APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF A FOURTEENTH-CENTURY BREVIARY FROM THE CISTERCIAN ABBEY OF ALCOBAÇA (MS ALC. 66)1
APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF A FOURTEENTH-CENTURY
BREVIARY FROM THE CISTERCIAN ABBEY OF ALCOBAÇA
(MS ALC. 66)
1 Catarina Fernandes B arreira
The monastery of Alcobaça was founded by Clairvaux in 1153
but work on the church and monastic precinct did not begin until 1178.
3 The church was conse-
crated on October 20, 1252 by the bishops of Lisbon and Coimbra,
a date memo- rialized in the calendars of the liturgical manuscripts made in the monastery’s
A bbreviAtions b ArreirA et al., “Through the eyes…” Catarina Fernandes B arreira , Maria João M elo , Rita a raujo and Conceição C asanova , “Through the eyes of Science and Art: a fourteenth century winter Breviary from Alcobaça scriptorium”, Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies. Looking Ahead: New Approaches to Medieval Iberian Heritage, vol. 8:2 (Special Issue 2016), p. 252-282. b Aury Ghislain B aury , “Une Bibliothèque médiévale de moniales cisterciennes en
Castille. Cañas et les membra disjecta de son missel”, Cîteaux – Comm. cist., vol. 61 (2010), p. 141-183.
G omes , “A vida litúrgica…” Saul G oMes , “A vida litúrgica entre os monges de Alcobaça em meados de Quatrocentos: o Regimento dos Sacristães-mores” in Mosteiros Cistercienses. História, Arte, Espiritualidade e Património, ed. José Albuquerque C arreiras , Alcobaça 2013, p. 423-448.
G omes , “Entre memória…” Saul G oMes , “Entre memória e história: os primeiros tempos da Abadia de Santa Maria de Alcobaça (1152-1215)”, Revista de História da Sociedade e da Cultura, 2, (2002), p. 187-256.
L eroquAis Victor l eroquais , Les Bréviaires manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France, vol. 1, Paris 1934. m Aître , Le bréviaire… Claire M aître , Le bréviaire cistercien Troyes, Bibliothèque Municipale, MS 2030, Fribourg 2015. n Ascimento , “Le Scriptorium…” Aires A. n asCiMento , “Le scriptorium d’Alcobaça: identité et corrélations”, Lusitânia Sacra, 2 nd series, vol. 4, (1992), p. 149–162
W AddeLL , Breviary Chrysogonus W addell . The primitive Cistercian Breviary, Fribourg 2007. 1 The manuscript is preserved in the Biblioteca Nacional of Portugal, and this research has been
made possible by the generous support and collaboration of the directors and staff. The study was
funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation through a post-doctoral grant awarded to the author[SFRH/BPD/70067/2010]. 2 Saul G oMes , “Revisitação a um velho tema: a fundação do Mosteiro de Alcobaça” in Cister. Espaços,
Territórios, paisagens, I, Lisbon 2000, p. 27-72, p. 39, and Saul G oMes , “A vida litúrgica…”, p. 431. 3 Artur Nobre de G usMão , A Real Abadia de Alcobaça, Lisbon 1992, p. 22 and 23; Saul G oMes , Visitações a Mosteiros Cistercienses em Portugal. Séculos XV e XVI, Lisbon 1998, p. 11; Saul G oMes , “Entre memória…”, p. 207. 4 n asCiMento , “Le scriptorium..”, p. 161; G oMes , “Revisitação a um velho tema…”, p. 39; G oMes ,
250 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA scriptorium. The scriptorium likely started to produce illuminated manuscripts
during the last quarter of the twelfth century, even before the monks moved into
the monastic facilities that we know today. It remained active until at least the early sixteenth century, the volumes produced (to which printed books were even-
7 tually added) remaining in use throughout the centuries.
Aires A. Nascimento, an expert on the Alcobaça manuscripts, has shown that approximately eighty surviving examples from Alcobaça have been preserved in their original bindings, and they are a type with different characteristics than
8 French bindings. In addition to the characterisation and “identification of a
scriptorium”, Nascimento also confirmed that the guidelines for constituting the Alcobaça library were similar to those followed in other Cistercian abbeys, nota- bly the mother abbey of Clairvaux. But Alcobaça also established strong links with
10 its local context, especially through liturgical practice.
As was stipulated in early Cistercian legislation, a new abbot was not to be sent to a new place without at least twelve monks or without a psalter, hymnal, collect-
ary, antiphonary, gradual, Rule and missal. According to Aires A. Nascimento, the first manuscripts presumably provided for Alcobaça by Clairvaux have disappeared, making it impossible to confirm their origins. However, there is no doubt that such
manuscripts were furnished in later periods. By comparing the palaeography of the Alcobaça manuscripts with Cistercian examples now in Troyes, Manuel Pedro
13 Ferreira believes that they were modelled after Clairvaux manuscripts. 5 arreira Catarina Fernandes B , “Abordagem histórico-artística a dois manuscritos litúrgicos do
scriptorium do Mosteiro de Alcobaça do último quartel do século XII ou o início de “huma livrariacopiosa”, Revista de História da Sociedade e da Cultura, vol. 2, Coimbra 2017, p. 33-62. 6 onzález
Ana Suárez G , “El libro en los claustros cistercienses (una aproximación c. 1140-1240)”,
El Monacato en los Reinos de Léon y Castilla (siglos VII-XIII), León 2007, p. 264-325, p. 270. 7 iurGeviCh eitão Luana G and Henrique l , Clavis Bibliothecarum: Catálogos e Inventários de Livrarias de Instituições Religiosas em Portugal até 1834, Lisbon 2015. 8 Bibliography on this subject is extensive. References will be limited to the works mentioned in asCiMento
this article: Aires A. n , Inventário dos Códices Alcobacenses, vol. 4 (“Índices”) Lisbon
1978; Idem., “Em busca dos códices alcobacenses perdidos”, Didaskália 9 (1979), p. 279-288; AiresasCiMento ioGo
A. n and António d , Encadernação Portuguesa Medieval. Alcobaça, Lisbon 1984;asCiMento
Aires A. n , “A experiência do livro no primitivo meio alcobacense”, Atas do IX CentenárioasCiMento
do Nascimento de S. Bernardo, Braga 1991, p. 121-145; Aires A. n , “Legendarium Alcoba-asCiMento
cense”, Nos Confins da Idade Média Lisbon 1992, p. 149-150; Aires A. n , “Le scriptoriumnd asCiMento
d’Alcobaça: identité et corrélations”, Lusitania Sacra, 2 series, vol. 4 (1992); Aires A. n ,
