The Survey on 20th Century Architecture in Portugal (IAP20)

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  TRAD I TI ON AN D M OD ERN I TY I N TERTW I N I N G I N TH E RE- PRESEN TATI ON OF PORTUGUESE M ODERN ARCH I TECTURE: Th e ca se of t h e Su r ve y on 2 0 t h Cen t u r y Ar ch it e ct u r e in Por t u ga l M a r t a La la n da Pr ist a

  Cent ro em Rede de I nvest igação em Ant ropologia ( CRI A- FCSH/ NOVA) / Cent re for Research in Ant hropology, Lisbon, Port ugal

  Abst r a ct

The nexus bet w een t radit ion and m odernit y is long- root ed in t he int ellect ual and

polit ical discour ses about a Port uguese ar chit ect ur e ident it y, eit her as a dialogue

const rued as a nat ional specificit y , or as a dichot om y t hat st r esses differ ent act ors'

dist inct and even opposing cult ural underst andings and polit ical uses of cat egories

of cult ur e and t im e. Recent ly, how ev er, t he hist or y and crit ique of m odernism in

archit ect ure has overcom e t he m ainst r eam r eadings of it s corpus, m it igat ing it s

ort hodoxy , and disclosing long- st anding relat ionships bet w een m odern archit ect ure

proposals and v ernacular set t lings. Such rer eading has t rigger ed a r evision of

Port uguese hist ory of archit ect ure, in part icular r egarding t he gat e- keeping

concept ions of Port ugal as an isolat ed and peripheral count r y, and t he polit ical

st ances of part icular archit ect ural pr oduct ions. This paper aim s t o discuss t he

ext ent of t he t radit ion - m odernit y bindings in t he spacialisat ion of a Port uguese

ident it y in archit ect ural discourses. I n t his scope, it w ill look int o t he survey on t he

20t h cent ury Port uguese ar chit ect ur e conduct ed by t he Port uguese archit ect s

bet w een 2003 and 2006, as an expression of how Port uguese m oder n archit ect ur e

is being em ically const r ued. Taking int o account it s process and out com es, and it s

aut hors' purposes and reasoning, t he paper w ill exam ine it s m odes and hues,

evaluat ing t he dynam ics beyond t he pr oduct ion of a hist ory of archit ect ure and it s

relat ing t o broader pr ocesses of im agining t he past and cult ure in Port ugal.

  Ke yw or ds: Survey, Hist or y of Archit ect ure, Herit age, Nat ional I dent it y.

  The relat ion bet ween m odernit y and t radit ion is a concern long root ed in Port uguese discourses about an archit ect ural hist ory and ident it y oft en relat ed t o erudit e- v ernacular and urban- rural correlat ions. I t has been reasoned as a dialogue t hat const rues a nat ional fundam ent al and a dichot om y t hat em phasises opposing int erest s and powers in t he social product ion of space. The argum ent rest s on t he idea t hat int ernat ional m odels have been sensit ively int erpret ed by spat ial pract ices in- bet ween erudit ion and vernacular ism , bot h in t he product ion of hist oric ( e.g. Cost a,

  

  1995) and m odern archit ect ure ( e.g. Ollero, 2001) Regarding t he lat t er, 1 t he hist ory of Port uguese archit ect ure evinces som e hues. Following on it s

  For purposes of clearer reading, t he paper follows t he t erm s globally used by I AP20's aut hors, using Modern t o refer t o t he Modern Movem ent product ion, using Modernist t o address previous aest het ics inspired by m odernit y, and using m odern w hen report ing t h indifferent ly t o t he cont em porary t im e, set roughly on t he 20 cent ury. pioneers ( e.g. Port as, 1978) , t he argum ent s of a geo- econom ic per iphery and ideological resist ance have st ressed t radit ion and m odernit y as opposing narrat ives of dist inct reasonings by conservat ive and progressive ideals. A key m om ent was set on t he fift ies, bet ween archit ect s' first nat ional congress ( 1948) and t heir de- obj ect ificat ion of t radit ion in t he Survey on Port uguese Regional Archit ect ure ( I ARP) ( SNA, 1961) . I t s underst anding of ver nacular was consider ed t o have disciplined t he revision of a conservat ive Modernism and grounded t radit ion- m odernit y bindings as a fundam ent al of Port uguese Modern archit ect ure ( Tost ões, 1997) .

