Um framework para mineração de dados educacionais baseado em serviços Web semânticos

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  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦

❯♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s

❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s

  ❚❆❘❙■❙ ▼❆❘■◆❍❖ ❉❊ ❙❖❯❩❆

  t❛rs✐s✳♠s❅❣♠❛✐❧✳❝♦♠ ▼❛❝❡✐ó✱ ✷✾ ❞❡ ❆❜r✐❧ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✶

  ❚❆❘❙■❙ ▼❆❘■◆❍❖ ❉❊ ❙❖❯❩❆ ❯♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s

  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❈✉rs♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦ ❡♠ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❡s✿

  Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❊✈❛♥❞r♦ ❞❡ ❇❛rr♦s ❈♦st❛ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ P❛tr✐❝❦ ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡ ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛ ❇r✐t♦

  ▼❛❝❡✐ó✱ ✷✾ ❞❡ ❆❜r✐❧ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✶

  Catalogação na fonte Universidade Federal de Alagoas Biblioteca Central Divisão de Tratamento Técnico semânticos / Tarsis Marinho de Souza. – 2011. Um framework para mineração de dados educacionais baseado em serviços S729u Souza, Tarsis Marinho de. Bibliotecária Responsável: Helena Cristina Pimentel do Vale 66 f. : il. Co-Orientador: Patrick Henrique da Silva Brito. Orientador: Evandro de Barros Costa. Bibliografia: f. 62-66. Universidade Federal de Alagoas. Instituto de Computação. Maceió, 2011. Dissertação (mestrado em Modelagem Computacional de Conhecimento)CDU: 004.78:37.018.43 3. Serviços semânticos. I. Título.

  

❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

  Pr✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡✱ à ❉❡✉s ♣♦r ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♠❛✐s ✉♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ tã♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❡♠ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✳

  ❆♦s ♠❡✉s ♣❛✐s✱ ❏✉r❛❝✐ ❡ ▼✐r✐❛♠✱ ❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✐r♠ã✱ ❚❛❧✐t❛✱ ♣❡❧♦ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦✱ ❛♣♦✐♦ ✐♥✲ ❝♦♥❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ♣♦r ♥✉♥❝❛ ♠❡❞✐r❡♠ ❡s❢♦rç♦s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡✉ ♣✉❞❡ss❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♠❛✐s ❡st❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✳

  ❆♦s ♠❡✉s ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r❡s✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✿ ❉✐♠✐tr✐s✱ ❍✉❧❞❛✱ ❉✐♠✐tr✐ ❡ ❏ú❧✐♦ ❈❡s❛r✱ q✉❡ ♠❡ ❛❝♦❧❤❡r❛♠ ❝♦♠ t❛♥t♦ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦ ❡ ❛♠♦r ❡ s❡♠ ♦s q✉❛✐s✱ ❞❡✜♥✐t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♥ã♦ t❡r✐❛ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐❞♦ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♠❛✐s ❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛✳

  ❆♦s ♠❡✉s ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❡s✱ Pr♦❢✳ ❊✈❛♥❞r♦ ❈♦st❛ ❡ Pr♦❢✳ P❛tr✐❝❦ ❇r✐t♦✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦✱ ♣❛❝✐ê♥✲ ❝✐❛✱ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❡ ♣♦r ❡st❛r❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❛ ❛❥✉❞❛r ❡♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s✳

  ❆♦s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ❛♠✐❣♦s q✉❡ ✜③ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ ♠❡str❛❞♦ ❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉ír❛♠ ♠✉✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡✉ ♣✉❞❡ss❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♠❛✐s ❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ❈❛r♦❧✱ ❊❧✈②s✱ ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡✱ ❍✐❣♦r✱ ❏❡❛♥✱ ▼❛r❝♦s ❡ ❱✐t♦r✳ ◆ã♦ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ ❞❡✐①❛r ❞❡ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛♦ ♠❡✉ ❛♠✐❣♦ ❍❡✐t♦r q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐✉ ♠✉✐t♦ ♥♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

  ❊✱ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ à ❋❆P❊❆▲✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ✜♥❛♥❝❡✐r♦✳

  

❘❡s✉♠♦

  ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❞❡s❛✜♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥❛ ár❡❛✱ ❝♦♠♦✿ ♣❛❞r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♠❛✐s ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s✳ ❆ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠ ✇✐③❛r❞✱ q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ♥❛ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♣r♦❞✉t♦s✳ P❛r❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✲ ✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ r❡❛❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✳

  P❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡✿ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥✲ t✐❝♦s✳

  

❆❜str❛❝t

  ❚❤✐s ♣❛♣❡r ♣r❡s❡♥ts ❛ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❢♦r ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ s❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s ❛s ❛ s♦❧✉t✐♦♥ t♦ t❤❡ ❝❤❛❧❧❡♥❣❡s ❢♦✉♥❞ ✐♥ t❤✐s ❛r❡❛ s✉❝❤ ❛s ❞❛t❛ ❛♥❞ ♠❡t❤♦❞s st❛♥✲ ❞❛r❞✐③❛t✐♦♥✱ ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ✐♥t❡❣r❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❡❛s✐❡r t♦ ✉s❡ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ t♦♦❧s ❢♦r ❜♦t❤ ❡❞✉❝❛t♦rs ❛♥❞ ♥♦♥✲s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st ✉s❡rs✳ ❚❤❡ s♦❧✉t✐♦♥ ❛❧s♦ ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡s ❛ ✇✐③❛r❞✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛✐♠s t♦ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛t❡ t❤❡ ❡①t❡♥s✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ✐♥st❛♥t✐❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✐♥ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ♣r♦❞✉❝ts✳ ■♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ✈❛❧✐❞❛t❡ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ s♦❧✉t✐♦♥✱ ❛ ❝❛s❡ st✉❞② ✇❛s ❛❧s♦ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❡❞ ✉s✐♥❣ ❞❛t❛ ❢r♦♠ ❛ r❡❛❧ ❡✲❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t ✉s❡❞ ❜② st✉❞❡♥ts ❢r♦♠ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ ♠♦❞❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s✳

  ❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣✱ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❛♥❞ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ❲❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✳

  ▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

  ✷✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✷✳✷ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✸ ●r✉♣♦s ❢♦r♠❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✹ ❘❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾ ✷✳✺ ❈✐❝❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷ ✷✳✻ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ♥♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✷✳✼ ❇❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ① ❈✉st♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✽ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✾ ❈❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✶✵ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✷✳✶✶ ❖❲▲✲❙ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ✸✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✸✳✷ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✸✳✸ ❚❡❧❛ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✹✳✶ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❈❛s♦s ❞❡ ❯s♦ ❞♦ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ Pr♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✹✳✷ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❈❛s♦s ❞❡ ❯s♦ ❞♦ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❣r✐♥✈ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✹✳✸ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✹✳✹ ❱✐sã♦ ❧ó❣✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✹✳✺ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✻ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❉❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✹✳✼ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❙❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛ ❉❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✺✳✶ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✺✳✷ ▼❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✺✳✸ ❆❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ❆❞❛♣t❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✺✳✹ ❙❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ♦ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✺✳✺ P❛ss♦ ✶✿ ❊s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✺✳✻ P❛ss♦ ✷✿ ❊s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✺✳✼ P❛ss♦ ✸✿ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛r❛♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✺✳✽ P❛ss♦ ✹✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦❀ ❱♦❧t❛r ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✸ ♦✉ ❛✈❛♥ç❛r

  ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✺✳✾ P❛ss♦ ✺✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❱♦❧t❛r ❛♦ P❛ss♦ ✹ ♦✉ ❆✈❛♥ç❛r

  ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✺✳✶✵ P❛ss♦ ✺✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❱♦❧t❛r ❛♦ P❛ss♦ ✹ ♦✉ ❆✈❛♥ç❛r

  ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽

  ❙✉♠ár✐♦

  ✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶

  ✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ Pr♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶ ✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ✶✳✸ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸

  ✷ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦ ✹

  ✷✳✶ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✷✳✶✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✷✳✶✳✷ ◆❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✷✳✶✳✸ ❚❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✷✳✶✳✹ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵

  ✷✳✷ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✷✳✶ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✷✳✷✳✷ ❱❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❡ ❉❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻

  ✷✳✸ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❱❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✸✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼

  ✷✳✹ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✹✳✶ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✹✳✷ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

  ✸ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✷✸

  ✸✳✶ ❆ ❉②♥❛♠✐❝ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❜❛s❡❞ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ Pr♦❝❡ss ❙②st❡♠ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✸✳✷ ❆ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❖r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❢♦r ❆❞❛♣t✐✈❡ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❊♥✈✐✲ r♦♥♠❡♥ts ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✸✳✸ ❚❆❉❆✲❊❞✿ ❚♦♦❧ ❢♦r ❆❞✈❛♥❝❡❞ ❉❛t❛ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s ✐♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻

  ✹ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ Pr♦♣♦st♦ ✷✽

  ✹✳✶ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✹✳✶✳✶ ❆t♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✹✳✶✳✷ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❋✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✹✳✶✳✸ ❱❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡s❡❥❛❞❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✹✳✶✳✹ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ◆ã♦✲❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷

  ✹✳✷ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✹✳✸ ❱✐sã♦ ▲ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹

  ✹✳✸✳✶ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✹✳✸✳✷ ❆❞❛♣t❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✹✳✸✳✸ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ✹✳✸✳✹ Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼

  ❙❯▼➪❘■❖ ✈✐

  ✹✳✸✳✺ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✹✳✸✳✻ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✹✳✸✳✼ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✹✳✸✳✽ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷

  ✹✳✹ ❲✐③❛r❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✺ ❊st✉❞♦s ❞❡ ❈❛s♦

  ✹✻ ✺✳✶ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✺✳✷ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✺✳✸ Pré✲Pr♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽

  ✺✳✸✳✶ ▼❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✺✳✸✳✷ ❈♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵

  ✺✳✹ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✺✳✺ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ■♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷

  ✺✳✺✳✶ ■♥✈♦❝❛r ♦ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✺✳✺✳✷ ❊①❡❝✉t❛r ❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ✈✐❛ ✇✐③❛r❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸

  ✺✳✻ ❆❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✺✳✼ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼

  ✻ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s ✻✶

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ Pr♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛

  ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s s♦❜r❡ s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❡ss❡s ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦s s❡r✈✐❞♦r❡s ❲❡❜ ❡ q✉❡ ❣r❛✈❛♠ t♦✲ ❞❛s ❛s ❛çõ❡s ❞♦s s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ♥❛✈❡❣❛♠ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✴♦✉ r❡❛❧✐③❛♠ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❊ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❡ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✲ ❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♣❛r❛✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡r ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ❡ ♣♦❞❡r ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ♠❡❧❤♦r s✉❛s ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣❡r✜s✳

  ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❞❛❞♦ ♦ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦✱ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s é ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛ ❡ ❞✐s♣❡♥❞✐♦s❛ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡✲ ❞♦r❡s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❢❛③✲s❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❛✉①✐❧✐❡ ♥❡ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛✲s❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❜♦❛ s♦❧✉çã♦✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

  ❊ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r✱ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛❞♦çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥✲ ❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ✉s❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ s✉♣♦rt❡ ♥❛ ❣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡ t❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s q✉❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✳ ❆ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣❧♦r❛r ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ é ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❬✽❪✳

  ❆ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ t❡r ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❬✹✵❪✱ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡ s❡✉s ❝✉rs♦s ❬✻✹✱ ✺✼❪✱ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛♣♦✐♦ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦❬✸✹✱ ✻✺✱ ✺✽❪✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳

  P❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❞✐❢❡r✲ ❡♥t❡s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s✳ ❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ sã♦✿ ✐✮ ❯t✐❧✐③❛r ❢❡r✲ r❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♦✉ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r✴❛❞❛♣t❛r ❛❧❣✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

  ✶✳✷✳ ❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖❙ ✷

  ◆❡st❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ ❞❡✜♥✐r ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r✴✉t✐❧✐③❛r té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ r❡✜♥❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛r ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ P❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r t❛❧ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r s✉❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r ❡st❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣❀ ✐✐✮ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✳ ◆❡st❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠✱ ♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛rá ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♥ã♦✲❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞❡✈❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ✲ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ✲ ♣❛r❛ t♦♠❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛r ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♥✲ t❡ú❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡✳ ▼❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡st❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ t❡♠ ✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ♣♦✐s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ◆❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ❝♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✳ ◆♦ ❡♥✲ t❛♥t♦✱ ❡st❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s sã♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❡ sã♦ ✉t❡✐s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✳ ❖s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♥❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❝✐t❛❞❛s sã♦✿ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡✴♦✉ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳

  ❘♦♠❡r♦ ❡ ❱❡♥t✉r❛ ❬✹✾❪ ❞❡st❛❝❛♠ ❞❡s❛✜♦s ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✿ ✐✮ P❛❞r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s sã♦ út❡✐s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛♦s s❡✉s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s✳ ◆ã♦ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❣❡r❛✐s ♦✉ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡✴♦✉ té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ♣❛❞r♦♥✐③❛✲ çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s sã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s❀ ✐✐✮ ■♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ❋❡r✲ r❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛s ❛ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳ ❚♦❞❛s ❛s t❛r❡❢❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s à ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦s ❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s❀ ✐✐✐✮ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ❢á❝❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐s✲ t❛s✳ P♦✐s✱ ❞❡♥tr❡ s✉❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛✱ t❛✐s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s sã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ❡ ✈ã♦ ❛❧é♠ ❞♦ ❡s❝♦♣♦ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ q✉❡r❡r ❢❛③❡r✳ ❊ss❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡✈❡r✐❛♠ t❡r ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♠❛✐s ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❛ ❡ ❢á❝✐❧ ❞❡ ✉s❛r✱ s❡♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐✲ ❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦✱ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❡ ❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✳

  ✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s

  ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✈❡r ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❛ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✳ ❊st❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡✲s❡ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s✿

  ✶✳✸✳ ❊❙❚❘❯❚❯❘❆ ❉❆ ❉■❙❙❊❘❚❆➬➹❖ ✸

  • ❘❡✉s♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡✴♦✉ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡

  ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡sss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❘❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦

  ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣

  • ❋á❝✐❧ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣❀

  P❡r♠✐t✐r q✉❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡✲ t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s❀ P♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r q✉❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♣♦ss❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥✲

  ❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✜♥s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s❀

  • ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s❀

  ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦❀ ❘❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦s ❝✉st♦s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦

  ✶✳✸ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦

  ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡stá ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ s❡❣✉❡✳ ◆♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ r❡❢✲ ❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ t❡ór✐❝♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ◆♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ❢❛③❡r ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❡ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ❆ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ♥♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹✱ ♦♥❞❡ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❡ ❛s ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ t♦♠❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦✳ ❇✉s❝❛♥❞♦ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱ é ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ♣❛ss♦✲❛✲♣❛ss♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ r❡❛❧✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❛ ❞✐s❝✉ssã♦ ❛❝❡r❝❛ ❞♦s ❞❡s❛✜♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✲ ✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡s ❞❡s❛✜♦s✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ✜♥❛✐s✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦

  ◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s✱ s✉❝✐♥t❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s tó♣✐❝♦s q✉❡ ❢♦r♠❛♠ ❛ ❜❛s❡ t❡ór✐❝❛ ❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛q✉✐ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ sã♦ ❞✐s❝✉✲ t✐❞♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✱ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐✲ ❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✳

  ✷✳✶ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✶

  ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s é ✉♠ ♣❛ss♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❇❛s❡ ❞❡

  ✷

  ❉❛❞♦s ✭❑❉❉✮ ✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ♣r♦❞✉③✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❡♥✉♠❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♦✉ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❬✶✼❪✳

  ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❖ t❡r♠♦ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s t♦r♥♦✉✲s❡ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❡ ✈❡♠ s❡♥❞♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉t✐✲ ❧✐③❛❞♦✳ P❛r❛ ♠✉✐t♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s✱ ♦ t❡r♠♦ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s é ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ s✐♥ô♥✲ ✐♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ✉♠ ❞♦s ♣❛ss♦s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❬✸✵❪✳

  ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s é t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ♣♦r ♠✉✐t♦s ♦✉tr♦s ♥♦♠❡s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦✿ ✐♥❝❧✉❞✲ ✐♥❣ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❡①tr❛❝t✐♦♥✱ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r②✱ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❤❛r✈❡st✐♥❣✱ ❞❛t❛ ❛r❝❤❡♦❧♦❣② ❡ ❞❛t❛ ♣❛tt❡r♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❬✶✾❪✳

  ◆♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ t❡r♠♦ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ s❡ r❡❢❡r✐r ❛♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❡ ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ r❡❢❡r✐❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♣♦r s❡r ✉♠ t❡r♠♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❡ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳

  ✷✳✶✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦

  ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ r❡q✉❡r ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡t❛♣❛s✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥s❡♥s♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡t❛♣❛s ❡ s✉❛s ♥♦♠❡♥❝❧❛t✉r❛s✳ ❑✉r❣❛♥ ❡ ▼✉s✐❧❡❦ ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❉✐s❝♦✈❡r② ✐♥ ❉❛t❛ ❇❛s❡s

  ✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✺

  ❬✸✶❪ r❡❛❧✐③❛r❛♠ ✉♠ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❡ ❛♣♦♥t❛♠ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❢♦✐ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ❋❛②②❛❞ ❬✶✽❪✳

  ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✶ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛ s❡❣✉✐r s✉❛s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✿ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦

  ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✶✽❪ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣❛ss♦s✿

  • ❉❛t❛ s❡❧❡❝t✐♦♥ ✲ ❊t❛♣❛ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ♣r❡t❡♥❞✐❞❛
  • Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ✲ ❊t❛♣❛ q✉❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ❛ ❧✐♠♣❡③❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ r❡♠♦✈❡r r✉í❞♦s ❡ ✐♥❝♦♥✲ s✐stê♥❝✐❛s
  • ❉❛t❛ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ✲ ❊t❛♣❛ ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛

  ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦

  • ❉❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ✲ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s

  ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s

  • P❛tt❡r♥ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛t✐♦♥✴❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ✲ ❊t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛çã♦ ❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s

  ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s

  ✷✳✶✳✷ ◆❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s

  ❆ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦✿ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❞❛t❛ ✇❛r❡❤♦✉s❡✱ ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ✇❡❜✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ ❖ ❢♦❝♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ✇❡❜✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜ é ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ❛❜❛✐①♦✳

  ✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✻

  ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜

  ✸

  ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜ é ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s ✇❡❜ ❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❬✶✺❪✳

  ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜ s❡❣✉❡ ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❑♦s❛❧❛ ❡ ❇❧♦❝❦❡❡❧ ❬✷✾❪ s✉❣❡r❡♠ ❛ ❞❡❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜ ❡♠ q✉❛tr♦ s✉❜✲t❛r❡❢❛s✿

  • ❊♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❢♦♥t❡ ✲ ❚❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ♦s ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s ✇❡❜ ♣r❡t❡♥❞✐❞♦s❀
  • ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ✲ ❚❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ❡ ♣ré✲

  ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ✇❡❜❀

  • ●❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ✲ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ✇❡❜ s✐t❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ♦✉ ❞❡ ✈ár✐♦s s✐t❡s❀
  • ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ✲ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❡✴♦✉ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦s✳

  ❑♦s❛❧❛ ❡ ❍❡♥❞r✐❦ ❬✷✾❪ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐③❛r❛♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜ ❡♠ três ár❡❛s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ q✉❛❧ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ ✇❡❜ ♠✐♥❡r❛r✿ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❲❡❜✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❡s✲ tr✉t✉r❛ ❲❡❜ ❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜✳

  ✹

  • ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❲❡❜ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛ ♣❛r✲ t✐r ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s✱ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s ❲❡❜✳ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❲❡❜ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ t❡①t♦s✱ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s✱ ✈í❞❡♦s✱ ♠❡t❛❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❤②✲ ♣❡r❧✐♥❦s✳ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❲❡❜ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ❞❛❞♦s ♥ã♦ ❡str✉t✉r❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ t❡①t♦s ❧✐✈r❡s✱ ♦✉ s❡♠✐✲❡str✉t✉r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛❣✐♥❛s ✇❡❜✳

  ✺

  • ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❲❡❜ ❚❡♥t❛♠ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r ♠♦❞❡❧♦s s✉❜❥❛❝❡♥t❡s ❛ ❡str✉✲ t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❦s ❞❛ ❲❡❜✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞♦s ❤✐♣❡r❧✐♥❦s ❝♦♠ ♦✉ s❡♠ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s ❧✐♥❦s✳ ❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐③❛r ♣á❣✐♥❛s ❲❡❜ ❡ é út✐❧ ♣❛r❛ ❣❡r❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s s✐t❡s ❲❡❜✳

  ✻

  • ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜ t❡♥t❛ ❢❛③❡r s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛çã♦

  ❲❡❜ s❡ssõ❡s ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❉♦ ✐♥❣❧ês ❲❡❜ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❲❡❜ ❈♦♥t❡♥t ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❲❡❜ ❙tr✉❝t✉r❡ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❲❡❜ ❯s❛❣❡ ▼✐♥✐♥❣

  ✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✼

  ❊♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣r✐♠ár✐♦s ❞❛ ✇❡❜✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ✇❡❜ ♠✐♥❡r❛ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐♦s ❞❡r✐✈❛❞♦s ❞❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❡❧❡s ✐♥t❡r❛❣❡♠ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❲❡❜✳

  ❉❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ✐♥❝❧✉❡♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ❧♦❣s ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦✱ ❧♦❣s ❞♦ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ❞❡ ♣r♦①②✱ ❧♦❣s ❞♦ ♥❛✈❡❣❛❞♦r✱ ♣❡r✜❧ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ r❡❣✐str♦✱ s❡ssõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♦✉ tr❛♥s❛çõ❡s✱ ❝♦♦❦✐❡s✱ ❝❧✐❝❦s ❞♦ ♠♦✉s❡ ❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♦✉tr♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❲❡❜✳