“Reliure médiévale du Fons Alcobaça dans la Bibliothèque Nationale de Lisbonne”, Ler contra otempo. Condições dos textos na cultura portuguesa, Lisbon 2012, p. 237-248. 9 asCiMento 10 Translated from n , “Le scriptorium …”, p. 155. asCiMento aMroziak n , “Le scriptorium…”, p. 156 and 162. See also Emilia j , “ Centres and ruun peripheries” in The Cistercian Order, ed. Mette Birkedal B , Cambridge 2013, p. 65-79, p. 75. 11 Non mittendum esse abbatem novum in locum novellum sine monachis ad minus duodecim, nec
sine libris istis: psalterio, hymnario, collectaneo, antiphonario, gradali, Regula, missali… in Narrativeaddell
and Legislative Texts from early Cîteaux, ed., Chrysogonus W , Cîteaux – Studia et Documenta9, Brecht 1999, p. 408. 12 asCiMento 13 n , “A experiência do livro no primitivo meio alcobacense” (see n. 8), p. 123. erreira raújo Manuel Pedro F and Mara Fortu a , “Recitação do texto sacro: Claraval e Alcobaça”
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 251 Alcobaça’s library is an excellent case study because—in comparison with other
Cistercian libraries, especially in France—a large number of manuscripts have
come down to us. Despite some losses (the eighteenth-century inventories, espe- cially the Index codicum Bibliothecae Alcobatiae made in 1775 by the monk Fran-
cisco de Sá, counted 476 manuscripts; the current number is 467 ), this abbey library is one of the most impressive to have survived. Nevertheless, work contin- ues: the 467 codices were mostly produced in the abbey’s scriptorium, others were
acquired, while still others were produced in different scriptoria. Some of the manuscripts came to the library when monks from Alcobaça went to the College
18 of Saint Bernard in Paris to study theology.
It is also important to remember that—as with Clairvaux and other libraries— some liturgical manuscripts were eventually used as binding material. Once studied and dated, the fragments used in the bindings of the Alcobaça codices will certainly tell a more detailed story of the library and the production of its scriptorium.
i. t he A LcobAcense 66 mAnuscript
Liturgical manuscripts are the most “dynamic” and interesting manuscripts in a monastic library because they testify to the evolution of liturgy, the important rela- tionship between liturgy and the community of monks who used the manuscripts 14 oudéelle ouChier
Anne B -s , Bibliothéques cisterciennes dans la France médiéval. Repertoire des abbayes d’hommes, Paris 1991. 15 á Francisco de s , Index codicum Bibliothecae Alcobatiae, in quo non tantum códices recensentur,
sed etiam quot tractatus, epistolas, &c. singuli codices contineant, exponitur, aliaque animadvertunturnotatu digna. Olisipone. Lisbon, ex Typographia Regia, 1775. 16 The inventory made in 1930 by the National Library counted a total of 456 codices. Eight manu-
scripts from Alcobaça then kept in the Torre do Tombo were added to the National Library in theth
1990s. Over 350 of these surviving manuscripts date from the second half of the 12 century up to theth asCiMento
end of the 15 (n , “Em busca dos codices…” (see n. 8), p. 205-206). Two manuscripts, BNPasCiMento
Alc. 64 and BNP Alc. 132, disappeared from the National Library in the 1940s (n , “EmraGança
busca dos codices…”, p. 208). Joaquim Oliveira B has added a Processional to this list, the
BNP COD. 6207 (Processional – Tropário de Alcobaça: Manuscrito 6207 da Biblioteca Nacional de
Lisboa, Lisbon 1984). From the Alcobaça scriptorium there is also a Collectary, Ms. 893, in the Biblio-oMes erreira teca Geral da Universidade de Coimbra (G , “A vida litúrgica…”, p. 430). Manuel Pedro F
has added one more, an Antiphonary BNP Il. 115 (“Breves notas sobre o Iluminado 115” in Luz, cor earreira
ouro. Estudos sobre manuscritos iluminados, ed. Catarina Fernandes B , Lisbon 2016, p. 319-
326). Two more manuscripts have recently been identified: one in the National Library of Australiaarreira
(Catarina Fernandes B , “Questões em torno dos Ordinários do Oficio Divino de Alcobaça”, inernandes
Imagens e Liturgia na Idade Média, vol. 4, ed. Carla Varela F , Lisbon 2015, p. 131-152);êpas arreira
another in the parish of Salzedas (Luís Miguel r and Catarina Fernandes B , “Place and
Liturgy in an Illuminated Ritual from Santa Maria de Alcobaça”, in Imagens e Liturgia na Idadeernandes arreira
Média, vol. 5, ed. Carla Varela F , Lisbon 2016, p. 211-236, and Catarina Fernandes B êpas
and Luís Miguel r , “Um Ritual de Alcobaça em Salzedas”, Invenire. Revista dos Bens Culturaisda Igreja, vol. 12 (2016), p. 28-35). 17 arreira
Catarina Fernandes B , “Manuscritos universitários para o estudo da Teologia na livraria nd
do Mosteiro de Alcobaça” in Lusitânia Sacra: Mobilidades medievais. Lisbon, 2 series, vol. 33(January–June 2016), p. 99-128. 18 arreira Bert
252 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA through the centuries, and finally, the relationship between manuscripts and monks
within the convent. It is common for Alcobaça liturgical manuscripts to feature additions, especially additional feasts.
The Breviary was a book used to celebrate the liturgy of the Hours, and although I refer to manuscript Alcobacense 66 (Alc. 66) as a Breviary in the title of this paper, the designation is not in fact correct. This type of manuscript cannot be a Breviary because the manuscript contains only the offices of matins and lauds; so it corresponds to a portion of a Breviary only, one that is usually called a Matinal.
With respect to their internal structure, the Alcobaça liturgical manuscripts— and breviaries in particular—frequently include the following sections: Calendar, Psalter, Temporal, Sanctoral and Common of Saints. The manuscripts usually have additions inserted before the calendar and after the Common of Saints. Not only are these additions significant because they help to date the manuscripts, but they also attest to the community’s concern with liturgical unanimity over the centu-
Usually at the start of the most important sections (Psalter, Temporal and Sanc- toral), and the more significant feast days within those sections, an historiated, decorated or puzzle filigree initial is shown. Alcobacense 66 displays this last type of illuminated decoration, but it also contains two interesting narratives in the mar- gin that will be analysed.
