Um framework para mineração de dados educacionais baseado em serviços Web semânticos

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❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦

❯♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s

❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜

s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s

❚❆❘❙■❙ ▼❆❘■◆❍❖ ❉❊ ❙❖❯❩❆

t❛rs✐s✳♠s❅❣♠❛✐❧✳❝♦♠

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❚❆❘❙■❙ ▼❆❘■◆❍❖ ❉❊ ❙❖❯❩❆

❯♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s

❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜

s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛

♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❈✉rs♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❛❞♦

❡♠ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦

■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡

❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❡s✿

Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❊✈❛♥❞r♦ ❞❡ ❇❛rr♦s ❈♦st❛

Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ P❛tr✐❝❦ ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡ ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛ ❇r✐t♦

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Catalogação na fonte

Universidade Federal de Alagoas

Biblioteca Central

Divisão de Tratamento Técnico

Bibliotecária Responsável: Helena Cristina Pimentel do Vale

S729u Souza, Tarsis Marinho de.

Um framework para mineração de dados educacionais baseado em serviços semânticos / Tarsis Marinho de Souza. – 2011.

66 f. : il.

Orientador: Evandro de Barros Costa.

Co-Orientador: Patrick Henrique da Silva Brito.

Dissertação (mestrado em Modelagem Computacional de Conhecimento) – Universidade Federal de Alagoas. Instituto de Computação. Maceió, 2011.

Bibliografia: f. 62-66.

1. Mineração de dados educacionais. 2. Framework (Arquitetura de Software).

3. Serviços semânticos. I. Título.

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❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

Pr✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡✱ à ❉❡✉s ♣♦r ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♠❛✐s ✉♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ tã♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❡♠ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s ♣❛✐s✱ ❏✉r❛❝✐ ❡ ▼✐r✐❛♠✱ ❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✐r♠ã✱ ❚❛❧✐t❛✱ ♣❡❧♦ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦✱ ❛♣♦✐♦ ✐♥✲ ❝♦♥❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ♣♦r ♥✉♥❝❛ ♠❡❞✐r❡♠ ❡s❢♦rç♦s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡✉ ♣✉❞❡ss❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♠❛✐s ❡st❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r❡s✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✿ ❉✐♠✐tr✐s✱ ❍✉❧❞❛✱ ❉✐♠✐tr✐ ❡ ❏ú❧✐♦ ❈❡s❛r✱ q✉❡ ♠❡ ❛❝♦❧❤❡r❛♠ ❝♦♠ t❛♥t♦ ❝❛r✐♥❤♦ ❡ ❛♠♦r ❡ s❡♠ ♦s q✉❛✐s✱ ❞❡✜♥✐t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♥ã♦ t❡r✐❛ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐❞♦ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♠❛✐s ❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❡s✱ Pr♦❢✳ ❊✈❛♥❞r♦ ❈♦st❛ ❡ Pr♦❢✳ P❛tr✐❝❦ ❇r✐t♦✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦✱ ♣❛❝✐ê♥✲ ❝✐❛✱ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❡ ♣♦r ❡st❛r❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❛ ❛❥✉❞❛r ❡♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s✳

❆♦s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ❛♠✐❣♦s q✉❡ ✜③ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ ♠❡str❛❞♦ ❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉ír❛♠ ♠✉✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡✉ ♣✉❞❡ss❡ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♠❛✐s ❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ❈❛r♦❧✱ ❊❧✈②s✱ ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡✱ ❍✐❣♦r✱ ❏❡❛♥✱ ▼❛r❝♦s ❡ ❱✐t♦r✳ ◆ã♦ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ ❞❡✐①❛r ❞❡ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛♦ ♠❡✉ ❛♠✐❣♦ ❍❡✐t♦r q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐✉ ♠✉✐t♦ ♥♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

❊✱ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ à ❋❆P❊❆▲✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ✜♥❛♥❝❡✐r♦✳

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❘❡s✉♠♦

❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✇❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❞❡s❛✜♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥❛ ár❡❛✱ ❝♦♠♦✿ ♣❛❞r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♠❛✐s ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s✳ ❆ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠ ✇✐③❛r❞✱ q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ♥❛ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♣r♦❞✉t♦s✳ P❛r❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✲ ✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ r❡❛❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✳

P❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡✿ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥✲ t✐❝♦s✳