  ✷✳✶✳✸ ❚❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦

  ❆♣ós ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s q✉❡ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡♠ s❡r ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊st❛ é ❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❡t❛♣❛ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊t❛♣❛ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s✳ ◆❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦s✳

  ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ é ❝♦♥✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ t✐♣♦s ❞❡ t❛r❡❢❛s✱ q✉❡ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♠ ❛♦s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❬✷✷❪✳

  ❆s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❞✉❛s ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❬✶✽❪✿ ❛✮ ❉❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛s ✲ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ♣❛❞rõ❡s ✐♥t❡r♣r❡tá✈❡✐s ♣♦r ❤✉♠❛♥♦s q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s❀ ❜✮ Pr❡❞✐t✐✈❛s ✲ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ♦✉ ❝❛♠♣♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡❞✐③❡r ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡s❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ♦✉ ❢✉t✉r♦s ❞❡ ♦✉tr❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳

  ❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ sã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❬✶✽✱ ✷✵✱ ✹✶✱ ✷✶❪✿ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ♣r❡❞✐çã♦ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ é ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❛ ❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♦✉ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡r ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡❞✐③❡r ❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❝✉❥♦ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ é ❞❡s❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡r✐✈❛❞♦ é ❞❡r✐✈❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❞❛❞♦s ❝✉❥♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ é ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❬✷✶❪✳

  ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♠❛♥❡✐r❛s✿ ❘❡❣r❛s✱ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳ ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✸ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦✳

  ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ é✿ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ sã♦ ❜♦♥s ❡ ♠❛✉s ♣❛❣❛❞♦r❡s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦s ♣❡r✜s ❞♦s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ♦s ♥♦✈♦s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r ❧✐♠✐t❡s ❡ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ♥❛s ❝♦♠♣r❛s✳

  ❊♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♣r❡✈ê ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ✭❞✐s❝r❡t❛s✱ s❡♠ ♦r❞❡♠✮ rót✉❧♦s✱ ♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ♣r❡❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❞❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦s✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ é ✉s❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡✈❡r ✈❛❧♦r❡s ♥✉♠ér✐❝♦s ✐♥❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♦✉ q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❢❛❧t❛♥❞♦ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ rót✉❧♦s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s ❬✷✶❪✳

  ✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✽

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✿ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✷✶❪

  ❆❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❢ís✐❝♦s ♦✉ ❛❜str❛t♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s s✐♠✐❧❛r❡s é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❬✷✶❪✳ ❉✐❢❡r❡ ❞♦ q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦s rót✉❧♦s ❞❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s✱ ♦ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s s❡♠ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❡ss❡s rót✉❧♦s✳ ❖s ♦❜❥❡t♦s sã♦ ❛❣r✉♣❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣✐♦ ❞❛ ♠á①✐♠❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ✐♥tr❛❝❧❛ss❡ ❡ ♠✐♥✐♠❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❝❧❛ss❡ ❬✷✶❪✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❜✉s❝❛ r❡✉♥✐r ♥❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛❧t❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s ❡ q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛ ♠á①✐♠❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸✿ ●r✉♣♦s ❢♦r♠❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✷✶❪

  ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✸ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❣r✉♣♦s ❢♦r♠❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦s✳ ❊ss❡s ❣r✉♣♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛s s✐♠✐❧❛r❡s✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✳

  ✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✾

  ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❖✉t❧✐❡r ◆❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s é ❝♦♠✉♠ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ s❡❣✉❡♠ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ♦✉ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊ss❡s ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ s❡ ♠❛♥✐❢❡st❛♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♦✉ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ✐♥❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡ ❞♦ r❡st❛♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♦✉t❧✐❡rs ❬✷✶❪✳ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❝♦♠ ❡ss❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ sã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s r✉í❞♦s ♦✉ ❡①❝❡çõ❡s ❡ sã♦ ❞❡s❝❛rt❛❞♦s✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❤á ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❡♠ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♠❛✐s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ r❡❣✉❧❛r✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❝❧áss✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ é ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❡ ❡♠ ❝❛rtõ❡s ❞❡ ❝ré❞✐t♦✳

  ❖s ♦✉t❧✐❡rs ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✸✱ ♦s ♣♦♥t♦s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦s ❣r✉♣♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♦✉t❧✐❡rs✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ♦✉t❧✐❡rs ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s✱ ♠❡❞✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♦✉ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❞❡s✈✐♦✳ ❆ss♦❝✐❛çõ❡s✱ P❛❞rõ❡s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡s ❉❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡ ✐t❡♥s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ ♥❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♦✉tr♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❬✷✵❪✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡s✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞❡❧❡s sã♦✿

  ✼

  ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛✐s✳ é ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡✈❡♥t♦s ♦r❞❡♥❛❞♦s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♦✉ s✉❜s❡q✉❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❬✷✶❪✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ é✿ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ ❝♦♠♣r❛r ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣r❡ss♦r❛ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s s❡♠❛♥❛s✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ sã♦ ♣❛❞rõ❡s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❝♦♠ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❡♠ s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛✱ ♥❡st❡ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛ ♦r❞❡♠ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ❡✈❡♥t♦s ♦❝♦rr❡♠ é r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡✳

  ✽

  ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐t❡♥s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡s r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐t❡♥s q✉❡ ❢r❡✲ q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡♠ ❥✉♥t♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❬✷✶❪✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❝❧áss✐❝♦ é✿ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛♠ ♣ã♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♣r❛♠ ❧❡✐t❡✳ ❊ss❡ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❜✉s❝❛ ✐t❡♥s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♠❛s ❛ s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❡✈❡♥t♦s ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ♥ã♦ é ❧❡✈❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦✳

  ◆♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ r❡❣r❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❛s ❛ss♦❝✐❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✸ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❣r❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✹✿ ❘❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✷✶❪ ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❙❡q✉❡♥t✐❛❧ ♣❛tt❡r♥ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❢r❡q✉❡♥t ✐t❡♠s❡t

  ✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✶✵

  ❆ r❡❣r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✸ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛q✉❡❧❡ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛✲ ❞♦r t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ✉♠ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳ ❆ r❡❣r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞♦✐s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s✿ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ s✉♣♦rt❡✳ ❊ss❡s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ r❡❣r❛ ❡ s❡ ❡ss❛ r❡❣r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❞❡ ✶✪ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛ r❡❣r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛✲s❡ ❛ ✶✪ ❞♦s ❝❛s♦s ❡st✉❞❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✺✵✪ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❞♦s ✶✪ ❡♠ q✉❡ r❡❣r❛ s❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✺✵✪ ❞♦s ❝❛s♦s ❡♠ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ✉♠ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳

  ✷✳✶✳✹ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✾

  ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s é ✉♠❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❡♠❡r❣❡♥t❡✱ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✲ ✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣❧♦r❛çã♦ ❞❡ t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ú♥✐❝♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❡ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❡ss❡s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ❡ ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s q✉❡ ❡❧❡s ❛♣r❡♥❞❡♠ ❬✽❪✳

  ❆ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s q✉❛♥❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♠ér❝✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ ❬✹✾❪✿

  • ❉♦♠í♥✐♦✿ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♠ér❝✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ é ♦r✐❡♥t❛r ♦s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ♥❛s ❝♦♠♣r❛s✱

  ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ é ♦r✐❡♥t❛r ♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥✲ ❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❬✺✵❪

  • ❉❛❞♦s✿ ◆♦ ❝♦♠ér❝✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s sã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦✿

  ❧♦❣ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐❞♦r✱ ♠❛s ❡♠ ❡✲❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡①✐st❡♠ ♠❛✐s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ✐♥✲ t❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❬✶✸❪

  • ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✿ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❝♦♠ér❝✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ é ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r

  ♦ ❧✉❝r♦✱ q✉❡ é t❛♥❣í✈❡❧ ❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♠❡❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❞✐♥❤❡✐r♦✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ✜❞❡❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❏á ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ é ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❊ss❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é s✉❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❡ ♠❛✐s s✉t✐❧ ♠❡❞✐r

  • ❚é❝♥✐❝❛s✿ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s tê♠ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛✐s q✉❡ r❡q✉❡r❡♠ ✉♠ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛r✱

  ❡♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✱ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❬✶✸❪ ❬✷✸❪

  ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣

  ✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✶✶

  ▼ét♦❞♦s ❡♠ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❖s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝❛r✲ ❛❝t❡r✐③❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❇❛❦❡r ❬✶❪ ❡ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛❜❛✐①♦✿

  • Pr❡❞✐çã♦

  ✕ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✕ ❘❡❣r❡ssã♦ ✕ ❉❡♥s✐t② ❡st✐♠❛t✐♦♥

  • ❆❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦
  • ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛çõ❡s

  ✕ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ✕ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡❧❛çõ❡s ✕ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛✐s ✕ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛✉s❛s

  • ❉❡st✐❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❤✉♠❛♥♦
  • ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s

  ❖s ▼ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ♣r❡❞✐çã♦✱ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❡ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♠❛✐s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❉❡st✐❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❤✉♠❛♥❛s ❯♠❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ é ❛ ❞❡st✐❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❤✉♠❛♥❛s✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❛❣❡♥t❡s ❤✉♠❛♥♦s é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ s❡ ❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❡♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛❀

  ❖s ♠ét♦❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❡st❛ ár❡❛ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s sã♦ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ sã♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ s✉❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛ ❡ ♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❡♠❜✉t✐❞♦ ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳

  ❆ ❞❡st✐❧❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❤✉♠❛♥❛s t❡♠ ❞♦✐s ♣r♦♣ós✐t♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s✿ ❛✮ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✲ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ❤✉♠❛♥♦s ♣♦ss❛♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♠❛✐s ❢❛❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s ❞❡ ❡①♣r❡ss❛r ❢♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡❀ ❜✮ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✲ ❛ ❞❡st✐❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉s❛❞❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣♦✐❛r ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ♣r❡❞✐çã♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ❡①✐❜✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ r♦t✉❧❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❤✉♠❛♥♦s✳ ❊ss❡s rót✉❧♦s sã♦

  ✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✶✷

  ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✳ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ◆❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢❡♥ô♠❡♥♦ é ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡

  ♣r❡❞✐çã♦✱ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦✉ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❛s♦s ✭❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ❡♥✲ ❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ r❛❝✐♦❝í♥✐♦ ❤✉♠❛♥♦ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞♦s✮✳ ❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❡♥tã♦ ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ♦✉tr❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♦✉ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✿

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✺✿ ❈✐❝❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✹✾❪

  ❊❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝♦s r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣r♦❥❡t❛♠✱ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠✱ ❝♦♥str♦❡♠ ❡ ♠❛♥t❡♠ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❖s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ✉s❛♠ ❡ ✐♥t❡r❛❣❡♠ ❝♦♠ ❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❣❡r❛ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❡ ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❝✉rs♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✱ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s út❡✐s✳ ❆s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s✳

  ❆ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠✿ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❬✹✷❪ ❬✻✺❪ ❬✺✽❪✱ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛❝❛♦ ❞❡ ❝✉rs♦s ❬✺✶❪ ❬✹✽❪✱ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ s❡♥t✐♠❡♥t♦ ❬✷✽❪✱ ❛♣❡r❢❡✐ç♦❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❬✸✸❪ ❬✻✹❪ ❬✺✼❪✱ ♠♦❞❡❧❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ❬✷✼❪ ❬✺✾❪✳

  ✷✳✷✳ ❋❘❆▼❊❲❖❘❑❙ ✶✸

  ✷✳✷ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s

  P♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ❡♥tr❡t❛♥t♦ ♥ã♦ ❤á ✉♠❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❝♦♠✉♠✳ ❉✉❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s q✉❡ sã♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞❛s sã♦ r❡❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❏♦❤♥s♦♥✿

  ✧❯♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s q✉❡ ❝❛♣t✉r❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❛❜str❛t♦ ♣❛r❛ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✳✧❬✷✹❪ ✧❯♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛♠ ❡♥tr❡ s✐ ♣❛r❛ ❛ss✉♠✐r ✉♠

  ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳✧❬✷✺❪

  ❖✉tr❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❋❛②❛❞✿ ✧❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ é ♦ ❡sq✉❡❧❡t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❞❡s❡♥✲

  ✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✳✧❬✶✻❪ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❛❝✐♠❛ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❞❡st❛❝❛r ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s✿

  • ❘❡✉s❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❝ó❞✐❣♦❀
  • ❙ã♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s s❡♠✐♣r♦♥t❛s✱ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡st✐♥❛♠ ❛ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✲

  ✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝♦❀ ❉❡♥tr♦ ❞♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞♦s✱ ▼❛r❦✐❡✇✐❝③ ❡ ▲✉❝❡♥❛ ❬✸✺❪ ❞❡st❛❝❛♠ q✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠

  ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦ss❛ ❣❡r❛r ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✱ ❞❡✈❡ t❡r ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ▼❛r❦✐❡✇✐❝③ ❡ ▲✉❝❡♥❛ ❬✸✺❪✱ ❊ss❡s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦s

  ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❤♦t s♣♦ts✳ ❖✉tr♦s ♣♦♥t♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❢❛❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ ♠✉❧tá✈❡✐s ❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦ ♥ú❝❧❡♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡❢r♦③❡♥ s♣♦ts✳

  ❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ sã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❬✶✻❪✿

  • ▼♦❞✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡✿ ❖❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ q✉❡ sã♦ ♣❛ss✐✈❡✐s ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s✳ ❊st❡ ❢❛t♦✱ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛ ♦s ✐♠♣❛❝t♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ s❡✉ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦❀
  • ❘❡✉s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✿ é ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥✲ str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✳ ❖ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♣r♦❞✉t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❞❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❞❛ ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ❣❡r❛❞♦s sã♦ ❣❛♥❤♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ r❡✉s♦ ♣r♦♠♦✈✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s❀

  ✷✳✷✳ ❋❘❆▼❊❲❖❘❑❙ ✶✹

  • ❊①t❡♥s✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✿ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛❞❛♣✲ t❛çõ❡s✿ ❡①t❡♥sã♦✱ ❛❞✐çã♦ ♦✉ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ♣r♦✈✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ■st♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠❡s♠♦ ❢r❛♠❡✲ ✇♦r❦❀
  • ■♥✈❡rsã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡✿ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✳ ❊❧❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞♦s ❡♠ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❛ ✉♠ ❡✈❡♥t♦ ❡①t❡r♥♦✳ ❊st❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ é ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣✐♦ ❞❡ ❍♦❧❧②✇♦♦❞✱ ✧❉♦♥✁t ❝❛❧❧ ✉s✱ ✇❡✬❧❧ ❝❛❧❧ ②♦✉ ✳ ❱❡r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✻✿ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ♥♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✸✷❪

  ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s✳ ◆❛ ❧❡tr❛ ✭❛✮ ❞❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ✉♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❡s❝r❡✈❡ s❡✉ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s✱ ❡s❝♦❧❤❡ q✉❛✐s ❛s ❝❧❛ss❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❡❧❛s s❡rã♦ ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞❛s✳ ◆❛ ❧❡tr❛ ✭❜✮✱ ✉♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❡s❝r❡✈❡ s❡✉ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❊❧❡ ❡st❡♥❞❡ ♦✉ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛ ❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s✱ ❡ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛ q✉❛✐s ❛s ❝❧❛ss❡ ❡ ♦ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡ ❡❧❛s s❡rã♦ ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞❛s✳

  ✷✳✷✳✶ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s

  ◆❡st❛ s❡çã♦ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛s ❞✉❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✈✐sõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✳ ❖s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦s q✉❛♥t♦ ❛♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❡①t❡♥sã♦✳

  ❖s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦s q✉❛♥t♦ ❛♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❬✺✺❪✿

  ✷✳✷✳ ❋❘❆▼❊❲❖❘❑❙ ✶✺

  • ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ ❆♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✿ ❊st❡s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❛❜r❛♥❣❡♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♣♦✲

  ❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❡♠ ✈ár✐♦s ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ é✿ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❣rá✜❝❛✳ ❙ã♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❤♦r✐③♦♥t❛✐s✳

  • ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ ❉♦♠í♥✐♦✿ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ✈❡rt✐❝❛✐s✱ ❡♥✲

  ❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠ ♣❡rí❝✐❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✳ ❖❢❡r❡❝❡♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❡ sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦✿ t❡❧❡❝♦✲ ♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ s❛ú❞❡✱ ✜♥❛♥ç❛s✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳

  • ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ ❙✉♣♦rt❡✿ ❖❢❡r❡❝❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❛ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❛❝❡ss♦

  ❛ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s✱ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ ◆♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❡st❡s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❞❡ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦✉ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ♣r♦❞✉③✐❞❛s ♣♦r ❢♦r♥❡❝❡❞♦r❡s ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❞❡ s✉♣♦rt❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛❞♦s ♦✉ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦s✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♣r♦✲ ❞✉t♦✳

  ❖s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s t❛♠❜é♠ sã♦ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦s q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❬✷✹❪ ❬✶✻❪✿

  • ❲❤✐t❡❜♦①✿ ❙ã♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❲❤✐t❡❜♦① ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ♣♦rq✉❡ s✉❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ♣r❡✲

  ❝✐s❛ s❡r ❡♥t❡♥❞✐❞❛ ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ s❡r ✉s❛❞❛✳ ❖ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛ é ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ s✉❜❝❧❛ss❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♠❛✐s ❝❧❛ss❡s✳ ❊st❡s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s sã♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❞✐r✐❣✐❞♦s ❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛❬✺✺❪✳ ❯t✐❧✐③❛r ✇❤✐t❡❜♦① ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s tê♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s✱ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ é q✉❡ ✉♠ ✇❤✐t❡❜♦① ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❞✐❢í❝✐❧ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❛ ✉s❛r✱ ✈✐t♦ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❛ ✉sá✲❧♦ é ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ❝♦♠♦ ❡❧❡ é ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦✳

  • ❇❧❛❝❦❜♦①✿ ❚❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♦s ❜❧❛❝❦❜♦①

  ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s sã♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❛ss✐♠ ♣♦rq✉❡ s✉❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ♥ã♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r ❡♥t❡♥❞✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛✳ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛❞♦r❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❛♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ❞❡ss❡s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r ❡ss❡s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ◆♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❇❧❛❝❦❜♦① ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s sã♦ ♠❛✐s ❢á❝❡✐s ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐❞♦s ❡ ✉s❛❞♦s ❞♦ q✉❡ ♦s ❲❤✐t❡❜♦① ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ♠❛s sã♦ ♠❡♥♦s ✢❡①í✈❡✐s✳

  • ●r❛②❜♦①✿ sã♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛r ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s

  ♥♦s ✇❤✐t❡❜♦① ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡ ❜❧❛❝❦❜♦① ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✳ P❡r♠✐t❡♠ ✉♠❛ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❡①✲ t❡♥s✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ s❡♠ ❡①♣♦r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡s♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s✳

  ✷✳✷✳ ❋❘❆▼❊❲❖❘❑❙ ✶✻

  ✷✳✷✳✷ ❱❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❡ ❉❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s

  ❆♥t❡s ❞❛ ♦♣çã♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ✉♠❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❡ ♦s ❝✉st♦s ❞❡ ✉s❛r ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✳✷ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡ss❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝✉st♦s ❡ ♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✼✿ ❇❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ① ❈✉st♦s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✺✺❪

  ❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❬✸✷❪ ❬✾❪ ❬✸✼❪✿

  • ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✿ ■st♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ♥ã♦

  ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛r ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s✱ ❡ ❡❧❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡ ❝♦♥❝❡♥tr❛r ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛✳ ❬✺✻❪✳ ✭❋♦❝♦ ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ♣❡r✐❝✐❛✮

  • Pr♦♠♦✈❡ ❝♦♥s✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦✿ ❖s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛♠ ❡s✲

  ♣❡❝✐❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s sã♦ r❡s♦❧✈✐❞♦s ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ ❡ ❛s r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ♥❡❣♦❝✐♦ ❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ sã♦ ✉s❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡✳ ✐st♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ✉♠❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r ♥♦ ♣❛ss❛❞♦✳ ❯♠❛ ♦✉tr❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ é q✉❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s t❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ✧❉◆❆✧❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r ❥✉♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ♠❛✐s s✉❜st❛♥❝✐❛❧ ❬✺✻❪✳

  • ❘❡❞✉③ ❛ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦✿ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ❛s

  ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❝♦♥str✉✐❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❡❧❡ sã♦ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✳

  • ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r t❡♠ ♠❡♥♦s ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡s❝r❡✈❡r✿ ❆s ❛❜str❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠✉♥s

  ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♠❡♥♦s ❝ó❞✐❣♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ♦ q✉❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ♥♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦✳

  • ❈♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✿ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❝♦st✉♠❛ t❡r ❡rr♦s ❡ ❜✉❣s ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ♦✉tr♦s s♦❢t✇❛r❡s✱
  • ❘❡q✉❡r ♠❛✐s ❡s❢♦rç♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r✿ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐✲
  • ❘❡q✉❡r ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❡ s✉♣♦rt❡✿ ❆ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✲
  • ■♥t❡❣r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❬✶✻❪✿ ❆ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s t❡♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡

  ✶✵

  ❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♣❛✐ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡✳ ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ✉♠ ❝❛rr♦ ♦❜r✐❣❛t♦r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♠♦t♦r✱ tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦ ❡ ❝❤❛ss✐✳ ✶✵

  ❧❛çõ❡s✿

  ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❜ás✐❝♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸✳✶✿ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❜ás✐❝♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛❝✐♠❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✹ ✭q✉❛tr♦✮ t✐♣♦s ❞❡ r❡✲