1. Codicological description
The Matinal Alc. 66 is 190 × 134 mm in size and contains a total of 443 folios
organised into 39 quires, most of them containing six bifolios. Of the two parch- ment flyleaves, the second contains a handwritten description of the manuscript:
(Cod. 183) Breviarium secundum antiquum ritum cisterciensem. This note is likely
contemporary with the current binding and exhibits the symbol of the Alcobaça library—common to almost all the manuscripts—that was stamped on the manu- scripts in the seventeenth or eighteenth century. 19 êpas arreira ell
r and B , “Place and Liturgy…” (see n. 16), p. 211-236. See also Nicolas B , ruun “Liturgy” in The Cistercian Order, ed. Mette Birkedal B , Cambridge 2013, p. 258-268. 20 arreira Catarina Fernandes B , “Questões em torno da unanimidade litúrgica no Mosteiro de
Alcobaça – séculos XIII a XV”, Revista de História da Sociedade e da Cultura, vol. 16, Coimbra 2016,alMaGne
p. 33-54. See also Thomas F , «Le réseau des bibliothèques cisterciennes» in Unanimité et
diversité cisterciennes. Filiations - Réseaux - Relectures du XII au XVII siècle, Saint-Étienne 2000,p. 195-222. 21 Quires: i//10; ii//7, iii-vii//12, viii//11, xix-xxv//12, xxvi//10, xxvii//12, xxviii//11, xxix//10, xxx- xxxiv//12, xxxv//9, xxxvi//12, xxxvii//7, xxxviii//12, xxxix//10. 22 iterBo Sousa v (“Calígrafos e iluminadores portugueses”, Coimbra 1916, p. 408) questioned
whether the monk-author of the 1775 Index was also responsible for the sheets of paper identifying and
describing of the books. See also Aires A. n , “Percursos do livro na História da Cultura
Portuguesa Medieval”, in Ler contra o tempo. Condições dos textos na cultura portuguesa, Lisbon
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 253 The binding of the codex possibly dates from the fifteenth century or the begin- ning of the sixteenth. The leather binding covering the wooden boards is decorated with blind tooling motifs and has two (broken) leather clasps. (Fig. 1) Leather cords with fragments of parchment attached are visible on the inside of the boards. These were probably added in the seventeenth or the eighteenth century, an hypothesis reinforced by the existence of a silk headband in red and yellow, as well as parchment tabs cut out of thirteenth-century pages of an earlier manuscript. (Fig. 2)
The following major sections of the manuscript will be analysed in detail:
- – Additions (fol. 1 to fol. 11v, corresponding to the first quire);
- – Calendar (fol. 12 to fol. 17v, corresponding to the second quire);
- – Temporal (fol. 18 to fol. 219v);
- – Sanctoral (fol. 220 to fol. 336v);
- – Common of saints (fol. 337 to fol. 365v);
- – Hymns (fol. 366 to fol. 384);
- – Rituals (fol. 384 to fol. 400);
- – Additions and a Chronicon (fol. 401 to fol. 443, corresponding roughly to the last four quires).
2. Liturgical analysis
The manuscript begins with additions in different hands: Collects (fol. 2v), the Office of the Dedication of the Church, with the colophon Obsecro vos qui hic
legitis ut frater Egidius memineritis deo ago gratias (fol. 9) that corresponds to
this specific Office (fol. 3 to 9). This addition finishes with a hymn, Christe, cunc-
th thFig. 1. Matinal Alc. 66: Binding, 15 / beginning of 16
c., BNP, Lisbon. (photo: author)
254 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA
Fig. 2. Matinal Alc. 66: Inside front cover board showing leader cords and parchmentfragments recycled in the post-medieval binding, BNP Lisbon. (photo: author)
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 255
torum dominator alme, sung in vespers in the Office of the Dedication of the
church (fol. 9v-10), followed by Collects (fol. 11-11v). The liturgy in this addi- tion, corresponding to the first quire, is heterogeneous and written in various hands; it includes the Collects, the Office, and the Hymn. These Collects include twelve lessons: Collect for the Mass for Saint Blaise, Saint Nicholas, Saint Vincent, and Saint Thomas; Saint Francis, from 1228 (the commemoration of the saint) and 1259 (celebrated with an office of twelve lessons); and collects for Saint Catherine, from 1207 (commemoration) and 1214 (twelve lessons).
For the Cistercian celebration of the Divine Office during Sundays and Feasts, the Office of Matins was divided into three nocturnes, each including four read-
ings, a total of twelve lessons. In the Calendar these feasts are mentioned as:
XII Lc. Concerning the commemorations (or cõ/comm.), “[they were] a pious
subterfuge to provide for saints who could not be reasonably be assigned a twelve- lesson Office without wreaking havoc with the structure of the liturgical year by
multiplying beyond all due measure the number of twelve-lessons Offices.” The calendar of this manuscript (Table 1) as it appears in in the second quire raises some dating problems, especially when compared with the Sanctoral.
An analysis of the feasts in Table 1 suggests that the Alc. 66 Calendar dates between 1348 (Saint Ivonis conf.) and 1356 (when the feast of Conceptio Marie was added).
Regarding the palette used, the feasts are written in three colors: red, blue and black. The choice is hierarchical and differs from twelfth-century Calendars, for only in the mid-thirteenth century was hierarchical organization through color
developed. It is not known when this began to be applied to Alcobaça Calendars, but it appears in the Matinal: black for the commemoratio, red and blue for the twelve-lesson feasts.
It is important to note that the Dedicatio ecclesie was signed on October 20—
the date of the consecration of Alcobaça’s church —and the Dedicatio ecclesie of Cîteaux was added to the calendar on October 17, by a later hand. (Fig. 3)
23 addell 24 W , Breviary, p. 637. addell Statutes from the Twelfth-Century Cistercian General Chapter, ed. Chrysogonus W , aître
(Cîteaux–Comm. cist. Studia et Documenta 12), Brecht 2002, p. 33; M , Le bréviaire, p. 25. SeeollaMore
also Lila C , “Prelude. Charting the Divine Office” in The Divine Office in the Latin Middleassler altzer Ages, ed. Margot E. F and Rebecca A. B , New York 2000, p. 3-11, p. 6. 25 addell 26 W , Breviary, p. 61. eBiGue Jean-Baptiste l , “Rits et couleurs. Acronymie et chromonomie des calendriers liturgiques
au Moyen Age”, in Le manuscrit enluminé. Études réunies en hommage à Patricia Stirnemann, ed.aBel Claudia r , Paris 2014, p. 39-73, p. 60. 27 asCiMento oMes n , “Le scriptorium…”, p. 161; G , “Revisitação a um velho tema…” (see n. 2), oMes
256 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA The Temporal (or Proper of Time) begins in the third quire, and extends from the first Sunday in Advent to the twenty-fifth Sunday after Pentecost (fol. 219v).
