UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE ALAGOAS INSTITUTO DE COMPUTAÇÃO PROGRAMA DE PÓS GRADUAÇÃO EM INFORMÁTICA

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❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❋❊❉❊❘❆▲ ❉❊ ❆▲❆●❖❆❙

■◆❙❚■❚❯❚❖ ❉❊ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖

P❘❖●❘❆▼❆ ❉❊ PÓ❙ ●❘❆❉❯❆➬➹❖ ❊▼ ■◆❋❖❘▼➪❚■❈❆

❚❍❨❆●❖ ❚❊◆Ó❘■❖ ▼❆❘❚■◆❙ ❉❊ ❖▲■❱❊■❘❆

❯♠ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r P❛r❡s

●❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s

❖♥❧✐♥❡✿ ❯♠ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r

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❚❤②❛❣♦ ❚❡♥ór✐♦ ▼❛rt✐♥s ❞❡ ❖❧✐✈❡✐r❛

❯♠ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r P❛r❡s ●❛♠✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛

❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❖♥❧✐♥❡✿ ❯♠ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦

❝♦♠ ♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r✲ ❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ♣❡❧♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ■♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ■❣ ■❜❡rt ❇✐tt❡♥❝♦✉rt ❙❛♥t❛♥❛ P✐♥t♦

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Catalogação na fonte

Universidade Federal de Alagoas

Biblioteca Central

Divisão de Tratamento Técnico

O48m Oliveira, Thyago Tenório Martins de.

Um modelo de avaliação por pares gamificado para ambientes educacionais online: um experimento com o meu tutor / Thyago Tenório Martins de Oliveira. – 2015.

190 f. : il.

Orientador: Ig Ibert Bittencourt Santana Pinto.

Dissertação (Mestrado em Informática) – Universidade Federal de Alagoas. Instituto de Computação, Maceió, 2015.

Bibliografias: f. 166-172. Apêndices: f. 173-190.

1. Ambientes online – Modelagem – Educação. 2. Avaliação por pares.

3. Gamificação – Técnicas. I. Título.

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❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙

❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❡ t✉❞♦✱ ❛❣r❛❞❡ç♦ à ❉❡✉s ♣♦✐s s❡♠ ❡❧❡ ❡stá ❥♦r♥❛❞❛ ♥ã♦ t❡r✐❛ s✐❞♦ ❝✉♠♣r✐❞❛✳

❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ à ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ q✉❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ♠❡ ❛♣♦✐♦✉ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ♠❡✉s ♣❛✐s q✉❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ❡st✐✈❡r❛♠ ❝♦♠✐❣♦✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❡ ❞❛ ✈✐❞❛✱ ♣♦r t❡r❡♠ ♠❡ ♣r♦♣✐❝✐❛❞♦ ❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛r ❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r ❡♠ ♠❡✉ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧✳

➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥♦✐✈❛ ❘❡❣✐♥❛ ❙t❡✐♥✱ ♣♦r t♦❞♦ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦ ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛çã♦ ❡ ③❡❧♦✱ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❡♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ♠❛✐s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ✐♠❡♥✲ s❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦s s❡✉s ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❊ ❛ s✉❛ ♠ã❡✱ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❛♠✐❣❛ ❈é❧✐❛ ❘❡❣✐♥❛✱ ♣♦r t♦❞❛ ❛ ❛❥✉❞❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ❡♠ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❡✉ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡✐✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ ♣r❡❝✐♦s♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠❡ ❛❥✉❞❛r✳

❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r ■❣ ■❜❡rt✱ ❝✉❥♦s ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠✱ sã♦ ❡ s❡rã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡✉ ❢✉t✉r♦ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝♦ ❡ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❖❜r✐❣❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❛❣✉ç❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✧✐♥q✉✐❡t❛çã♦ ✜❧♦só✜❝❛✧❡ ♣♦r ♠❡ ♠♦str❛r ♦✉tr❛s ♠❛♥❡✐r❛s ❞❡ t❡♥t❛r ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞❡r ❛q✉✐❧♦ q✉❡ ❛♣❛r❡♥t❡✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡①♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ♣♦r ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r ❡♠ ♠❡✉ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❡ ♣❡❧♦s ♣✉①õ❡s ❞❡ ♦r❡❧❤❛ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✱ ♠❡ tr❛③❡♥❞♦ ❞❡ ✈♦❧t❛ ❛♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ♥♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❡♠ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ♣r❡❝✐s♦✳