  ✳ ❉❡♣♦✐s ❞✐ss♦✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ❡①t❡♥sõ❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ♣r♦♣♦st❛s✱ ♠❛s ♥ã♦ ❡①✐t❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥s❡♥s♦ s♦❜r❡ ❡ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✳

  ✶✶

  ❖ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❢♦✐ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡♠ ✶✾✾✵ ♣♦r ❑❛♥❣ ❡t ❛❧ ❬✷✻❪✳ ❆ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧ ❢♦✐ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❋❖❉❆

  r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♣r♦❞✉t♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❬✹❪✳ ❯s❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❢❛s❡s ❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥❛ ❢❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛✳

  ❯♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s

  ✷✳✸ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❱❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ✷✳✸✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s

  ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✳

  ✇♦r❦✱ é ❝r✉❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❙❡ ♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦❙ ♥ã♦ sã♦ s✉♣♦rt❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛✱ ❡❧❡s ♣r♦✈❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥ã♦ s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s✳ ❬✸✼❪❀

  ♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s é ❞✐❢í❝✐❧✱ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡s s✐st❡♠❛s✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛❜str❛t❛✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ♠❡♥t❡ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✱ é ♠❛✐s ❞✐❢í❝✐❧ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❬✶✻❪❀

  ❆s ❞❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s sã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❬✺✺❪ ❬✸✼❪✿

  ♠❛s ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s sã♦ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ❡❧❡s t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ s❡r ♠❛✐s ❡stá✈❡✐s ❡ ♥♦✈♦s ❡rr♦s s❡rã♦ r❡❧❛t❛❞♦s ♠❛✐s r❛r❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡stá✈❡✐s ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ❛ ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❬✸✷❪✳

  ✷✳✸✳ ❘❊P❘❊❙❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❱❆❘■❆❇■▲■❉❆❉❊❙ ✶✼

  • ❖❜r✐❣❛tór✐♦✿ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ✜❧❤❛ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡ ♦❜r✐❣❛t♦r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ s❡ ❛ ❝❛r✲

  ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♠♦❞❡❧ ✶✶ ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❋❡❛t✉r❡✲❖r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❉♦♠❛✐♥ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s

  ✷✳✹✳ ❲❊❇ ❙❊▼➶◆❚■❈❆ ✶✽

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✽✿ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✹❪

  • ❖♣❝✐♦♥❛❧✿ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ✜❧❤❛ ♣♦❞❡ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r s❡ ❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛

  ♣❛✐ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡✳ ❖ ❝❛rr♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡q✉✐♣❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✧❝r✉✐s❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧✧♦✉ ♥ã♦✳

  • ❆❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛✿ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❞❡♥tr❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✱ ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ❝❛r❛❝✲ t❡ríst✐❝❛ ✜❧❤❛ ❞❡✈❡ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♣❛✐ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡✳ ❖ ❝❛rr♦ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ♦✉ ♠❛♥✉❛❧✳
  • ❘❡❧❛çã♦✲❖✉✿ ❖❝♦rr❡ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❞❡♥tr❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ✜❧❤❛s✱ ✉♠❛ ♦✉

  ♠❛✐s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♣❛✐ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡✳ ❖ ❝❛rr♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡q✉✐♣❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♠♦t♦r ❡❧étr✐❝♦✱ ❛ ❣❛s♦❧✐♥❛ ♦✉ ♦s ❞♦✐s ❛♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡♠♣♦✳

  ✷✳✹ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛

  ❆ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ é ✉♠❛ ✇❡❜ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡r✐✈❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ t❡♦r✐❛ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛r ♦s sí♠❜♦❧♦s✳ ❆ t❡♦r✐❛ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡ ✉♠❛ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ ❧ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❡ t❡r♠♦s ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡r♦♣❡r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ s✐s✲ t❡♠❛s✳ ❬✺✷❪

  ❆ ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ♥ã♦ é ✉♠❛ ❲❡❜ s❡♣❛r❛❞❛✱ ♠❛s ✉♠❛ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ❛t✉❛❧✱ ❡♠ q✉❡ é ❞❛❞♦ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ✉♠ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❜❡♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s tr❛❜❛❧❤❡♠ ❡♠ ❝♦♦♣❡r❛çã♦✳ ➱ ✉♠❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ✭✉s❛♥❞♦ ✧r❡❞❡s✧❞❛ ❲❡❜ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❘❉❋ ✮ ❡ ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❛❣❡♥t❡s s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ♦✉ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s✳ ❬✺❪✳

  ❊st❛ ✐❞❡✐❛✱ ♥♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♥ã♦ é ♥♦✈❛✱ ❚✐♠ ❇❡r♥❡rs✲▲❡❡ ❥á ❛rt✐❝✉❧❛✈❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ♥❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❲♦r❧❞ ❲✐❞❡ ❲❡❜ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡✱ ❲❲❲✱ ❡♠ ✶✾✾✹✳

  ●r❛♥❞❡ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♥❛ ✇❡❜ ❢♦✐ ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❤✉♠❛♥♦s ❧❡r❡♠✱ ♠❛s ♥ã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✳ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❝♦♥s❡❣✉❡♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ♣❛❣✐♥❛s ❲❡❜ ♣❡❧♦ ❧❛②♦✉t ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❡✴♦✉ ❧✐♥❦s q✉❡ ❧❡✈❛♠ ❛s ♦✉tr❛s ♣❛❣✐♥❛s✱ ♠❛s ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉❡♠ ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ❛ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❞♦s ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✳

  ❆ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ tr❛rá ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❛♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ♣á❣✐♥❛s ❲❡❜✱ ❝r✐❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♦♥❞❡ ❛❣❡♥t❡s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ♣❡r❝♦rr❛♠ ❞❡ ♣á❣✐♥❛ ❡♠ ♣á❣✐♥❛ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛r

  ✷✳✹✳ ❲❊❇ ❙❊▼➶◆❚■❈❆ ✶✾

  ❢❛❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ s♦✜st✐❝❛❞❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❬✺❪✳ ❚✐♠ ❇❡r♥❡rs✲▲❡❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ♥❛ ❲❡❜✿ ▲✉❝② ♣r❡❝✐s❛✈❛ ♠❛r❝❛r ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ♠ã❡ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛ ❡ ❞❡♣♦✐s ❛❧❣✉✲

  ♠❛s s❡ssõ❡s ❞❡ ✜s✐♦t❡r❛♣✐❛✳ P❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡st❛ t❛r❡❢❛✱ ▲✉❝② ❝♦♥✜❣✉r♦✉ s❡✉ ❛❣❡♥t❡ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ s❡✉ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r✳ ❖ ❛❣❡♥t❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r♦✉ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣r❡s❝r✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ♠ã❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛❣❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦✱ ❝❤❡❝♦✉ ♦s ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ❡st❛✈❛♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❛♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❛ ♠ã❡ ❞❡ ▲✉❝②✱ ❡ ✐♥✐❝✐♦✉ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❧♦❝❛❧ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ❛ s✉❛ ❝❛s❛✱ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❡❧❡ ❝♦♠❡ç♦✉ ❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ♦s ❤♦rár✐♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ ❛s ❛❣❡♥❞❛s ❞❡ ▲✉❝② ❡ P❡t❡r✱ ❡ ♣r♦♣ôs ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦✳ ❆ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛✱ ♥♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♥ã♦ ❛❣r❛❞♦✉ P❡✲ t❡r✱ ♣♦✐s✱ t❡r✐❛ q✉❡ ❞✐r✐❣✐r ♥❛ ❤♦r❛ ❞♦ r✉s❤✳ ❊❧❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r♦✉ s❡✉ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❛❣❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ r❡❢❛③❡r ❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr❛s ♣r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛s✱ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ◗✉❛s❡ q✉❡ ✐♠❡❞✐❛t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❛❣❡♥t❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ ♦✉tr♦ ♣❧❛♥♦✱ q✉❡ t✐♥❤❛ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s r❡str✐çõ❡s✱ ♠❛s ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛❞♦ ♣♦r ▲✉❝②✳

  ❆ss✐♠✱ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣r❡ss❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣r❡❝✐s❛✱ ♣♦✲ ❞❡♥❞♦ t❛✐s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s❡r❡♠ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛❞❛s ♣♦r ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❡ ❞❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r❡♠ q✉❡ ❛❣❡♥t❡s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r✱ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r ❡ r❡✉s❛r✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♣♦❞❡r ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ♦s t❡r♠♦s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❬✶✶❪

  ❚✐♠ ❇❡r♥❡rs✲▲❡❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ ❡♠ ✷✵✵✶ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♠ ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ ❝♦♥✲ ❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❇♦❧♦ ❞❡ ◆♦✐✈❛✳ ◆♦ ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✵✼✱ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ♣❡rs♣❡❝t✐✈❛s ❞❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ q✉❡ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✾✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✾✿ ❈❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✻✶❪

  ✷✳✹✳ ❲❊❇ ❙❊▼➶◆❚■❈❆ ✷✵

  ✷✳✹✳✶ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s

  P❛r❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❡✱ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡✈❡♠ t❡r ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ ❝♦❧❡çõ❡s ❡str✉t✉✲ r❛❞❛s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ✐♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥❞✉③✐r ✉♠ r❛❝✐♦❝í♥✐♦ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞♦✳ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ é ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛✳ ❬✺✷❪

  ❆s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❝✉♠♣r❡♠ ❡ss❛ ❢✉♥çã♦✳ ❋♦r♥❡❝❡♠ ♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ ♣r♦❝❡ssá✲❧❛s ❡ ❛ss✐♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠ r❛❝✐♦❝✐♥♦ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞♦✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♥❛ ✇❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ ♣♦✐s ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛♠ ♥ã♦ só ❤✉♠❛♥♦s ♣♦ss❛♠ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞❡r ♦s ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥❛ ✇❡❜✱ ♠❛s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ ❛❝❡ss❛r ❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛r t❛✐s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✳

  ❖ t❡r♠♦ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ t❡♠ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ♥❛ ✜❧♦s♦✜❛✳ ❯♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ é ✉♠❛ t❡♦r✐❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♥❛✲ t✉r❡③❛ ❞❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛✱ ❞❡ q✉❡ t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❝♦✐s❛s ❡①✐st❡♠✳ ❊♠ ✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✱ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ❝♦♠♦✿

  ❯♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ é ✉♠❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❡ ❡①♣❧í❝✐t❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❝♦♠✲ ♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞❛ ❬✺✹❪✳

  ❆❜❛✐①♦ s❡❣✉❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❬✺✹❪✿

  • ❈♦♥❝❡✐t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦✿ ❯♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛❜str❛t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ❢❡♥ô♠❡♥♦ ❞♦ ♠✉♥❞♦✳
  • ❊①♣❧✐❝✐t❛✿ ❖s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ✉s❛❞♦s✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s r❡str✐çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ s❡✉ ✉s♦ sã♦✱ ❡①♣❧✐❝✐✲ t❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✳
  • ❋♦r♠❛❧✿ ❆s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞❛s ♣♦r ♠áq✉✐♥❛s✳
  • ❈♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞❛✿ ❆s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♥s❡♥s✉❛❧✳

  ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ❡♠ ♠✉✐t♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❬✺❪✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ❞♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛s ❞❛ ✇❡❜✱ ♣♦✐s ❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ ♣r♦❝✉r❛r ♣♦r ♣❛❣✐♥❛s q✉❡ ❢❛③❡♠ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛s ❛ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❛ ♣❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡s ❛♠❜í❣✉❛s✳ ❖✉tr♦ ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ✇❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ é ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s

  ✶✷

  ♣❛r❛ ❛♥♦t❛çã♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ♠❛✐s ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛✳

  ✷✳✹✳✷ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ✶✸

  ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ P❛②♥❡ ❡ ▲❛ss✐❧❛ ❬✹✹❪✱ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ✭❙❲❙✮ sã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ s❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❛♣❡r❢❡✐ç♦❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛♥♦t❛çõ❡s ✶✷ ✶✸ ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s

  ✷✳✹✳ ❲❊❇ ❙❊▼➶◆❚■❈❆ ✷✶ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❛✉t♦♠❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦✱

  ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦✳ ❆ ✐♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❛♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ t❛✐s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝r✐❛r ❞❡ ❛❣❡♥t❡s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❝❛♣❛③❡s ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r✱ ❝♦♠♣♦r ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ♠❛✐s ♣r❡❝✐s❛✱ ✈✐st♦ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ é ♠❛✐s ❢❡✐t❛ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ s✐♥tát✐❝❛✱ ♠❛s s✐♠✱ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✳

  ❖s ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s sã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❛❣❡♥t❡s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s t♦r♥❛♠✲s❡ ❝❛♣❛③❡s ❞❡ ❡①♣❧♦r❛r ❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ❞❡ss❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r t❛r❡❢❛s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛s s❡♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞✐r❡t❛ ❞❡ ❤✉♠❛♥♦s ❬✶✵❪✳

  ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ▲✉❝② ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❚✐♠ ❇❡r♥❡rs✲▲❡❡✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r q✉❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛r❡♠ ❛ ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛r ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❛ ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✳ ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✵ ❡st❛ ✐❞❡✐❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s sã♦ ❛ ✉♥✐ã♦ ❞❡ss❛s ❞✉❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❬✼❪✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✵✿ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✉t♦♠❛çã♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✲

  ✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ✐st♦ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s❡♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❤✉♠❛♥❛✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞✐♥â♠✐❝♦s✱ ♣♦✐s sã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt♦s ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ s✉❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✳ ■st♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧✱ ✉♥✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s sã♦ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞♦s✳ ❬✸✽❪

  ❙❲❙ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ ❡ss❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ♦❢❡r❡❝❡♠ ♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt♦s✱ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛♥♦t❛çã♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ sã♦✿ ❲❙❉▲✲ ❙ ❬✻✸❪✱ ❙❲❙❋ ❬✸❪✱ ❲❙▼❖ ❬✹✻❪ ❛♥❞ ❖❲▲✲❙❬✸✻❪✳

  ✷✳✹✳ ❲❊❇ ❙❊▼➶◆❚■❈❆ ✷✷

  ❖❲▲✲❙ ❖❲▲✲❙ ❬✸✻❪✱ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❉❆▼▲✲❙✱ é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✉t✐✲ ❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❡①♣r❡ss♦s ❡♠ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ❲❡❜ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡ ✭❖❲▲✮✳ ❖❲▲✲❙ ❢♦✐ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛ ❛ ❲✸❈ ❡♠ ✷✵✵✹✱ ❡ ❞❡✜♥❡ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r s❡♠❛♥t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ três ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❬✹✺❪✿

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✶✿ ❖❲▲✲❙ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✻❪

  • ❖ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ Pr♦✜❧❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ♦ q✉❡ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❢❛③ ❡♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛s✱ s❛í❞❛s✱ ♣ré✲

  ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❡ ❡❢❡✐t♦s ✭■❖P❊s✮❀

  • ❖ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼♦❞❡❧ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛ ❡♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡

  ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ✧✉♥❞❡r❧②✐♥❣✧❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦

  • ❖ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ●r♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞♦✱ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣❡❧♦

  ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❲❙❉▲ ❆ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✹✳✷ ♠♦str❛ ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ❛ ❖❲▲✲❙✳ ❊♠ r❡s✉♠♦✱ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦

  ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ sã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❖❲▲ ❝♦♥s✐st❡♠ ♥❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛s ❞❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ♥❡ss❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s

✸✳✶ ❆ ❉②♥❛♠✐❝ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❜❛s❡❞ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣

Pr♦❝❡ss ❙②st❡♠

  ❚s❛✐ ❡ ❚s❛✐ ❬✻✵❪ ♣r♦♣õ❡♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ é ✈✐st❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s

  ✶

  ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s sã♦ ❧✐❣❛❞♦s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❇P❊▲✹❲❙ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ P▼▼▲

  ✷

  é r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦ ❡ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞♦✱ r❡t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ❛♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳ ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦

  ú♥✐❝❛✱ ✉♠ ❝♦♥str✉t♦r ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ✉♠ ❡①❡❝✉t♦r ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✳

  ❙✐♥❣❧❡ ■♥t❡❣r❛t❡❞ ❯s❡r ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✲ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛❝❡ss❛ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❜r♦✇s❡r✳ ❊st❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ❛s ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳ ❖ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ❡ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛r ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ❙❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥ã♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡✱ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❝r✐❛r s❡✉ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ Pr♦❝❡ss ❉❡s✐❣♥❡r✳

  ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ Pr♦❝❡ss ❉❡s✐❣♥❡r ✲ ❉✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ✉♠ ❣✉✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛❥✉❞❛r ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✇❡❜ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞♦ ❞❡♥tr❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✳ ❆ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ é ❞❡❝✐❞✐❞❛ ❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❇P❊▲✹❲❙✳ ❆♣ós✱ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛ ❞❡♣♦✐s✳

  ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ Pr♦❝❡ss ❡①❡❝✉t♦r ✲ ❊①❡❝✉t❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ♥♦s ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❇P❊▲✹❲❙✳ ❖ ❡①❡❝✉t♦r ✐♥✈♦❝❛ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s s❡q✉❡♥✲ ❉♦ ✐♥❣❧ês✱ ❇✉s✐♥❡ss Pr♦❝❡ss ❊①❡❝✉t✐♦♥ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡ ❢♦r ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❉♦ ✐♥❣❧ês✱ Pr❡❞✐❝t✐✈❡ ▼♦❞❡❧ ▼❛r❦✉♣ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡

  ✸✳✶✳ ❆ ❉❨◆❆▼■❈ ❲❊❇ ❙❊❘❱■❈❊ ❇❆❙❊❉ ❉❆❚❆ ▼■◆■◆● P❘❖❈❊❙❙ ❙❨❙❚❊▼ ✷✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✿ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦

  ❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ P▼▼▲✳ ❊♥tã♦✱ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ é r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❛♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❡ ❜❛s❡❛r s✉❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✱

  ♦ q✉❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ❡st❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❧✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ♥❛ s✉❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ sã♦ ❡❧❛s✿ ✭✐✮ ❡st❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❢♦❝♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✲ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✉♠ ❡s❢♦rç♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡ s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ♣♦✐s ❡❧❡s ♣r❡❝✐s❛rã♦ ❡st❡♥❞❡r ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❧❡✈❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦ ♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s❀ ✭✐✐✮ ❯t✐❧✐③❛ ♦ ❇P❊▲✹❲❙ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✲ P❛r❛ ❡st❡♥❞❡r ❡st❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛rá✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❝r✐❛r ❡ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♦ ♥♦✈♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦✱ ❞❡✜♥✐r ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ♥♦✈♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r✳ ■ss♦ ❢❛rá ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡r t♦❞♦s ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❡ t❡r ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♣r♦❢✉♥❞❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣♦❞❡r ❝♦♠❜✐♥á✲❧♦s ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❡ ✢✉①♦✳

  ❉✐❢❡r❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ❚s❛✐ ❡ ❚s❛✐✱ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ t❡♠ ♦ ❢♦❝♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡✱ ♣♦r ✐ss♦✱ t❡♠ s❡✉s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❡♥s❛❞♦s ❡ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛✲ ❞♦s ❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦ ❡s❢♦rç♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ é r❡❞✉③✐❞♦✱ ♣♦✐s ❝♦♠ ❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ♥ã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣r❡❞❡✜♥✐r ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❖s s❡r✈✐ç♦s sã♦ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛❞♦s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❡ss❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳

  ✸✳✷✳ ❆ ❙❊▼❆◆❚■❈ ❲❊❇ ❙❊❘❱■❈❊ ❖❘■❊◆❚❊❉ ❋❘❆▼❊❲❖❘❑ ❋❖❘ ❆❉❆P❚■❱❊ ▲❊❆❘◆■◆● ❊◆❱■❘❖◆▼❊◆❚❙

  ✷✺

  

✸✳✷ ❆ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❖r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦

❢♦r ❆❞❛♣t✐✈❡ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❊♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts

  ❉✐❡t③❡✱ ●✉❣❧✐♦tt❛ ❡ ●✉❣❧✐♦tt❛ ❬✶✷❪ ♣r♦♣õ❡♠ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦✱ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡♥✲ ❝❛♣s✉❧❛❞♦s ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s s❡♠❛♥t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼♦❞❡❧❧✐♥❣ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ✲ ❲❙▼❖✱ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❢♦ss❡ r❡❛❧✲ ✐③❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❡ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ■❘❙✲■■■✱ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ❘❡❛s♦♥✐♥❣ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r✱ ❛ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♠❛✐s ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛ é s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞❛✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❛❧t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♥❡✲ ❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✿ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷ é✱ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s✳ ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛✱ ♦ ❛❣❡♥t❡ ❙❲❙ é ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❲❙▼❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ s❡r✈❡

  ❝♦♠♦ ❢✉♥❞❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜✳ ❖s s❡r✈✐ç♦s sã♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s r❡♣♦s✐tór✐♦s ❡①t❡r♥♦s ❡ ♣r♦✈ê❡♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐✲ ❞❛❞❡s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❞❛❞♦s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❡ r❡♣♦s✐tór✐♦s ❞❡ ♠❡t❛❞❛❞♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ❢♦r♠❛✐s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s✳ ❆ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛t✉❛❧ ❢❛③ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡st❡s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s✳ P❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❲❙▼❖ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡

  ✸✳✸✳ ❚❆❉❆✲❊❉✿ ❚❖❖▲ ❋❖❘ ❆❉❱❆◆❈❊❉ ❉❆❚❆ ❆◆❆▲❨❙■❙ ■◆ ❊❉❯❈❆❚■❖◆ ✷✻ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❲❙▼❖ ❢♦✐ ✉s❛❞♦ ♦ ■❘❙ ■■■✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ❡ ❡❞✐t♦r ❞❡ ■▼❙ ▲❉ é s✉♣♦rt❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❘❡❧♦❛❞ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❉❡s✐❣♥ ❊❞✐t♦r ❛♥❞ P❧❛②❡r✳