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❆❜str❛❝t

❚❤✐s ♣❛♣❡r ♣r❡s❡♥ts ❛ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❢♦r ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ s❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s ❛s ❛ s♦❧✉t✐♦♥ t♦ t❤❡ ❝❤❛❧❧❡♥❣❡s ❢♦✉♥❞ ✐♥ t❤✐s ❛r❡❛ s✉❝❤ ❛s ❞❛t❛ ❛♥❞ ♠❡t❤♦❞s st❛♥✲ ❞❛r❞✐③❛t✐♦♥✱ ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥ts ✐♥t❡❣r❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❡❛s✐❡r t♦ ✉s❡ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ t♦♦❧s ❢♦r ❜♦t❤ ❡❞✉❝❛t♦rs ❛♥❞ ♥♦♥✲s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st ✉s❡rs✳ ❚❤❡ s♦❧✉t✐♦♥ ❛❧s♦ ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡s ❛ ✇✐③❛r❞✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛✐♠s t♦ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛t❡ t❤❡ ❡①t❡♥s✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ✐♥st❛♥t✐❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✐♥ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ♣r♦❞✉❝ts✳ ■♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ✈❛❧✐❞❛t❡ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ s♦❧✉t✐♦♥✱ ❛ ❝❛s❡ st✉❞② ✇❛s ❛❧s♦ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❡❞ ✉s✐♥❣ ❞❛t❛ ❢r♦♠ ❛ r❡❛❧ ❡✲❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t ✉s❡❞ ❜② st✉❞❡♥ts ❢r♦♠ ❞✐st❛♥❝❡ ♠♦❞❡ ❝♦✉rs❡s✳

❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣✱ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❛♥❞ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ❲❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✳

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

✷✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✷✳✷ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✸ ●r✉♣♦s ❢♦r♠❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✹ ❘❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾ ✷✳✺ ❈✐❝❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷ ✷✳✻ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ♥♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✷✳✼ ❇❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ① ❈✉st♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✽ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✾ ❈❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✶✵ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✷✳✶✶ ❖❲▲✲❙ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣② ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ✸✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✸✳✷ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✸✳✸ ❚❡❧❛ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✹✳✶ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❈❛s♦s ❞❡ ❯s♦ ❞♦ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ Pr♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✹✳✷ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❈❛s♦s ❞❡ ❯s♦ ❞♦ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❣r✐♥✈ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✹✳✸ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✹✳✹ ❱✐sã♦ ❧ó❣✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✹✳✺ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✻ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❉❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✹✳✼ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❙❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛ ❉❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✺✳✶ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✺✳✷ ▼❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✺✳✸ ❆❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ❆❞❛♣t❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✺✳✹ ❙❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ♦ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✺✳✺ P❛ss♦ ✶✿ ❊s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✺✳✻ P❛ss♦ ✷✿ ❊s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✺✳✼ P❛ss♦ ✸✿ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛r❛♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✺✳✽ P❛ss♦ ✹✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦❀ ❱♦❧t❛r ❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✸ ♦✉ ❛✈❛♥ç❛r

❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✺✳✾ P❛ss♦ ✺✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❱♦❧t❛r ❛♦ P❛ss♦ ✹ ♦✉ ❆✈❛♥ç❛r

❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✺✳✶✵ P❛ss♦ ✺✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❱♦❧t❛r ❛♦ P❛ss♦ ✹ ♦✉ ❆✈❛♥ç❛r

❛♦ ♣❛ss♦ ✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽

(9)

❙✉♠ár✐♦

✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶

✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ Pr♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶ ✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ✶✳✸ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸

✷ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦ ✹

✷✳✶ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✷✳✶✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✷✳✶✳✷ ◆❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✷✳✶✳✸ ❚❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✷✳✶✳✹ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✷✳✷ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✷✳✶ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✷✳✷✳✷ ❱❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❡ ❉❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✸ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❱❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✸✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✹ ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✹✳✶ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✹✳✷ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜ ❙❡♠â♥t✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

✸ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✷✸

✸✳✶ ❆ ❉②♥❛♠✐❝ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❜❛s❡❞ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ Pr♦❝❡ss ❙②st❡♠ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✸✳✷ ❆ ❙❡♠❛♥t✐❝ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❖r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❢♦r ❆❞❛♣t✐✈❡ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❊♥✈✐✲

r♦♥♠❡♥ts ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✸✳✸ ❚❆❉❆✲❊❞✿ ❚♦♦❧ ❢♦r ❆❞✈❛♥❝❡❞ ❉❛t❛ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s ✐♥ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻

✹ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ Pr♦♣♦st♦ ✷✽

✹✳✶ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✹✳✶✳✶ ❆t♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✹✳✶✳✷ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❋✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✹✳✶✳✸ ❱❛r✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡s❡❥❛❞❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✹✳✶✳✹ ❘❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ◆ã♦✲❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✹✳✷ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✹✳✸ ❱✐sã♦ ▲ó❣✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✹✳✸✳✶ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✹✳✸✳✷ ❆❞❛♣t❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✹✳✸✳✸ ❲❡❜ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ✹✳✸✳✹ Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼

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❙❯▼➪❘■❖ ✈✐

✹✳✸✳✺ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✹✳✸✳✻ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✹✳✸✳✼ ❖♥t♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✹✳✸✳✽ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✹ ❲✐③❛r❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹

✺ ❊st✉❞♦s ❞❡ ❈❛s♦ ✹✻

✺✳✶ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✺✳✷ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✺✳✸ Pré✲Pr♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✺✳✸✳✶ ▼❡t❛✲✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✺✳✸✳✷ ❈♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✺✳✹ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✺✳✺ ❊①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ■♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✺✳✺✳✶ ■♥✈♦❝❛r ♦ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✺✳✺✳✷ ❊①❡❝✉t❛r ❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ✈✐❛ ✇✐③❛r❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✺✳✻ ❆❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✺✳✼ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶

■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ Pr♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛

❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s s♦❜r❡ s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❡ss❡s ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦s s❡r✈✐❞♦r❡s ❲❡❜ ❡ q✉❡ ❣r❛✈❛♠ t♦✲ ❞❛s ❛s ❛çõ❡s ❞♦s s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ♥❛✈❡❣❛♠ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✴♦✉ r❡❛❧✐③❛♠ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❊ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❡ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✲ ❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♣❛r❛✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡r ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡ ❡ ♣♦❞❡r ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ♠❡❧❤♦r s✉❛s ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣❡r✜s✳

◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❞❛❞♦ ♦ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦✱ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s é ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛ ❡ ❞✐s♣❡♥❞✐♦s❛ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡✲ ❞♦r❡s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❢❛③✲s❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❛✉①✐❧✐❡ ♥❡ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛✲s❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❜♦❛ s♦❧✉çã♦✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

❊ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r✱ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛❞♦çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥✲ ❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ✉s❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ s✉♣♦rt❡ ♥❛ ❣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡ t❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s q✉❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s✳ ❆ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣❧♦r❛r ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ é ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❊❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣ ❬✽❪✳

❆ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ t❡r ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❬✹✵❪✱ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡ s❡✉s ❝✉rs♦s ❬✻✹✱ ✺✼❪✱ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ❛♦s ❛❧✉♥♦s ❛♣♦✐♦ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦❬✸✹✱ ✻✺✱ ✺✽❪✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳

P❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❞✐❢❡r✲ ❡♥t❡s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s✳ ❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ sã♦✿ ✐✮ ❯t✐❧✐③❛r ❢❡r✲ r❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛ ❡❞✉❝❛çã♦✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♦✉ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r✴❛❞❛♣t❛r ❛❧❣✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

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✶✳✷✳ ❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖❙ ✷

◆❡st❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ ❞❡✜♥✐r ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r✴✉t✐❧✐③❛r té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦✱ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ r❡✜♥❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛r ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ P❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r t❛❧ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r s✉❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r ❡st❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣❀ ✐✐✮ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣♦❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✳ ◆❡st❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠✱ ♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛rá ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♥ã♦✲❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❞❡✈❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ✲ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♣❡❞❛❣ó❣✐❝♦s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ✲ ♣❛r❛ t♦♠❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ r❡❝♦♠❡♥❞❛r ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♥✲ t❡ú❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡✳ ▼❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡st❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ t❡♠ ✉♠ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ♣♦✐s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ◆❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ❝♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✳ ◆♦ ❡♥✲ t❛♥t♦✱ ❡st❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s sã♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❡ sã♦ ✉t❡✐s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✳ ❖s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♥❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❝✐t❛❞❛s sã♦✿ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡✴♦✉ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r✳

❘♦♠❡r♦ ❡ ❱❡♥t✉r❛ ❬✹✾❪ ❞❡st❛❝❛♠ ❞❡s❛✜♦s ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✿ ✐✮ P❛❞r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s sã♦ út❡✐s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛♦s s❡✉s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s✳ ◆ã♦ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❣❡r❛✐s ♦✉ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡✴♦✉ té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ♣❛❞r♦♥✐③❛✲ çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s sã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s❀ ✐✐✮ ■♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣✱ ❋❡r✲ r❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛s ❛ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳ ❚♦❞❛s ❛s t❛r❡❢❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s à ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❢❡❡❞❜❛❝❦s ❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s❀ ✐✐✐✮ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ❢á❝❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐s✲ t❛s✳ P♦✐s✱ ❞❡♥tr❡ s✉❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛✱ t❛✐s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s sã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐st❛s ❡ ✈ã♦ ❛❧é♠ ❞♦ ❡s❝♦♣♦ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ q✉❡r❡r ❢❛③❡r✳ ❊ss❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡✈❡r✐❛♠ t❡r ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♠❛✐s ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❛ ❡ ❢á❝✐❧ ❞❡ ✉s❛r✱ s❡♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐✲ ❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦✱ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❡ ❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✳

✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s

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✶✳✸✳ ❊❙❚❘❯❚❯❘❆ ❉❆ ❉■❙❙❊❘❚❆➬➹❖ ✸

• ❘❡✉s♦ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡✴♦✉ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡

♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡sss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣ós✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦❀

❘❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣

• ❋á❝✐❧ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣❀

P❡r♠✐t✐r q✉❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡✲ t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s❀

P♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r q✉❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♣♦ss❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥✲ ❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✜♥s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s❀

• ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s❀

❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦❀ ❘❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦s ❝✉st♦s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦

✶✳✸ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞❛ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷

❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦

◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s✱ s✉❝✐♥t❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s tó♣✐❝♦s q✉❡ ❢♦r♠❛♠ ❛ ❜❛s❡ t❡ór✐❝❛ ❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛q✉✐ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ sã♦ ❞✐s❝✉✲ t✐❞♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✱ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❛r✐✲ ❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❲❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛✳

✷✳✶ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s

▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s✶ é ✉♠ ♣❛ss♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❇❛s❡ ❞❡

❉❛❞♦s ✭❑❉❉✮✷✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛✱

♣r♦❞✉③✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❡♥✉♠❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♦✉ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❬✶✼❪✳

❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❖ t❡r♠♦ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s t♦r♥♦✉✲s❡ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❡ ✈❡♠ s❡♥❞♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉t✐✲ ❧✐③❛❞♦✳ P❛r❛ ♠✉✐t♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s✱ ♦ t❡r♠♦ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s é ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ s✐♥ô♥✲ ✐♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ✉♠ ❞♦s ♣❛ss♦s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❬✸✵❪✳

▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s é t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ♣♦r ♠✉✐t♦s ♦✉tr♦s ♥♦♠❡s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦✿ ✐♥❝❧✉❞✲ ✐♥❣ ❦♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❡①tr❛❝t✐♦♥✱ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❞✐s❝♦✈❡r②✱ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❤❛r✈❡st✐♥❣✱ ❞❛t❛ ❛r❝❤❡♦❧♦❣② ❡ ❞❛t❛ ♣❛tt❡r♥ ♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❬✶✾❪✳

◆♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ t❡r♠♦ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ s❡ r❡❢❡r✐r ❛♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❡ ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ r❡❢❡r✐❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♣♦r s❡r ✉♠ t❡r♠♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❡ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳

✷✳✶✳✶ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦

❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ r❡q✉❡r ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡t❛♣❛s✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥s❡♥s♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡t❛♣❛s ❡ s✉❛s ♥♦♠❡♥❝❧❛t✉r❛s✳ ❑✉r❣❛♥ ❡ ▼✉s✐❧❡❦

❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❉❛t❛ ▼✐♥✐♥❣

❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❉✐s❝♦✈❡r② ✐♥ ❉❛t❛ ❇❛s❡s

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✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✺

❬✸✶❪ r❡❛❧✐③❛r❛♠ ✉♠ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❡ ❛♣♦♥t❛♠ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❢♦✐ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ❋❛②②❛❞ ❬✶✽❪✳

◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✶ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛ s❡❣✉✐r s✉❛s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛s ❞❡s❝r✐çõ❡s✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✿ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✶✽❪

❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣❛ss♦s✿

• ❉❛t❛ s❡❧❡❝t✐♦♥ ✲ ❊t❛♣❛ ❞❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ♣r❡t❡♥❞✐❞❛

• Pr❡♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ✲ ❊t❛♣❛ q✉❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ❛ ❧✐♠♣❡③❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ r❡♠♦✈❡r r✉í❞♦s ❡ ✐♥❝♦♥✲

s✐stê♥❝✐❛s

• ❉❛t❛ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ✲ ❊t❛♣❛ ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛

♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦

• ❉❛t❛ ♠✐♥✐♥❣ ✲ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s

❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s

• P❛tt❡r♥ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛t✐♦♥✴❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ✲ ❊t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛çã♦ ❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s

❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s

✷✳✶✳✷ ◆❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s

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✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✻

▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜

▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜ ✸ é ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛

❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s ✇❡❜ ❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❬✶✺❪✳

❖ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜ s❡❣✉❡ ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❑♦s❛❧❛ ❡ ❇❧♦❝❦❡❡❧ ❬✷✾❪ s✉❣❡r❡♠ ❛ ❞❡❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜ ❡♠ q✉❛tr♦ s✉❜✲t❛r❡❢❛s✿

• ❊♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❢♦♥t❡ ✲ ❚❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ♦s ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s ✇❡❜ ♣r❡t❡♥❞✐❞♦s❀

• ❙❡❧❡çã♦ ❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ✲ ❚❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ❡ ♣ré✲

♣r♦❝❡ss❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ✇❡❜❀

• ●❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ✲ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ✇❡❜ s✐t❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ♦✉ ❞❡ ✈ár✐♦s

s✐t❡s❀

• ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ✲ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❡✴♦✉ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦s✳

❑♦s❛❧❛ ❡ ❍❡♥❞r✐❦ ❬✷✾❪ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐③❛r❛♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ✇❡❜ ❡♠ três ár❡❛s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ q✉❛❧ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ ✇❡❜ ♠✐♥❡r❛r✿ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❲❡❜✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❡s✲ tr✉t✉r❛ ❲❡❜ ❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜✳

• ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❲❡❜✹ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛ ♣❛r✲

t✐r ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦s✱ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s ❲❡❜✳ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❲❡❜ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ t❡①t♦s✱ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s✱ ✈í❞❡♦s✱ ♠❡t❛❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❤②✲ ♣❡r❧✐♥❦s✳ ❈♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❲❡❜ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ❞❛❞♦s ♥ã♦ ❡str✉t✉r❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ t❡①t♦s ❧✐✈r❡s✱ ♦✉ s❡♠✐✲❡str✉t✉r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛❣✐♥❛s ✇❡❜✳

• ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❲❡❜✺ ❚❡♥t❛♠ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r ♠♦❞❡❧♦s s✉❜❥❛❝❡♥t❡s ❛ ❡str✉✲

t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❦s ❞❛ ❲❡❜✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞♦s ❤✐♣❡r❧✐♥❦s ❝♦♠ ♦✉ s❡♠ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s ❧✐♥❦s✳ ❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐③❛r ♣á❣✐♥❛s ❲❡❜ ❡ é út✐❧ ♣❛r❛ ❣❡r❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s s✐t❡s ❲❡❜✳

• ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜✻ t❡♥t❛ ❢❛③❡r s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛çã♦

❲❡❜ s❡ssõ❡s ❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦s✳

❉♦ ✐♥❣❧ês ❲❡❜ ▼✐♥✐♥❣

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✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✼

❊♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣r✐♠ár✐♦s ❞❛ ✇❡❜✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ✇❡❜ ♠✐♥❡r❛ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s s❡❝✉♥❞ár✐♦s ❞❡r✐✈❛❞♦s ❞❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❡❧❡s ✐♥t❡r❛❣❡♠ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❲❡❜✳

❉❛❞♦s ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜ ✐♥❝❧✉❡♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ❧♦❣s ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦✱ ❧♦❣s ❞♦ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ❞❡ ♣r♦①②✱ ❧♦❣s ❞♦ ♥❛✈❡❣❛❞♦r✱ ♣❡r✜❧ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦✱ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ r❡❣✐str♦✱ s❡ssõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♦✉ tr❛♥s❛çõ❡s✱ ❝♦♦❦✐❡s✱ ❝❧✐❝❦s ❞♦ ♠♦✉s❡ ❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♦✉tr♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❲❡❜✳

✷✳✶✳✸ ❚❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦

❆♣ós ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s q✉❡ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡♠ s❡r ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊st❛ é ❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❡t❛♣❛ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊t❛♣❛ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s✳ ◆❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♠✐♥❡r❛❞♦s✳

❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ é ❝♦♥✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐③❛r ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ t✐♣♦s ❞❡ t❛r❡❢❛s✱ q✉❡ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♠ ❛♦s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❬✷✷❪✳ ❆s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❞✉❛s ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❬✶✽❪✿ ❛✮ ❉❡s❝r✐t✐✈❛s ✲ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ♣❛❞rõ❡s ✐♥t❡r♣r❡tá✈❡✐s ♣♦r ❤✉♠❛♥♦s q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s❀ ❜✮ Pr❡❞✐t✐✈❛s ✲ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ♦✉ ❝❛♠♣♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡❞✐③❡r ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡s❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ♦✉ ❢✉t✉r♦s ❞❡ ♦✉tr❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳

❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ sã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❬✶✽✱ ✷✵✱ ✹✶✱ ✷✶❪✿

❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ♣r❡❞✐çã♦

❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ é ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❛ ❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♦✉ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡r ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡❞✐③❡r ❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❝✉❥♦ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ é ❞❡s❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡r✐✈❛❞♦ é ❞❡r✐✈❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❞❛❞♦s ❝✉❥♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ é ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❬✷✶❪✳

❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♠❛♥❡✐r❛s✿ ❘❡❣r❛s✱ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳ ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✸ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❣❡r❛❞♦ ❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦✳

❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ é✿ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ sã♦ ❜♦♥s ❡ ♠❛✉s ♣❛❣❛❞♦r❡s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦s ♣❡r✜s ❞♦s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ♦s ♥♦✈♦s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r ❧✐♠✐t❡s ❡ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ♥❛s ❝♦♠♣r❛s✳

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✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✽

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✿ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✷✶❪

❆❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦

❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❢ís✐❝♦s ♦✉ ❛❜str❛t♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s s✐♠✐❧❛r❡s é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❬✷✶❪✳ ❉✐❢❡r❡ ❞♦ q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦s rót✉❧♦s ❞❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s✱ ♦ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s s❡♠ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❡ss❡s rót✉❧♦s✳ ❖s ♦❜❥❡t♦s sã♦ ❛❣r✉♣❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣✐♦ ❞❛ ♠á①✐♠❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ✐♥tr❛❝❧❛ss❡ ❡ ♠✐♥✐♠❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❝❧❛ss❡ ❬✷✶❪✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❜✉s❝❛ r❡✉♥✐r ♥❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛❧t❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s ❡ q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛ ♠á①✐♠❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸✿ ●r✉♣♦s ❢♦r♠❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✷✶❪

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✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✾

❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❖✉t❧✐❡r

◆❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s é ❝♦♠✉♠ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ s❡❣✉❡♠ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ♦✉ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊ss❡s ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ s❡ ♠❛♥✐❢❡st❛♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♦✉ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ✐♥❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡ ❞♦ r❡st❛♥t❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♦✉t❧✐❡rs ❬✷✶❪✳ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❝♦♠ ❡ss❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ sã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s r✉í❞♦s ♦✉ ❡①❝❡çõ❡s ❡ sã♦ ❞❡s❝❛rt❛❞♦s✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❤á ♠♦♠❡♥t♦s ❡♠ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♠❛✐s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ r❡❣✉❧❛r✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❝❧áss✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ é ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❡ ❡♠ ❝❛rtõ❡s ❞❡ ❝ré❞✐t♦✳

❖s ♦✉t❧✐❡rs ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✸✱ ♦s ♣♦♥t♦s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦s ❣r✉♣♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♦✉t❧✐❡rs✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ♦✉t❧✐❡rs ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦s✱ ♠❡❞✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♦✉ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❞❡s✈✐♦✳

❆ss♦❝✐❛çõ❡s✱ P❛❞rõ❡s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡s

❉❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡ ✐t❡♥s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ ♥❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♦✉tr♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❬✷✵❪✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡s✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞❡❧❡s sã♦✿

▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛✐s✳✼ é ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡✈❡♥t♦s ♦r❞❡♥❛❞♦s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠

❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♦✉ s✉❜s❡q✉❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❬✷✶❪✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ é✿ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ ❝♦♠♣r❛r ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣r❡ss♦r❛ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s s❡♠❛♥❛s✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ sã♦ ♣❛❞rõ❡s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❝♦♠ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❡♠ s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛✱ ♥❡st❡ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛ ♦r❞❡♠ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ❡✈❡♥t♦s ♦❝♦rr❡♠ é r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡✳

▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐t❡♥s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡s✽ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐t❡♥s q✉❡ ❢r❡✲

q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡♠ ❥✉♥t♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❬✷✶❪✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❝❧áss✐❝♦ é✿ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛♠ ♣ã♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♣r❛♠ ❧❡✐t❡✳ ❊ss❡ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❜✉s❝❛ ✐t❡♥s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♠❛s ❛ s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❡✈❡♥t♦s ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ♥ã♦ é ❧❡✈❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦✳ ◆♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ r❡❣r❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❛s ❛ss♦❝✐❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✸ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❣r❛✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✹✿ ❘❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✷✶❪ ✼❉♦ ■♥❣❧ês ❙❡q✉❡♥t✐❛❧ ♣❛tt❡r♥ ♠✐♥✐♥❣