29 Following the Office of Dominica prima de Sancta Trinitate (fol. 159), the Tem-
poral does not show the Feast of Corpus Christi. Rather, it continues with the Dominica II post Pentecost; the celebration of Corpus Christi having gone through a complex process initiated by Pope Urban IV in 1264 with the Bull Transiturus
de hoc mundo. As Urban IV died within the year, copies of that Bull were neversent and only a small number circulated.
30 It was not until 1317 that the pope 28 According to l eroquais , p. 97-99, and M
aître, Le bréviaire, p. 17. 29 Catarina Fernandes B arreira , “A Festa do Corpus Christi no Mosteiro de Alcobaça nos séculos
XIV e XV”, in Equipamentos Monásticos e Prática Espiritual, ed. Maria de Lurdes C raveiro , Carla Alexandra G onçalves and Joana a ntunes , Lisbon 2017, nº 7, p. 83-103. 30 uBin Liturgical feast General chapter 28 Alc. 66 Calendar
January 10 Willelme epi. 1218 XII Lc 1294 Proper/specific Office Yes January 17 Antonii abb. 1260 XII Lc Yes
February 1 Vigilia Ypapanti Domini 1294 XII Lc No March 7 Thome conf. 1329 XII Lc Yes April 29 Hugonis conf. 1320/1 (comm.) Yes May 8 Petri episc. conf. 1294 (2 masses) Yes May 19 Ivonis conf. 1348 XII lc Yes July 11 Translatio Benedicti abb. 1291 Yes July 26 Anne matris 1366 (comm.) 1375 XII Lc
Yes – added August 11 Corona domini 1292 Yes
August 25 Ludovici conf. 1298 XII Lc Yes – addedAugust 27 8º Bernardi 1295 XII Lc Yes
September 7 Vigilia Nativi. Marie 1292 Yes – addedSeptember 15 8ª Nativi. Marie 1245 Yes October 4 Francisci conf. 1259 XII Lc Yes October 2 Undecim milium virg. 1260 XII Lc Yes November 1 Edmundi episc. 1247 (2 masses) 1294 Proper/specific Office
December 8 Conceptio Marie 1356 Yes – added
Table 1. Comparison of selected commemoration dates in Cistercian and Alc. 66
Calendars. The two first columns show the saint’s name and commemoration date; the
third, the date when the feast entered the Cistercian calendar; the last, its presence (or not) in the Alc. 66 Calendar. ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 257
Fig 3. Matinal Alc. 66, fol. 16 : Calendar, month of October (the Dedicatio ecclesieth th th at 20 ), end of 13 / beginning of 14
c., BNP, Lisbon. (photo: author)
258 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA approved this feast, and in September 1318 that the Cistercian General Chapter authorized it. The Proper of Time must therefore either have been copied before 1318, or copied from an older manuscript that was not updated with this feast.
It was common for each of the twelve-lesson feasts in the calendar of the Proper of Saints to have a corresponding office in the Sanctoral (Table 2). When comparing the Calendar and the offices in the Proper of Saints as in
Table 2, the following can be highlighted: this Sanctoral would appear to date from between 1268 (the year in which the feast of Saint Julian, bishop and confes- sor, was transferred to January 29) and 1291 (because the Sanctoral did not include the feast of the Translation of Saint Benedict first). Nevertheless, there are some inconsistencies in this manuscript. The absence in the Sanctoral of the following offices cannot be explained: the Vigil of the Purification of the Virgin; Saint Peter, bishop and confessor (introduced in Cistercian calendar in 1196); the octave of the Nativity of the Virgin (authorised in 1245); and absence of the Office of Saint Francis (introduced in 1259).
The presence of the Office Corona domini also raises questions. One hypothesis is that the core of the manuscript (the Temporal and the Sanctoral) was copied between 1268 and 1291, a dating that would explain the absence in the Temporal
of the Office of Corpus Christi. Another is that the core of the manuscript repro- duces a model in use around 1240/1245. The second theory would justify the inclusion of the Office of Corona domini, a feast introduced in the Cistercian cal- endar in 1241, but only in a French context. It would seem that the Alcobaça scribe copied the Office, perhaps from a French manuscript borrowed when the abbot attended the General Chapter around that date?
Another problem arises when comparing Calendar and Sanctoral: the discrep- ancy between the chronologies is significant: 1348-1356 and 1268-1391 respec- tively. Was the Calendar, which is displayed in an independent quire, a later addi-
tion ? An element specific to Alcobaça’s liturgical manuscripts from the second half of the thirteenth century must be highlighted: the presence of the Office of Saint
Blaise in the Calendar on February 3, and also in the additional collects and hymns. The feast was added to older manuscripts such as Alc. 166, Alc. 163, Alc. 249,
33 Alc. 258, Alc. 8, Alc. 26, Alc. 189, among others. This saint is not common
in French manuscripts, but Alcobaça had a relic of Saint Blaise. Information documenting local devotion may be found in Alc. 64, called Regimento dos
34 Sacristães-mores, from the first half of the fifteenth century. 31 arreira B , “A Festa do Corpus Christi…” (see n. 29), where I have examined the celebration of this feast and the origins of the office of twelve lessons at Alcobaça. 32 arreira As occurred in another manuscript; B , “Abordagem histórico-artística a dois manuscritos litúrgicos…” (see n. 5). 33 arreira Catarina Fernandes B , “A iluminura portuguesa no século XV e o missal alcobacense
Liturgical feast General chapter 35 Alc. 66 Calendar Alc. 66 Sanctoral
January 10 th Willelme epi. 1218 XII Lc 1294 Proper/
specific OfficeYes Quere omnia in unius confessoris pontificis
January 17 th
Antonii abb. 1260 XII Lc Yes YesJanuary 29 th Juliani epi. Conf. 1267 XII Lc, celebrated on January 28 th
1268 moved toJanuary 29 th Yes Yes (January)
February 1 st Vigilia Ypapanti Domini
1294 XII Lc No No March 7 th
Thome conf. 1329 XII Lc Yes NoApril/March Roberti abb 1224 (feast transferred to March 29
th) Yes, April 29 th Quando cum iiij kalendas maij celebratur ad vesperas scilicet in medio et in chori
April 29 th
Hugonis conf. 1320/1 (comm.) Yes NoMay 6 th Iohannis ante portam latinam
1246 Yes Yes May 8 th Petri episc. conf. 1196
1294 (2 masses)Yes No May 19 th Ivonis conf. 1348 XII lc Yes No – added July 11 th Translatio Benedicti abb.