  

✸✳✸ ❚❆❉❆✲❊❞✿ ❚♦♦❧ ❢♦r ❆❞✈❛♥❝❡❞ ❉❛t❛ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s ✐♥

❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥

  ❖ ❚❆❉❆✲❊❞ ❬✸✾❪✱ ❚♦♦❧ ❢♦r ❆❞✈❛♥❝❡❞ ❉❛t❛ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s ✐♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ é ✉♠❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦✲❧❤❡s ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛r ♦s ❡①✲ ❡r❝í❝✐♦s ♦♥✲❧✐♥❡ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐♥t✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✳ ❊st❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐✲ ❛çã♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❲❡❦❛ ❡ ❝♦♥té♠ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ✜❧tr❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✿ ❚❡❧❛ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❚❆❉❆✲❊❞ ♣♦ss✉✐ q✉❛tr♦ t❡❧❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s✿

  • ◆♦ ❝❛♥t♦ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❡sq✉❡r❞♦ ♠♦str❛ ✉♠ ❤✐st♦❣r❛♠❛ ❡ ❧✐♥❤❛s❀
  • ◆♦ ❝❛♥t♦ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❞✐r❡✐t♦ ♠♦str❛ ✉♠ ❣rá✜❝♦ ❡♠ ❞✉❛s ❞✐♠❡♥sõ❡s❀
  • ◆♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r ❡sq✉❡r❞♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✱

  ❝♦♠♦ ❑✲♠❡❛♥s❀

  • ◆♦ ❝❛♥t♦ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r ❞✐r❡✐t♦ ❝♦♥té♠ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❆♣r✐♦r✐✳

  ✸✳✸✳ ❚❆❉❆✲❊❉✿ ❚❖❖▲ ❋❖❘ ❆❉❱❆◆❈❊❉ ❉❆❚❆ ❆◆❆▲❨❙■❙ ■◆ ❊❉❯❈❆❚■❖◆ ✷✼ ❆s ❥❛♥❡❧❛s sã♦ ✐♥t❡r❧✐❣❛❞❛s ❡ ❛♦ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠ ♣♦♥t♦ ♥❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ sã♦ ❡①✲

  ✐❜✐❞♦s ♦s s❡✉s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛♦ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❜❛rr❛s ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❣rá✜❝♦s ♦s ♣♦♥t♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s sã♦ ❞❡st❛❝❛❞♦s ♥❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s✳

  ❖ ❚❆❉❆✲❊❞ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦✿ ♦s ✜❧tr♦s ✭❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✉❜❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✮ ❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✴ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❞❡ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♥❡ss❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r ❞❡✈❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r s✉❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❚❆❉❆✲❊❞ ♣❛r❛ ♣♦❞❡r ♦❜t❡r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❡♠ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦ ❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ s❡rá ❡❧❡✈❛❞♦✱ ❞❛❞❛ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r✈❡♥çã♦ ❞✐r❡t❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r t❛♥t♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❛♥t♦ ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❡❧❛✳

  ❆ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❛ ❢á❝✐❧ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ❢♦❝♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ✐♥❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s sã♦ ❛t❡♥❞✐❞♦s✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ Pr♦♣♦st♦

  ◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s s❡❣✉✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦✳ ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦✱ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❛t♦r❡s

  ✶

  ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❡ s✉❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ P♦st❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛s ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ t♦♠❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ q✉❡ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✳

  ✹✳✶ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦

  ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦✱ t❛♥t♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❛♥t♦ ♥ã♦✲❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ♥♦s ❞❡s❛✜♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❧❡✈✲ ❛♥t❛❞♦s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ❆ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s s❡ ❜❛s❡♦✉ ♥❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛t♦r❡s✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❛t♦r❡s é ❢❡✐t♦ ✉♠ q✉❡st✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r r❡q✉✐s✐t❛❞❛s ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ s❡✉ ♣❡r✜❧ ❞❡ ✉s♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛♥t❡s ❞❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ✭❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✶✳✷✮✱ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✶✳✶ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ❛t♦r❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♥♦s ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦✳

  ✹✳✶✳✶ ❆t♦r❡s

  ❖s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ sã♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐✲ ❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❛ss✉♠✐r ❞♦✐s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♣❛♣é✐s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✿ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ s❡❣✉✐r ❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ❞❡ss❡s ♣❛♣é✐s✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❛t♦r❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r✿ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ t♦❞♦s ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s s♦❜r❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦✳ ❈❛s♦ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛♠ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ✐rá r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛❞❛♣t❛çõ❡s ❡✴♦✉

  ❞♦ ■♥❣❧ês st❛❦❡❤♦❧❞❡rs

  ✹✳✶✳ ❘❊◗❯■❙■❚❖❙ ❉❆ ❙❖▲❯➬➹❖ ✷✾

  ❡①t❡♥sõ❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ s❡✉ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r t❛✐s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✳ ❊ss❛ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♥s✐st✐r✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠✲ ♣❧♦✱ ♥❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ❞❡ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ♦✉ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥ã♦ ♣r❡✈✐st♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ❯s✉ár✐♦✿ ❡♠ ♦✉tr♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♥té♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ é ❞❡s❡❥á✈❡❧ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛r ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛s ❡s❝♦❧❤❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✿ ♣ré✲ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❜❛st❛ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡ r❡✲ ❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s✳

  ✹✳✶✳✷ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❋✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  ❆♣ós ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❛t♦r❡s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦s ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛✿ ❘❋✶✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✿

  ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ♦s ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ♣❛r❛ ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐③❛r ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦✿ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣♦ss❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛r t❛❧ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳

  ❘❋✷✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ q✉❡ tr❛❞✉③❛♠ ♦s r❡✲ s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳

  ❘❋✸✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❞❡✈❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❛ ❛♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ ❡①❡❝✉tá✲❧♦s✳

  ❘❋✹✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ❛♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❛ ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ♥ã♦ ♣r❡✈✐st❛s✳ ❊ss❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣♦❞❡rã♦ s❡r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡✴♦✉ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❖s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❣r❛✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞✐✲ ❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❈❛s♦s ❞❡ ❯s♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❡♠ ❯▼▲ ✭❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✮✱ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❡①♣❧í❝✐t❛ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛t♦r❡s ❡ ❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛

  ✹✳✶✳ ❘❊◗❯■❙■❚❖❙ ❉❆ ❙❖▲❯➬➹❖ ✸✵

  ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✿ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❈❛s♦s ❞❡ ❯s♦ ❞♦ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ Pr♦♣♦st♦

  P❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✹✳✷ sã♦ ❛♣✲ r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❣r✐♥✈✳ ❖ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❣r✐♥✈ ❬✷❪✱ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ❍❡✐t♦r ❇❛rr♦s✱ é ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❛❞❛♣tá✈❡❧ q✉❡ ♣r♦✈ê ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦s ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s sã♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❞♦ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✷✿ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❈❛s♦s ❞❡ ❯s♦ ❞♦ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❣r✐♥✈ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ◆♦♠❡✿ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦

  ❯s✉ár✐♦✿ ❯s✉ár✐♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❖ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡rá r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❛ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✳ ❖s s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s

  ✹✳✶✳ ❘❊◗❯■❙■❚❖❙ ❉❆ ❙❖▲❯➬➹❖ ✸✶

  ♥❛ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ sã♦✿ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆♦♠❡✿ ❆❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s

  ❯s✉ár✐♦✿ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❖ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ♣♦❞❡rá ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❊ss❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ✹✳✶✳✸ ❱❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡s❡❥❛❞❛s

  P❛r❛ ❡①♣❧✐❝✐t❛r ❛ ❞✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉t♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❣❡r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ❛s ✈❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞❛s sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✸✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡

  ✷

  ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♥tê♠ ❛s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉t♦s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✸✿ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦

  ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✸ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✸ ✭três✮ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♠❛✐s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ s❡r✿ ♣r❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣✱ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❡✴♦✉ ♣♦st♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣✳ ❆s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❝✐t❛❞❛s sã♦ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛s ♣♦r ❝❛r✲ ❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s✱ ❞❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛♣ós ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❡ ✈ã♦ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r ❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ✉♠❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛✳

  P♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♥❛ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛s ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❡ ♣♦st♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣✱ ❛♣ós ❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛s✿ ❆♣r✐♦r✐ ❞❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❡ ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ♣r♦♣♦s❡ ❞❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♣♦st♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣✳

  ❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♠♦❞❡❧✳

  ✹✳✷✳ P❘❖❏❊❚❖ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆▲ ✸✷

  ✹✳✶✳✹ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ◆ã♦✲❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  ❘◆❋✶✳ ❬P♦rt❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡❪ ■♥❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ♣♦rtá✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳

  ❘◆❋✷✳ ❬■♥t❡r♦♣❡r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡❪ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦❞❡r s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦❞❡r s❡r ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞♦ ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧✱ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❝♦♠ ❛ q✉❛❧ ♦ ❛♠❜✐✲ ❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✳ ✭❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ t❡r ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❛ q✉❡ q✉❛✐sq✉❡r ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❢❛❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛❞❛♣tá✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✮

  ❘◆❋✸✳ ❬❆❞❛♣t❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡❪ P❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✴❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ❛♦s s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞♦s às s✉❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳

  ❘◆❋✹✳ ❬❉✐♥❛♠✐s♠♦❪ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ ▲♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦✴❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❞❡✲ s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❡ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛✳

  ❘◆❋✺✳ ❬▼❛♥✉t❡♥✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡❪ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❧❤❛s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❛ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞♦s s❡✉s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❞❡✈❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛r ❡rr♦s ❝♦♠ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐✈❛s ❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞❛s ❢❛❧❤❛s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞♦ ♠❛✐s✱ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛❞❛✱ q✉❡ ♥♦✈❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡✴♦✉ ♥♦✈❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s s❡❥❛♠ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛ ❡❧❡✳

  ❘◆❋✺✳ ❬❘❡✉s♦❪ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ♦ r❡✉s♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❞❡✈❡ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ♦ r❡✉s♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r✲ ❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛✜♠ ❞❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❝✉st♦s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦✳

  ✹✳✷ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛❧

  ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❞❡❝✐s✐✈♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❡ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❬✺✸❪✱ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s ❛ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ P♦r ❡ss❛ r❛③ã♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛✱ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦✳ P❛r❛ ❛

  ✹✳✷✳ P❘❖❏❊❚❖ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆▲ ✸✸

  ❝♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛❧ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❞❡❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❊ss❛ ❞❡❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ t❡✈❡ ♦ ✐♥t✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ❛ ❝♦❡sã♦ ❞♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛✐s ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❡ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❢♦✐ r❡✜♥❛❞❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ♥ã♦✲ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✶✳✹✳ ◆♦ t♦❝❛♥t❡ às ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❛❞♦t❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❞❡st❛❝❛r três ❞❡❧❛s✿ ✭✐✮ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦❀ ✭✐✐✮ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s❀ ❡ ✭✐✐✐✮ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ♣♦r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r✱ ❡ss❛s ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s sã♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s ❥✉st✐✜❝❛❞❛s✳

  ❆ ❖♣çã♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❆♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦✱ ♦♣t♦✉✲s❡ ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ✈✐st♦ q✉❡ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ✐♥❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ❡ss❛ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ r❡✉s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ s✉❛ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✳

  ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡ ♦ r❡✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✴❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♣ré✲ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊ ❝♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ♦ r❡✉s♦ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❡ q✉❡ ❛❣♦r❛ ♥ã♦ s❡rã♦ út❡✐s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ s❡✉s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡st❛❝❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❬✹✾❪✳

  ❖✉tr❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ é ❛ ❛❞❛♣t❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛ às ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛❞❛♣t❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❡✴♠♦❞✐✜q✉❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ P♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥ã♦ ♣r❡✈✐st❛ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳

  ❆❧é♠ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❝✐t❛❞❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❤❡r❞❛ ♦✉tr❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s q✉❡ sã♦ ✐♥❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♠❡♥♦s ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❥❡t❛r ❡ ❡s❝r❡✈❡r✱ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳

  ❖♣çã♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣r♦✈❡❡♠ r❡✉s♦ ❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦✱ ♠❛s sã♦ r❡str✐t♦s ❛s ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡s❡♥✲ ✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥ã♦ é s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r♦♣❡r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡✱ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❛s♦s✱ ♣♦rt❛❜✐❧✲ ✐❞❛❞❡✳

  P❛r❛ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r♦♣❡r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣♦rt❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ✉♠❛ ❢á❝✐❧ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦✱ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❛❞♦t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❬✶✹❪✳ ❖s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s✱ ♣♦✐s ❛ ✐♥t❡r♦♣❡r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❛ ♣♦rt❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ sã♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ✐♥❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ❡❧❡s✳ ❯♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r q✉❛✐sq✉❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ s✐❞♦s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉s❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛r ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✴❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❛ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡r ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✸✹

  ❖♣çã♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❛s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✱ ❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♥ã♦ ❛t❡♥❞❡ ❛♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦s✳ P♦✐s✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s t❡r ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ✲ s❡❧❡çã♦✱ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ✲ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❛✐s ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡✈❡ ♦❝♦rr❡r ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❡stát✐❝❛✱ ✐st♦ é✱ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✐♥❞✐q✉❡ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❤á ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐♥❛♠✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ t❡❝✲ ♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥ã♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s s❡❥❛♠ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt♦s✱ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❡ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛✳ ❊♠ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❇P❊▲ ❞♦ ✐♥❣❧ês✱ ❇✉s✐♥❡ss Pr♦✲ ❝❡ss ❊①❡❝✉t✐♦♥ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣r❡❞❡✜♥✐r q✉❛✐s s❡r✈✐ç♦s s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ r❡str✐♥❣✐♥❞♦✱ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❛ ✢✉①♦s ♣r❡❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✳

  ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❝♦♠ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ s✉❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ s❡❥❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❡ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞❛✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s✳ ▲♦❣♦✱ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♥ã♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❛ ♣r✐♦r✐ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡❥❛ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❡ ♣r♦✈❡r ♦✉tr❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s✱ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❤❛✈✐❛♠ s✐❞♦ ♣r❡✈✐st❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳

  ✹✳✸ ❱✐sã♦ ▲ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛

  ❇❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥❛s ♣♦♥❞❡r❛çõ❡s s✉♣r❛❝✐t❛❞❛s✱ ❢♦✐ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✈❡r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ s❡❣✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❡ ✐♥t❡✲ ❣r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♥❛ ❲❡❜✳

  ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ t❛❧ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ♣r♦✈ê ❛✮ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✿ ♣♦ss✉✐ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥✲ ❡r❛çã♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s✱ ❝♦♠ ✐ss♦ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♥ã♦ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛rã♦ ♠❛✐s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥tá✲❧❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭❡✳❣✳ ❘❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦✮❀ ❜✮ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✿ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐✲ ❜✐❧✐③❛rá s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✱ ♣r♦✈❡♥❞♦ ❛ ❡ss❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✭❡✳❣✳ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❛t❡✲ r✐❛✐s✮❀ ❝✮ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s✿ ✐rá ♣r♦✈❡r ❛ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦✱ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❡ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❧ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ s❡✉s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛✐s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❛❞♦t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡✲ t✉r❛ ❡♠ ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❬✺✸❪✱ q✉❡ ♣r❡s❡r✈❛ ✉♠❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡①♣❧í❝✐t❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ✭❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s✮ ❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ✭❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❡ ▲♦❣✮✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✸✺

  ✸

  ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ✐♥t❡r♥❛ ❜❛s❡✐❛✲s❡ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✭❙❖❆ ✮✱ q✉❡ ❞❡✲ ✜♥❡ ❡①♣❧✐❝✐t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✭❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r✮✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❙❖❆ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♦ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛ ❤❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛r s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ❞✐♥❛♠✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s s✉❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r✱ ❞✐♥❛♠✐❝❛✲ ♠❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s✳ ❯♠ ♦✉tr♦ ❞❡st❛q✉❡ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r r❡ss❛❧t❛❞♦ s❡ r❡❢❡r❡ à ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❡①♣❧í❝✐t❛ ❞❡ três ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✿ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s✱ q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s❀ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s✱ q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛✲ ❞♦s❀ ❡ Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s✱ q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♠❛✐♦r❡s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✹✿ ❱✐sã♦ ❧ó❣✐❝❛

  ✹✳✸✳✶ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s

  ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ✈ár✐♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❊st❡s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s sã♦ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛❞♦s ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ s✉❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r ♦✉tr❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s✳

  ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❲❊❑❆ ❬✻✷❪ ♣❛r❛ s❡r✈✐r ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦✈❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✲ ❝❡✐t♦✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♥♦t❛r q✉❡ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈ár✐❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❛♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ q✉❡ ❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ s❡ t♦r♥❛✱ ❢❛❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡①♣❛♥sí✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ✭❡✳❣✳ ❉❇▼✐♥❡r✱ ❈❧❡♠❡♥t✐♥❡✮✳ ❖ ❲❊❑❆ ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ♣♦r s❡r ❛♠♣❧❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛✱ ♣♦ss✉✐r ✉♠❛ ❞♦❝✉✲ ♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❛❜r❛♥❣❡♥t❡ ❡ ❞❡ ❢á❝✐❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦ ❲❊❑❆ ♣r♦✈ê ✉♠❛ ❆P■

  ❙✐❣❧❛ ❞♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❙❡r✈✐❝❡✲❖r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❆r❝❤✐t❡❝t✉r❡

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✸✻ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦s s❡✉s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❏❛✈❛✱ ♦ q✉❡

  ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s q✉❡ ♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❡♠✳

  ✹✳✸✳✷ ❆❞❛♣t❡r

  ❆❜❛✐①♦ sã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♦s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦r❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ■✴❖ ❆❞❛♣t❡r ❖ ■✴❖ ❛❞❛♣t❡r é ♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦r q✉❡ ❞❡✜♥❡ ♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✳ ❖ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ é ♦ ♣❛r ✭❝❤❛✈❡✱ ✈❛❧♦r✮✱ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❛ ❯❘■ ❞❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ s❡✉ ✈❛❧♦r✳ ❖ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ é ✉♠ ❳▼▲ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r✱ s❡♠ ✉♠ ❙❝❤❡♠❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ■✴❖ ❛❞❛♣t❡r✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡✈❡ s❡❣✉✐r ✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦✱ q✉❡ é ✉♠ ❳▼▲ ❝♦♠ ❙❝❤❡♠❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❞❡ t❛❜❡❧❛✳ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❆❞❛♣t❡r ➱ ❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛s ❢❡rr❛✲ ♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❝❛❞❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛ ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r✲ ❛çã♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r q✉❡ ♦✉tr❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ♣♦ss❛♠ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r✱ ❝♦♠♣♦r ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛✱ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛♥❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❉❇ ❆❞❛♣t❡r ❖ ❉❛t❛ ❇❛s❡ ❆❞❛♣t❡r é ✉♠ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦r q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r❡♠ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡ q✉❛✐s sã♦ ♦✉ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❛s ❢♦♥t❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞❛s✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦r ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❉❛t❛ ▼❡t❛ ▼♦❞❡❧✱ q✉❡ ❞❡✜♥❡ ♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♥t❡♥❞✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳

  P❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦r ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠á✲❧♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦✳ ❉❡♣♦✐s ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣❛ss❛ ❛♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❛ ❯❘■ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦❞❡rá r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✳ ▲♦❣ ❆❞❛♣t❡r ❖ ▲♦❣ ❆❞❛♣t❡r t❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❛♦ ❉❇ ❆❞❛♣t❡r✱ q✉❡ é ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ ❞❡s❡♥✲ ✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛r❡♠ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛r ♦s ❧♦❣s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ♣♦r s❡✉s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✳ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▲♦❣ ❆❞❛♣t❡r é ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❞♦ ❉❇ ❆❞❛♣t❡r✳ ❖✉

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✸✼ s❡❥❛✱ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛✱ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠á✲❧❛ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❡ ♣❛ss❛r ❛ ❯❘■ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛rá ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ♥♦s ❧♦❣s✳

  ❊st❡s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦r❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s❡♣❛r❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠ ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ tã♦ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✱ ♣♦✐s ❜✉s❝♦✉✲s❡ ❞❡st❛❝❛r ❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ss❛s ❞✉❛s ❢♦♥t❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

  ✹✳✸✳✸ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s

  ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣❡❧♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠ ❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐✲ ❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊st❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s sã♦ s✉❜✲❞✐✈✐❞✐❞❛s ❡♠ q✉❛tr♦ ❝❛♠❛❞❛s✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✿ ✐✮ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r❀ ✐✐✮ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❙❡r✲ ✈✐❝❡s❀ ✐✐✐✮ ♣r❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ s❡r✈✐❝❡s❀ ✐✈✮ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥✲ ❛❣❡r é ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆s ♦✉tr❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s sã♦ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛s ♣♦r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s✱ q✉❡ sã♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❛♥♦t❛çã♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✳ ■st♦ ♣❡r✲ ♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣♦ss❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❡ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞❡ss❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳

  ✹✳✸✳✹ Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s

  ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❛❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s✳ ❊st❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❆❧❣✉♥s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥❡st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ sã♦✿ ▲✐st❚♦❆❘❋❋

  ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❛ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❧✐st❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱

  ✹

  ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❆❘❋❋ ✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ r❡t♦r♥❛rá ❝♦♠♦ s❛í❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❯❘■ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❆❘❋❋ ❣❡r❛❞♦✳ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✿ ▲✐st❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❙❛í❞❛✿ ❯❘■ ❞♦ ❆❘❋❋

  ❙tr✐♥❣❚♦❘✉❧❡s ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r tr❛❞✉③✐r ❛s s❛í❞❛s ❣❡r❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çõ❡s✳ ❆s s❛í❞❛s ❣❡r❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❡st❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s é ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ str✐♥❣