❆♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ t✐✈❡ ❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❝♦♠ ❡❧❡s✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♥❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝❛ ❡ ♣♦r t❛♥t❛ ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢✉t✉r❛ ✈✐❞❛ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✳

❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✐♥t❡❣r❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ◆❊❊❙✱ ❛♦ q✉❛❧ ♣❡rt❡♥ç♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦✱ ❡ ❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✭❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❖❧❛✈♦ ❍♦✲ ❧❛♥❞❛✱ ❊♥❞❤❡ ❊❧✐❛s ❡ ▼❛r❝❡❧♦ ◆✉♥❡s✮✳ P✉❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r ♥♦ss❛s ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛s✱ ❤♦r❛s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❢♦❝♦ ❡♠ ♥♦ss♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦✱ ❛♣♦✐♦✱ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛s✱ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡✱ ❡♥✜♠✱ ♣♦r t✉❞♦ q✉❡ ♣✉❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r✱ ❞❡s❞❡ ❛ ❝♦♥✈✐✈ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛s ❛❧❡❣r✐❛s✱ ❛s ❢r✉str❛çõ❡s ❡ ❛s ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛s✳

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❊P❮●❘❆❋❊

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❘❊❙❯▼❖

◆♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ✭❚■❈✮ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠ s❡ t♦r♥❛❞♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡✳ ❉✐✈❡rs♦s ♣❛ís❡s ❛❞❛♣t❛r❛♠ s✉❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❡ s✉♣♦rt❛r ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s t❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ♣r❡s❡♥❝✐❛✐s q✉❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✳ ◆♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ à ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s t❡♠ ❝r❡s❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ t♦r♥❛ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ✐rã♦ ❣❡r❛r ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛✲ ❞❡s ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛s✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ár❞✉❛ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❊ss❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❝r❡s❝❡ ❡①♣♦♥❡♥❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡ q✉✐s❡r♠♦s ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❛❜❡rt❛s ✭❡s❝r✐t❛s✮✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ às s✉❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r✐❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦r ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ é ✉♠❛ ♦♣çã♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s❛ ❡ ♣♦✉❝♦ ❡❢❡t✐✈❛✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ♣♦r ❡❧❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉✲ ❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛❝❛rr❡t❛♥❞♦ ♥❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛ ♣r♦❞✉çã♦ t❡①t✉❛❧✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s❡rã♦ ❢❡✐t❛s ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ♠❛♥✉✲ ❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡ t♦r♥❛r✐❛ r❛♣✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥✈✐á✈❡❧✳ ❊①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉s❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❡s❝r✐t❛s ❞❡ t❛❧ ♠❛✲ ♥❡✐r❛ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦s ❝✉st♦s ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦s às ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s ❞❡st❛s✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛t✉❛♠ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❣❛♥❤❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❧✐❜❡r❞❛❞❡ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❣❡r❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❧❡✈❛r ❛ ✉♠ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✐♥❝♦rr❡t♦ ❡ ❡♥❣❛♥♦s♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❣❡r❛ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✱ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡♥❞♦ ❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❣❛❥❛r ♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✧✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r✑ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❡♠♦❝✐♦♥❛❧✴❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✉♥✐r ❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✱ ❡❝♦♥♦♠✐③❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ❡s❢♦rç♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ q✉❡ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✱ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛s ❝♦rr❡çõ❡s✱ s❡♠ ♦ ✈✐és ❞❛ ❞❡s♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♥♦ ♣r♦✲ ❝❡ss♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ❡①♣❛♥sã♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝❡♥t❡♥❛s ♦✉ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❛s ♥♦t❛s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ s❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛r❛r❛♠ às ❞♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♠❡♥♦s t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜tê✲❧❛s ❡ ❛ ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✼✷✪ ♠❡♥♦r✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✐♥✢✉❡♥✲ ❝✐♦✉ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❛✱ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✶✶✳✼✻✪ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❡ ❡♠ ✻✹✳✷✽✪ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛✉♠❡♥t♦✉ ✶✵✳✺✸✪ ❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❝♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ❝r❡s❝❡✉ ❡♠ ✷✵✪✳

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❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚

■♥ r❡❝❡♥t ②❡❛rs✱ t❤❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ✭■❈❚✮ ❛♣♣❧✐❡❞ ✐♥ ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ❤❛s ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣❧② ✉s✉❛❧✳ ❙❡✈❡r❛❧ ❝♦✉♥tr✐❡s ❤❛✈❡ ❛❞❛♣t❡❞ t❤❡✐r ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤❡s t♦ ♣r♦♠♦t❡ ❛♥❞ s✉♣♣♦rt t❤❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ t❤❡s❡ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ✐♥ ❜♦t❤ ❝❧❛ssr♦♦♠ ❝♦✉rs❡s ❛s ✐♥ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❝♦✉rs❡s✳ ■♥ t❤❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t ♦❢ ❉✐st❛♥❝❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ t❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ✉s❡rs ❤❛s ❣r♦✇♥ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❜❧②✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ♠♦r❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✱ ❣✐✈❡♥ t❤❛t t❤❡s❡ ✇✐❧❧ ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡ ❛ ❧♦t ♦❢ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s t♦ ❜❡ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t❡❞✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss ❛ ❝❤♦r❡ t♦ t❡❛❝❤❡r✳ ❚❤✐s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ❣r♦✇s ❡①♣♦♥❡♥t✐❛❧❧② ✐❢ ✇❡ ✇❛♥t ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡ ♦♣❡♥ ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥ts ✭✇r✐tt❡♥✮✱ s✐♥❝❡ t❤❡✐r ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s ✇♦✉❧❞ ❢✉rt❤❡r ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡r✬s ✇♦r❦✱ ❞✉❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❢❛❝t t❤❛t ♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❜② ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s t②♣❡ ♦❢ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ✐s ❛ ❧❛❜♦r✐♦✉s ❛♥❞ ❧❡ss ❡✛❡❝t✐✈❡ ♦♣t✐♦♥✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐♠♣❧✐❡s t❤❛t ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s ❛r❡ ♠❛❞❡ ❜② t❤❡♠ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧❧②✱ r❡s✉❧t✐♥❣ ✐♥ ♦✈❡r✇♦r❦ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❧② ❤✐❣❤ ❝♦sts ❢♦r ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❡①t ♣r♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥✳ ❲✐t❤ t❤❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ st✉❞❡♥ts✱ ♠♦r❡ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s ✇✐❧❧ ❜❡ ♠❛❞❡ ❡✈❡r② ♥♦✇ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ❜② t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡rs ♠❛♥✉❛❧❧② ✇♦✉❧❞ q✉✐❝❦❧② ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ✐♥❢❡❛s✐❜❧❡✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ✐s ❛ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡ ✇✐❞❡❧② ✉s❡❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ ❝❛❧❧❡❞ ♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t t❤❛t ❡♥❛❜❧❡s t❤❡ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ✇r✐tt❡♥ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥s ✐♥ s✉❝❤ ❛ ✇❛② t❤❛t ✐t ✐s ♥♦t ♥❡❝❡ss❛r② t♦ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ t❤❡ ❝♦sts ❧✐♥❦❡❞ t♦ t❤❡s❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s✱ ♦♥❝❡ t❤❡ st✉❞❡♥ts t❤❡♠s❡❧✈❡s ✇♦✉❧❞ ❛❝t ✐♥ t❤❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss✱ ❣❛✐♥✐♥❣ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❢r❡❡ t♦ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡r✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤✐s t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡ ✉s✉❛❧❧② ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡s ❛ st✉❞❡♥t ❞✐ss❛t✐s❢❛❝t✐♦♥✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝❛♥ ❧❡❛❞ t♦ ✐♥❝♦rr❡❝t ❛♥❞ ♠✐s❧❡❛❞✐♥❣ r❡s✉❧ts✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐♥❞✐❝❛t❡s t❤❛t t❤❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛s♣❡❝t ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡s ✐♥❛♣♣r♦♣r✐❛t❡ ❜❡❤❛✈✐♦✉r ❜② st✉❞❡♥ts✱ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠✐s✐♥❣ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t s②st❡♠✳ ❚❤✉s✱ ✇❡ ♥❡❡❞ ❛ ♠❡❝❤❛♥✐s♠ t♦ ❡♥❣❛❣❡ t❤❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥ts ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t ♠♦❞❡❧✱ ✉s✐♥❣ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s t❤❛t ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ❛❜✐❧✐t② t♦ ✧✐♥✢✉❡♥❝❡✧ ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❡♠♦t✐♦♥❛❧✴❝♦❣♥✐t✐✈❡ st❛t❡ ♦♥ t❤❡ st✉❞❡♥t✳ ■♥ t❤✐s s❡♥s❡✱ t❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦s❡s ❛♥ ♣❡❡r ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t ♠♦❞❡❧ ✇✐t❤ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✳ ❲✐t❤ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ ♠♦❞❡❧✱ ✐t ✐s ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ t♦ ✉♥✐t❡ t❤❡ ❛❞✈❛♥t❛❣❡s ♦❢ ❜♦t❤ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✱ r❡❞✉❝✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♦✈❡r✇♦r❦ ♦❢ t❤❡ t❡❛❝❤❡r✱ s❛✈✐♥❣ t❤❡✐r t✐♠❡ ❛♥❞ ❡✛♦rt t♦ ✇❤❛t ✐s r❡❛❧❧② ♥❡❝❡ss❛r②✱ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❧② r❡❞✉❝✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❝♦st ❛ss♦❝✐❛t❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❝♦rr❡❝t✐♦♥s ✇✐t❤♦✉t t❤❡ ❜✐❛s ♦❢ ❞❡✲ ♠♦t✐✈❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ st✉❞❡♥ts ✐♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛❧❧♦✇s t❤❡ ❡①♣❛♥s✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s ❢♦r ❤✉♥❞r❡❞s ♦r ❡✈❡♥ t❤♦✉s❛♥❞s ♦❢ ✉s❡rs✳ ❚❤r♦✉❣❤ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥ts✱ ✇❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉❞❡❞ t❤❛t t❤❡ ❣r❛❞❡s ♦❜t❛✐♥❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ ♠♦❞❡❧ ✇❡r❡ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t t♦ t❤♦s❡ ♦❢ t❡❛❝❤❡rs✱ ✉s✐♥❣ ❧❡ss t✐♠❡ t♦ t♦ ♦❜t❛✐♥ t❤❡♠ ❛♥❞ ❛t ❛ ❝♦st ❛♣♣r♦①✐♠❛t❡❧② ✼✷✪ ❧❡ss✳ ❋✉rt❤❡r♠♦r❡✱ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ ❤❛❞ ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ✐♠♣❛❝t ❜② ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ t❤❡ r❡❣✐st❡r ♥✉♠❜❡r ✐♥ ✶✶✳✼✻✪ ❛♥❞ ✻✹✳✷✽✪ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ❧♦❣✐♥s✳ ▼♦r❡♦✈❡r✱ t❤❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ r❡❛❧✐③❡❞ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡❞ ✶✵✳✺✸✪ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ❝♦rr❡❝t❡❞ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡❞ ❜② ✷✵✪✳

