Periphytic algae in a floodplain lake and river under low water conditions

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Biota Neotropica 16(3): e20160159, 2016

  As algae distribution in aquatic environments is a strong indicator of physical and chemical conditions of the sites,we aimed to determine the structure of periphytic algae in lentic and lotic environments during drought conditions and to uncover the main local abiotic factors in community structuring. Diatoms were predominant at both sites due to their strategic traits, and between sites,there were different patterns in the periphytic algal community structure, owing to the distinctive physical and chemical characteristics of the lake and the river.

Periphytic algae in a floodplain lake and river under

  As algae distribution in aquatic environments is a strong indicator of physical and chemical conditions of the sites,we aimed to determine the structure of periphytic algae in lentic and lotic environments during drought conditions and to uncover the main local abiotic factors in community structuring. Diatoms were predominant at both sites due to their strategic traits, and between sites,there were different patterns in the periphytic algal community structure, owing to the distinctive physical and chemical characteristics of the lake and the river.

Algas perifíticas em lago e rio de planície de

  Em planícies de inundação, as algas perifíticas são responsáveis por parte da produção primária, são a principal fonte de deposição de carbono orgânico, desempenham um papel importante na mineralização e ciclagem de nutrientes, e são a base da cadeiaalimentar de muitos organismos. Nossa hipótese é que as diatomáceas seriam mais frequentes do que as algas verdese desmídias em ambos os locais, devido as suas características de resistência, e que a maior riqueza, densidade e diversidade de algas perifíticas que ocorreria no lago devido à maior disponibilidade de nutrientes e a ausênciade fluxo.

Introduction

Materials and Methods

  We aimed to answer the following questionssurrounding the lake and river: i) What is the pattern of the periphytic algae attributes (composition, richness, density and diversity) in eachtype of environment (lentic or lotic) in drought conditions? In floodplains, periphytic algae is responsible for part ofthe primary production, is the principal source of organic carbon deposition, plays an important role in mineralization and nutrientcycling, and is the base of the food web for many organisms (Stevenson1996, Felisberto & Murakami 2013).

Variables Lake Finado Raimundo River Ivinhema June September December June September December

  The Bray-Curtis index wasused to calculate the distances and check the stress level of adjustment of the newly generated axes and the ordering of the dissimilarity matrix(Legendre & Legendre 1998). We determined the dominance and abundance of species as proposed by Lobo & Leighton (1986), where the dominant species are those withdensities greater than 50% of the total density of the community, and the abundant species were those with densities exceeding the mean populationdensity of each sample.

Data analysis

Results

  In the lake, the dominance of diatoms maybe by it be excellent competitors There is an important spatial and temporal variability in the limnological characteristics of the Upper Paraná river floodplain habitats(Thomaz et al. The high values of dissolved oxygen in the lake and suspended solids in the river in June and September mayexplained the high density of diatoms, which, by having chlorophyll Climate change represents a complex amalgam of stressors, which include the increased frequency and intensity of droughts and extremeflow events (Woodward et al. 2010).

Discussion

  The highest values for algal densities many diatoms have specialized structures for attachment to the substrate,were recorded in September for both sites, in agreement with Algarte such as mucilaginous peduncles in the Gomphonema species and the production of mucilaginous matrices as in Frustulia and Naviculaet al. Our study revealed the primaryimportance of conductivity, suspended solids and phosphorus for the river and turbidity and nitrogen for the lake as abiotic local factors inperiphytic algae structuring in drought conditions in the Upper Paraná river floodplain.

Táxons Abbreviation LJ LS LD RJ RS RD Bacillariophyceae

  X X Gomphonema augur Goa Gomphonema insigne Goi X X X Gomphonema gracile Gog X X X Gomphonema brasiliense Goe X X X X X Gomphonema mexicanum Gom X X X X Frustulia saxonica Fru X X Frustulia pumilio Frp X X Fragilaria sp. Gop Gomphonema parvulum Gov X X X Gomphonema turris Got X X Gomphonema pumilum Gol X X X X X X X X X Fragilaria capucina Frc Achnathes sp.1 Acn X X Encyonema sp.1 Ema X X X Encyonema sp.

X Navicula sp.4

X Nitzschia sp.4

  Nav X X X X X X X X Navicula sp.2 Nal X X X Melosira varians Mev X Gyrosigma sp.1Gyn X Gyrosigma sp. Gyr X Gomphonema sp.6 Gmp Gomphonema sp.5 Gma X X X Navicula sp.3 Naa X Surirella angusta Sui X Nitzschia sp.1 Niz X X X Pinnularia latarea Pin Nia Nitzschia sp.3 Nii X X X Nitzschia sp.2 Nih X Nitzschia sp.

X Chlorophyceae 7

  Oed X X Oedogonium sp.1 Oeg X X X Oedogonium sp.2 Oem X X X Continued Supplement 1. Cus X Cyanophyceae 1 Cya X XCyanophyceae 2 Cyn X Cyanophyceae 3 Cyc X Cyanophyceae 4 Cyo X XCyanophyceae 5 Cyf X XCyanophyceae 6 Cyi X X Chlorococcales sp.

Continued Supplement 1. LJ LS LD Táxons Abbreviation RJ RS RD

Oedogonium sp.3 Oep X X X Oedogonium Oez X sp.4

Rhodophyceae

Audouinella pygmaea Aud X Xanthophyceae Characiopsis sp. Cps X X

Zygnemaphyceae

  Com X X Cosmarium sp.1 Coi X XCosmarium sp.2 Cou X X X Cosmarium sp.3 Cma X Cosmarium Cmu X sp.4 Cosmarium sp.5 Cmb X X X Cosmarium sp.6 Cmc X Cosmarium sp.7 Cme X X X Cosmarium sp.8 Cmm X X Cosmarium sp.9 Csm X Euastrum rectangulare Eur X Euastrum sp. borgei Stl X Staurastrum margaritacium Stm X X Staurastrum quadrangulare Stq X Staurastrum setierum Ste X Std X X X Staurastrum trifidum Staurastrum volans Stv X Staurodesmus cuspidatus Stc X X Staurodesmus dickiei X Stk Staurastrum sp.

Acknowledgements

  Dams and the fish fauna of the Neotropical region: impacts and management related todiversity and fisheries. and the Laboratory of Limnology ofNupélia for the analysis of limnologic variables, and Mormul, R.

References

  Distribution of periphytic diatoms in the rivers of the Lake Ladoga basin (Northwestern ROS, J. Diatom-based bioassessment in wetlands: for the use of diatom assemblages in the water management policy of how many samples do we need to characterize the diatom assemblage in aOverijssel (The Netherlands).

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