  ❆rq✉✐✈♦ ❛❝❡✐t♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❲❊❑❆

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✸✽

  ❝♦♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ❛s r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çõ❡s✳ P♦r ✐ss♦✱ ❡st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡①tr❛✐r ❡ss❛s ❛s r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ss❛s s❛í❞❛s ❝♦♥❢✉s❛s ❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠á✲❧❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡ r❡❣r❛s ❜❡♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♦✉tr♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❡♠ ❡st❛s r❡❣r❛s ♣❛r❛✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ r❡❛❧✐③❛r r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦✳ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✿ ❙tr✐♥❣ ✭s❛í❞❛ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ t♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❛s r❡❣r❛s✮ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❙❛í❞❛✿ ❘❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡ ✉♠❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥✲ ❡r❛çã♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❡st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛✱ ♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♥ã♦ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛♠ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ❜❛st❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐✲s❡ ♦ ❛❝♦♣❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡ss❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✴❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ ♣♦✐s ❢❛③❡♠ ✉s♦ ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ q✉❡ ♦s ✐♠♣❧❡✲ ♠❡♥t❛♠✳

  ❆❧❣✉♥s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥❡st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ sã♦✿ ❆♣r✐♦r✐ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡

  ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ♣r♦✈❡r ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❆♣r✐♦r✐✳ ❊st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❢❛③ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦✱ ❝✉❥♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ♦❜t❡r ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ q✉❡stã♦ ❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r ♣❛❞rõ❡s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❛♣r✐♦r✐ ♣r♦❝✉r❛ ♥❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ss❛s ❛ss♦❝✐❛çõ❡s ❣❡r❛♥❞♦ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❞✉❛s ♠❡❞✐❞❛s✱ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ s✉♣♦rt❡✱ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛ ❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛s✳ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✿ ❈♦♥✜❛♥ç❛✱ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❡ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭❯❘■ ❞♦ ❆❘❋❋✮ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❙❛í❞❛✿ ❙tr✐♥❣ ❝♦♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ❛s r❡❣r❛s

  ❙✐♠♣❧❡ ❦✲▼❡❛♥s ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❙✐♠♣❧❡ ❦✲♠❡❛♥s✳ ❊st❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❣❡r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ é ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❡ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ r❡t♦r♥❛ ❝♦♠♦ s❛í❞❛ ❛ ❯❘■ ❞❡ss❡ ❛rq✉✐✈♦✳ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✿ ❇❛s❡ ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭❯❘■ ❞♦ ❆❘❋❋✮ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❙❛í❞❛✿ ❯❘■ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦

  ◆❛✐✈❡ ❇❛②❡s ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛ ♦ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦r ◆❛✐✈❡ ❇❛②❡s✱ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡ ❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✸✾

  ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❊st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❛ ♣r✐♦r✐✱ r❡❝❡❜❡ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❡ ❇❛②❡s ✲ ♣♦r ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ r❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ❇❛②❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r❀ ❡ ◆❛✐✈❡ ✲ ✐♥❣ê♥✉♦ ✲ ♣♦r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r✳ ❆ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦✱ ❙✐♠♣❧❡ ❑✲▼❡❛♥s ❡st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❣❡r❛ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ❛ ❯❘■ ❞❡st❡ ❛rq✉✐✈♦✳ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✿ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦ ✭q✉❛❧ ❞♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s s❡rá ✉s❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r✮✱ ❇❛s❡ ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭❯❘■ ❞♦ ❆❘❋❋✮ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❙❛í❞❛✿ ❯❘■ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦

  ❇❛②❡s ◆❡t ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦r ❇❛②❡s ◆❡t✳ ❊st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s✳ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✿ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦ ✭q✉❛❧ ❞♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s s❡rá ✉s❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r✮✱ ❇❛s❡ ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭❯❘■ ❞♦ ❆❘❋❋✮ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❙❛í❞❛✿ ❯❘■ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦

  ✹✳✸✳✺ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s

  ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ q✉❡ ♣r♦✈❡❡♠ ❛s ❢✉♥✲ ❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✲ t❡ú❞♦✳ P❛r❛ t❛❧✱ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✳

  ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✭❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❑✲▼❡❛♥s✮ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✈✐s❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ s✉❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❡st❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❑✲▼❡❛♥s✱ q✉❡ ❛❣r✉♣♦✉ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦s ❧✐♥❦s ❛❝❡ss❛❞♦s ❡♠ ár❡❛s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ✉s✲ ❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ q✉❡ s❡ q✉❡r ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r✱ ❡st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✐rá r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ r❡t♦r♥❛r ❛ q✉❛❧ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❡ss❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡✳ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✿ ❯❘■ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❑✲▼❡❛♥s✱ ❧✐st❛ ❝♦♠ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❙❛í❞❛✿ ❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❛ q✉❛❧ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡

  ❘❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❦s ❲❡❜ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ r❡❣r❛s ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦✿ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✲ t❡ú❞♦✱ ❧✐♥❦s✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✿ ❘❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦✱ ▲✐st❛ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❞❛

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✹✵ s❡ssã♦ ❛t✉❛❧ ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ q✉❡ s❡ q✉❡r r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛r

  P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❙❛í❞❛✿ ❘❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦

  ✹✳✸✳✻ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r

  ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜✱ ♦ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r ♦✉ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❊st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ t❡♠ ♦ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♣♦♥t❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♣r♦✈❡r ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ q✉❛✐sq✉❡r ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦✱ ❜❛st❛ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❢❛ç❛ ❛ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ q✉❡ é ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦s✳ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❡ss❡s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s✱ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❡ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r❡s✱ ❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳

  P❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❣r✐♥✈✳ ❊st❡ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❡ ❝♦♠✲ ♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥ã♦ s❛t✐s❢❛③✐❛♠ ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡st❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛❞✐✲ ❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ✲ q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛ss❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❡♥❝❛❞❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ trás✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ♣✉❞❡ss❡ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐✲ ✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s✳ ❖ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♣❛ss❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦✳

  ❖s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s sã♦✿ ✐✮ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ✲ q✉❡ sã♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦s ❡ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ♠❡❞✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ ♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛s r❡❣r❛s ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❆♣r✐♦r✐✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦❀ ✐✐✮ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ✲ sã♦ ❛s s❛í❞❛s ♣r❡t❡♥❞✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡✳

  ❊ss❡s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♣❛ss❛❞♦s r❡s♣❡✐t❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ♣r❡❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✳ ❖s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s sã♦ ♣❛ss❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ♣❛rt❡ é ❛ ❯❘■ ❞❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ ❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ♣❛rt❡ ♦ s❡✉ ✈❛❧♦r✳ ■st♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ♣♦rq✉❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ sã♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❡❧❡s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ q✉❡ ♦s ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♠✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ s❛✐❜❛ ❡①❛t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ♣❛ss❛❞♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛♣♦♥t❛r ♥❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛r ♦ ✈❛❧♦r✳ P♦r ✐ss♦✱ ♦ ♣❛r ❬❯❘■✱ ✈❛❧♦r❪✳

  ❆ss✐♠✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r q✉❛✐sq✉❡r ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛❧t❡r❛♥❞♦ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛✳ P♦✐s✱ ♦

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✹✶

  ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❡ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛✳

  ✹✳✸✳✼ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛

  ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❬✹✹❪✱ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❛♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♥♦t❛çã♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❛✉t♦♠❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❢♦r♥❡❝❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❛ ❡st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳

  ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ t❛r❡❢❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ❛s s❛í❞❛s ❞❡ss❡s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✳ P♦st❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡st❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❢♦✐ ❡st❡♥❞✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ♠❛s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✿ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦✱ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳

  ❆ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ t❛r❡❢❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛r ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✹✳✺✿

  ❆❜❛✐①♦✱ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✲s❡ ❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✺✿

  • ❉❛t❛▼✐♥✐♥❣ ✿ é ✉♠❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❣❡♥ér✐❝❛ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭s✉❜✲ár❡❛

  ❞❡ ■♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧✮ ♥❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛✳

  • ❉❛t❛▼✐♥✐♥❣❚❛s❦s ✿ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦✿ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦✱

  ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ♦✉tr❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞❛s✳

  • ❉❛t❛▼✐♥✐♥❣❚❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✿ ❝❧❛ss❡ ♠ã❡ ❞❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s s❡♣❛r❛❞❛s ♣♦r t✐♣♦ ❞❡ t❛r❡❢❛✳

  ✕ ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥❚❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✿ ❆s té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛♠ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r s✉❜✲ ❝❧❛ss❡s ❞❡ss❛ ❝❧❛ss❡✳ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦✿ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❆♣r✐♦r✐✳

  ✕ ❈❧✉st❡r❚❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✿ ❆s té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛♠ ❝❧✉st❡r✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r s✉❜❝❧❛ss❡s ❞❡st❛ ❝❧❛ss❡✳ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦✿ ❑✲♠❡❛♥s✳

  ✕ ❈❧❛ss✐❢②❚❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✿ ❆s té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛♠ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r s✉❜❝❧❛ss❡s ❞❡st❛ ❝❧❛ss❡✳ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦✿ ❈✹✳✺✳

  • P❛r❛♠❡t❡rs✿ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥✲

  ❞✐③❛❣❡♠ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✈✐r ❛ s❡r r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛✳ P❛r❛ ❝r✐❛r ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ✶✵✶ ❬✹✸❪✳ P❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❢♦✐

  ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❖❲▲ ❡ ❖❲▲✲❙ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✳ ❖❲▲✲❙ ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ s✉❛

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✹✷

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✺✿ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❝♦♠♣❛t✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ s❡r ❧❛r❣❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❝✐❡♥t✐✜❝❛✳

  ✹✳✸✳✽ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦

  ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ s❡❣✉❡ ✉♠ ❡st✐❧♦ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛❧ ❤❡t❡r♦❣ê♥❡♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛ ✉♠ ❡st✐❧♦ ❞❡ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ♣✐♣❡s✲❛♥❞✲✜❧t❡rs ❡ ❡st✐❧♦ ❞❡ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❡♠ ❝❛♠❛❞❛s✳ ❖ ❡st✐❧♦ ❞❡ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ♣✐♣❡s✲❛♥❞✲✜❧t❡rs ❢♦✐ ✉s❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r três ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❜ás✐❝❛s✿ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ♣ós✲ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊st❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s sã♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻✿ ✐✮ ❖ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❝♦♥té♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ♣r❡♣❛r❛♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦s✳ ✐✐✮ ❖ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ❝♦♥té♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✳ ✐✐✐✮ ❖ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ P♦st♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❝♦♥té♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s✳

  ✹✳✸✳ ❱■❙➹❖ ▲Ó●■❈❆ ❉❆ ❆❘◗❯■❚❊❚❯❘❆ ✹✸

  ❆ ♦rq✉❡str❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ♣ós✲ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r✱ q✉❡ é ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ r❡✲ s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❡ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻✿ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❉❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ s✉♣♦rt❛r ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❞♦✐s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s

  ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✿ ✐✮ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♥t❡♠ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭✉s❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣✮ ❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭✉s❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s✮❀ ✐✐✮ ❈♦♠✲ ♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② q✉❡ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛ ❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❡ ♦rq✉❡str❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳

  ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✼ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✱ ❞❡♣♦✐s ❞❡ r❡❝❡❜❡r ✉♠❛ r❡q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ■❉❛t❛▼✐♥✐♥❣✳ ❉❡♣♦✐s ❞❡ r❡❝❡❜❡r ❛ r❡q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ ♦s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r✱ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r r❡q✉✐s✐t❛ ❛ ❡①✲ ❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ■▼✐♥✐♥❣Pr♦❝❡ss ❞♦ ❝♦♥❡❝t♦r P❋❈♦♥♥❡❝t♦r✳ ❊st❡ ❝♦♥❡❝t♦r s❡❣✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ ♣✐♣❡s✲❛♥❞✲✜❧t❡rs✱ ❡❧❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛ ♦s três ❝♦♠✲ ♣♦♥❡♥t❡s s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♣❡❧❛ ♦rq✉❡str❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ Pr✐♠❡✐r♦✱ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ é ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ✭❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ r❡q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ■▲♦❝❛t❡❙❡r✈✐❝❡✮ ❡ ❡①✲ ❡❝✉t❛ ✭■Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣✮✳ ❖s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✉s❛r ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✭■▼✐♥✐♥❣❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s✮✳ ❉❡♣♦✐s ❞♦

  ✹✳✹✳ ❲■❩❆❘❉ ✹✹

  ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ é ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❛r❣✉♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✭■▼✐♥✐♥❣✮✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ t❛♠❜é♠ ✉s❛r ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ✭■▼✐♥✐♥❣❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✮✳ ❋✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦✱ ♦ ❝♦♥❡❝t♦r P❋❈♦♥♥❡❝t♦r ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛✲♦ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛r❣✉♠❡♥t♦ ✭■P♦st♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✮✳ ❚♦❞♦s ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ sã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦s s❡♠❛♥t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈❡s ❞❡ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✭■❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✮✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✼✿ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❙❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛ ❉❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣

  ✹✳✹ ❲✐③❛r❞

  ❆ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ✇✐③❛r❞✱ q✉❡ t❡♠ ❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❡ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❊st❡ ✇✐③❛r❞ é ✉♠❛ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❲❡❜✱ q✉❡ é ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❝♦♠♦✿ ❆❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡✴♦✉ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❡ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦✱ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ♣❡❧❛s ❢❛s❡s ❞❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱

  ✹✳✹✳ ❲■❩❆❘❉ ✹✺

  ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✱ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ❛té ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❝r✐❛❞❛✳ ❊ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s❡rá ❞❡t❛❧❤❛♥❞♦ ♥♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺ ❊st✉❞♦s ❞❡ ❈❛s♦

  ◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣✐t✉❧♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r✱ ♣❛ss♦✲❛✲♣❛ss♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r✱ ❞❡t❛❧✲ ❤❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛s ❛❞❛♣t❛çõ❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❡ ❞❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s✳

  P❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❛ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✿ ❛ ❡✈❛sã♦ ❡s❝♦❧❛r✳ P❛r❛ t❛❧✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ r❡❛❧✳

  ✺✳✶ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛

  ❆ ❡✈❛sã♦ ❡s❝♦❧❛r é ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡ ♥♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♥í✈❡✐s ❡ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❡♥s✐♥♦✳ ◆❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ à ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ❡st❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ é✱ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r♠❡♥t❡✱ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡✲♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ❡ss❛ ❛✉sê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❛t♦ ❞✐r❡t♦ ❛❧✐❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♠❛tr✐❝✉❧❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❝✉rs♦✱ ❞✐✜❝✉❧t❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ❛ ♣❡r❝❡♣çã♦ s♦❜r❡ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ♣♦✉❝♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s ❡✱ ❛ss✐♠✱ t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ ❞❡s✐st✐r ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ♠❛✐s ❢❛❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡✳

  ❆ ✜♠ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲ çã♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✳ P❛r❛ r❡str✐♥❣✐r ♦ ✉♥✐✈❡rs♦ ❛♠♦str❛❧✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♠❛tr✐❝✉❧❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦✳ ❆ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛ t❡✈❡ ❛ ❞✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✼ ✭s❡t❡✮ s❡♠❛♥❛s ❡ t❡✈❡ ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐✲ ♣❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✷✹✵ ✭❞✉③❡♥t♦s ❡ q✉❛r❡♥t❛✮ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✳ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❢♦✐ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♠ ❞❛ r❡❢❡r✐❞❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛✳

  P❛r❛ ✐st♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s três ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❞❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✿ ✭✶✮ ♥ã♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦✱ ✭✷✮ ♣♦✉❝♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦❀ ✭✸✮ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦✳ ❆ss✉♠❡✲s❡ q✉❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r q✉❡ s❡❥❛ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦✱ ❡❧❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡ ❡♥q✉❛❞r❛r ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❞❡ss❛s três ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s✳ ❆ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s

  ✺✳✷✳ P❘❖❈❊❙❙❖ ❉❊ ■◆❙❚❆◆❈■❆➬➹❖ ✹✼

  ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛rá✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ q✉❡ ♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✱ t✉t♦r❡s ❡ ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛❞♦r❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛r❡♠ ✉♠ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡✈✐t❛r q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s ♦✉ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ♣♦✉❝♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s ♥ã♦ ❞❡s✐st❛♠ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ♦✉ ♦ ❝♦♥❞✉③❛♠ s❡♠ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠✐ss♦✳

  ❆♣ós ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛✱ é ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈❛♥❞♦ ❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s q✉❡ t❡♠ ♠❛✐♦r ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡✈❛sã♦✳

  ✺✳✷ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦

  ❆s ❡t❛♣❛s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✳ ❙ã♦ ♣r❡✈✐st❛s três ❡t❛♣❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✿ ✭✶✮ ❙❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r✱ ✭✷✮❙❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦r ❡ ✭✸✮ ❙❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ s❡❣✉❡ ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✿ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ◆♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦s ♦❜✲

  ❥❡t✐✈♦s q✉❡ s❡ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ❝♦♠ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♥♦ r❡♣♦s✐tór✐♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❡①✐❜❡ ❡ss❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❛♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳

  ✺✳✸✳ P❘➱✲P❘❖❈❊❙❙❆▼❊◆❚❖ ✹✽

  ❈❛s♦ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❝♦♠ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦ ♥ã♦ ❡st❡❥❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦ ❡ r❡✐♥✐❝✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✱ é ❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♥♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ s❡ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦ ♥ã♦ ❡st✐✈❡r ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥á✲❧♦ ❡ r❡✐♥✐❝✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❆ ú❧t✐♠❛ ♦♣çã♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❛❞❛♣t❡rs ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳ ▼❛✐s ✉♠❛ ✈❡③✱ s❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥ã♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r✱ ❡❧❡ t❡♠ ❛ ♣♦s✲ s✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦ ❡ r❡✐♥✐❝✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❈♦♠ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ q✉❛✐s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r✱ ♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ q✉❡ r❡t♦r♥❛ ❛ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ s❛t✐s❢❛③❡♠ ❛s ♦♣çõ❡s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✳

  ❆s s❡çõ❡s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s três ❡t❛♣❛s ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛ ❣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱ ✐❧✉str❛♥❞♦ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✳

  ✺✳✸ Pré✲Pr♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦

  Pr✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r q✉❛✐s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①tr❛✐r ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞❛ ❡ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✱ q✉❡ é ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r s❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡stá ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✳ ❆s ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❜❛s❡❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❛✉t♦r ❛❝✉♠✉❧❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❡①❡r❝í❝✐♦ ❞❛s ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✲t✉t♦r à ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r ❡♠ ✉♠ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ✷ ✭❞♦✐s✮ ❛♥♦s ❡ sã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛s ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✳

  ✺✳✸✳✶ ▼❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✷✿ ▼❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❙ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✺✳✷ ❛s ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛❞❛s s✉❛s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s ❡♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s✳

  ✺✳✸✳ P❘➱✲P❘❖❈❊❙❙❆▼❊◆❚❖ ✹✾

  • ▼❛tr✐❝✉❧❛ ✲ ❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♠❛trí❝✉❧❛ ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠♦s ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♦s
  • ▼❡❞✐❛❆❝❡ss♦s▼❡♥s❛✐s ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s ♠❡♥s❛✐s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛♦

  ❛❧✉♥♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦s❀

  ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣❀

  • ◆✉♠❆❝❡ss♦s▼❡♥s❛✐s❋♦r✉♥s ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s ♠❡♥s❛✐s ❛♦ ❢ór✉♠❀
  • ▼❡❞✐❛P♦sts▼❡s❋♦r✉♥s ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❞❡ ♣♦sts ♣♦r ♠ês ♥♦s ❢ór✉♥s
  • ▼❡❞✐❛▼❡♥s❛❧❆❝❡ss♦s❇❧♦❣s❚❡r❝ ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♠❡♥s❛❧ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s ❛♦s
  • ▼❡❞✐❛❆t✉❛❧▼❡♥s❛❧❇❧♦❣s ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♠❡♥s❛❧ ❞❡ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❇❧♦❣s
  • P❡r❝❆t✈❙✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛s ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♣♦r❝❡♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛s ❡♥tr❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s❀
  • P❡r❝❚✉r♠❛❙✉❜♠✐ss♦❡sP♦r❆t✐✈ ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♣♦r❝❡♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s✉❜✲
  • ▼❡❞✐❛▼❡♥s❛❧▼❡♥s❊♥✈❈♦❧❡❣❛s ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♠❡♥s❛❧ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♥✲
  • ▼❡❞✐❛▼❡♥s❛❧▼❡♥s❊♥✈❚✉t♦r❡s ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♠❡♥s❛❧ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♥✲
  • ▼❡❞✐❛▼❡♥s❛❧▼❡♥s❊♥✈Pr♦❢ ✲ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♠❡♥s❛❧ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♥✈✐❛❞❛s

  ❞❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s❀

  ❇❧♦❣s ❞❡ t❡r❝❡✐r♦s❀ ❝♦❧❡❣❛s✱ t✉t♦r❡s ❡✴♦✉ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s❀

  ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❡♠ q✉❡stã♦❀

  ♠❡t✐❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ t✉r♠❛ ❞❛ q✉❛❧ ❡❧❡ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡❀

  ✈✐❛❞❛s ❛♦s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s❀

  ✈✐❛❞❛s ❛♦s t✉t♦r❡s❀

  ❛♦s Pr♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝♦♥str✉✐r r♦t✐♥❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ♦s