  Such ort hodox hist ory of Port uguese m odern archit ect ure has been challenged by crit ical analyses t hat quest ion t he grounds of t he periphery

  

  and resist ance argum ent s ( e.g. Alm eida 2008) . I t s place in t he m ainst ream narrat ive of Port uguese archit ect ure seem s, however, t o have been on hold unt il recent ly, when t he int ernat ional hist ory and crit ique of m odernism reviewed it s relat ion t o regional vernacularism s beyond t he Anglo- Saxon hegem onic em phasis on universal rat ionalit y ( e.g. Lej eune and Sabat ino, 2010) . New research in Port ugal appears t o be follow ing up developm ent s, deconst ruct ing t enet s by unveiling Port uguese archit ect s' int eract ions w it h t he out side world and t he m eanders of t heir ideological and polit ical

  t h

  alignm ent s. The 20 cent ury seem s nowadays t o represent a m at urat ion process of Port uguese archit ect ure ( e.g. Tost ões, 2002) . I n an effort t o underst and t he ext ent of t hese t radit ion- m odernit y bindings in t oday's

  

spacialisat ion of a Por t uguese ident it y in ar chit ect ure, t his paper present s a

  prelim inary analysis of t he lat est em ic const ruct ion of an idea of Port uguese

  t h archit ect ure – t he Sur vey on 20 Cent ury Archit ect ure in Port ugal ( I AP20) .

  Th e Su r ve y on 2 0 t h Ce n t u r y Ar ch it e ct ur e in Por t u ga l ( I AP2 0 )

  I n 2003, t he Port uguese Order of Archit ect s in consort ium w it h t he Minist ry of Cult ure and t he Fundació Mies van der Rohe was grant ed European funds 2 t o conduct a nat ionw ide inquir y on archit ect ure built dur ing t he last cent ury.

  The work of Pedro Vieira de Alm eida is groundbreaking in t his respect . The reference t o Apont am ent os para um a Teoria da Arquit ect ura ( 2008) is t o be underst ood as illust rat ive, since it gat hers essays from different dat es.

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  Celebrat ing t he I ARP's 50 anniversary, t he new inquir y focused on t he erudit e product ion, aim ing t o prom ot e t he social and polit ical recognit ion of m odern archit ect ure's values. I nspired by it s predecessor and carried out unt il 2006, I AP20 was m et hodologically built upon fieldwork, assem bling six

  

  t eam s of archit ect s t o operat e in six different regions of Port ugal . Sign of t he t im es, t eam s set off equipped w it h georeference devices and com put ers

   t o build a digit al dat abase according t o a r ecord- sheet previously designed .

  Also different ly, t hey count ed on a list of reference buildings t o organise it inerar ies, assem bled by research in j ournals and m onographs, and added suggest ions of t he m unicipalit ies' t echnicians. Alike t heir pr edecessors, t eam s could adapt pr eparat ory guidelines according t o regional specificit ies. Nevert heless, a balance bet ween t im es, spaces, funct ional and aest het ic

  t h t ypes of 20 cent ury Port uguese archit ect ure should be account ed for.

  Three sem inars scheduled t he works of t he Survey. The first gat hered coordinat ors and int ernat ional expert s t o discuss concept s and m et hodologies; t he second reunit ed t he whole t eam t o present and t est inst rum ent s; and t he t hird was open t o t he public, present ing part ial

  

  result s . The collect ive work was aft erwards released in an on- line dat abase and published in pr int ( Afonso, 2006) and CD- Rom ( OA- CDN, 2006)

   3 form at s, in Apr il 2006 These t ranslat e t he 120 t housand kilom et res Scient ific coordinat or: Ana Tost ões; Nort h Region: Sérgio Fernandez ( coord.) , I nês Calor, José Manuel Capela, José Miguel Brás Rodrigues, Paulo Mont eiro and Pedro Araúj o; Cent re

  Region: José Bandeirinha ( coord.) , Gonçalo Cant o Moniz, I sabel Bolas, José Manuel Oliveira and Susana Lobo; Lisbon and Tagus Valley Region: João Vieira Caldas and José Silva Carvalho ( coord.) , Conceição Cort e- Real, João Sant a- Rit a, João Alves da Cunha, Miguel Judas, Pedro Garcia da Fonseca and Sofia Curt o; Sout h Region: Michel Toussaint and Ricardo Carvalho ( coord.) , José Manuel Rodrigues, Pat rícia Bent o d'Alm eida, Rui Mendes and Vít or Mest re; Azores Region: João Maia Macedo ( coord.) , Manuela Braga and Mafalda Vicent e; 4 Madeira Region: Luís Vilhena ( coord.) and Pilar Luz.