(10)

▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ■▲❯❙❚❘❆➬Õ❊❙

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶ ✕ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♠❛tr✐❝✉❧❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷ ✕ ❙✉❜❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛s ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸ ✕ ❙❚■ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹ ✕ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺ ✕ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻ ✕ ❚✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ s✉❛ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼ ✕ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽ ✕ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾ ✕ P❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣♦r ❜❛s❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ r❡♠♦çã♦ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣♦r ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷ ✕ ❚✐♣♦s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺ ✕ ❊st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ✳ ✺✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻ ✕ ❊st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❛♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✺✽

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼ ✕ ❊st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ às ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ✳ ✳ ✺✾

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✰ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❆t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✶ ✕ ❊t❛♣❛s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✶

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✷ ✕ ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✸ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❛♦ ❡rr❛r ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ✲ ✈í❞❡♦s r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✽

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✹ ✕ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❞❡ ▼❛t❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✾

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✺ ✕ ❊st✉❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ✲ ❊①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ s♦❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✻ ✕ ❈♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥♦ ❋❛❝❡❜♦♦❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✶

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✼ ✕ ❱✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✶

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✽ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞✐s❝✉rs✐✈♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✸

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✾ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✹

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✵ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✺

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✶ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✻

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✷ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✻

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✸ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦

✉s✉ár✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✹ ✕ ❈❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ P❡❡r ❆ss❡ss♠❡♥t✳♦✇❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✾

(11)

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✻ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❧✐st❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ t❡♠❛s ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✼ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✸

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✽ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✹

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✾ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♥♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✺

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✵ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❝♦rr✐❣❡ ❛ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✻

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✶ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ r❡❧❛tór✐♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✷ ✕ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦

❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✸ ✕ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦

❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✲ P❛rt❡ ✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✹ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❡♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✺ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s

❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✹

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✻ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ① ❚✷✶✶✺

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✼ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✻

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✽ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✾ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✵ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♥❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❚✶ ✭❛③✉❧✮ ① ❚✷ ✭✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦✮ ✳ ✶✶✽

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✶ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s

❚✶ ✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✾

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✷ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✸ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✶

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✹ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✶

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✺ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s

❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✸

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✻ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✹

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✼ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✹

