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s q✉❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛r❛♠ ♣❛r✲ t✐❝✐♣❛r ♥❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ ❡st❡s s❡rã♦ ❛❣r✉♣❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ s✉❛ t✉r♠❛ ✭♣r✐♠❡✐r♦✱s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♦✉ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ❛♥♦✮✳ ❉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ss❡ ❡ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛✱ ♠❡t❛❞❡ ❞❡❧❡s♣❡rt❡♥❝❡rá ❛♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ●❈ ❡ ❛ ♦✉tr❛ ♠❡t❛❞❡ ❛♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ●❚✳ ✺✳ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✿ ❖s ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s s❡rã♦ ✐♥str✉í❞♦s ❡ ♣♦❞❡rã♦ ❡①❡✲❝✉t❛r s❡✉s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣r♦♣♦st♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r❛③♦ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s s❡♠❛♥❛s ✭❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡✶✺ ❞✐❛s✮✳ ❖s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡✈❡rã♦ ❢❛③❡r ❡ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r ❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❛ ❧✐✈r❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛✳ ◆ã♦ ❤❛✈❡rá♣r❛③♦ ❧✐♠✐t❡ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✱ ♣♦ré♠ ❡❧❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ♦r❞❡♠❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❢❛③❡r ❛ ú❧t✐♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ s❡♠ t❡r ❢❡✐t♦ ❛ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱❝♦♥t✉❞♦ ♣♦❞❡♠✱ ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❢❛③❡r ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✳ ✻✳ ❈♦❧❡t❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✿ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❛♣ós ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ s❡♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ❡✈✐t❛r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s✳ ✼✳ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✿ ◆♦ ✜♥❛❧✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r❢❡✐t❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♦❜t✐❞♦s♥❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ s❡rã♦ s✉♠❛r✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❘ ❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①✐❜✐çã♦ ❣rá✜❝❛❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❡✴♦✉ ❜♦①♣❧♦t✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣r♦♣ós✐t♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦✳ ❖s♠❡s♠♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ✭✾✺✪✮✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛ss♦s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✱ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡rã♦ s❡r ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦s❡♥tr❡ s✐✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ✶ ❞❡ss❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡stã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛s ❙❡çõ❡s ✻✳✸ ❡ ✻✳✹✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ❤tt♣✿✴✴❣r✉♣♦✶✳❛t✉❛❧❝✉rs♦s✳♠❡✉t✉t♦r✳❝♦♠✳❜r ❡ ❤tt♣✿✴✴❣r✉♣♦✷✳❛t✉❛❧❝✉rs♦s✳♠❡✉t✉t♦r✳❝♦♠✳❜r ✶✹✸✻✳✷ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❊ss❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ r❡s✉♠✐❞❛✱ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ q✉❛❧ ❞❡✈❡ s❡❣✉✐r ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ♥♦ P❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❙❡çã♦✻✳✶✳✶✳ ❆ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛❞❛✱ ♥❛s s✉❛s ❞✉❛s ✈❡rsõ❡s ✭♦ q✉❡ ❡①✐❣✐✉ ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡t✐r❛❞❛ ❞❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✮✱ ❡♠ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❞❛ ❛♠❛③♦♥ ❊❈✷✭♣❛r❛ r❡❞✉③✐r ♦s ❝✉st♦s✮✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦✿ ■♥stâ♥❝✐❛✿ ♠✸✳❧❛r❣❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ■ss♦ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛❣♦r❛ ♣r❡❝✐s❛r❡♠♦s ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ❞✉❛s ✈❡rsõ❡s❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ✭❝♦♠ ❡ s❡♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✮ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❛♣❡✲♥❛s ✉♠❛ ✈❡rsã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦✐ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛✳ ❖s s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ❞♦❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❞✉❛s ✈❡rsõ❡s ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r❡♠ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛❞❛s ❡ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦ ♠❛✐s ♣♦rt❛s s❡rã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦✱ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡✈❡rás❡r ✐♥❝❧✉í❞❛ ♥♦ ❛♣❛❝❤❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❞♦✐s ❡♥❞❡r❡ç♦s ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❣r✉♣♦✶ ❡ ❣r✉♣♦✷✮✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✱ ✉♠❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❞✐❛✷✵✴✵✼✴✷✵✶✺ ♥♦ ❝♦❧é❣✐♦ ❛t✉❛❧ ❝✉rs♦s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ às ❞✐r❡t♦r❛s✱ ❝♦♦r✲❞❡♥❛❞♦r❡s✱ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❛s t✉r♠❛s ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ✭❡♠ s❡♣❛r❛❞♦✮ q✉❡ ❡st❛✈❛♠ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖s q✉❛s❡ ✶✵✵ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ❡st❛✈❛♠ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s s❡ ✐♥t❡✲r❡ss❛r❛♠ ❡ s❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛r❛♠ ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r✳ ❉❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛❧❡❛tór✐❛ ❡ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ t✉r♠❛✱ ❢♦✐❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ✭✶ ♦✉ ✷✮✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ●❈ ❡ ●❚✳ ❖s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ✭●❈✮ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r❛♠ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✭s❡♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✮❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡ ✭●❚✮ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r❛♠ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✭❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✲✜❝❛çã♦✮✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❛♠❜♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛✈❛♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡ s❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛✈❛♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♥❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❞♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❖ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✈❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦✳ ❚♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥tr✉çõ❡s❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦✱ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❡ ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❛❞❛s ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❚❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦❜❛s❡ ❛ ❞❛t❛ ❞❡ss❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❛ ❞❛t❛ ✜♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ❡♠ ✵✸✴✵✽✴✷✵✶✺✭✶✺ ❞✐❛s ❞❡♣♦✐s✱ ❝♦♥t❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❞✐❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✮✳ ❖s ❛❧✉♥♦s t✐✈❡r❛♠ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ❞❡❝❛❞❛str❛r ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❡ ❢❛③❡r ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❛ ❧✐✈r❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛✳ ❚♦❞♦s ❛s s✉❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s❢♦r❛♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ss❡s ✶✹✹✻✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❆♣ós ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ♦❝♦rr✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ r❡s✉♠✐❞❛ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✻✳✷✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s✱✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❡❧❡s ❥á ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s✳ ❊ss❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ é❢❡✐t❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ ❘ ❝♦♠ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s s❝r✐♣ts q✉❡ ❥á ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞♦s✳ ❙❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ rá♣✐❞❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✻✳✸✳✶✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✻✳✸✳✷ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❣rá✜❝❛✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦✱ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠✲♣❛r❛t✐✈♦s ✭❜♦①♣❧♦ts✮ ❡ ♥♦ ✜♥❛❧ ✉♠❛ ❜r❡✈❡ s✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❛♣ós ❡ss❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡✱ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦✻✳✸✳✸ ❛s ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ q✉❡ s❡rá ❢❡✐t❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✳✻✳✸✳✶ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ r❡s✉♠✐❞❛ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s r❡✲ s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞✐r❡t❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s❡♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✮ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛✲çã♦ ✭♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✮✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❡stã♦❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✸✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✸ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❆❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮✳ ❉❛❞♦ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦ ❚✶ ❚✷ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ✪ ❉✐❢✳◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦s ✶✼ ✶✾ ✰✷ ✰✶✶✳✼✻✪ ❚♦t❛❧ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❆❜❡rt♦ ✹ ✹ ✵ ✵✪ ▼é❞✐❛ ♥♦t❛s ✻✻✾✳✸✸ ✺✻✸✳✾✷ ✲✶✵✺✳✹✶ ✲✶✺✳✼✺✪ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❧♦❣✐♥s ✹✷ ✻✾ ✰✷✼ ✰✻✹✳✷✽✪❚♦t❛❧ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❋❡✐t❛s ✶✾ ✷✶ ✰✷ ✰✶✵✳✺✸✪ ❚♦t❛❧ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ✹✺ ✺✹ ✰✾ ✰✷✵✳✵✪ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ q✉❡ ❤♦✉✈❡ ✷ ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❛ ♠❛✐s ♥♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❝♦♠ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦❚✷ ✭✶✶✳✼✻✪✮✳ ❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ❛❜❡rt♦ ❢♦✐ ✹✱ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ✐ss♦♣♦❞❡ t❡r s✐❞♦ ♦❝❛s✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❝✉rt♦ ♣r❛③♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ✐♠✲♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡✐①❛r❛♠ ❞❡ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r ♦ s✉✜❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s♣✉❞❡ss❡ t❡r ♥♦t❛s✳ P♦r ♣♦ss✉✐r ♠❛✐s r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ ❡ss❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ s❡r ✐❣✉❛❧✱♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❛ ♣r♦♣♦rçã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♥♦t❛s é ♠❛✐♦r ♥❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ■ss♦♣♦❞❡ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛r ❛ q✉❡❞❛ ❞❛s ♥♦t❛s✱ q✉❡ ❛t✐♥❣✐✉ ❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ✶✺✳✼✺✪ ♠❡♥♦r ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ✶✹✺P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ ❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❧♦❣✐♥s✮ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭❚✷✮ ❢♦✐ ✻✹✳✷✽✪ ♠❛✐♦r ❞♦ q✉❡ s❡♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♥♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ✉♠❛ ❢♦rt❡ ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❞♦s❛❧✉♥♦s ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳ ❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ❢♦✐ ♠❛✐♦r t❛♠❜é♠ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✱❝♦♠ ❞✉❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛ ♠❛✐s q✉❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦✱✐ss♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ✶✵✳✺✸✪ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❛ ♠❛✐s✳ ❖ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s✳ ◆♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ t❡♠♦s ✾ ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❛ ♠❛✐s ❞♦ q✉❡ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦❚✶✱ ♦ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ✷✵✪✳ ❆ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✹✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✜③❡r❛♠ ❡✴♦✉ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r❛♠❛s r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❢❡✐t❛s ❡ ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✹ ✕ ❉❡t❛❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✜③❡r❛♠✴❝♦rr✐❣✐r❛♠ ① r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❚✶ ❚✷◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❋❡✐t❛s ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❋❡✐t❛s ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ✵ ✺ ✼ ✺ ✹ ✶ ✼ ✶ ✶✵ ✶ ✷ ✸ ✷ ✶ ✺✸ ✷ ✸ ✸ ✷ ✹ ✲ ✵ ✲ ✸✺ ✲ ✵ ✲ ✷ ✻ ✲ ✵ ✲ ✵✼ ✲ ✷ ✲ ✶ ✽ ✲ ✶ ✲ ✶✾ ✲ ✶ ✲ ✵ ❚❖❚❆▲ ✶✼ ✶✼ ✶✾ ✶✾ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ é ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ♠♦str❛ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✜③❡r❛♠✴❝♦rr✐❣✐r❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❝❡rt❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉í♥❞♦ ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ ♥ã♦✜③❡r❛♠ ♥❡♥❤✉♠❛✳ ❊♠ ❛♠❜♦s ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s t✐✈❡♠♦s ✺ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ✜③❡r❛♠ ♥❡♥❤✉♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✜③❡r❛♠ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ é ♠❛✐♦r ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ❞♦ q✉❡ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✳ ❖✉tr♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛♥t❡q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ é q✉❡ ❞♦s ✹ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✜③❡r❛♠ ❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✱ ✸ ❞❡❧❡s ♣r♦ss❡❣✉✐r❛♠ ❡ ✜③❡r❛♠ ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛✼✺✪✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r s✐❞♦ ♦❝❛s✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ tr♦❢é✉ q✉❡ ❡①✐❣❡ q✉❡ ♦s♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ❢❛ç❛♠ três r❡❞❛çõ❡s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡ t❡r ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛r❡♠ ♥♦♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❊ss❡ ♠❡s♠♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❝❛✐ ♣❛r❛ ✹✵✪ ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✱ ♦♥❞❡ tí♥❤❛♠♦s✺ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✜③❡r❛♠ ❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ r❡❞❛çã♦✱ ♠❛s ❛♣❡♥❛s ✷ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛r❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛✳✻✳✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❖ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ três ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s r❡s♣♦st❛ s❡♥❞♦✿ ✶✹✻❆❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮✿ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❧♦❣✐♥s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ Métrica Acesso (A) por tratamento 12 10 8 6 2 T1 T2 Tratamento aplicado❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✶ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❆❝❡ss♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r P♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ q✉❡ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ✭♠é❞✐❛ ✭❚✶✮❂✷✳✹✼✶ ❝♦♥tr❛ ♠é❞✐❛✭❚✷✮❂✸✳✻✸✷✮❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ ✭♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✷ ❝♦♥tr❛ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✷✮❂✸✮✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❝❡rt❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❞❡❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡ss❛s ♠❡❞✐❞❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ♥♦t❛r q✉❡ ❤á ✉♠❛ t❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛❞❡ q✉❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❧♦❣✐♥s✮ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ s❡❥❛ ♠❛✐♦r q✉❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ ❧♦❣✐♥s ❞♦ tr❛t❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✳ ❆ ✜❣✉r❛ s✉❣❡r❡ q✉❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ss❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❝♦♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♥♦s✐♥❞✐❝❛ ✉♠❛ ❝❡rt❛ ❞✐s♣❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♦✉t❧✐❡rs ✭♣♦♥t♦s ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❞rã♦✮ é♠✉✐t♦ ♠❛✐♦r ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❞♦ q✉❡ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♥♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♣♦✉❝♦s❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❛❝❡ss❛r❛♠ ♠❛✐s ❞♦ q✉❡ ❞✉❛s ✈❡③❡s ✭✈❛❧♦r ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ✐ss♦ ♦❝♦rr❡✉ ❜❡♠ ♠❛✐s ✈❡③❡s ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✭t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ à ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛❡ ❛ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✷✮ ❂ ✸ ❃ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✭❚✶✮ ❂ ✷✮✳ ✶✹✼◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❣❡r❛❞❛s ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✜r♠❛r ❡ss❛s ❝♦♥❝❧✉✲ sõ❡s✳ ❚❛✐s ❛✜r♠❛çõ❡s só ♣♦❞❡rã♦ s❡r ❢❡✐t❛s q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❢♦r❡♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ✭❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ s✉❜s❡çã♦ ✻✳✸✳✸✮✳❆❧é♠ ❞❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❛♣❛r✐çã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s✳ ❆s ❋✐❣✉r❛s ✻✷ ❡ ✻✸❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ♣❛r❛ ❛♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✷ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r P♦❞❡♠♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❡st❡s ❞♦✐s ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛s q✉❡ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ tr❛t❛✲♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✭s❡♠ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✮ ♥ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✱❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡ ❡♥tr❡ ♠é❞✐❛ ❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ ❡ ♣♦r ♣♦ss✉✐r ✉♠❛ ❝❛✉❞❛ ♠✉✐t♦❧♦♥❣❛ ❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛✳ ❆♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✱ s❡ ❞❡s❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♠♦s ♦ ♦✉✲ t❧✐❡r✱ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❞❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ s❡r ❛❧t❛✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❡①♣❧❛♥❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ só ❝♦♠ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠ét♦✲❞♦s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s s❡rá ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛✜r♠❛r s❡ ❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ♥♦r♠❛✐s ♦✉ ♥ã♦✳❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s é ♣ré✲r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞❡ q✉❛❧ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s ❛✐♥❞❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥♦ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ q✉❡ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛❛❜s♦❧✉t❛ ♦❝♦rr❡✉ ❝♦♠ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ❛té ❞♦✐s ❛❝❡ss♦s✱ r❡st❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛♣❛r❛ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ♠❛✐♦r❡s ❞♦ q✉❡ ❞♦✐s✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♥♦ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦

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