  The record sheet includes fields such as: locat ion, aut horship, dat es, t ransform at ions, conservat ion st at us, urban set t ing, funct ional t ype, cont em porary funct ion, legal prot ect ion, bibliographic references, and a space for observat ions on it s t echnical, social, cont ext ual, hist orical and cult ural feat ures. I t s digit al form also included t he possibilit y of at t aching pict ures and drawings, besides t he processual dat a ( num erat ion, region and aut hor of 5 survey) . Dat abase is available at : ht t p: / / www.iap20.pt .

  The first sem inar was held in Lisbon on February 20 04 wit h t he part icipat ion of Maurizio Pla, Ant ónio Pizza, Luís Hornet , Nuno Gr ande, Xavier Cost a, Wilfried Wang and Vit t orio Lam pugnani. The second sem inar t ook place in Abrant es on July 2005. The final sem inar occurred in Coim bra on Novem ber 2005. Also, t o prom ot e I AP20 result s, t here was an 6 exhibit ion held in I st anbul during t he UI A Congress ( 2005) .

  There are significant differ ences bet ween dat abase, CD- Rom and book. The first t wo include m ore com plet e records, while t he last present s a select ion of buildings wit h sim ple dat a; t he last t wo include supplem ent ary inform at ion like t hem at ic rout s, archit ect s' t rodden, t he 299 count ies v isit ed, t he 82 t housand pict ures t ak en, and t he six t housand records creat ed. Team s acknowledge som e inaccuracies and gaps, consider ing it t o be an open work, a basis for fut ure research and updat es. I ndeed, I AP20 is not present ed, not represent ed as hist ory. I t is m ost ly seen as a dat abase which t he aut hors regret not having been given

   t he t im e t o reflect ively analyse before t he release of result s .

  Nevert heless, I AP20's result s obj ect ify Port uguese archit ect ure built dur ing

  t h

  t he 20 cent ury, enunciat ing an archit ect ural landscape of t he past . As t he post m odern epist em ology of sciences brought t he m at erial and social worlds t oget her, t he obj ect iv e- subj ect ive dichot om y was rev iewed and t he hist ory- m em ory dist ance was narrowed. The past was reasoned as a social and int ellect ual const ruct , m eaning t hat herit age was no longer a m at t er of t rut h, but of int erpret at ion and proposit ion. I n t he st udy of archit ect ure, t his developm ent m eant an accept ance of it s m eanings t o be t he ent anglem ent of different hist or ies ( e.g. Whyt e, 2006) , writ t en by look ing at archit ect ure as represent at ion, as praxis, as product , and as a space for perform ance ( e.g. Lees, 2001) . Wit hin t his t heoret ical fram ework, I AP20 can be considered one expression of a " hist or ical cult ure" ( cf. Rüsen 1994) . I t is

  

one m eans t hrough which one group produces and dissem inat es one past ,

  put t ing int o pract ice an em ic narrat ive t hat inform s and is inform ed by societ y's collect ive hist orical conscience. Given t he form and cont ent s of t he published result s, I AP20 furt herm ore approaches a " landscape of m em ory" t hat leaves out t he cult ural processes t hat build space as place, t o t ake it as an inscr ibed surface in t im e ( cf. Küchler 1993) . What t his paper proposes is t herefore a reading of t his landscape as a const ruct of t he past , looking int o

   I AP20's out put s and it s aut hors' reasonings . I t will focus on t hree chief

  ideas repeat edly st ressed: ( 1) t he open work st at us; ( 2) t he pursuit of t im e- space- t ype represent at iveness; and ( 3) t he prom ot ion of public awareness of t he values of m odern herit age. This r eading m ust t h

  biographies, a 20 cent ury chronology ( CD- Rom ) or essays about Port uguese m odern archit ect ure ( book) , but t hey are only a sam ple of 516 buildings of t he t ot al num ber of 7 records in t he dat abase. 8 The publicat ion of result s was speeded up t o m eet t he European funding condit ions.

  These include t he dat abase, t he published m at erials and work papers, as well as int erview wit h t en m em bers of t he t eam s, and t he analysis of t heir individual researches and publicat ions. The research has suffered som e set backs as, t o dat e, t here are no m at erials published ot her t han t he out put s, t he original dat abase is inaccessible, t he on- line search works poorly, and access t o t he archive st ill await s approval.

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  nevert heless be underst ood as a prelim inary const ruct ion, on t he one hand result ing from a st ill ongoing research, on t he ot her hand because st ruct ured over t he part ial landscapes produced by t he I AP20 published

   m at erials .

  Th e pen w or k st a t u s All over, I AP20 is st at ed m ore as a st art ing point t han as a finished product .