1291 Yes No – added July 26 th Anne matris 1366 (comm.) 1375 XII Lc Yes–added No August 11 th Corona domini 1241 in a French context
1292 for all theabbeys Yes Yes August 25 th Ludovici conf. 1298 XII Lc Yes–added No – added August 27 th 8º Bernardi 1295 XII Lc Yes No – added September 7 th
Vigilia Nativi. Marie 1292 Yes–added NoSeptember 15 th 8ª Nativi. Marie 1245 Yes No – added September 17 th
Lamberti epi. 1246 XII Lc Yes YesOctober 4 th
Francisci conf. 1259 XII Lc Yes NoOctober 21 th Undecim milium virg.
1260 XII Lc Yes Yes November 5 th Malachie epi. 1191 XII Lc 1274 Saint
Bernard SermonYes Unius confessoris pontificis
November 16 th Edmundi episc. 1247 (2 masses) 1294 Proper/
specific OfficeYes Do as for sancto
Nicholau December 8 th
Conceptio Marie 1356 Yes–added No
Table 2. Comparison of Cistercian twelve-lesson feasts in the Proper of Saints and theSanctoral of Alc. 66.
260 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA Following the Proper of Saints (its illuminated decoration will be discussed below), are the Common of Saints, the Hymns (with the Hymns of Saint Blaise and also Saint Bernard), and the Canticles.
From fol. 384 to fol. 398 the manuscript features two Cistercian Rituals, namely
ordines: the first is a sacrament for anointing the sick, or Ordo ad inungendum
infirmum, along with its corresponding Litany, and the second is an ordo for
deceased monks, the Ordo ad inhumandum fratrem mortuum. Both were common
in Cistercian liturgy and are included in the Breviairies from Alcobaça. The
Ordines in the Alcobaça manuscripts seem to proceed from the so-called model-
manuscript of Cîteaux, Dijon BM MS 114, and are present in one of the oldest
37 manuscripts in Alcobaça, a Collectary dating between 1185 and 1191.
Let us concentrate on the sacrament of anointing the sick, in particular the Litany of Saints. Introducing a new saint in the Litany required—in theory—com- memoration with a feast of twelve lessons, which sometimes also implied two masses. But this was not always the case: Saint Bernard was celebrated with twelve lessons and two masses in 1175, a quarter-century before he was included
in the litanies (1200). In this Litany we find the same inconsistencies appearing in the Calendar and Sanctoral. The Litany included Saint Robert—meaning that it was updated after 1254—but not Saint Catherine (the information was added in the margins), who was added to the Cistercian calendar in 1214. Saint William, integrated into the litany after 1261, was added in the margins along with Peter (1261), Edmund and Malachi. This can only be explained if this Litany was copied from an older manuscript, updating Saint Robert but excluding Saint Catherine for
unknown reasons. (Fig. 4) After the two Ordines come the exorcism of the salt and the blessing of the water, and on fol. 400 a colophon concerning the core of the manuscript: Frater
Johannes, me scripsit Obsecro vos qui me legeritis ut fratris Johannis memineritis.
[Brother João has written me. I beseech you, readers that you read me in his
memory.] (Fig. 5). The last folios of the thirty-fifth quire, written later by another
hand or hands, include some collects, notes about Saint Bernard as the first abbot of Clairvaux, and a hymn with musical notation that its repeated on fol. 434v
40 ( Bernardus inclitus). 36 êpas arreira arreira r and B , “Place and Liturgy…” (see n. 16), p. 216; B et al., “Through the eyes…”, p. 258. 37 arreira 38 B , “Abordagem histórico-artística…” (see n. 5). erreira Manuel Pedro F , “Dating a Fragment: A Cistercian Litany and its Historical Context,” in CappatiCCi
‘Quod ore cantas corde credas’: Studi in onore di Giacomo Baroffio Dahnk, ed. Leandra s ,Rome 2013, p. 293-313, p. 297. 39 ell aury 40 B , “Liturgy…” (see n. 19), p. 264, and B , p. 164. raújo Mara Fortu de a , “The Medieval Musical Manuscripts of the Cistercian Order in Portugal”, th
in Cantus planus: papers read at the 15 meeting of the IMS study group, Dobogókö/Hungary,aGGh aCoste
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 261
th th Fig. 4. Matinal Alc. 66, fol. 387: Litany of Saints, end of 13 / beginning of 14
c., BNP, Lisbon. (photo: author)
262 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA
th th Fig. 5. Matinal Alc. 66, fol. 400: Detail of the colophon, end of 13 / beginning of 14
c., BNP, Lisbon. (photo: author)
The additions to the core of the manuscript begin in the thirty-sixth quire, fol. 403, listing several feasts that are important in dating this part of the manuscript: In
vigilia sollempnitatis sacramenti altaris and In sollempnitate Corpore Christi were
both promulgated by the General Chapter in 1318. Thus, considering the absences and these additions, either the Proper of Time and the Sanctoral were both copied between 1268 and 1291 (the Calendar being a later addition), or the Proper of Time and the Sanctoral were copied between the end of the thirteenth century and 1318 from an older manuscript that had not been updated.
Both hypotheses are coherent with the data. Nevertheless, another manuscript,
42 Alc. 54, a winter Breviary recently studied by an interdisciplinary team, is also
difficult to date:
“Taking the Sanctoral into account, we can highlight an inconsistency when ana- lysing the offices: the presence of the abbot Antonii authorized by the General Chapter in 1260 and the absence of the vigil of the Purification of the Virgin and its octave, authorized by the General Chapter in 1294, lead us to suggest that this Breviary was copied between 1260 and 1294. But the Sanctoral has the Office of Saint Gregory, authorized by the General Chapter in 1300. One hypothesis to explain this is that the core of this manuscript, copied around 1300, reproduces an
4341 anivez older manuscript, in use after 1260.” 42 C , Statuta, vol. 3, p. 338. arreira 43 B et al., “Through the eyes …”, p. 252-282.
