4 (mm) Drill point angle 118º Drill length 30, 8 (mm)

19 

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The bone drilling is common in orthopaedic surgery. The success of this surgery is

dependent on many factors, namely on the heat generation control during the bone

drilling. The main concern in bone drilling is the mechanical and thermal damage

induced by inappropriate parameters, as drill speed and feed-rate.

Motivation:

Find the best drill conditions where the increase in bone temperature

would be minimal (considering the criterion of temperature, above 47º C) [1].

Two biomechanical test blocks with similar density to the human bone were

chosen for the composite materials study.

Thermocouples (K-type) and a thermographic camera were used to measure the

temperature inside the blocks and in the drill bit, respectively.

The thermocouples were placed in adjacent positions to the drill bit.

Different feed-rates and drill speeds were considered, in order to evaluate the

influence on the drilling process.

[1] Eriksson RA et al. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 50:101-107, 1983. [2] Aerssens J et al. Endocrinology, 139:663-670, 1998. [3] Fernandes et al. BioMedWomen, 20-23 June, 2015.

Temperature evaluation in composite materials and

ex-vivo

bovine bones, during

the drilling process.

Different experimental methods were used, considering the effects of feed-rate,

drill speed, hole depth and the temperature variation between different materials.

3- NUMERICAL MODEL: HEAT PROPAGATION

Eight samples of bovine femur were obtained from a local butchers to

the ex-vivo

study (mechanical properties similar to human bone, [2]).

The samples have been prepared to obtain just the cortical bone tissue (epiphysis,

bone marrow and periosteum were removed leaving only the mid-diaphysis).

To retain the mechanical and thermo-physical properties, all samples were kept moist

in saline solution with gauze swabs and stored in plastic bags at -4ºC.

Different parameters were used to evaluate the influence on the drilling process.

1.1 Objectives

Graphs (a), (b) and (c) represent the temperatures at different positions of the

thermocouples (Side A), with 30mm of depth; feed-rate V'=25, V''=50 and

V'''=75mm/min; and constant drill speed 800rpm.

Graph (d) represents the temperature, at different positions of the thermocouples in

Side B for one drilled hole, with a feed-rate V’= 25mm/min and a drill speed 800rpm.

The present study showed the combinations of different drill parameters producing temperatures far below the critical values.

The application of high drill speeds and feed-rates reduce the heat generated during bone drilling process and decreasing the osteonecrosis in cortical bone.

The values of temperature in the drilling process of

ex vivo

bovine tissue were lower than the drilling process of composite materials.

Parameters

Drill diameter 4 (mm) Drill point angle 118º Drill length 30, 8(mm) Drill speed 600, 800, 900, 1200 (rpm) Feed-rate 25, 50, 75 (mm/min)

In the

ex-vivo

study only the the thermal camera was

used to measure the temperature in drill bit, before

and after of drilling process.

The holes were carried out at room temperature

without cooling.

Parameters

Drill diameter 4 (mm) Drill point angle 118º Drill length 8 (mm) Drill speed 800, 900 (rpm) Feed-rate 50 (mm/min)

Drill speed [rpm] ΔT [ºC]

M ± SD [Range]

600 (n=6) 102.75 ± 14.16 [77.80-115.80]

1200 (n=6) 87.45 ± 7.25 [76.20-97.0]

MMean value, SDStandard Deviation, nnumber of holes, ΔTTemperature variation Table- 3 Temperature variation from drill bit, before and after drilling, in composite materials to holes with 30 mm of depth.

Drill speed [rpm]

Composite material Ex-vivostudy

M ± SD [Range] M ± SD [Range]

800 (n=8) 68.95 ± 2.60 [65.90-73.60] (n=23) 39.80 ± 6.57 [32.80-48.37]

900 (n=8) 68.00 ± 7.72 [54.20-79.40] (n=25) 39.78 ± 2.08 [35.55-47.02]

MMean value, SDStandard Deviation, nnumber of holes

In order to compare the obtained results in composite materials and

ex-vivo

studies,

several holes with 8mm of depth were made with different parameters.

Table 4 shows the mean values in different holes made with a drill speed: 800 and

900rpm and a constant feed-rate V’’=50mm/min.

Table- 4 Temperature variation from drill bit, before and after drilling, in composite materials to holes with 8 mm of depth.

It is concluded that the increase in feed-rate causes lesser increase in the bone

tissue temperature.

The thermocouples position showed a constant distribution of temperatures, with

a decreasing tendency when thermocouple is farthest from the hole.

The temperature decreases with increasing drill speed.

Temperature in the cutting tool is higher in holes made in composite materials.

Temperature in the cutting tool increases with the increasing depth of the hole.

For holes with a depth of 30mm were obtained a range equal to [76.2-115.8] and

the holes with 8mm the range is equal to [32.8-79.4].

In a real situation, the drilling will never exceed 8mm of depth and therefore the

measured temperatures in this study are far from the critical values.

Table- 1 Parameters of drilling.

Table- 2 Parameters of drilling.

Table 3 represents the temperature variation from the drill bit with drill speed 600 and

1200rpm and feed-rate as constant V’’=50mm/min.

6

th

International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design

Ponta Delgada/Azores, 26-30 July 2015

1INEGI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal 2LAETA-INEGI/UMNMEE Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal

3CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DRILLING IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

3. DRILLING IN

EX-VIVO

BOVINE MATERIAL

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5. CONCLUSIONS

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