  The idea was t hat researchers would cont inue t o updat e t he Survey under

  

  supervision of a scient ific com m it t ee . This exculpat es short com ings, but m ainly borrows a sense of hum ilit y t o a work in t he process of being int ellect ually dem ocrat icised. Whet her or not t he plan w ill m at erialise rem ains a quest ion. But regardless of t he fut ure, a part icular landscape was already produced due t o t he sym bolic power of it s enunciat ion. Two aspect s m ust be st ressed here. First , a sur vey is a m et hodological inst rum ent appropriat ed from posit iv ist fields of knowledge t hat lend a sense of obj ect ivit y t o research ( cf. Dehaene 2002) . Not ent ering epist em ological debat es, I AP20 is scient ifically confirm ed because it is a survey. Plus, it s unrem it t ing associat ion wit h I ARP, however sym bolic and affect ive it m ay

  

  be guarant ees a line of cont inuit y w it h an ent erprise t hat is st r ongly and long root ed in Port uguese archit ect s' hist ory and ident it y as a class ( e.g. Port as 1978) . Not by chance, I AP20 was launched sim ult aneously t o I ARP's

  r d

  3 repr int and it s aut hors' at t ribut ion of honorary m em bership by t he Order. This was t he Nat ional Year of Archit ect ure, at t he eve of t he hom ologat ion of archit ect s' exclusiv it y t o pract ice archit ect ure. There is som e sort of corporat ive subt ext in I AP20 t hat it s prom ot ers do not forget t o recall ( cf. Afonso, 2006b) .

  9 Nam ely, t he book, t he CD- Rom , t he brochures, t he out doors, and t he news on Bolet im 10 Arquit ect os.

  

Aft er 2006, t he Order m ade som e init ial effort s t o com plet e records, norm alise fields, and

solve flaws. Now, arr angem ent s are being m ade in order t o cont inue t he dat abase in 11 art iculat ion wit h Docom om o I beria.

  According t o int erviewed aut hors and published m at erials, I ARP is an inspirat ion and a

source of pride, I AP20 being considered com plem ent ary and t he cont inuit y of a rom ant ic t our of discovery. A second aspect concerns t he aut horship of I AP20. On t he one hand, t here is t he form al and inst it ut ional fram e. I AP20 was prom ot ed by t he official represent at ives of t he Port uguese archit ect s, and support ed by a m aj or int ernat ional inst it ut ion of archit ect ure, t he nat ional governm ent and t he European com m unit y . There are no doubt s about t heir sym bolic power t o conduct t his survey. On t he ot her hand, I AP20 sum m ons a professional and int ellect ual aut hor it y on archit ect ure. From t he st art , t he scient ific head of

  t h

  t he survey is a renowned nam e in t he hist oriography of t he 20 cent ury archit ect ure in Port ugal. Furt her, when assem bling t he t eam s, she inv it ed archit ect ural scholars set t led and w it h ack nowledged work on t he different regions of inquiry t o coordinat e t hem . Each of t hese, in t urn, select ed a t eam m ainly from t heir professional acquaint ances, bot h in t he academ ia and pract ice. And a significant part of t hese fieldwork m em bers were eit her developing, or cam e t o develop, doct orat e researches m ost ly relat ed t o t he Port uguese Modern Movem ent . Their aut horit y t o speak of m odern archit ect ure in Port ugal is hardly cont est able in a world where expert ise and specialisat ion organise labour and science.

  Th e r e pr ese nt a t iven e ss a r gu m e nt

  Assert ed t he legit im acy of I AP20's act ors t o propose an archit ect ural landscape, one m ay t ry t o underst and what t his landscape is. Docum ent s, published m at erials and aut hors st ressed I AP20's m et hodology t o be based on t he fundam ent al cr it erion of represent at iveness, regarding t im e, geographies, aut horships, funct ional t ypes and aest het ics. The subj ect ive

  

  and t rick y cr it er ion of qualit y would m ediat e such pluralit y . This m et hodology int ended t o prevent t eam s from follow ing personal biases. Furt herm ore, by int r oducing a weight ing fact or t hat favoured peripheral t im es, spaces and t ypes, I AP20 expect ed t o override hist ory's at t ent ion t o t he " usual suspect s" and provide a m ore dem ocrat ic landscape. However, t wo out com es defy t he purposes. On t he one hand, t he produced landscape put on a par archit ect ures wit h dist inct r oles in t im e and space. Despit e 12 som e records including sm all descr ipt ions, t hey do not prov ide a relat ional

  

Deliberat ely, t he " qualit y" fact or was left out of t his argum ent because of it s com plexit y of

analysis and t he paper's focus on t he enunciat ion of hist ory.