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 263 The problem is that one of the oldest manuscripts from Alcobaça—the Collect-
ary Alc. 166, copied between 1185 and 1191—already included Saint Gregory, meaning that I misunderstood the orientation of the General Chapter which, in 1300, authorised the celebration of Saint Gregory with two masses. In fact, the saint was already celebrated, but with just one mass and twelve lessons. We must therefore conclude that, like Alc. 54, Alc. 66 was copied from an older manuscript and dates from the beginning of the fourteenth century.
In the beginning of the thirty-eighth quire (fol. 422) another group of additions consists of blessings, an Office with musical notation, and further collects and
45 hymns (the hymn Bernardus inclitus is repeated ).
46 The manuscript concludes with an important addition, a Chronicon concerning
the first Portuguese kings, from Afonso Henriques to Afonso IV, highlighting their dates of birth, consorts, and places of burial. Alcobaça was a royal mausoleum; the monks refer to the monastery in 1331 as “a noble chamber of kings” (“estremada
camara dos Reis”). The kings who were buried at Alcobaça when the Chronicon was written were Afonso II, his wife, queen Urraca, and Afonso III with his wife,
48 Beatriz. The Chronicon also tells us that “Sancho II died in 1248 after having left
the kingdom and was buried in Toledo,” but his will “has reached us in good
50 condition because the monks of Alcobaça kept it among the royal documents”.
For the monks, the preservation of the king’s memory, as well as attempts to reclaim his body (from Toledo) in the years following his death, had symbolic
value. And surely to the monastic community—the Chronicon’s author in par- ticular—it did not go unnoticed that in their first will King Dinis and his wife had
originally chosen Alcobaça as their mausoleum. Eventually, that king and queen found different locations for their tombs: Dinis at Odivelas, a Cistercian monastery 44 arreira 45 B , “Abordagem histórico-artística…” (see n. 5). raújo 46 a , “The Medieval Musical Manuscripts…” (see n. 40), p. 241. erCulano Transcribed by Alexandre h . Portugaliae monumenta historica: a saeculo octavo post
Christum usque ad quintumdecimum… / iussu Academiae Scientiarum Olisiponensis edita. Portugalouveia
Academia das Ciências, vol. 1 (1856), p. 21-22. See also Mário G , “O essencial sobre a analís-
tica monástica portucalense (séculos XI – XII) in Lusitânia Sacra 25 (January–June 2012), p. 183-226,oMes p. 193; G , “Entre memória…”, p. 191. 47 oMes Saul G , “O Mosteiro de Alcobaça em tempos de crise e de contestação”, in Cister: por entre
História e Imaginário. IX Encontro Cultural – S. Cristóvão de Lafões, ed. Maria Alegria Fernandesarques ssWald M and Helena o , São Cristóvão de Lafões 2014, p. 51. 48 Rex Alfonsus (…) sepultus est alcobacie cum uxore sua domna Urraca (…) Iste rex alfonsus iacet alcobacie cum uxore sua (fol. 438v and fol. 439). 49 or Post mortem dicti regis alfonsi regnavit Sanchius filius eius XXIIII. annis et exiit a regno et iacet Toleto (fol. 439). 50 ernandes 51 Hermenegildo F , D. Sancho II, Lisbon 2006, p. 17. dem , 52 I p. 17 and 18. ossi airo Giulia r v , “Da Abadia de Santa Maria de Alcobaça ao Real Mosteiro de São Dinis e
São Bernardo de Odivelas: o projecto monumental dos reis D. Dinis e D. Isabel para o novo panteãoarreiras
régio” in Mosteiros cistercienses – Passado, Presente e Futuro, ed. José Albuquerque C ,ossi airo
Alcobaça 2013, p. 255; Giulia r v “D. Dinis del portogallo e Isabel d’Aragona in vita e in
morte. Creazione e trasmissione della memoria nel contesto storico e artistico europeo, Doctoral
264 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA
he had founded, his wife in a Franciscan convent in Coimbra. The Chronicon finishes with an episode dated to Era M CCC LXXXX III (i.e., 1355), when king Afonso IV went to Coimbra to kill Inês de Castro.
The Chronicon lauded nearly all the kings, especially King Dinis, but not Afonso IV, who was not much appreciated mainly because of offenses to the
monks perpetrated by royal delegates in the 1330s. Alcobaça was also praised as a royal mausoleum in another two manuscripts from the abbey’s scriptorium:
55 Alc. 62, an Ordinary of the Divine Office copied in 1475, and a manuscript from
the late fifteenth/early sixteenth century, the Salzedas Ritual, recently discovered in the Cistercian monastery of Salzedas but which was copied in the scriptorium
56 of Alcobaça and intended for use at Alcobaça.
In his book Descrição do Real Mosteiro de Alcobaça, Manoel dos Santos (1672–1740), a professed monk at Alcobaça, mentions Alc. 66 while highlighting the Chronicon: “At the end of a breviary [there is] a chronology of the kings of Portugal up to Afonso IV; at which point [it is said] that this king murdered Inês de Castro on the seventh of January in the era of 1396, or ’93 because the last
character is worn and could be read either way”. The so-called Breviary Alc. 66
is mentioned in the cited Index to manuscripts made in 1775 by Francisco de Sá, but without any special reference to the Chronicon or its illuminated decoration.
ii. i LLuminAted d ecorAtion
In addition to the intricacies of dating manuscripts through liturgy, we might also ask whether illuminated decoration can help to place this manuscript more accurately in time. It should first be said that narrative illuminations with figures are unusual in Alcobaça manuscripts; more common are foliate initials or color initials with filigree. Two figurative illuminations from Alc. 66 are therefore worth special attention. 53
“Dinis sepultus est in Monasterio quod ipse fecit quod dicitur odiuelas. Regina sancta (…) sepulta est colimbrie in Monasterio sancte clare quod ipsa construxit” (fol. 440v). 54 ousa oMes Bernardo Vasconcelos e s , D. Afonso IV, Lisbon 2005, p. 125; G , “O Mosteiro de Alcobaça em tempos de crise e de contestação…” (see n. 47), p. 53-54. 55 arreira arreira B , “Questões em torno dos Ordinários…” (see n. 16), p. 131-152; Catarina Fernandes
B , “Ficha de catálogo do nº 8 - Ordinário do Ofício Divino da Ordem de Cister e Ars Manualis
Alc. 62”, in O livro e a Iluminura judaica em Portugal no final da Idade Média, ed. Luís UrbanoFonso iranda arreira
a and Adelaide M , Lisbon 2015, p. 125-126; Catarina Fernandes B , “O quoti-
diano dos monges alcobacenses em dois manuscritos do século XV: o Ordinário do Ofício Divino Alc.