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✽ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ♥♦t❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✾ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ t❡♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ✳ ✶✷✾

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✵ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶✱ ❚✷ ❡ ❚✸ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✶

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✶ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❆❝❡ss♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s

❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✻

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✷ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✸ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✽

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✹ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦✭❆✮ ♥❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❚✶ ✭❛③✉❧✮ ① ❚✷ ✭✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦✮✶✹✾

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✺ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❋ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶

❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✻ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ✭❘❋✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✵

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❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✽ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ✭❘❋✮ ♥❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❚✶ ✭❛③✉❧✮ ①

❚✷ ✭✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✷

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻✾ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛✐①❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛ ✭❘❈✮

♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✷

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✵ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛ ✭❘❈✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✸

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✶ ✕ ❍✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çã♦ ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛ ✭❘❈✮ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✹

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✷ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❛❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✶✺✺

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✸ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❋❡✐t❛s ✭❘❋✮ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s

❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✼

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✹ ✕ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ✭❘❈✮ ♣❛r❛ ♦s tr❛t❛✲

♠❡♥t♦s ❚✶ ❡ ❚✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✾

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✺ ✕ ❈❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ▲❡❛r♥❡r✳♦✇❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✽

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✻ ✕ ❈❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡✳♦✇❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✾

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✼ ✕ ❈❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳♦✇❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✵

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✽ ✕ Pr♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❛çã♦ ❝r✐❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✼

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▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❚❆❇❊▲❆❙

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶ ✕ ❋♦r♠✉❧ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❙tr✐♥❣ ♥❛s ❜❛s❡s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸ ✕ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ♣❛ís❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹ ✕ ❋✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺ ✕ ▲♦♦♣s ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✻ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✸

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✼ ✕ ◆í✈❡✐s ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✽ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✻

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✾ ✕ ❈✉st♦✱ ♥♦t❛ ❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❞♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ✭♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♦✉ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s✮

❡ t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✭▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ♦✉ ◗✉❡st✐♥❛r✐♦ ♦♥ ❧✐♥❡✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✵ ✕ ▼❡❞✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❞✐s♣❡rsã♦ ❞❛s ❛♠♦str❛s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✸

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ◆♦t❛ ✭◆✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✽

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✷ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❚❡♠♣♦ ✭❚✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✷

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✸ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❈✉st♦ ✭❈✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✺

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✹ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛

◆♦t❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✼

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✺ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❚✲t❡st ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ◆♦t❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✽

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✻ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛

❚❡♠♣♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✾

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✼ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❚❡♠♣♦✶✸✵

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✽ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛

❈✉st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✷

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❲✐❧❝♦①♦♥ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❈✉st♦ ✶✸✸

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✵ ✕ ◆í✈❡✐s ❞♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✵

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✶ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✶✹✵

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✷ ✕ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✶

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✸ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❆❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✹

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✹ ✕ ❉❡t❛❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ✜③❡r❛♠✴❝♦rr✐❣✐r❛♠ ① r❡❞❛çõ❡s ✳ ✶✹✺

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✺ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❆❝❡ss♦ ✭❆✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✽

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✻ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❋❡✐t❛s ✭❘❋✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✶

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✼ ✕ ❙✉♠❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ✭❘❈✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✹

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✽ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛

❆❝❡ss♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✻

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✾ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❆❝❡ss♦✶✺✻

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✵ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛

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❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✶ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡✲

❞❛çã♦ ❋❡✐t❛ ✭❘❋✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✽

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✷ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡st❡ ❞❡ ❙❤❛♣✐r♦✲❲✐❧❦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛

❘❡❞❛çõ❡s ❈♦rr✐❣✐❞❛s ✭❘❈✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✾

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✸ ✕ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠étr✐❝❛ ❘❡✲

(15)

▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❆❇❘❊❱■❆❚❯❘❆❙ ❊ ❙■●▲❆❙

❆❆❆▲ ❆♥②✇❤❡r❡✱ ❆♥②t✐♠❡✱ ❆♥②♣❡rs♦♥ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✴❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❤♦r❛ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❧✉❣❛r ♣❛r❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❡ss♦❛

❆❈▼ ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡r②✴❆ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛

❆❱❆ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠

❈❙❈▲ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r✲s✉♣♣♦rt❡❞ ❝♦❧❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✴❆♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛ s✉♣♦rt❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r

❉▲ ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ❧♦❣✐❝✴▲ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦

❉❚❖ ❉❛t❛ tr❛♥s❢❡r ♦❜❥❡❝t✴❖❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s