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  cont ext . Along wit h t he prevailing v isual present at ion of it em s, t his br ings

  I AP20 closer t o a cat alogue of buildings t hat obj ect ifies, if not aest het icises, archit ect ure. One t he ot her hand, in order t o est ablish an overall coherency, series of inquiry were defined a prior i by a correspondence bet ween seven periods of t im e and it s archit ect ural t ypes and aest het ics. This set t he t eam 's pace and, t hough it was not t o be followed t o t he let t er, st ill suggest s t he survey’s proxim it y w it h t he Port uguese ort hodox hist ory of archit ect ure. I n t his sense, I AP20 out put s resem ble a confirm ing

   st at em ent .

  Not wit hst anding, t eam s availed t he given freedom of act ion. Their part ial inquir ies m anifest regional differences and part icular int er est s. Such subj ect iv it y was neit her a surprise nor a problem , as t he I ARP's experience had shown archit ect s t hat it was an inher ent drawback t hat sim ult aneously favoured t he pluralit y of insight s. Yet , t he part ial landscapes select ed t o publicise t he work dilut e t he regional subj ect iv it ies. For inst ance, sum m aries on regional findings highlight t hat : t he Nort h is heavily built in line wit h t he Oport o School; Lisbon concent rat es m odernit y's different experiences; t he Cent re echoes it s m arginal place in- bet ween poles; t he Sout h is div ided bet ween a t radit ionally st ruct ured inland and an urban, developed coast line; and t he archipelagos st and out by it s original archit ect ures, despit e or

  

  because of it s m arginalit y ( cf. Afonso, 2006a; Tost ões, 2006) These form ulat ions also t ell a st ory; but one whose t im eline is m easured by t he core cent res and t he m ainst ream narrat ives of hist ory . A com parat ive analy sis of t he on- line and published records provides addit ional insight s. For exam ple, t he prevalence of t he Nort h, Cent re and Lisbon regions in t he book can be explained by t heir area and populat ion; j ust like t he proport ionally higher presence of t he archipelagos m ight be at t r ibut ed t o t he represent at iveness crit erion. St ill, t he second- place of Madeira's capit al count y in a m ost - quot ed rank ing is surpr ising. I n an effort 13 t o highlight m ar ginal set t ings, Funchal r ises above it s represent at iveness in

  Em phasis should be put on t he out put s, as int erview s wit h t he aut hors revealed insight s 14 and reflect ions not expressed by t he I AP20's published result s.

  Synt hesis also grounded on t he regional coordinat ors' present at ion in t he Coim bra Sem inar.

  

  t he count ry . On t he cont rary, Sint ra's count y is highly underrepresent ed in

   t he publicat ion despit e it s significant present in t he dat abase .

  Represent at iveness does not seem t o have worked equally am ong t he different regions.

  Anot her observat ions can be m ade out of a com parat ive analy sis of t im es and spaces. The preponderance of records for t he early cent ury in Lisbon, followed by t he Nort h and Cent re records rising bet ween t he t went ies and t he sixt ies, when t he Sout h records gain weight , r ight before Madeira st anding out in t he sevent ies, designs som e sort of Port uguese urbanisat ion t im eline t hat is confir m ed by t he m ore nat ionally dist r ibut ed ent ries in t he last t wo decades. I ndeed, urban planning was t aken int o account , t hough it represent s a sm all part of I AP20's records. Exam ining t he funct ional t ypes of t he list ed buildings, it is possible t o infer t he St at e's preponderant int ervent ion in t he count ryside from t he predom inance of public equipm ent s in t he survey's records. Housing is m ost ly expressive in urban areas and less represent ed decades. But , despit e t his reflect ing an overall view, som e aut hors underlined how t his generat ed a m isrepresent at ion of t he regions'

  a- synchrony, nam ely because t hese buildings were cent rally pr oduced and t hus aligned w it h t he m ainst ream product ion.

  Two ot her findings m ay be pulled out of t his line of analy sis. The first addresses aest het ics. The hist ory of Port uguese spat ial planning m ay explain t he preponderance of t he ninet ies, sixt ies and fift ies in I AP20's published book, even balancing t he represent at iveness crit erion. But t he fact t hat it s form al aest het ic evokes t he m ost valued t radit ion- m odernit y bindings in t he Port uguese hist ory of archit ect ure should be not iced. On t he cont rary, t he Port uguese House t hat for so long generat ed cont roversy am ong t he Port uguese archit ect s is given poor v isibilit y com pared t o it s cont em porary eclect icism s and Modernism s. More not orious, t he Em igrant House t hat equally called archit ect s’ at t ent ion is alm ost absent , despit e it s acknowledged presence. I n fact , aut horship beyond archit ect s was 15 The book select ion included around half of Port uguese count ies, but Madeira region is t h represent ed by 4/ 5 of it s count ies. Funchal is t he 7 biggest cit y in t he count ry, but it s t h 16 count y occupies t he 24 place in t erm s of populat ion.