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✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✶✵

❆ r❡❣r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳✸ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛q✉❡❧❡ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛✲ ❞♦r t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ✉♠ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳ ❆ r❡❣r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞♦✐s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s✿ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ s✉♣♦rt❡✳ ❊ss❡s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ r❡❣r❛ ❡ s❡ ❡ss❛ r❡❣r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❞❡ ✶✪ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛ r❡❣r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛✲s❡ ❛ ✶✪ ❞♦s ❝❛s♦s ❡st✉❞❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✺✵✪ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❞♦s ✶✪ ❡♠ q✉❡ r❡❣r❛ s❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✺✵✪ ❞♦s ❝❛s♦s ❡♠ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ✉♠ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳

✷✳✶✳✹ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧

▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✾ é ✉♠❛ ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛ ❡♠❡r❣❡♥t❡✱ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✲

✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣❧♦r❛çã♦ ❞❡ t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ú♥✐❝♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❡ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❡ss❡s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✱ ❡ ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s q✉❡ ❡❧❡s ❛♣r❡♥❞❡♠ ❬✽❪✳

❆ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s q✉❛♥❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♠ér❝✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ ❬✹✾❪✿

• ❉♦♠í♥✐♦✿ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♠ér❝✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ é ♦r✐❡♥t❛r ♦s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ♥❛s ❝♦♠♣r❛s✱

❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ é ♦r✐❡♥t❛r ♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥✲ ❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❬✺✵❪

• ❉❛❞♦s✿ ◆♦ ❝♦♠ér❝✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦✱ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s sã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦✿

❧♦❣ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐❞♦r✱ ♠❛s ❡♠ ❡✲❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❡①✐st❡♠ ♠❛✐s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ✐♥✲ t❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❬✶✸❪

• ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✿ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❝♦♠ér❝✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ é ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r

♦ ❧✉❝r♦✱ q✉❡ é t❛♥❣í✈❡❧ ❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♠❡❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❞✐♥❤❡✐r♦✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ✜❞❡❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❏á ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❡✲▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ é ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❊ss❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é s✉❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❡ ♠❛✐s s✉t✐❧ ♠❡❞✐r

• ❚é❝♥✐❝❛s✿ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s tê♠ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛✐s q✉❡ r❡q✉❡r❡♠ ✉♠

tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛r✱ ❡♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✱ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠✳ ❬✶✸❪ ❬✷✸❪

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✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✶✶

▼ét♦❞♦s ❡♠ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❊❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧

❖s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝❛r✲ ❛❝t❡r✐③❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❇❛❦❡r ❬✶❪ ❡ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛❜❛✐①♦✿

• Pr❡❞✐çã♦

✕ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✕ ❘❡❣r❡ssã♦

✕ ❉❡♥s✐t② ❡st✐♠❛t✐♦♥

• ❆❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦

• ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛çõ❡s

✕ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ✕ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡❧❛çõ❡s

✕ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛✐s ✕ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛✉s❛s

• ❉❡st✐❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❤✉♠❛♥♦

• ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s

❖s ▼ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ♣r❡❞✐çã♦✱ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❡ ♠✉✐t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❉❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♠❛✐s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

❉❡st✐❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❤✉♠❛♥❛s

❯♠❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ é ❛ ❞❡st✐❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ❤✉♠❛♥❛s✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❛❣❡♥t❡s ❤✉♠❛♥♦s é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ s❡ ❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❢♦r❡♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛❀

❖s ♠ét♦❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❡st❛ ár❡❛ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s sã♦ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ sã♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ s✉❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛ ❡ ♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❡♠❜✉t✐❞♦ ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳

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✷✳✶✳ ▼■◆❊❘❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❉❆❉❖❙ ✶✷

✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✳

❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s

◆❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢❡♥ô♠❡♥♦ é ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ♣r❡❞✐çã♦✱ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦✉ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❛s♦s ✭❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ❡♥✲ ❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ r❛❝✐♦❝í♥✐♦ ❤✉♠❛♥♦ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞♦s✮✳ ❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❡♥tã♦ ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ♦✉tr❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ♦✉ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳

❆♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧

➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✿

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✺✿ ❈✐❝❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✹✾❪

❊❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝♦s r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣r♦❥❡t❛♠✱ ♣❧❛♥❡❥❛♠✱ ❝♦♥str♦❡♠ ❡ ♠❛♥t❡♠ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❡❞✉❝❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❖s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ✉s❛♠ ❡ ✐♥t❡r❛❣❡♠ ❝♦♠ ❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❣❡r❛ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❡ ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦s ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❝✉rs♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s✱ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s út❡✐s✳ ❆s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❡st✉❞❛♥t❡s ❡ ❡❞✉❝❛❞♦r❡s✳