❊❆❉ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛

❊◆❊▼ ❊①❛♠❡ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦

❊❘ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦

●◗▼ ●♦❛❧✱ q✉❡st✐♦♥✱ ♠❡tr✐❝✴ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s

■◆❊P ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❊st✉❞♦s ❡ P❡sq✉✐s❛s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s

▲P❙ ▲✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞❡ s♦❢✇❛r❡

▼❖❖❈ ▼❛ss✐✈❡ ♦♣❡♥ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s✴❈✉rs♦s ♠❛ss✐✈♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❡ ❛❜❡rt♦s

❖❲▲ ❲❡❜ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✴▲✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❲❡❜

P❍P ❍②♣❡rt❡①t Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss♦r✴Pré✲Pr♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r t❡①t♦

❘❉❋✲❙ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ s❝❤❡♠❛✴❊sq✉❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛r❝❛❜♦✉ç♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉s♦s

❘❉❋ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✴❆r❝❛❜♦✉ç♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉s♦s

❙❖❆P ❙✐♠♣❧❡ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❆❝❝❡ss ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧✴ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s s✐♠♣❧❡s

❙❚■ ❙✐st❡♠❛ t✉t♦r ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡

❚■❈ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦

❲❙❉▲ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✴ ▲✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜

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❙❯▼➪❘■❖

✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻

✶✳✶ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻

✶✳✷ Pr♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

✶✳✸ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷

✶✳✹ ❊s❝♦♣♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷

✶✳✺ ❈♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸

✶✳✻ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹

✷ ❋❯◆❉❆▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❚❊Ó❘■❈❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺

✷✳✶ ❆✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺

✷✳✶✳✶ ❱❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻

✷✳✶✳✷ ▲✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼

✷✳✷ ●❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽

✷✳✷✳✶ ❊❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾

✷✳✷✳✷ ❇❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞❛ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶

✷✳✷✳✸ ❈r✐❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷

✷✳✸ ❙✐st❡♠❛s t✉t♦r❡s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸

✷✳✸✳✶ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❙❚■ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹

✷✳✸✳✷ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦s ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❚✉t♦r❡s ■♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺

✷✳✹ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼

✷✳✹✳✶ ❇❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽

✷✳✹✳✷ ❖❲▲ ❡ ♣r♦té❣é ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾

✸ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❘❊▲❆❈■❖◆❆❉❖❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷

✸✳✶ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸

✸✳✶✳✶ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸

✸✳✶✳✷ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺

✸✳✶✳✸ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❊st✉❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼

✸✳✶✳✸✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ❊st✉❞♦s Pr✐♠ár✐♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽

✸✳✶✳✸✳✷ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❞❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾

✸✳✷ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵

✸✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷

✸✳✹ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵

✹ ❆ P❘❖P❖❙❚❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸

(17)

✹✳✶✳✶ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ① ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸

✹✳✶✳✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺

✹✳✶✳✷✳✶ ❆ ❣❛♠✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✷

✹✳✷ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺

✹✳✷✳✶ ❖ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺

✹✳✷✳✶✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ❊◆❊▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✾

✹✳✷✳✷ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✷

✹✳✷✳✸ ■♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ▼❡✉❚✉t♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✷

✺ ❱❆▲■❉❆➬➹❖ ✲ ❊❳P❊❘■▼❊◆❚❖ P❘❖❈❊❙❙❖ ❆❱❆▲■❆➬➹❖ P❆❘❊❙ ✾✽

✺✳✶ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✽

✺✳✶✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ Pr♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾✾

✺✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ■♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶

✺✳✶✳✸ P❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶

✺✳✶✳✸✳✶ ◗✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷

✺✳✶✳✸✳✷ ❋❛t♦r❡s ❡ ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹

✺✳✶✳✸✳✸ ❯♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✹

✺✳✶✳✸✳✹ ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺

✺✳✶✳✸✳✺ P❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺

✺✳✶✳✸✳✻ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❛♠❡❛ç❛s à ✈❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼

✺✳✷ ◆❛rr❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼

✺✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✾

✺✳✸✳✶ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶

✺✳✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✹

✺✳✸✳✸ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✺

✺✳✹ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✻

✻ ❱❆▲■❉❆➬➹❖ ✲ ❊❳P❊❘■▼❊◆❚❖ ●❆▼■❋■❈❆➬➹❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✼

✻✳✶ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✼

✻✳✶✳✶ P❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✽

✻✳✷ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✸

✻✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✹

✻✳✸✳✶ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✹

✻✳✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✺

✻✳✸✳✸ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✹

✻✳✹ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✵

✼ ❈❖◆❈▲❯❙Õ❊❙ ❊ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❋❯❚❯❘❖❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻✷

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❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❆ ✕ ▲■❙❚❆ ❈❖▼ ❖❙ ❆❘❚■●❖❙ ❙❊▲❊❈■❖◆❆❉❖❙ P❆❘❆ ❘❊❱■❙➹❖ ❙■❙❚❊▼➪❚■❈❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✸

❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❇ ✕ ▼❖❉❊▲❆❉❊▼ ❯❙❆◆❉❖ ❖◆❚❖▲❖●■❆❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✽

❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❈ ✕ ❊❳❊▼P▲❖ ■◆❚❊❘❋❆❈❊ ❲❙ P❘❖❱■❉❆ P❊▲❖ ▼❖❉❊▲❖ ✲ ■❲❘■❚■◆●❊❱❆▲❯❆❚■❖◆❲❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✶

❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❉ ✕ P❘❖P❖❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❘❊❉❆➬➹❖ ❈❘■❆❉❆ P❊▲❖ ❊❙✲ P❊❈■❆▲■❙❚❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✻

❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❊ ✕ ❋❖❘▼❯▲➪❘■❖ ❉❊ ❆❱❆▲■❆➬➹❖ P❆❉❘➹❖ P❆❘❆ ❘❊❉❆➬Õ❊❙ ❉❖ ❊◆❊▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✽

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✶✻

✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖

❆ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ✭❚■❈✮ ♥❛ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❞❡st❛❝❛❞❛ ❡ ❧❡✐t♠♦t✐✈ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✲❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ◆♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s✱ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣❛ís❡s tê♠ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ s✉❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❡ s✉♣♦r✲ t❛r ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s t❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ♣r❡s❡♥❝✐❛✐s q✉❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✳ ◆♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❉✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✭❊❆❉✮ ✲ ✉♠❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♠❡❞✐❛❞❛ ♣♦r t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❡♠ q✉❡ ❞✐s❝❡♥t❡s ❡ ❞♦❝❡♥t❡s ❡stã♦ s❡♣❛r❛❞♦s ❡s♣❛❝✐❛❧ ❡✴♦✉ t❡♠♣♦r❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♥ã♦ ❡stã♦ ✜s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣r❡s❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✲❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✭▼❖❘❆◆✱ ✷✵✵✽✮ ✲ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡st❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s s❡ t♦r♥❛ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ♠❛♥t❡r ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✈✐❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳

❆t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s q✉❡ ❛♣ó✐❛♠ ❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s t✉t♦r❡s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ✭❙❚■s✮✭❙▲❊❊▼❆◆❀ ❇❘❖❲◆✱ ✶✾✽✷✮✱ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥✲

t❡s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ✭❆❱❆✮ ✭❡①✿ ▼♦♦❞❧❡✶✱ ❙❖▲❆❘✱ ❚❡❧❊❞✉❝✱ ❇❧❛❝❦❜♦❛r❞✱❙❛❦❛✐

✮✱ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❛ s✉♣♦rt❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r✭▼■❨❆❑❊✱

✷✵✵✼✮ ❡ ♠❛✐s r❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❝✉rs♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❛❜❡rt♦s ❡ ♠❛ss✐✈♦s ✻✭❲❯▲❋ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮ ✭❡①✿

❊❉❳✼✱ ❈♦✉rs❡r❛✱ ❯❞❛❝✐t②✮✳ ❆s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♥st✐t✉❡♠

✉♠❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ♥♦ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♣❛ss❛♠♦s ❛ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡r ✉♠❛ ❞❡s❝❡♥tr❛✲ ❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦✱ ❛♥t❡s ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦ às ❛✉❧❛s ♣r❡s❡♥❝✐❛✐s✳ ■ss♦ ✈❡♠ ♦❝♦rr❡♥❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♠❡❞✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ q✉❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ♦ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❧✉❣❛r✱ ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❡ss♦❛✱