  ❞❛❞♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛r ❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦♥✲ str✉í❞❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❡♠ ❙◗▲ ❡ ✉♠❛ r♦t✐♥❛ ❡♠ ❥❛✈❛ q✉❡ ❡①❡❝✉t♦✉ ❡ss❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s✱ ❝♦♥str✉✐✉ ❛ r❡❢❡r✐❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥♦✉ ♦s ♠❡t❛✲❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦✳

  ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❧✐st❛❣❡♠ ✺✳✶ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡r ✉♠❛ ♠❡t❛✲ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❡ s✉❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦✿

  ❈♦❞❡ ✺✳✶✿ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡r ❛ ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ P❡r❝❆t✈❙✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛s

  ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✭❋❊■❚❆❙ ✳❚❖❚❆▲∗✶✵✵✴❆❚❱❉■❙P✳❚❖❚❆▲✮ ❆❙ P❊❘❈ ❋❘❖▼ ✭❙❊▲❊❈❚ ❈❖❯◆❚✭ ❛ ✳ ❝♦✉rs❡ ✮ ❆❙ ❚❖❚❆▲ ❋❘❖▼ ❛ss✐❣♥♠❡♥t ❛

   ✺✳✸✳ P❘➱✲P❘❖❈❊❙❙❆▼❊◆❚❖ ✺✵ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❛ ✳ ❝♦✉rs❡ ■◆ ✭❙❊▲❊❈❚ ❝ ✳ ✐❞ ✶✵ ❋❘❖▼ ❝♦✉rs❡ ❝ ✱ ❝♦✉rs❡❴❞✐s♣❧❛② ❞✐s♣ ✱ ✶✶ ✉s❡r ✉ ✱ r♦❧❡❴❛ss✐❣♥♠❡♥ts ❛ ✶✷ ❲❍❊❘❊ ✉ ✳ ✐❞ ❂ ✶✸✹✼✹ ❆◆❉ ❝ ✳ ✐❞ ❂ ❞✐s♣ ✳ ❝♦✉rs❡ ❆◆❉ ✶✸

✉ ✳ ✐❞ ❂ ❞✐s♣ ✳ ✉ s ❡ r ✐ ❞ ❆◆❉ ✉ ✳ ✐❞ ❂ ❛ ✳ ✉ s ❡ r ✐ ❞ ❆◆❉ ❛ ✳ r ♦ ❧ ❡ ✐ ❞ ❂ ✺

✶✹ ●❘❖❯P ❇❨ ❝ ✳ ✐❞ ✶✻ ✶✺ ❖❘❉❊❘ ❇❨ ❝ ✳ ✐❞ ✮ ❆◆❉ ❛ ✳ ❝♦✉rs❡ ✦❂ ✸✺✶ ✮ ❆❚❱❉■❙P✱ ✶✼ ✭❙❊▲❊❈❚ ❈❖❯◆❚✭ ∗ ✮ ❆❙ ❚❖❚❆▲ ✶✽ ❋❘❖▼ ❛ss✐❣♥♠❡♥t❴s✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥s ❛ ❲❍❊❘❊ ✉ s ❡ r ✐ ❞ ❂ ✶✸✹✼✹ ✮ ❋❊■❚❆❙

  ❆ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❧✐st❛❣❡♠ ✺✳✶ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ s✉❜♠✐ssõ❡s ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❛ t✉r♠❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❡st❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✳ ❊❧❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r s✉❜❞✐✈✐❞✐❞❛ ♥❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣❛rt❡s✿

  • ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛✱ q✉❡ ✈❛✐ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ✹ ✭q✉❛tr♦✮ ❛té ❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ✻ ✭s❡✐s✮✱ ❜✉s❝❛

  ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞❛❀

  • ❆ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞❛ é r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛✱ q✉❡ ✈❛✐ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ✽

  ✭♦✐t♦✮ ❛té ❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ✶✹ ✭q✉❛t♦r③❡✮✳ ❊ss❛ s✉❜✲❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❧✐st❛ ♦s ✐❞ ❞♦s ❝✉rs♦s q✉❡ ♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✶✸✹✼✹ ❡stá ♠❛tr✐❝✉❧❛❞♦✳

  • ❆ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛✱ q✉❡ ✈❛✐ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ✶✻ ✭❞❡③❡ss❡✐s✮ ❛té ❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ✶✽ ✭❞❡③♦✐t♦✮✱

  ✈❡r✐✜❝❛ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧✉♥♦ ✶✸✹✼✹

  ✺✳✸✳✷ ❈♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r

  ❆ ❡t❛♣❛ ✜♥❛❧ ❞♦ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ é ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r✳ ❆ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛✱ ♣♦✐s ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ só ❛❝❡✐t❛♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡st❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ é r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ♦s ❝♦♥✈❡rt❡r ❡♠ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❛❝❡✐t♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s✳

  ◆♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛rá ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ q✉❡ ❞❡✲ s❡❥❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳ P♦✐s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r❡t❡♥❞✐❞♦✱ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ r❡❝❡❜❡r ✉♠ s✉❜❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳

  ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ✉♠ ❛❞❛♣t❡r q✉❡ ❧ê ♦ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ❡ ♦s tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛ ♥♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ q✉❡ é ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦✱ ♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r✱ q✉❡ é ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦✱ é ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ♣♦st❡r✐♦r❡s✳

  ✺✳✹✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ✺✶

  ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✸ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ t❡❧❛ ❞♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ❛❞❛♣t❡rs ❛♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❉❡♣♦✐s ❞❡ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✱ ♦s ❛❞❛♣t❡rs ✜❝❛♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r r❡✉t✐✲ ❧✐③❛❞♦s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✸✿ ❆❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ❆❞❛♣t❡r

  ✺✳✹ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦

  ❆♣ós ♦ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r q✉❛❧ ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❛ s❡r❡♠ ❛❞♦t❛❞♦s✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛ s❡r ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ ♥❡st❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ é ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♠✿ ♥ã♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦✱ ♣♦✉❝♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦ ♦✉ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦✳ P❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❏✹✽ ❬✹✼❪✳

  ❆ ❡t❛♣❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ é ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❛t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳ ◆♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡st❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❏✹✽ ❡ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ r❡t♦r♥❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ ❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❛♦s q✉❛✐s ❡❧❡s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♠✳ ❊ss❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❥á ❡st❛✈❛♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♥ã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡st❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ♣♦✐s ❡❧❡s s❡rã♦ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s✳

  ❖ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ■st♦ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛rá q✉❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❝♦♠ ♣♦✉❝❛ ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦ss❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s✳ ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✹ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦✳

  ✺✳✺✳ ❊❳❊❈❯➬➹❖ ❉❆ ■◆❙❚❆◆❈■❆➬➹❖ ✺✷

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✹✿ ❙❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ♦ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❈❛s♦ ❡st❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♥ã♦ ❡st❡❥❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛rá ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ❡ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r

  ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦✱ q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❡ ❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ♣r❡t❡♥❞✐❞❛✱ ❛♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❥á ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ✈ár✐♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦

  ❡ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ só ♣r❡❝✐s❛rã♦ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦s ❡ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ s❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛r ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❡st❡❥❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧✳ ●r❛ç❛s ❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ é ✢❡①í✈❡❧ ❡ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝♦ ♦ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡ss❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ s❡❥❛ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞♦ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❧♦❣♦ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❛♣ós s✉❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦✱ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❥á ❡st❛rá ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♥❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✲ q✉❡ é ♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳

  ◆❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ✈❡r✐✜❝♦✉✲s❡ q✉❡ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❥á ❡st❛✈❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♥ã♦ ❤♦✉✈❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉í✲❧♦✳

  ✺✳✺ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ■♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦

  ❉❡♣♦✐s ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛s ❛❞❛♣t❛çõ❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ❢♦r♠❛s ❝♦♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r❡s✿ ✭✶✮ ■♥✈♦❝❛r ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s❀ ❡ ✭✷✮ ❊①❡❝✉t❛r ❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ✈✐❛ ✇✐③❛r❞✳

  ✺✳✺✳✶ ■♥✈♦❝❛r ♦ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s

  ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦❞❡ ♦❝♦rr❡r ✈✐❛ ❝ó❞✐❣♦✳ ❊st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳

  ✺✳✺✳ ❊❳❊❈❯➬➹❖ ❉❆ ■◆❙❚❆◆❈■❆➬➹❖ ✺✸

  ❖ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s é ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♣♦r ✐ss♦✱ s✉❛ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ é s✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ❢á❝✐❧ ❞❡ s❡r ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛✳ P❛r❛ s❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛r ❛❧❣✉♥s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s✿ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ s❛í❞❛✳ ❖s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ sã♦✱ ❜❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦s ❡ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s✳ ❖s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ sã♦ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s q✉❡ s❡ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳

  ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ♣❛ss❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ss❡s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s tê♠ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦✐ s✉♣r❛❝✐t❛❞♦✱ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s sã♦ ♣❛ss❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛r❡s✱ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ♣❛rt❡ é ❛ ❯❘■ ❞❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ ❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ♣❛rt❡ ♦ s❡✉ ✈❛❧♦r✳ ■st♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ♣♦rq✉❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ sã♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❡❧❡s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ q✉❡ ♦s ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♠✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ s❛✐❜❛ ❡①❛t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ♣❛ss❛❞♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛♣♦♥t❛r ♥❛ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛r ♦ ✈❛❧♦r✳ P♦r ✐ss♦ ♦ ♣❛r ❬❯❘■✱ ✈❛❧♦r❪✳

  ✺✳✺✳✷ ❊①❡❝✉t❛r ❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ✈✐❛ ✇✐③❛r❞

  ❆ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛✳ ❆ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r q✉❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✱ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ✜♥❛❧ ✲ q✉❡ é ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❡ s❡✉s ✈❛❧♦r❡s✳ ❆ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r s♦❧✐❝✐t❛❞♦s ❛♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ♣♦✐s ❡❧❛ ❛❝❡ss❛ ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛ ❛♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ q✉❛✐s ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡ç❛✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♥ã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛❝❡ss❡ ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♣❛r❛ s❛❜❡r ❛s ❯❘■s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡✱ ❛ss✐♠✱ s❛❜❡r q✉❛✐s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♥♦ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❞❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡ss❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ♦ ❛❥✉st❡ ❞♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳

  ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ❞❛ ❡♠ ✻ ♣❛ss♦s✿ ❖ P❛ss♦ ✶ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✺✳ ◆❡st❡ ♣❛ss♦ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❥á s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥♦✉ ❛ ♦♣çã♦

  ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♥♦ ♠❡♥✉ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❡ ❡st❛ t❡❧❛ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛✳ ◆❡st❛ t❡❧❛ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞❡✈❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤❡r q✉❛❧ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ◆❡st❡ ❝❛s♦✱ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛♠♦s ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣❡❧❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✱ ❡ ❛✈❛♥ç❛♠♦s ❛♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦✳

  ❆ t❡❧❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✻✳ ◆❡st❡ ♣❛ss♦ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞❡✈❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤❡r ♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r q✉❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ✉s❛r✳ ❊st❡ ❛❞❛♣t❡r ❥á ❢♦✐ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ◆❡st❡ ♣❛ss♦✱ ❡s❝♦❧❤❡♠♦s ♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❝❛♦▼♦t✐✈❛❝❛♦ q✉❡ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛♠♦s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡ ❡ ✈❛✐ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠♦s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ❡ ❛✈❛♥ç❛♠♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦✳

  ◆❡st❡ P❛ss♦ ✸✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✼✱ ✐r❡♠♦s ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ é ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❏✹✽ ❝♦♠♦ s✉♣r❛❝✐t❛❞♦✳ ❖s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦

  ✺✳✺✳ ❊❳❊❈❯➬➹❖ ❉❆ ■◆❙❚❆◆❈■❆➬➹❖ ✺✹

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✺✿ P❛ss♦ ✶✿ ❊s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✻✿ P❛ss♦ ✷✿ ❊s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r

  ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ sã♦ ❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ t❡st❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s✱ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ q✉❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦s ♣❛ss♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡♠✿ ♥ã♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s✱ ♣♦✉❝♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s ❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s✳

  ❈♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✽✱ ♥♦ P❛ss♦ ✹✱ ✐r❡♠♦s ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ t❡st❡s✳ ❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❡①✐❜✐❞♦ ♥❡st❡ ♣❛ss♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ✉s❛r❡♠♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r s❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ é ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❙❡ s✐♠✱ ♣❛ss❛r❡♠♦s ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡✳ ❈❛s♦ ❝♦♥tr❛r✐♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈♦❧t❛r ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ♣❛r❛ ❛❧t❡r❛r ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❡ ❛❥✉st❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦✳

  ◆♦ P❛ss♦ ✺✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛s ❋✐❣✉r❛s ✺✳✾ ❡ ✺✳✶✵✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐✲

  ✺✳✻✳ ❆❉❆P❚❆➬➹❖ ❉❖ ❆▼❇■❊◆❚❊ ✺✺

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✼✿ P❛ss♦ ✸✿ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛r❛♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛ss❛❞♦s ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r✳ ❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ♠♦str❛ ♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞♦ ❳▼▲ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ s❛í❞❛✳ ❊st❡ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❝♦♥té♠ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♠❛tr✐❝✉❧❛ ❡ ♦ st❛t✉s ❞♦ ❛❧✉♥♦❀ ❉❡s♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦✱ P♦✉❝♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦ ❡ ▼♦t✐✈❛❞♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ♣❛ss♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❢♦✐ s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦ ❡ ❡♥❝❡rr❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♦✉ r❡t♦r♥❛r ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♣❛r❛ t❡♥t❛r ❛❥✉st❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳

  ◆♦ P❛ss♦ ✻✱ ♦ ú❧t✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ s❛í❞❛ ✜♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❊st❛ s❛í❞❛ ❝♦♥té♠ ♦ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉s❛❞♦s ♥♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡st❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ ✐♥✈♦❝❛r ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❊st❡ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ q✉❡ s❡rá ✉s❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r✿ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❡ s❡✉s ✈❛❧♦r❡s✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ q✉❛✐s ❛s ❯❘■s ❞❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s✱ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛r ❛s ❡♥tr❛❞❛s ❡ s❛í❞❛s ❞❡s❡❥❛❞❛s✱ ❡ s❡✉s ✈❛❧♦r❡s✳

  ✺✳✻ ❆❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡

  ❆♣ós ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✇✐③❛r❞ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡st❡ ♣♦ss❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✈❡r ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❛ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s✱ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❊st❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ s❡✉s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r t❛❧ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r s❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡stã♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s ♦✉ ♥ã♦✳

  ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❛ q✉❡♠ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❣❡r❛❞❛ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛✳ ❉❛❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❣❡r❛❞❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s

  ✺✳✻✳ ❆❉❆P❚❆➬➹❖ ❉❖ ❆▼❇■❊◆❚❊ ✺✻

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✽✿ P❛ss♦ ✹✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦❀ ❱♦❧t❛r ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✸ ♦✉ ❛✈❛♥ç❛r ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✺ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ ❡st❛r ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ♦✉tr♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐✉✲s❡ t❛♠❜é♠ q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❣♦st❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r q✉❛✐s ❛❧✉♥♦s sã♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦s ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ♥❛ s✉❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❡st❛r ✐♥✐❝✐❛♥❞♦ ♦✉ ❡♠ ❛♥❞❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❆♣ós ❝❤❡❣❛r ♥❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ q✉❡ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛❧t❡r❛r ❡ ♦♥❞❡ ✐ss♦ s❡rá ❢❡✐t♦✱ ♦♣t♦✉✲s❡ ♣♦r ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛r ✉♠ ❧✐♥❦ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❞❡✿ ✧❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞❛ t✉r♠❛✧❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ♣♦❞❡ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ❡st❡ ❧✐♥❦ ❡ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ❡❧❡ ✉♠❛ ♣á❣✐♥❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❡ s❡✉s st❛t✉s✿ ◆ã♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦✱ P♦✉❝♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦ ♦✉ ▼♦t✐✈❛❞♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✐♥✈♦❝❛r ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❝❧✐❝❛r ♥❡st❡ ❧✐♥❦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠❛ ♣❛❣✐♥❛ q✉❡ t❡rá ❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝❡❜❡r ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ❡①✐❜✐r ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❡①♣♦rt❛ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s ♠✐♥❡r❛çõ❡s ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❳▼▲✱ ❡ q✉❡ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❡ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ é ❞❡ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛✉t♦r ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❞♦ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳

  ✺✳✼✳ ❆◆➪▲■❙❊ ❉❖❙ ❘❊❙❯▲❚❆❉❖❙ ❊ ❉■❙❈❯❙❙➹❖ ✺✼ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✾✿ P❛ss♦ ✺✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❱♦❧t❛r ❛♦ P❛ss♦ ✹ ♦✉ ❆✈❛♥ç❛r ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✻

  ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝♦♥s✐st✐rá ♥❛ ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❧✐♥❦ ♥❛ r❡❢❡r✐❞❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❡ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❛❣✐♥❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡❝❡❜❡r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✳ ❖ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ q✉❡ ✈❛✐ ❡❢❡t✉❛r ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ♣á❣✐♥❛✳ ▼❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❥á ❢♦✐ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❡ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ s✉❛ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❝♦♥s✐st✐rá ♥❛ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❲❡❜ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❝✉❥♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ é s✐♠♣❧❡s ❞❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳

  ✺✳✼ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦

  ◆♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❢♦✐ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ s✉❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✳ ❉❡♥tr❡ ❡ss❛s ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ♥ã♦ s❡ ♠♦str❛r❛♠ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦✿ ▼❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♥✈✐❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ t✉t♦r❡s✱ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❝♦❧❡❣❛s❀ ❡ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♠❡♥s❛❧ ❞❡ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❜❧♦❣s ❡ ✈✐s✐t❛ ❞❡ ❜❧♦❣s ❞❡ t❡r❝❡✐r♦s✳ P♦✐s✱ ❡ss❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s sã♦ r❛r❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s✳ ❆s ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s q✉❡ s❡ ♠♦str❛r❛♠ ♠❛✐s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ❢♦r❛♠✿ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ♠❡♥s❛❧✱ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦s ❛♦ ❢ór✉♠✱ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ♥♦s ❢ór✉♥s ❡ P❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛s✳

  ❆✐♥❞❛ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❛♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✽ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝♦✉ ✾✺✪

  ✺✳✼✳ ❆◆➪▲■❙❊ ❉❖❙ ❘❊❙❯▲❚❆❉❖❙ ❊ ❉■❙❈❯❙❙➹❖ ✺✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✵✿ P❛ss♦ ✺✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❱♦❧t❛r ❛♦ P❛ss♦ ✹ ♦✉ ❆✈❛♥ç❛r ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✻ ❞❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❝♦rr❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝♦✉ ✽✵✪ ❞❛s ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛s ❝♦rr❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ♥ã♦ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❝♦rr❡t❛✲ ♠❡♥t❡ r❡❢❡r❡♠✲s❡ ❛ ❝❛s♦s ♣♦❧ê♠✐❝♦s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r❛♠ ❜❡♠ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♠❛s ♥ã♦ tã♦ ❜❡♠ ❞❡ ♦✉tr❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛✳ ❆ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞❛ ❛♣ós ✉♠❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s❛ ❢♦✐ q✉❡ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❡ss❡s✱ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ✉♠ ❛❣❡♥t❡ ❤✉♠❛♥♦ t❡r✐❛ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝á✲❧♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦✱ ♣♦✉❝♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦✳ ❯♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ✐♠♣❛ss❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♠❛✐s ✉♠❛ ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ s❡r✐❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡r s❡ ❛✭s✮ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✭s✮ ❢❛❧t❛♥t❡s sã♦ ❛s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ♦✉ ❛s ú❧t✐♠❛s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ ✐♥❞✉③✐r ❛ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛çõ❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳

  ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥ã♦ é ❜❡♠ ❡str✉t✉r❛❞❛❀ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ss❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ é ❛ ❛✉sê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝❤❛✈❡s ❡str❛♥❣❡✐r❛s ❡♠ t❛❜❡❧❛s q✉❡ ❢❛③❡♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s✳ ❊ss❛ t♦t❛❧ ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞✐✜❝✉❧t♦✉ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ♦❜t❡r ❛s ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥á✲❧❛s ♥♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❆❘❋❋ ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐♥t✉✐t♦ ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ♠✐♥❡r❛❞❛s✳

  ❊♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ t♦t❛❧ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✵✼ ❤♦r❛s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ✵✻ ❤♦r❛s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ♦ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r✱ ✹✵ ▼✐♥✉t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r✱ ✸ ♠✐♥✉t♦s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ✇✐③❛r❞✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ r❡✉s♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ✷✵ s❡❣✉♥❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡❝✉tá✲❧♦✳ ◆♦t❡ q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐♥❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♣r♦♥t❛ ❞♦ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ❡ ♣ós✲

  ✺✳✼✳ ❆◆➪▲■❙❊ ❉❖❙ ❘❊❙❯▲❚❆❉❖❙ ❊ ❉■❙❈❯❙❙➹❖ ✺✾ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r✱ ♦ r❡✉s♦ ❡ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ❛❧✐❛❞♦ à ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛♠ ✉♠ rá♣✐❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❞✉t♦✳

  ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❢♦✐ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❘♦♠❡r♦ ❡ ❱❡♥t✉r❛ ❬✹✾❪ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ q✉❡stã♦ é r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❣❡r❛✐s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❛ ✈ár✐♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❈♦♠ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱

  ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❝♦♥s✐st✐✉ ♥❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ✢❡①í✈❡❧ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ t❛♥t♦ ❛ ❛❞❛♣✲ t❛çã♦ ❡ r❡✉s♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s✱ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ♦s s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❛❞❛♣tá✲❧♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ s✉❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ t❡♥❤❛♠ s✐❞♦ ✐❞❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳

  ❖✉tr❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❘♦♠❡r♦ ❡ ❱❡♥t✉r❛ ❡stá r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ à ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥✲ ❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r r❡q✉✐s✐t❛❞♦s ❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛t❡♥❞❡✉ ❜❡♠ ❛ ❡ss❛ q✉❡stã♦✳ ❯♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ t❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t♦✉ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡ss❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ♣♦r s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❊st❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ s❡ ❞á ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ q✉❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡r♦♣❡r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ q✉❡ é ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❞✐❢✉♥❞✐❞♦s ♥❛ ❲❡❜✳ ❙❡✉ ✉s♦ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❣❛r❛♥t❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ s✐♠✲ ♣❧❡s✱ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ❤❛❥❛ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❡ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❊ss❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥ã♦ é ❣❛r❛♥t✐❞❛ ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ♦r✐❡♥t❛✲ ❞♦s ❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❛ ❛❞♦çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♥ã♦ s❛t✐s❢❛③ t♦t❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞❛✳ ❆ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ú♥✐❝❛ s❡r✐❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛✱ ♣♦✐s✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ t❡r✐❛ q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ ♠❛♥✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ tr❛r✐❛ ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲ çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ss❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ t♦❞❛ ❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ú♥✐❝❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ❛❜str❛✐r ❡ss❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ q✉❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ s❡❥❛♠ ❛❝❡ss❛❞❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✱ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦ ❡ ♣♦r t♦❞♦s t♦❞♦s ♦s ♣❛ss♦s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ✭❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦✮✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❛ ♣r❛t✐❝✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❝❡♥tr❛❧ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r ❞✐♥❛♠✐s♠♦ ❛♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦✳ ❖✉tr❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s ✉s♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❉❡✈✐❞♦ à ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞✐♥â♠✐❝❛ ❞❛s ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çõ❡s ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r r❡❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ s❡♠ q✉❡ ❤❛❥❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡rr✉♣çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳

  ❯♠ ♦✉tr♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❡stá r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣♦r ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡

  ✺✳✼✳ ❆◆➪▲■❙❊ ❉❖❙ ❘❊❙❯▲❚❆❉❖❙ ❊ ❉■❙❈❯❙❙➹❖ ✻✵ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ❡♠ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊ss❛ q✉❡stã♦✱ q✉❡ t❛♠❜é♠ é ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❘♦♠❡r♦ ❡ ❱❡♥t✉r❛ ❬✹✾❪✱ ❛♣♦♥t❛ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❡♠ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❛ ❡ ❞❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✱ s❡♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♣❛r❛ s✐♠✲ ♣❧✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ♣♦♥t♦✱ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❛t❡♥❞❡ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞❛✳ ❆ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❛❜♦r❞♦✉ ❡ss❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ✉♠ ✇✐③❛r❞ ❣rá✜❝♦ ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈♦ ❡ ❞❡ ❢á❝✐❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❡st❡♥❞❡r ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ✜♥❛❧ P♦ré♠✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✇✐③❛r❞✱ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛ s❡♥❞♦ ❡①✐❣✐❞♦✱ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ q✉❡ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ t❡♥❤❛ ✉♠ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ té❝♥✐❝♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ P♦✐s✱ ♥♦ ❞✐❛✲❛✲❞✐❛✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛rá ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❝♦♥✲ str✉í❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ❡♠ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ✈✐st♦ q✉❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛✉✲ t♦♠❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ ✇✐③❛r❞✱ q✉❡ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♣❛ss❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛❞♦✳

  P❛r❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ ❣rá✜❝♦ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✳ P♦✐s✱ ♦s ❛❧❣♦✲ r✐t♠♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥ã♦ s❛t✐s❢❛③✐❛♠ ❛s ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✇✐③❛r❞ ❣rá✜❝♦ ❞❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛✳ ❖ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❡♥❞❡r ♦ ❣r✐♥✈ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ❱❛❧❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞♦ ❣r✐♥✈ ♥ã♦ s❡r ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞✐r❡t❛ ❞❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❡st❡♥❞❡✉ é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐❛ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

  ❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♣❡r❝❡❜✐❞❛s ♥♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ sã♦✿ ✐✮ ❘❡✉s♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s❀ ✐✐✮ ❋á❝✐❧ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣❀ ✐✐✐✮ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❛❀ ✐✈✮ ❆❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐♥❛♠✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡❀ ✈✮ ❆❜str❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❡ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✇✐③❛r❞✳

  ❊♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ ❞❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❞❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ é r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❡s❢♦rç♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❊ss❛ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❥✉st✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ s❡r ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ s❡r ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳ ❆ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡ ❡stá r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❛♦ ♠❛♣❡❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✇❡❜ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ❛s ♦♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ q✉❡ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♠ ❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✱ ♣❛r❛ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠á✲❧♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✇❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✻ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s

  ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s✳ ❊st❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛ ❛♦s s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✜♥s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠ ❛❧✲ ❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ✉♠ ✇✐③❛r❞✱ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❛té ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳

  ❋♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ r❡❛❧ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✉♥♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠♦t✐✈❛çã♦✳ P❛r❛ t❛❧✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❡ ❡①tr❛í❞❛s ♠❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❛❧✉♥♦ ❞❛ t✉r♠❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛✳ ❊ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ♥ã♦ s❡r ♦ ❢♦❝♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦✱ ❛t✐♥❣✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ t❛①❛ ✾✺✪ ❞❡ ❛❝❡rt♦ ♥❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ✽✵✪ ❞❡ ❛❝❡rt♦ ♥❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ t❡st❡s✱ ✈✐st♦ q✉❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❡r❛♠ ❛♠❜í❣✉❛s ❡ ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❛té ♣♦r ✉♠ ❛❣❡♥t❡ ❤✉♠❛♥♦✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ♥♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ✉s♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞✐❛♥t❡ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞♦s✳ ◆❡st❡ ♣♦♥t♦✱ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❛t❡♥❞❡✉ ❜❡♠ ❛ ❞♦✐s ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞♦s✿ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡ r❡✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❡✴♦✉ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s✳ ❆♦ ♦✉tr♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s✱ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❛t❡♥❞❡✉ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳ P♦✐s✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ✉♠ ✇✐③❛r❞ ❜❡♠ s✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ q✉❡ r❡❞✉③ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ss❡s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✳ P♦❞❡✲ s❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r t❛♠❜é♠ ❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❡ ❞❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❈♦♠♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢✉t✉r♦s ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡✲s❡✿ ✐✮ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✈✐st♦ q✉❡ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✲s❡ ❡♠ ❢❛s❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦tót✐♣♦❀ ✐✐✮ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ♠❛✐s ❛✈❛❧✐❛çõ❡s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛

  ✻✷ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s❀ ✐✐✐✮ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ♥♦✈♦s ❡st✉❞♦s ❡♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s❀ ✐✈✮ ❆❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♥♦✈♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ✻✸

  ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s

  ❬✶❪ ❇❛❦❡r✱ ❘✳ ❙✳ ✭✐♥ ♣r❡ss✮✱ ❉❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥✱ ✐♥ ❵■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❊♥❝②❝❧♦♣❡❞✐❛ ♦❢ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ✭✸r❞ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥✮✬✱ ❊❧s❡✈✐❡r✱ ❖①❢♦r❞✱ ❯❑✳

  ❬✷❪ ❇❛rr♦s✱ ❍✳ ✭✷✵✶✶✮✱ ❯♠ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❛❞❛♣tá✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡ ✐♥✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s✱ ▼❛st❡r✬s t❤❡s✐s✱ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳

  ❬✸❪ ❇❛tt❧❡✱ ❙✳✱ ❇❡r♥st❡✐♥✱ ❆✳✱ ❇♦❧❡②✱ ❍✳✱ ●r♦s♦❢✱ ❇✳ ✫ ●r✉♥✐♥❣❡r✱ ▼✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❵❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✭s✇s❢✮✬✱ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇✸✳♦r❣✴❙✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥✴✷✵✵✺✴✵✼✴✳ ❬✹❪ ❇❡♥❛✈✐❞❡s✱ ❉✳✱ ❘✉✐③✲❈♦rtés✱ ❆✳✱ ❚r✐♥✐❞❛❞✱ P✳ ✫ ❙❡❣✉r❛✳✱ ❙✳ ✭✷✵✵✻✮✱ ❆ s✉r✈❡② ♦♥ t❤❡

  ❛✉t♦♠❛t❡❞ ❛♥❛❧②s❡s ♦❢ ❢❡t✉r❡ ♠♦❞❡❧s✱ ✐♥ ❵❏♦r♥❛❞❛s ❞❡ ■♥❣❡♥✐❡rí❛ ❞❡❧ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ② ❇❛s❡s ❞❡ ❉❛t♦s ✭❏■❙❇❉✮✬✳

  ❬✺❪ ❇❡r♥❡rs✲▲❡❡✱ ❚✳✱ ❍❡♥❞❧❡r✱ ❏✳ ✫ ▲❛ss✐❧❛✱ ❖✳ ✭✷✵✵✶✮✱ ❚❤❡ s❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜✱ ❆✳ ❬✻❪ ❇✉rst❡✐♥✱ ▼✳✱ ❍♦❜❜s✱ ❏✳✱ ▲❛ss✐❧❛✱ ❖✳✱ ▼❝❞❡r♠♦tt✱ ❉✳✱ ▼❝✐❧r❛✐t❤✱ ❙✳✱ ◆❛r❛②❛♥❛♥✱ ❙✳✱

  P❛♦❧✉❝❝✐✱ ▼✳✱ P❛rs✐❛✱ ❇✳✱ P❛②♥❡✱ ❚✳✱ ❙✐r✐♥✱ ❊✳✱ ❙r✐♥✐✈❛s❛♥✱ ◆✳ ✫ ❙②❝❛r❛✱ ❑✳ ✭✷✵✵✹✮✱ ❵❖❲▲✲❙✿ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ▼❛r❦✉♣ ❢♦r ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s✬✱ ❲❡❜s✐t❡✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇✸✳♦r❣✴❙✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥✴ ✷✵✵✹✴❙❯❇▼✲❖❲▲✲❙✲✷✵✵✹✶✶✷✷✴✳

  ❬✼❪ ❈✳❉❛❝♦♥t❛✱ ▼✳✱ ❖❜rst✱ ▲✳ ❏✳ ✫ ❙♠✐t❤✱ ❑✳ ❚✳ ✭✷✵✵✸✮✱ ❚❤❡ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ❲❡❜✿ ❆ ●✉✐❞❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❋✉t✉r❡ ♦❢ ❳▼▲✱ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ❛♥❞ ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ▼❛♥❛♥❣❡♠❡♥t✱ ❏♦❡ ❲✐❧❦❡rt✳

  ❬✽❪ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐t②✱ ❊✳ ❉✳ ▼✳ ✭✷✵✶✵✮✱ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠ ❤tt♣✿✴✴❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧❞❛t❛♠✐♥✐♥❣✳♦r❣✴✳ ❆❝❡s✲ s❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✶✵ ❞❡ ❆❜r✐❧ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✵✳ ❬✾❪ ❈♦tt❡r✱ ❙✳ ✫ P♦t❡❧✱ ▼✳ ✭✶✾✾✺✮✱ ■♥s✐❞❡ ❚❛❧✐❣❡♥t ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣②✱ ❆❞❞✐s♦♥✲❲❡s❧❡② ▲♦♥❣♠❛♥

  P✉❜❧✐s❤✐♥❣ ❈♦✳✱ ■♥❝✳✱ ❇♦st♦♥✱ ▼❆✱ ❯❙❆✳ ❬✶✵❪ ❉❡✈❡❞③✐❝✱ ❱✳ ✭✷✵✵✹✮✱ ❵❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ s❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜✬✱ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧

  ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡ ✐♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ✶✹✱ ✸✾✕✻✺✳ ❬✶✶❪ ❉❡✈❡❞③✐❝✱ ❱✳ ✭✷✵✵✻✮✱ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ❲❡❜ ❛♥❞ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ✭■♥t❡❣r❛t❡❞ ❙❡r✐❡s ✐♥ ■♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥

  ❙②st❡♠s✮✱ ❙♣r✐♥❣❡r✲❱❡r❧❛❣ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ■♥❝✳✱ ❙❡❝❛✉❝✉s✱ ◆❏✱ ❯❙❆✳ ❬✶✷❪ ❉✐❡t③❡✱ ❙✳✱ ●✉❣❧✐♦tt❛✱ ❆✳ ✫ ❉♦♠✐♥❣✉❡✱ ❏✳ ✭✷✵✵✼✮✱ ❆ s❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡ ♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❢r❛♠❡✲

  ✇♦r❦ ❢♦r ❛❞❛♣t✐✈❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts✱ ✐♥ ❵❊❙❲❈ ✬✵✼✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ✹t❤ ❊✉r♦♣❡❛♥ ❝♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❚❤❡ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ❲❡❜✬✱ ❙♣r✐♥❣❡r✲❱❡r❧❛❣✱ ❇❡r❧✐♥✱ ❍❡✐❞❡❧❜❡r❣✱ ♣♣✳ ✼✵✶✕✼✶✺✳

  ❬✶✸❪ ❉♦♥♥❡❧❧❛♥✱ ❉✳ ✫ P❛❤❧✱ ❈✳ ✭✷✵✵✷✮✱ ❉❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣② ❢♦r t❤❡ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ✇❡❜✲ ❜❛s❡❞ t❡❛❝❤✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ s②st❡♠s✱ ✐♥ ▼✳ ❉r✐s❝♦❧❧ ✫ ❚✳ ❈✳ ❘❡❡✈❡s✱ ❡❞s✱ ❵Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ ❲♦r❧❞ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❊✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ✐♥ ❈♦r♣♦r❛t❡✱ ●♦✈❡r♥♠❡♥t✱ ❍❡❛❧t❤❝❛r❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❍✐❣❤❡r

  ✻✹ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ✷✵✵✷✬✱ ❆❆❈❊✱ ▼♦♥tr❡❛❧✱ ❈❛♥❛❞❛✱ ♣♣✳ ✼✹✼✕✼✺✷✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❡❞✐t❧✐❜✳ ♦r❣✴♣✴✶✺✷✾✻✳

  ❬✶✹❪ ❊r❧✱ ❚✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡✲❖r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❆r❝❤✐t❡❝t✉r❡✿ ❈♦♥❝❡♣ts✱ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣②✱ ❛♥❞ ❉❡s✐❣♥✱ Pr❡♥✲ t✐❝❡ ❍❛❧❧ P❚❘✱ ❯♣♣❡r ❙❛❞❞❧❡ ❘✐✈❡r✱ ◆❏✱ ❯❙❆✳ ❬✶✺❪ ❊t③✐♦♥✐✱ ❖✳ ✭✶✾✾✻✮✱ ❵❚❤❡ ✇♦r❧❞✲✇✐❞❡ ✇❡❜✿ q✉❛❣♠✐r❡ ♦r ❣♦❧❞ ♠✐♥❡❄✬✱ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✳ ❆❈▼

  ✸✾✭✶✶✮✱ ✻✺✕✻✽✳ ❬✶✻❪ ❋❛②❛❞✱ ▼✳ ❊✳✱ ❙❝❤♠✐❞t✱ ❉✳ ❈✳ ✫ ❏♦❤♥s♦♥✱ ❘✳ ❊✳ ✭✶✾✾✾✮✱ ❇✉✐❧❞✐♥❣ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✿

  ❖❜❥❡❝t✲❖r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❋♦✉♥❞❛t✐♦♥s ♦❢ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❉❡s✐❣♥✱ ❏♦❤♥ ❲✐❧❡② ✫ ❙♦♥s✱ ■♥❝✳✱ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ◆❨✱ ❯❙❆✳

  ❬✶✼❪ ❋❛②②❛❞✱ ❯✳ ▼✳ ✭✶✾✾✻✮✱ ❵❉❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r②✿ ▼❛❦✐♥❣ s❡♥s❡ ♦✉t ♦❢ ❞❛t❛✬✱ ■❊❊❊ ❊①♣❡rt✿ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❙②st❡♠s ❛♥❞ ❚❤❡✐r ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✶✶✭✺✮✱ ✷✵✕✷✺✳

  ❬✶✽❪ ❋❛②②❛❞✱ ❯✳✱ P✐❛t❡ts❦②✲s❤❛♣✐r♦✱ ●✳ ✫ ❙♠②t❤✱ P✳ ✭✶✾✾✻❛✮✱ ❵❋r♦♠ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ t♦ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r② ✐♥ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡s✬✱ ❆■ ▼❛❣❛③✐♥❡ ✶✼✱ ✸✼✕✺✹✳

  ❬✶✾❪ ❋❛②②❛❞✱ ❯✳✱ P✐❛t❡ts❦②✲❙❤❛♣✐r♦✱ ●✳ ✫ ❙♠②t❤✱ P✳ ✭✶✾✾✻❜✮✱ ❵❚❤❡ ❦❞❞ ♣r♦❝❡ss ❢♦r ❡①tr❛❝t✐♥❣ ✉s❡❢✉❧ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❢r♦♠ ✈♦❧✉♠❡s ♦❢ ❞❛t❛✬✱ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✳ ❆❈▼ ✸✾✭✶✶✮✱ ✷✼✕✸✹✳

  ❬✷✵❪ ●♦❡❜❡❧✱ ▼✳ ✫ ●r✉❡♥✇❛❧❞✱ ▲✳ ✭✶✾✾✾✮✱ ❵❆ s✉r✈❡② ♦❢ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r② s♦❢t✇❛r❡ t♦♦❧s✬✱ ❙■●❑❉❉ ❊①♣❧♦r✳ ◆❡✇s❧✳ ✶✱ ✷✵✕✸✸✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴❞♦✐✳❛❝♠✳♦r❣✴✶✵✳✶✶✹✺✴ ✽✹✻✶✼✵✳✽✹✻✶✼✷✳

  ❬✷✶❪ ❍❛♥✱ ❏✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✿ ❈♦♥❝❡♣ts ❛♥❞ ❚❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✱ ▼♦r❣❛♥ ❑❛✉❢♠❛♥♥ P✉❜❧✐s❤❡rs ■♥❝✳✱ ❙❛♥ ❋r❛♥❝✐s❝♦✱ ❈❆✱ ❯❙❆✳

  ❬✷✷❪ ❍❛♥❞✱ ❉✳ ❏✳✱ ❙♠②t❤✱ P✳ ✫ ▼❛♥♥✐❧❛✱ ❍✳ ✭✷✵✵✶✮✱ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❧❡s ♦❢ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣✱ ▼■❚ Pr❡ss✱ ❈❛♠❜r✐❞❣❡✱ ▼❆✱ ❯❙❆✳

  ❬✷✸❪ ❏✐❛❧✐❛♥❞♦s♠❛rr✱ ▲✳ ✫ ❩❛✐❛♥❡✱ ❖✳ ❘✳ ✭✷✵✵✹✮✱ ❈♦♠❜✐♥✐♥❣ ✉s❛❣❡✱ ❝♦♥t❡♥t✱ ❛♥❞ str✉❝t✉r❡ ❞❛t❛ t♦ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡ ✇❡❜ s✐t❡ r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞❛t✐♦♥✱ ✐♥ ❵■♥ ✺t❤ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❊❧❡❝tr♦♥✐❝ ❈♦♠♠❡r❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❲❡❜ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ✭❊❈✲❲❡❜✮✬✱ ♣♣✳ ✸✵✺✕✸✶✺✳

  ❬✷✹❪ ❏♦❤♥s♦♥✱ ❘✳ ❊✳ ✫ ❋♦♦t❡✱ ❇✳ ✭✶✾✽✽✮✱ ❵❉❡s✐❣♥✐♥❣ r❡✉s❛❜❧❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s✬✱ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ❖❜❥❡❝t✲ ❖r✐❡♥t❡❞ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠✐♥❣ ✶✭✷✮✱ ✷✷✕✸✺✳

  ❬✷✺❪ ❏♦❤♥s♦♥✱ ❘✳ ❊✳ ✫ ❘✉ss♦✱ ❱✳ ❋✳ ✭✶✾✾✶✮✱ ❘❡✉s✐♥❣ ♦❜❥❡❝t✲♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❞❡s✐❣♥s✱ ❚❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ r❡♣♦rt✱ ❆✳

  ❬✷✻❪ ❑❛♥❣✱ ❑✳ ❈✳✱ ❈♦❤❡♥✱ ❙✳ ●✳✱ ❍❡ss✱ ❏✳ ❆✳✱ ◆♦✈❛❦✱ ❲✳ ❊✳ ✫ P❡t❡rs♦♥✱ ❆✳ ❙✳ ✭✶✾✾✵✮✱ ❋❡❛t✉r❡✲ ♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❞♦♠❛✐♥ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ✭❢♦❞❛✮ ❢❡❛s✐❜✐❧✐t② st✉❞②✱ ❚❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ r❡♣♦rt✱ ❈❛r♥❡❣✐❡✲▼❡❧❧♦♥ ❯♥✐✲ ✈❡rs✐t② ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣ ■♥st✐t✉t❡✳

  ✻✺ ❬✷✼❪ ❑❤♦❞❡✐r✱ ◆✳✱ ❲❛♥❛s✱ ◆✳ ▼✳✱ ❉❛r✇✐s❤✱ ◆✳ ▼✳ ✫ ❍❡❣❛③②✱ ◆✳ ✭✷✵✶✵✮✱ ■♥❢❡rr✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t✐❛❧ st✉❞❡♥t ♠♦❞❡❧ ✐♥ ❛ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐st✐❝ ❞♦♠❛✐♥ ✉s✐♥❣ ❛❜❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ✐♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ✐♥ ❜❛②❡s✐❛♥ ♥❡t✇♦r❦s✱