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✷✳✷✳ ❋❘❆▼❊❲❖❘❑❙ ✶✸

✷✳✷ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s

P♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ❡♥tr❡t❛♥t♦ ♥ã♦ ❤á ✉♠❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❝♦♠✉♠✳ ❉✉❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s q✉❡ sã♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞❛s sã♦ r❡❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❏♦❤♥s♦♥✿

✧❯♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s q✉❡ ❝❛♣t✉r❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❛❜str❛t♦ ♣❛r❛ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✳✧❬✷✹❪

✧❯♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛♠ ❡♥tr❡ s✐ ♣❛r❛ ❛ss✉♠✐r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳✧❬✷✺❪

❖✉tr❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❋❛②❛❞✿

✧❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ é ♦ ❡sq✉❡❧❡t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❞❡s❡♥✲ ✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✳✧❬✶✻❪

❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❛❝✐♠❛ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❞❡st❛❝❛r ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s✿

• ❘❡✉s❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❝ó❞✐❣♦❀

• ❙ã♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s s❡♠✐♣r♦♥t❛s✱ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡st✐♥❛♠ ❛ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✲

✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝♦❀

❉❡♥tr♦ ❞♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❧❡✈❛♥t❛❞♦s✱ ▼❛r❦✐❡✇✐❝③ ❡ ▲✉❝❡♥❛ ❬✸✺❪ ❞❡st❛❝❛♠ q✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣♦ss❛ ❣❡r❛r ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✱ ❞❡✈❡ t❡r ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✳

❆✐♥❞❛ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ▼❛r❦✐❡✇✐❝③ ❡ ▲✉❝❡♥❛ ❬✸✺❪✱ ❊ss❡s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❤♦t s♣♦ts✳ ❖✉tr♦s ♣♦♥t♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❢❛❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ ♠✉❧tá✈❡✐s ❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦ ♥ú❝❧❡♦ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡❢r♦③❡♥ s♣♦ts✳

❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ sã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❬✶✻❪✿

• ▼♦❞✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡✿ ❖❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦

q✉❡ sã♦ ♣❛ss✐✈❡✐s ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s✳ ❊st❡ ❢❛t♦✱ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛ ♦s ✐♠♣❛❝t♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ s❡✉ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦❀

• ❘❡✉s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✿ é ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥✲

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✷✳✷✳ ❋❘❆▼❊❲❖❘❑❙ ✶✹

• ❊①t❡♥s✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✿ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛❞❛♣✲

t❛çõ❡s✿ ❡①t❡♥sã♦✱ ❛❞✐çã♦ ♦✉ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ♣r♦✈✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ■st♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠❡s♠♦ ❢r❛♠❡✲ ✇♦r❦❀

• ■♥✈❡rsã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡✿ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s✳ ❊❧❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡

q✉❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞♦s ❡♠ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❛ ✉♠ ❡✈❡♥t♦ ❡①t❡r♥♦✳ ❊st❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ é ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣✐♦ ❞❡ ❍♦❧❧②✇♦♦❞✱ ✧❉♦♥✁t ❝❛❧❧ ✉s✱ ✇❡✬❧❧ ❝❛❧❧ ②♦✉

✳ ❱❡r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♥❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✻✿ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ♥♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❊①tr❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❬✸✷❪

◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s✳ ◆❛ ❧❡tr❛ ✭❛✮ ❞❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ❛❝✐♠❛✱ ✉♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❡s❝r❡✈❡ s❡✉ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s✱ ❡s❝♦❧❤❡ q✉❛✐s ❛s ❝❧❛ss❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❡❧❛s s❡rã♦ ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞❛s✳ ◆❛ ❧❡tr❛ ✭❜✮✱ ✉♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❡s❝r❡✈❡ s❡✉ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❊❧❡ ❡st❡♥❞❡ ♦✉ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛ ❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s✱ ❡ ♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛ q✉❛✐s ❛s ❝❧❛ss❡ ❡ ♦ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡ ❡❧❛s s❡rã♦ ✐♥✈♦❝❛❞❛s✳

✷✳✷✳✶ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s

◆❡st❛ s❡çã♦ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛s ❞✉❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✈✐sõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✳ ❖s ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦s q✉❛♥t♦ ❛♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❡①t❡♥sã♦✳

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