  Sint ra has one single record in t he book, out of t he 53 records in t he dat abase. Ot her count ies, like Aveiro, present a 2/ 3 rat io.

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  com prised by I AP20, but anonym ous archit ect ure is m ainly accept ed in t he

17 Sout h region . The second finding concerns t he idea of archit ect ure as

  building. Alt hough several of t he I AP20's aut hors find such definit ion t o curt ail archit ect ure's reasoning as t he const ruct ion of t errit ory , fabrics like belvederes deserve residual records and bridges, for inst ance, ent er t he cat egory of " work of art " .

  Overall, t he part ial landscapes produced by I AP20 did not split from t he hegem onic hist ory of Port uguese archit ect ure, focused on obj ect s, aut horships and t he m ain cent res of product ion. Even when it s aut hors evoke I ARP t o parallel a rom ant ic discov ery, t hey seem less int erest ed in challenging t he m ainst ream narrat ive t han in discovering it s hidden

   pearls .

  Th e m oder n h e r it a ge

  One last chief idea is st ressed by I AP20's aut hors and docum ent al

  t h

  m at erials. The purpose was t o record t he 20 cent ury archit ect ure in Port ugal on a public dat abase t o raise aw areness of it s values and urge it s prot ect ion. Thus t he regard for one last crit er ion of inquiry: t he st at e of conservat ion. For t he heads of t he survey, m odern herit age is a developm ent resource t hat operat es m at erially in spat ial planning, econom ically in t our ism , and sym bolically in cult ural policies ( cf. Roset a, 2006) . They also highlight t he sense of collect iveness and endangerm ent im plied in t he concept of herit age ( cf. Lowent hal, 1985) . The fir st is built on t he acknowledgem ent t hat hist ory last s unt il yest erday, t hence herit age rem it s t o a cont inuous t im e, not ant iquit y . The second refers t o t he risks of disaffect ion, as t he secularit y and perishable m at er ialit y of m odern archit ect ure are indict ed of m isinform ing societ y on it s value as herit age. 17 What t he exist ence of I AP20 seem s also t o confirm is t hat archit ect s are not

  Half of I AP20's records wit h no aut horship refer t o t he Sout h region. The part icipat ion of Vict or Mest re in t his t eam should be underlined as his work is known t o have subst ant ially 18 cont ribut ed t o t he st udy of vernacular archit ect ure in Port ugal.

  The " discovery" of t he work of archit ect s like José Dias Pires Branco, around Fundão count y, or Gom es da Cost a in t he Algarve conform s ent husiast ic m em ories of t he survey's aut hors. only aware of t heir power in enunciat ing ar chit ect ural her it age, as t hey have realised it s effect iveness t o depend on a social and polit ical resonance. This explains why I AP20 set out t o sensit ise public opinion, local powers and econom ic agent s.

  I t would be an overst at em ent t o speak of I AP20 as t he first effort t o

  t h

  t reasure t he 20 cent ury archit ect ure in Port ugal. I n t he m id- cent ury, Port as ( 1961) had already pleaded in fav our of a m odern hist oriography t hat would help prevent it s dest ruct ion; and aft er t he Archit ect s Associat ion was creat ed ( 1978) , it s j ournals resum ed t he claim , publishing art icles on t he early- cent ury eclect icism s and Modernism s t hat or iginat ed a " Herit age

  

  in Danger" sect ion . What is dist inct in I AP20 is it s form al and inst it ut ional invest m ent , t hough by 2003 legislat ion had already broadened t he concept of m onum ent t o include quot idian built space, and int ernat ional disposit ions had already ext ended herit age from hist ory t o m em ory, from nat ion t o

  

  com m unit y basis . Furt herm ore, Docom om o I nt ernat ional had been creat ed ( 1988) t o dissem inat e know ledge and prom ot e prot ect ion of t he Modern Movem ent herit age, opening Chapt ers worldw ide, including t he Docom om o I beria ( 1993) . I t s relat ion w it h t he I AP20 is unsurpr isingly close: m ost buildings enrolled in Docom om o’s invent ory are list ed in t he

  I AP20; t he lat t er's general coordinat or is now t he chair of Docom om o I nt ernat ional; and a m em ber of Lisbon's t eam is now t he I beria Chapt er's vice- president .