❆❆❆▲ ✶✵ ✭❇■❚❚❊◆❈❖❯❘❚ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✳

✶✳✶ ▼♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦

❈♦♠ ♦ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❊❆❉✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s t❡♠ ❝r❡s❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛t✐♥❣✐♥❞♦ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✺✱✽ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ❞❡ ♠❛trí❝✉❧❛s ❡♠ ✷✵✶✷ ♥♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❈❡♥s♦ ❊❆❉✳❇❘ ✷✵✶✷✱ ❞✐✈✉❧❣❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❆ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❇r❛s✐❧❡✐r❛ ❞❡ ❊❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❉✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ✭❆❜❡❞✮✱ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✶✳ ❆ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ s✉r❣✐r❛♠ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ t♦r♥♦✉ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ q✉❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❡ss♦❛ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ à ✐♥t❡r♥❡t s❡ ✐♥s❝r❡✈❛ ❡♠ ❝✉rs♦s ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐tár✐♦✱ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❣r❛t✉✐t♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛ ♦

▼♦♦❞❧❡✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣s✿✴✴♠♦♦❞❧❡✳♦r❣✴

❚❡❧❡❞✉❝✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳t❡❧❡❞✉❝✳♦r❣✳❜r✴

❇❧❛❝❦❜♦❛r❞✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❜❧❛❝❦❜♦❛r❞✳❝♦♠✴

❙❛❦❛✐✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❛❦❛✐♣r♦❥❡❝t✳♦r❣✴

❚r❛❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✐♥❣❧ês✿ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r✲s✉♣♣♦rt❡❞ ❝♦❧❧❛❜♦r❛t✐✈❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ✲ ❈❙❈▲

❚r❛❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ✐♥❣❧ês✿ ▼❛ss✐✈❡ ❖♣❡♥ ❖♥❧✐♥❡ ❈♦✉rs❡ ✲ ▼❖❖❈

❊❉❳✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣s✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❡❞①✳♦r❣✴

❈♦✉rs❡r❛✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣s✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❝♦✉rs❡r❛✳♦r❣✴

❯❞❛❝✐t②✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣s✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✉❞❛❝✐t②✳❝♦♠✴

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✶✼

❣r❛♥❞❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ♥♦ ❜r❛s✐❧ ❡ ♥♦ ♠✉♥❞♦ ✭❊❆❉✮✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶ ✕◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♠❛tr✐❝✉❧❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛

❋♦♥t❡✿ ❈❡♥s♦ ❊❆❉✳❇❘ ✷✵✶✷

P♦r ✉♠ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ❛❧t♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♠❛trí❝✉❧❛s ♥❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ❤♦✉✈❡ ✉♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♦❢❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ♦♥❧✐♥❡✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r ✏❆❝❡ss♦ P❛rt✐❝✐♣❛t✐✈♦ ❡ ❯♥✐✈❡rs❛❧ ❞♦ ❈✐❞❛❞ã♦ ❇r❛s✐❧❡✐r♦ ❛♦ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✑✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♠❡t❛s ❞♦ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥t✐t✉✲ ❧❛❞♦ ✏●r❛♥❞❡s ❉❡s❛✜♦s ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ✷✵✵✻ ✲ ✷✵✶✻✑ ✭❈❆❘❱❆▲❍❖❀ ▲❊❖◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✱ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❇r❛s✐❧❡✐r❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✳

P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s t♦r♥❛ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❛♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r❡♠ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✱ ✐rã♦ ❣❡r❛r ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛ s❡r❡♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦s✳ ❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ❞❡ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡ ❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✱ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ár❞✉❛ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✴t✉t♦r ❞❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✳ ◆❡st❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ t♦r♥❛✲s❡ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❚■❈s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r ❡st❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣♦✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛✐s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧✉♥♦✳

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References

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  2. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❛❝♠✳♦r❣✴❛❜♦✉t✴❝❧❛ss✴❝❧❛ss✴✷✵✶✷❃✳
  3. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴❞①✳❞♦✐✳♦r❣✴✶✵✳✶✵✵✻✴✐❥❤❝✳✶✾✾✺✳✶✵✽✶❃✳
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  5. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴♣♦rt❛❧✳✐♥❡♣✳❣♦✈✳❜r✴✇❡❜✴❡♥❡♠✴❡♥❡♠❃✳
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  7. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇❡❜✐❝s✳❝♦♠✳❛✉✴❜❧♦❣✴❣♦♦❣❧❡✲❛❞✇♦r❞s✴s♣❧✐t✲t❡st✐♥❣✲❣✉✐❞❡✲❢♦r✲♦♥❧✐♥❡✲r❡t❛✐❧❡rs✴❃✳
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  9. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴♣r♦t❡❣❡✳st❛♥❢♦r❞✳❡❞✉✴♦✈❡r✈✐❡✇✴❃✳
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  11. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇✸✳♦r❣✴❚❘✴♦✇❧✲❣✉✐❞❡✴❃✳
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