  ✐♥ ❵■♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✬✱ ♣♣✳ ✷✾✾✕✸✵✵✳ ❬✷✽❪ ❑✐♠✱ ❙✳ ▼✳ ✫ ❈❛❧✈♦✱ ❘✳ ❆✳ ✭✷✵✶✵✮✱ ❙❡♥t✐♠❡♥t ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ✐♥ st✉❞❡♥t ❡①♣❡r✐❡♥❝❡s ♦❢ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱

  ✐♥ ❵■♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✬✱ ♣♣✳ ✶✶✶✕✶✷✵✳ ❬✷✾❪ ❑♦s❛❧❛✱ ❘✳ ✫ ❇❧♦❝❦❡❡❧✱ ❍✳ ✭✷✵✵✵✮✱ ❵❲❡❜ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ r❡s❡❛r❝❤✿ ❛ s✉r✈❡②✬✱ ❙■●❑❉❉ ❊①♣❧♦r✳

  ◆❡✇s❧✳ ✷✭✶✮✱ ✶✕✶✺✳ ❬✸✵❪ ❑✉r❣❛♥✱ ▲✳ ❆✳ ✫ ▼✉s✐❧❡❦✱ P✳ ✭✷✵✵✻❛✮✱ ❵❆ s✉r✈❡② ♦❢ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r② ❛♥❞ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣

  ♣r♦❝❡ss ♠♦❞❡❧s✬✱ ❑♥♦✇❧✳ ❊♥❣✳ ❘❡✈✳ ✷✶✭✶✮✱ ✶✕✷✹✳ ❬✸✶❪ ❑✉r❣❛♥✱ ▲✳ ❆✳ ✫ ▼✉s✐❧❡❦✱ P✳ ✭✷✵✵✻❜✮✱ ❵❆ s✉r✈❡② ♦❢ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r② ❛♥❞ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣

  ♣r♦❝❡ss ♠♦❞❡❧s✬✱ ❑♥♦✇❧✳ ❊♥❣✳ ❘❡✈✳ ✷✶✱ ✶✕✷✹✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴♣♦rt❛❧✳❛❝♠✳♦r❣✴❝✐t❛t✐♦♥✳ ❝❢♠❄✐❞❂✶✶✻✻✵✷✻✳✶✶✻✻✵✷✼✳

  ❬✸✷❪ ▲❛♥❞✐♥✱ ◆✳ ✫ ◆✐❦❧❛ss♦♥✱ ❆✳ ✭✶✾✾✺✮✱ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♦❢ ♦❜❥❡❝t✲♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✱ ❚❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ r❡♣♦rt✱ ❆✳ ❬✸✸❪ ▼❛❝❢❛❞②❡♥✱ ▲✳ ✫ ❙♦r❡♥s♦♥✱ P✳ ✭✷✵✶✵✮✱ ❯s✐♥❣ ❧✐♠s ✭t❤❡ ❧❡❛r♥❡r ✐♥t❡r❛❝t✐♦♥ ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ s②st❡♠✮ t♦ tr❛❝❦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❧❡❛r♥❡r ❡♥❣❛❣❡♠❡♥t ❛♥❞ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t❡ ❝♦✉rs❡ ❞❡s✐❣♥✱ ✐♥ ❵■♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧

  ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✬✱ ♣♣✳ ✸✵✶✕✸✵✷✳ ❬✸✹❪ ▼❛r❦❡❧❧♦✉✱ P✳✱ ▼♦✉s♦✉r♦✉❧✐✱ ■✳✱ ❙♣✐r♦s✱ ❙✳ ✫ ❚s❛❦❛❧✐❞✐s✱ ❆✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❵❯s✐♥❣ s❡♠❛♥t✐❝

  ✇❡❜ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ❢♦r ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❡❞ ❡✲❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡①♣❡r✐❡♥❝❡s✬✱ ❲❡❜✲❇❛s❡❞ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ❩✱ ✹✻✶✕✽✷✻✳

  ❬✸✺❪ ▼❛r❦✐❡✇✐❝③✱ ▼✳ ❊✳ ✫ ▲✉❝❡♥❛✱ ❈✳ ❏✳ ✭✷✵✵✶✮✱ ❵❖❜❥❡❝t ♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t✬✱ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❛❝♠✳♦r❣✴❝r♦ssr♦❛❞s✴①r❞s✼✲✹✴❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✳❤t♠❧✳ Ú❧t✐♠♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❡♠ ❖✉t✉❜r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✵✳

  ❬✸✻❪ ▼❛rt✐♥✱ ❉✳✱ ❇✉rst❡✐♥✱ ▼✳✱ ❍♦❜❜s✱ ❊✳✱ ▲❛ss✐❧❛✱ ❖✳✱ ▼❝❞❡r♠♦tt✱ ❉✳✱ ▼❝✐❧r❛✐t❤✱ ❙✳✱ ◆❛r❛②❛♥❛♥✱ ❙✳✱ P❛rs✐❛✱ ❇✳✱ P❛②♥❡✱ ❚✳✱ ❙✐r✐♥✱ ❊✳✱ ❙r✐♥✐✈❛s❛♥✱ ◆✳ ✫ ❙②❝❛r❛✱ ❑✳ ✭✷✵✵✹✮✱ ❖✇❧✲s✿ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ♠❛r❦✉♣ ❢♦r ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✱ ❚❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ r❡♣♦rt✱ ❆✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇✸✳♦r❣✴❙✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥✴ ❖❲▲✲❙✴✳

  ❬✸✼❪ ▼❛ttss♦♥✱ ▼✳✱ ▼❛ttss♦♥✱ ▼✳ ✫ ▼❛ttss♦♥✱ ▼✳ ✭✶✾✾✻✮✱ ❵❖❜❥❡❝t✲♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ✲ ❛ s✉r✈❡② ♦❢ ♠❡t❤♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ ✐ss✉❡s✬✳ ❬✸✽❪ ▼❝■❧r❛✐t❤✱ ❙✳ ❆✳✱ ❙♦♥✱ ❚✳ ❈✳ ✫ ❩❡♥❣✱ ❍✳ ✭✷✵✵✶✮✱ ❵❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✬✱ ■❊❊❊ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t

  ❙②st❡♠s ✶✻✭✷✮✱ ✹✻✕✺✸✳ ❬✸✾❪ ▼❡r❝❡r♦♥✱ ❆❣❛t❤❡❀ ❨❛❝❡❢✱ ❑✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❵❚❛❞❛✲❡❞ ❢♦r ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣✬✱ ■♥t❡r❛❝t✐✈❡

  ▼✉❧t✐♠❡❞✐❛ ❊❧❡❝tr♦♥✐❝ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r✲❊♥❤❛♥❝❡❞ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ✼✱ ❆✳

  ✻✻ ❬✹✵❪ ▼ü❤❧❡♥❜r♦❝❦✱ ▼✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❆✉t♦♠❛t✐❝ ❛❝t✐♦♥ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ✐♥ ❛♥ ✐♥t❡r❛❝t✐✈❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥✲

  ♠❡♥t✱ ✐♥ ❵Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ✇♦r❦s❤♦♣ ♦♥ ❯s❛❣❡ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s ✐♥ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❙②st❡♠s ❛t t❤❡ ✶✷t❤ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡ ✐♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ❆■❊❉✲✷✵✵✺✬✱ ❆♠st❡r❞❛♠ ❚❤❡ ◆❡t❤❡r❧❛♥❞s✱ ♣♣✳ ✼✸✕✽✵✳

  ❬✹✶❪ ▼✐tr❛✱ ❙✳✱ P❛❧✱ ❙✳ ✫ ▼✐tr❛✱ P✳ ✭✷✵✵✷✮✱ ❵❉❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ✐♥ s♦❢t ❝♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✿ ❛ s✉r✈❡②✬✱ ◆❡✉r❛❧ ◆❡t✇♦r❦s✱ ■❊❊❊ ❚r❛♥s❛❝t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ✶✸✭✶✮✱ ✸ ✕✶✹✳ ❬✹✷❪ ◆❛❣❛t❛✱ ❘✳✱ ❚❛❦❡❞❛✱ ❑✳✱ ❙✉❞❛✱ ❑✳✱ ❑❛❦❡❣❛✇❛✱ ❏✳ ✫ ▼♦r✐❤✐r♦✱ ❑✳ ✭✷✵✵✾✮✱ ❊❞✉✲♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❢♦r

  ❜♦♦❦ r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ♣✉♣✐❧s✱ ✐♥ ❵■♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✬✱ ♣♣✳ ✾✶✕✶✵✵✳ ❬✹✸❪ ◆♦②✱ ◆✳ ❋✳ ✫ ♠❝❣✉✐♥♥❡ss✱ ❉✳ ▲✳ ✭✷✵✵✶✮✱ ❵❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ✶✵✶✿ ❆ ❣✉✐❞❡ t♦ ❝r❡❛t✲

  ✐♥❣ ②♦✉r ✜rst ♦♥t♦❧♦❣②✬✱ ❖♥❧✐♥❡✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❦s❧✳st❛♥❢♦r❞✳❡❞✉✴♣❡♦♣❧❡✴❞❧♠✴ ♣❛♣❡rs✴♦♥t♦❧♦❣②✶✵✶✴♦♥t♦❧♦❣②✶✵✶✲♥♦②✲♠❝❣✉✐♥♥❡ss✳❤t♠❧✳

  ❬✹✹❪ P❛②♥❡✱ ❚✳ ❘✳ ✫ ▲❛ss✐❧❛✱ ❖✳ ✭✷✵✵✹✮✱ ❵●✉❡st ❡❞✐t♦rs✬ ✐♥tr♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥✿ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✬✱ ■❊❊❊ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❙②st❡♠s ✶✾✭✹✮✱ ✶✹✕✶✺✳

  ❬✹✺❪ P❡❞r✐♥❛❝✐✱ ❈✳✱ ❉♦♠✐♥❣✉❡✱ ❏✳ ✫ ❙❤❡t❤✱ ❆✳ ✭✷✵✶✵✮✱ ❵❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✬✳ ❬✹✻❪ P♦❧❧❡r❡s✱ ❆✳✱ ❇✉ss❧❡r✱ ❈✳✱ ❚r❛✈❡rs✱ ●✳✱ ❉♦♠✐♥❣✉❡✱ ❏✳ ❇✳ ✫ ❇✉r❞❡tt✱ ❉✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❵❲❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡

  ♠♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ♦♥t♦❧♦❣② ✭✇s♠♦✮ s✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥✬✱ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇✸✳♦r❣✴❙✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥✴✷✵✵✺✴✵✻✴✳ ❬✹✼❪ ◗✉✐♥❧❛♥✱ ❏✳ ❘✳ ✭✶✾✾✸✮✱ ❈✹✳✺✿ ♣r♦❣r❛♠s ❢♦r ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ▼♦r❣❛♥ ❑❛✉❢♠❛♥♥ P✉❜❧✐s❤❡rs

  ■♥❝✳✱ ❙❛♥ ❋r❛♥❝✐s❝♦✱ ❈❆✱ ❯❙❆✳ ❬✹✽❪ ❘❛♥❦❛✱ ❆✳✱ ❆♥✇❛r✱ ❋✳ ✫ ❈❤❛❡✱ ❍✳ ❙✳ ✭✷✵✶✵✮✱ P✉♥❞✐t✿ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞❡r ♦❢ ❝♦✉rs❡s✱

  ✐♥ ❵■♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✬✱ ♣♣✳ ✸✸✾✕✸✹✵✳ ❬✹✾❪ ❘♦♠❡r♦✱ ❈✳ ✫ ❱❡♥t✉r❛✱ ❙✳ ✭✷✵✵✼✮✱ ❵❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣✿ ❆ s✉r✲

  ✈❡② ❢r♦♠ ✶✾✾✺ t♦ ✷✵✵✺✬✱ ❊①♣❡rt ❙②st❡♠s ✇✐t❤ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✸✸✭✶✮✱ ✶✸✺ ✕ ✶✹✻✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❝✐❡♥❝❡❞✐r❡❝t✳❝♦♠✴s❝✐❡♥❝❡✴❛rt✐❝❧❡✴❇✻❱✵✸✲✹❏❲✶✵❲❘✲✷✴ ✷✴✼❞❢✺✺✺✶❜✷✼✸✽❝✶✹✵✷✼✸✽❡❡❝❡✸✵✼❡✻❝✻✶✳

  ❬✺✵❪ ❘♦♠❡r♦✱ ❈✳✱ ❱❡♥t✉r❛✱ ❙✳ ✫ ❇r❛✱ P✳ ❉✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❵❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r② ✇✐t❤ ❣❡♥❡t✐❝ ♣r♦✲ ❣r❛♠♠✐♥❣ ❢♦r ♣r♦✈✐❞✐♥❣ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦ t♦ ❝♦✉rs❡✇❛r❡ ❛✉t❤♦rs✬✱ ❯s❡r ▼♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❯s❡r✲❆❞❛♣t❡❞ ■♥t❡r❛❝t✐♦♥ ✶✹✱ ✹✷✺✕✹✻✹✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴♣♦rt❛❧✳❛❝♠✳♦r❣✴❝✐t❛t✐♦♥✳❝❢♠❄✐❞❂✶✵✺✽✵✹✼✳ ✶✵✺✽✵✽✻✳

  ❬✺✶❪ ❙❛❝í♥✱ ❈✳ ❱✳✱ ❆❣❛♣✐t♦✱ ❏✳ ❇✳✱ ❙❤❛❢t✐✱ ▲✳ ✫ ❖rt✐❣♦s❛✱ ❆✳ ✭✷✵✵✾✮✱ ❘❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞❛t✐♦♥ ✐♥ ❤✐❣❤❡r ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ✉s✐♥❣ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✱ ✐♥ ❵■♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✬✱ ♣♣✳ ✶✾✶✕✶✾✾✳

  ❬✺✷❪ ❙❤❛❞❜♦❧t✱ ◆✳✱ ❇❡r♥❡rs✲▲❡❡✱ ❚✳ ✫ ❍❛❧❧✱ ❲✳ ✭✷✵✵✻✮✱ ❵❚❤❡ s❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜ r❡✈✐s✐t❡❞✬✱ ■❊❊❊ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❙②st❡♠s ✷✶✱ ✾✻✕✶✵✶✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴❞①✳❞♦✐✳♦r❣✴✶✵✳✶✶✵✾✴▼■❙✳✷✵✵✻✳✻✷✳

  ✻✼ ❬✺✸❪ ❙❤❛✇✱ ▼✳ ✫ ●❛r❧❛♥✱ ❉✳ ✭✶✾✾✻✮✱ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❆r❝❤✐t❡❝t✉r❡✿ P❡rs♣❡❝t✐✈❡s ♦♥ ❛♥ ❊♠❡r❣✐♥❣

  ❉✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❡✱ ✶st ❡❞✳✱ Pr❡♥t✐❝❡ ❍❛❧❧✳ ❬✺✹❪ ❙t✉❞❡r✱ ❘✳✱ ❇❡♥❥❛♠✐♥s✱ ❱✳ ❘✳ ✫ ❋❡♥s❡❧✱ ❉✳ ✭✶✾✾✽✮✱ ❵❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❡♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣✿ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❧❡s

  ❛♥❞ ♠❡t❤♦❞s✬✳ ❬✺✺❪ ❚❛❧✐❣❡♥t ✭✶✾✾✹❛✮✱ ❇✉✐❧❞✐♥❣ ♦❜❥❡❝t✲♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✱ ❚❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ r❡♣♦rt✱ ❚❛❧✐❣❡♥t ■♥❝✳ ❬✺✻❪ ❚❛❧✐❣❡♥t ✭✶✾✾✹❜✮✱ ▲❡✈❡r❛❣✐♥❣ ♦❜❥❡❝t✲♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✱ ❚❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ r❡♣♦rt✱ ❚❛❧✐❣❡♥t ■♥❝✳ ❬✺✼❪ ❚❛♥❣✱ ❈✳✱ ❨✐♥✱ ❍✳✱ ▲✐✱ ❚✳✱ ▲❛✉✱ ❘✳ ❲✳ ❍✳✱ ▲✐✱ ◗✳ ✫ ❑✐❧✐s✱ ❉✳ ✭✷✵✵✵✮✱ P❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❡❞ ❝♦✉rs❡✲

  ✇❛r❡ ❝♦♥str✉❝t✐♦♥ ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ✇❡❜ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣✱ ✐♥ ❵❲■❙❊ ✬✵✵✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❋✐rst ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❲❡❜ ■♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❙②st❡♠s ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣ ✭❲■❙❊✬✵✵✮✲❱♦❧✉♠❡ ✷✬✱ ■❊❊❊ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙♦❝✐❡t②✱ ❲❛s❤✐♥❣t♦♥✱ ❉❈✱ ❯❙❆✱ ♣✳ ✷✷✵✹✳

  ❬✺✽❪ ❚❛♥❣✱ ❚✳ ✫ ▼❝❈❛❧❧❛✱ ●✳ ✭✷✵✵✸✮✱ ❵❙♠❛rt r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ❛♥ ❡✈♦❧✈✐♥❣ ❡✲❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ s②s✲ t❡♠✬✱ ❲♦r❦s❤♦♣ ♦♥ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ❢♦r ❊❧❡❝tr♦♥✐❝ ❉♦❝✉♠❡♥ts ❢♦r ❙✉♣♣♦rt✐♥❣ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ■♥✲ t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡ ✐♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ❆✱ ✻✾✾✕✼✶✵✳

  ❬✺✾❪ ❚❛♥❣✱ ❚✳ ❨✳ ✫ ▼❝❈❛❧❧❛✱ ●✳ ✭✷✵✵✷✮✱ ❙t✉❞❡♥t ♠♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❛ ✇❡❜✲❜❛s❡❞ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥✲ ♠❡♥t✿ ❛ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤✱ ✐♥ ❵❊✐❣❤t❡❡♥t❤ ♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❝♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ✐♥t❡❧❧✐✲ ❣❡♥❝❡✬✱ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡✱ ▼❡♥❧♦ P❛r❦✱ ❈❆✱ ❯❙❆✱ ♣♣✳ ✾✻✼✕ ✾✻✽✳

  ❬✻✵❪ ❚s❛✐✱ ❈✳✲❨✳ ✫ ❚s❛✐✱ ▼✳✲❍✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❆ ❞②♥❛♠✐❝ ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡ ❜❛s❡❞ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ♣r♦❝❡ss s②st❡♠✱ ✐♥ ❵❈■❚ ✬✵✺✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❚❤❡ ❋✐❢t❤ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❛♥❞ ■♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣②✬✱ ■❊❊❊ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙♦❝✐❡t②✱ ❲❛s❤✐♥❣t♦♥✱ ❉❈✱ ❯❙❆✱ ♣♣✳ ✶✵✸✸✕ ✶✵✸✾✳

  ❬✻✶❪ ❲✸❈ ✭♥✳❞✳✮✱ ❵❲✸❝ s❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜ ❛❝t✐✈✐t②✬✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇✸✳♦r❣✴✷✵✵✼✴✵✸✴ ❧❛②❡r❈❛❦❡✳♣♥❣✱ ▲❛st ❛❝❝❡ss ✐♥ ❆♣r✐❧ ✷✵✶✶✳

  ❬✻✷❪ ❲✐tt❡♥✱ ■✳ ❍✳ ✫ ❋r❛♥❦✱ ❊✳ ✭✷✵✵✺✮✱ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✿ Pr❛❝t✐❝❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❚♦♦❧s ❛♥❞ ❚❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s ✭❙❡❝♦♥❞ ❊❞✐t✐♦♥✮✱ ▼♦r❣❛♥ ❑❛✉❢♠❛♥♥✳ ❯❘▲ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❝s✳✇❛✐❦❛t♦✳❛❝✳ ♥③✴⑦♠❧✴✇❡❦❛✴❜♦♦❦✳❤t♠❧✳ ❲❙❉▲✲❙ ❙✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥ ❘❡q✉❡st t♦ ❲✸❈

  ❬✻✸❪ ❲❙❉▲✲❙ ❙✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥ ❘❡q✉❡st t♦ ❲✸❈ ✭♥✳❞✳✮✱ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇✸✳♦r❣✴❙✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥✴✷✵✵✺✴✶✵✴✳ ▲❛st ❛❝❝❡ss ✐♥ ❏✉♥❡ ✷✵✶✵✳

  ❬✻✹❪ ❩❛❛♥❡✱ ❊✳ ❖✳ ✫ ❩❛ï❛♥❡✱ ❖✳ ❘✳ ✭✷✵✵✶✮✱ ❵❲❡❜ ✉s❛❣❡ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❛ ❜❡tt❡r ✇❡❜✲❜❛s❡❞ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣✬✱ ❆ ❆✱ ✻✵✕✻✹✳

  ❬✻✺❪ ❩❛✐❛♥❡✱ ❖✳ ❘✳ ✭✷✵✵✷✮✱ ❵❇✉✐❧❞✐♥❣ ❛ r❡❝♦♠♠❡♥❞❡r ❛❣❡♥t ❢♦r ❡✲❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ s②st❡♠s✬✱ ❆ ❆✱ ✺✺✳

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