62 e o Livro de Usos Alc. 208”, Cadernos de Estudos Leirienses, vol. 11, December 2016, p. 329-341.56 êpas arreira 57 r and B , “Place and Liturgy…” (see n. 16), p. 166.
“No fim de hum Breviario a chronologia dos Reys de Portugal até D. Affonso 4; e ahi, que
este Rey matou D. Ignes de Castro aos sete do mês de Janeiro da era de 1396, ou 93, porque a ultimaantos
letra de velha se pode ler por ambos os modos” (Manuel dos s , Descrição do Real Mosteiro deAlcobaça, Alcobaça 1979, p. 65). 58 á
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 265
1. St. Stephen
59 Almost all liturgical manuscripts from Alcobaça —and this Matinal is no differ-
ent—begin their Sanctoral with Saint Stephen, commemorated on December 26, a Cistercian characteristic found in a significant number of manuscripts made in
other scriptoria. In it neither the saint nor the date coincide with Advent, since Advent starts between the end of November and the beginning of December, and the most important saint of that period is Andrew. Commenting on an Epistolary from Périgueux, Yolanda Zaluska and Marie-Françoise Damongeot mentioned that beginning the Sanctoral with St. Stephen indicated that the manuscript belonged to a group in which the Temporal and Sanctoral were “radically” sepa- rated, the three festivities of the Christmas liturgy being set apart in seemingly
62 arbitrary fashion.
Later narratives of Stephen’s martyrdom—a key inspiration for the saint’s ico- nography—were inspired mainly by the Bible. Stephen was one of the seven dea- cons “full of faith and the Holy Spirit” whom the apostles recruited for their mis- sion of spreading the word of God. After performing miracles among the people, Stephen was betrayed and presented before a tribunal, where he had a vision that transformed him so that “his face looked like an angel” (Acts 6:15); his sentence
63 was to be expelled from the city and put to death by stoning.
In another two manuscripts copied in the scriptorium of Alcobaça that our team has studied, the Winter Breviary Alc. 54, and the Missal Alc. 26 (made not long after 1318 as it contains the mass of Corpus Christi), the Sanctoral opens with Saint Stephen. In Alc. 54, Stephen is represented within the initial h; he is dressed as deacon with blood running down his head and a book in his left hand, while his
right hand clasps a stone. (Fig. 6) In Alc. 26, the saint is depicted in the context 59 arreira
I focus on this problem in B et al., “Through the eyes…”, p. 260; see also Catarina arreira
Fernandes B , “ O martírio de Santo Estevão em três manuscritos iluminados da abadia cister-
ciense de Alcobaça”, Anuario de Estudios Medievales, vol. 46/2, July-December 2016, p. 617-649,arreira p. 622; and B , “Questões em torno da unanimidade litúrgica…” (see n. 20), p. 42-43. 60 ell 61 B , “Liturgy…” (see n. 19), p. 260. aury B , p. 160. The Primitive Cistercian Breviary, a breviary of the Cistercian liturgy before the addell
Bernardine reform (W , Breviary…), the so-called model-manuscript Dijon BM MS 114, andaître
the Clairvaux Breviary (M , Le bréviaire…), have in common the fact that the Sanctoral beginswith Saint Stephen, as do almost all the manuscripts from Clairvaux. 62 “Le début du sanctoral à saint Etienne (26 décembre) indique que le manuscrit appartient à un
groupe de manuscrits qui séparent le temporal du sanctoral ‘de façon radicale’, autrement dit, en déta-
chant d’une manière qui semble arbitraire, les trois festivités que font liturgiquement partie du ‘bloc’ dealuska aMonGeot
Noel”. Yolanta z and Marie-Françoise d , “Analyse liturgique du Lectionnaire de la
messe (mss 177, fragment 1, et 154) et de l’Epistolier (ms 156) conservés aux Archives départemen-
tales de la Dordogne”, Manuscrits de Cadouin: Actes du colloque de Périgueux, Périgueux 2015,p. 98-149, p. 108. 63 oullet For Saint Stephen, see Hervé r , Saint Étienne. Premier diacre et premier martyr, Paris iMões
2006, and André s . Santos e Milagres na Idade Média em Portugal. Santo Estevão, Lisbon 2015.64 The use of silver (instead of gold leaf) explains the degraded look of the illumination; under arreira
a microscope the stone appears, painted in pale yellow (B et al., “Through the eyes…”, p. 252-
266 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA
Fig. 6. Winter Breviary Alc. 54, fol. 198: Detail of initialth th H with Saint Stephen, end of 13 / beginning of 14 c.,
BNP, Lisbon. (photo: author) v
Fig. 7. Missal Alc. 26, fol. 171 : Detail of initial E withSaint Stephen, c. 1318. BNP, Lisbon. (photo: author)
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 267 of his martyrdom within the initial E, hands together in prayer, two tormentors
aiming stones at him. (Fig. 7) In the Alc. 66 Matinal, the Office of Saint Stephen is indicated in a colour initial with filigree, but a diligent monk perhaps thought that this was too simple and drew the “story” in the lower margin, making this illumination very different from
the previous one. The narrative begins on the left with a crowned male figure dressed in a red cape and seated on a throne. His right hand holds a sword, while the raised left hand points in exaggerated fashion—a clear representation of author- ity and power. Hovering near his right ear is a small black multi-legged figure with horns and a tail whose presence serves as a conduit, either divine or diabolical. In this case, it represents a devil, negatively influencing a decision or imposing its will on the seated figure. (Fig. 8)
In the middle of the folio margin stands a group of four male figures whose gestures suggest anger and aggression, emphasized by raised arms holding stones. On the right is the tonsured and haloed Stephen, kneeling to face his tormentors.
Fig. 8. Matinal Alc. 66, fol. 219 : Martyrdom of Saint Stephen, end of 13 / beginningth of 14 65 arreira
c., BNP, Lisbon. (photo: author) arreira B , “O martírio de Santo Estevão…” (see n. 59), p. 630; Catarina Fernandes B ,
“Um missal alcobacense dos inícios do séc. XIV (Alc. 26)”, in Medieval Europe in Motion II.