  t h

  But t o be clear, t he r ole I AP20 t akes on in t he prot ect ion of t he 20 cent ury archit ect ure falls int o t he cat egory of pedagogy, not conservat ion. I t aim ed t he educat ion of non- archit ect s on t he value of m odern archit ect ure t o prevent it s degeneracy. This purpose is part icular ly explicit in t he int ended art iculat ions wit h t he cit y councils. I ndeed, scrut inising t he records of t he Direct orat e- General of Cult ural Her it age dat abase, t he relat ions becam e m anifest . I n Lisbon region, for inst ance, around 1/ 5 of t he processes for

  t h 19 herit age prot ect ion regard t he 20 cent ury, t hough hom ologat ed cases are

Part icularly expressive are t he first years of Jornal Ar quit ect os ( 1981- 1987) and t he series

of art icles " For t he St udy of Modernist Archit ect ure in Port ugal" by José Manuel Fernandes in 20 Arquit ect ura, 132 ( 1979) t o 138 ( 1980) .

  

I n t his respect , t he Port uguese Law on Cult ural Herit age ( 1985) and t he Chart er of Cracow

( 2000) are im port ant docum ent s.

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  Mar t a Pr ist a, TRADI TI ON AND MODERNI TY I NTERTWI NI NG I N THE RE- PRESENTATI ON OF PORTUGUESE MODERN ARCHI TECTURE: t he case of t he Sur vey on 20t h Cent ur y Ar chit ect ur e in Por t ugal

  scarcer, and m ost of t hem are enrolled in t he I AP20 invent ory. Half of t hese processes were init iat ed or reanim at ed aft er t he survey st art ed. I n less cent ral regions, t he num ber of processes dim inishes, but it s sim ult aneit y wit h I AP20 inquiry is higher, in Algar ve reaching ¾ . Significant is t he fact t hat , overall, legal prot ect ion of t he Modern Movem ent and it s cr it ical alt ernat ives' buildings was exclusively init iat ed aft er t he launch of I AP20. Unt il t hen, processes referred t o t he early - cent ury eclect icism s. So, I AP20 m ight be considered a st ep forward.

  St ill, away from t he m ain urban cent r es, invest m ent s in t he Modern Movem ent herit age fell som ewhat short . I n fact , official agencies revoked m ot ions for prot ect ion on t he basis of degeneracy and lack of nat ional value, som et im es suggest ing a m unicipal classificat ion. Tensions around what is and is not herit age t hus require furt her research t hat t akes int o account t he social resonance of it s values in local com m unit ies.

  Fin a l com m e n t

  Consider ing t he form , t he cont ent and t he purpose of I AP20, but keeping in m ind t hat t he paper present s a part ial reading of a st ill ongoing research,

  t h

  an overview observat ion could be m ade. The 20 cent ury archit ect ure in Port ugal seem s t o be under a new process of " periodisat ion" , underst ood as t he form al pat t erns t hat st ruct ure hist ory's narrat ive ( cf. Zerubavel, 2003) .

  t h

  The survey's m et hods, crit er ia and out put s int roduce t he 20 cent ury as a new hist or ical t im e by put t ing on par it s dist inct dat es, geographies, funct ional t ypes and aest het ics. Because rupt ures, repet it ions or declines

  t h

  are hardly st at ed, t he archit ect ural landscape of t he 20 cent ury is put forward in a hist or ical cont inuum . The lack of discont inuit ies form ally

  t h

  hom ogenises t he 20 cent ury by a process of assim ilat ion. I t is not t hat Modernism and t he Modern Movem ent becam e synonym s, as I AP20's aut hors are quit e assert ive in dist inguishing t hem . But one and all now fall under a broader cat egory of m odern t hat st ands for t he archit ect ure

  t h produced in t he 20 cent ury ( or m ost of it ) . Not being hist ory, as repeat edly st at ed, I AP20 does not debat e on t he t radit ion- m odernit y bindings wit hin t his archit ect ural landscape, but t hat does not m ean t he fundam ent al dialogue is absent . Look ing int o t he buildings chosen t o celebrat e t he end of I AP20 in Bolet im Arquit ect os, n.159, for inst ance, t he space- t ype represent at iveness does not m at ch a t im e- aest het ics represent at iveness. Em phasis is put on archit ect ures which t he dat abase describes as expressive of t he Modern Movem ent pr inciples but deeply root ed in place and plast ically eloquent of vernacular and erudit e art . I t s aut horships include t he " discovered" archit ect s, but not t he st ar- syst em , im plicit ly suggest ing t he t radit ion- m odernit y dialogue t o be a cross- cut t ing way of doing archit ect ure in Port ugal. Quit e different ly, however, t he buildings chosen t o publicise I AP20 in nat ionally spread out doors included t he Port uguese House, Art Deco, Modernist and Modern archit ect ures, and even cont em poraneit y. Most ly signed by well known archit ect s, including t he Prit zker Siza and t he Brazilian Niem eyer, t hese buildings ar e closer t o t he ort hodox hist ory of Port uguese archit ect ure, perhaps because aim ing at a wider social resonance. Archit ect ure's landscape of m em ory t hus seem s t o depend not only on w ho produces it , but also on whom it is being produced for. I t is in t his ent anglem ent t hat her it age can be exam ined as a social and int ellect ual const ruct .

  Ack n ow le dgm e n t s

This paper is funded by FCT – Fundação par a a Ciência e Tecnologia wit hin t he

proj ect Popular, er udit e, m odern: ar chit ect ure, cult ure and ident it y

( SFRH/ BPD/ 75978/ 2011; PEst - OE/ SADG/ UI 4038/ 2014) Re fe r en ces Afonso, J. ( ed) ( 2006a) . I nquérit o à Arquit ect ur a do Século XX em Port ugal. Lisbon: Ordem dos Arquit ect os.

  Afonso, J. ( 2006b) . Um a ideia. Bolet im Arquit ect os, 159, 5. Alm eida, P. ( 2008) . Apont am ent os para um a Teoria da Arquit ect ura. Lisbon: Livros Horizont e.

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Repr esent at ion in a Melanesian Societ y. I n B. Bender ( ed.) , Landscape: Polit ics and

Per spect ives ( 85- 106) . Providence / Ox ford: Berg. Lees, L. ( 2001) . Tow ards a Crit ical Geography of Ar chit ect ure: The Case of an Er sat z Colosseum . Ecum ene, 8 ( 1) , 51- 86. Lej eune, J. & Sabat ino, M. ( 2010) . Modern Archit ect ure and t he Medit er ranean: Vernacular Dialogues and Cont est ed I dent it ies. London / New Yor k: Rout ledge. Low ent hal, D. ( 1985) . The past is a foreign count ry. Cam bridge: Cam bridge Universit y Press.

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dos Arquit ect os. CD- Rom

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Ed. Arcádia.

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( Ed.) , I nquérit o à Arquit ect ura do Século XX em Port ugal ( pp.11- 15) . Lisbon: Ordem dos Arquit ect os.

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de abordar la hist oria" [ Spanish t ransl. Fernando Sánchez Cost a and I b

Schum acher] . I n K. Füssm ann, H. Grüt t er, & J Rüsen ( Eds) , Hist orische Faszinat ion

( pp. 3- 26) . Geschicht skult ur heut e. Böhlau- Verlag: Gm bH. SNA ( 1961) . Arquit ect ur a Popular em Port ugal. Lisbon: Sindicat o Nacional dos Arquit ect os. Tost ões, A. ( 1997) . Os Verdes Anos na Arquit ect ura Port uguesa dos Anos 50. Oport o: FAUP. Tost ões, A. ( 2002) . Cult ura e Tecnologia na Arquit ect ura Moderna Port uguesa. Lisbon: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Thesis ( PhD) . Tost ões, A. ( 2006) . Um a obra abert a. Bolet im Arquit ect os, 159, 5. Whyt e, W. ( 2006) . How do Buildings Mean? Som e I ssues of I nt erpret at ion in t he Hist ory of Ar chit ect ure. Hist ory and Theor y, 45, 153- 177. Zerubav el, E. ( 2003) . Collect iv e Mem or y and t he Social Shape of t he Past : Tim e Maps. Chicago: The Universit y of Chicago Pr ess.

  Au t hor ide n t ifica t ion M a r t a La la n d a Pr ist a

  . Mart a Lalanda Prist a gr aduat ed in Archit ect ur e from Faculdade de Arquit ect ura de Lisboa ( 2000) , and holds a Mast er ( 2005) and a Doct orat e ( 2011) in Ant hropology fr om Univ er sidade Nova de Lisboa. She is curr ent ly a Post - doct oral Resear ch Fellow at t he Cent r e for Resear ch in

Ant hropology ( CRI A- FCSH/ Nova) developing t he pr oj ect " Popular, erudit e, m odern:

Archit ect ure, cult ur e, and ident it y" w it h funding from FCT ( SFRH/ BPD/ 75978/ 2011,

PEst - OE/ SADG/ UI 4038/ 2014) . Her r esear ch addresses issues of nat ional ident it y

and m at erial cult ure, popular and high cult ure, t ourism and herit age, w it h em phasis

on t he spacializat ion of archit ect ural discour ses and pract ices.

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