The circulation of artists, images, patterns and ideas from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic Coast,iCCarelli illotta ed. D. C and Maria A. B , Palermo: Officina de Studi Medievali, (in press). 66 arreira
268 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA Who is the figure seated on the throne, replete with kingly attributes, absent from every other illuminated manuscript from the Alcobaça scriptorium, who orders the stoning of Stephen? I propose an explanation based on the Bible as well
as a comparison with illuminated manuscripts of French origin. Saul (the future St. Paul) was present at the stoning, and it was he who approved the death of Ste- phen. To justify Saul’s misconduct, in the Alcobaça Matinal he appears under the
68 influence of a demon whispering in his ear.
2. St. Vincent
Other than that of Stephen, one might ask what feasts in this manuscript were highlighted with this kind of narrative in the margins. We find only the Office of Saint Vincent, martyr and deacon of Saragossa, celebrated on January 22. No other feasts in the Temporal were highlighted in this way, which gives us a clue as to the importance of these two feasts in the Alcobaça liturgy during the first half of the fourteenth century.
Chrysogonus Waddell believed that the Office of Saint Vincent should be in the
69 Common of Saints because a specific office was never developed for him, and
for this reason, the antiphons, hymns and responsories used are the same as in the Common of Saints. In the Primitive Cistercian Breviary, however, his Office is in the Sanctoral and it consists of twelve lessons, a circumstance that Waddell explains through the connections between the Primitive Breviary and its sources,
which are very close to Saint Vincent of Metz. In 1184 the General Chapter authorised the celebration of Vincent with two masses, and in the following year
71 with twelve lessons.
The Alcobaça Matinal must therefore be examined within the context of devo- tion to Vincent: his relics were in Valencia, but Muslim persecution caused their dispersal. Later, in 1173, some relics were translated by boat from Algarve to Lisbon cathedral, leading to the development of an important cult there around the
saint. In fourteenth-century liturgical manuscripts from Alcobaça, Vincent always appears in the Sanctoral. The Office consists of only eight lessons (instead of the 67 Namely the following manuscripts, using the database Enluminures: a Cistercian Breviary from th th
the abbey of Bellevaux (Bibl. mun. Vesoul MS 022, fol. 231r, late 13 /early 14 c.); a Diurnal
from Châlons-sur-Marne (Bibl. mun. Chaumont MS 0029, f. 252v, after 1297); a Lectionary fromth
Saint-Evroult d’Ouche (Bibl. mun., Alençon MS 0128, fol. 019, second half of the 14 c.); and twoth Bibles: Paris, Bibl. Mazarine MS 0015, fol. 417v (mid–13 th
c.), and Bibl. mun. Toulouse MS 0008,
f. 438v (mid–13
68 arreira c.). Consulted on: http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/documentation/enlumine/fr/. 69 B , “O martírio de Santo Estevão…” (see n. 59), p. 637. addell 70 W , Breviary, p. 53. dem 71 I . eroquais 72 l , p. 97. alCão asCiMento José F , O mártir S. Vicente e a sua liturgia, Lisbon 1974; Aires A. n . S. Vicente
de Lisboa: legendas, milagres e culto litúrgico (testemunhos latino medievais), Lisbon 2011; Manuelerreira
Pedro F , “The Lisbon Office for the translation of Saint Vincent”, in A Musicological Gift:elson óMez
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 269 usual twelve) taken from the Sermons of Saint Augustine, the other four coming from the Common of Saints, non-bishop martyrs (to follow the designation in fol. 233). In fact, one of the oldest manuscripts copied in Alcobaça’s scriptorium, the Collectary Alc. 166 (dated between 1185 and 1191), contains the collects for
73 the Office of Saint Vincent.
In Table 3, it can be observed that in three manuscripts from Alcobaça—the Matinal Alc. 66, its near-contemporary Winter Breviary Alc. 54, and Alc. 432, an early thirteenth-century Lectionary for the Office—the excerpts chosen for each
Lectio of the twelve lessons are different although all come from the same text, the
Sermons of Augustine. This confirms what was observed in the Winter Breviary
75 Alc. 54, and about the uniformity of Alcobaça’s liturgical manuscripts. For that,
76 I compared the texts of the Lectiones for the first Sunday of Advent and the
77 Office of Saint Stephen in five Breviaries from Alcobaça. From this examination
I concluded that no liturgical deviation existed in excerpts from the same text for the twelve readings of the office for Matins. Each reading from the Lectionary consisted of excerpts from the Sermons of Saint Augustine, and each breviary generally followed the guidelines from Cîteaux and Clairvaux. Did this dynamic— which represents a variant but not a deviation from Cistercian uniformity—exist also in other Cistercian abbeys, in other contexts?
Thomas Falmagne believes that the Patristic Lectionary of the Office can serve as another indicator that liturgical practices were not identical throughout the Cistercian network. Since liturgical books might become obsolete, he suggested that it was perhaps the cantor who organized the Patristic readings based on previ-
78 ous collections, or even works of the early Fathers from the monastic library.
Falmagne’s hypothesis can be applied to the Alcobaça scriptorium: according to two other manuscripts from the Alcobaça scriptorium, the Ordinaries of the Divine
Office and the Book of Usages of Alcobaça, the responsibility for choosing differ-
79 ent excerpts to the twelve lessons did indeed belong to the cantor.
Concerning the illumination in the Matinal, in the lower margin of the Office dedicated to Saint Vincent, the saint is shown lying in the boat transporting him from Algarve to Lisbon, escorted by three crows (Fig 9). This iconography is
believed to have developed in a Portuguese context. St. Vincent became the 73 arreira 74 B , “Abordagem histórico-artística…” (see n. 5). arreira 75 B et al., “Through the eyes…”, p. 252-282. arreira 76 B , “Questões em torno da unanimidade…” (see n. 20), p. 37-39.
Excerpts from Isaiah, chapter 1. The four Lectiones of the third Nocturnal should be extracted from the Fathers of the Church, in this case Bede’s Commentaries on the Scriptures (Ibid., p. 38). 77 78 Ibid., p. 44. alMaGne 79 Thomas F , Les Cisterciens et leurs bibliothèques, Troyes 2012, p. 17. arreira 80 B , “Questões em torno da unanimidade litúrgica…” (see n. 20), p. 40-41. ernandes Carla Varela F , “D. Afonso IV e a Sé de Lisboa: a escolha de um lugar de memória”, iCoito
Arqueologia & História, vol. 58/59, 2006/2007, p. 143-166, p. 152; Pedro p , “A Trasladação de
Lectiones of Matins Office
Cunctorum licet dilectissimi Lc VI Clariorem nobis martirem… Acceperat hec utraque beatus Nemo ergo de suo corde
praesumat(excerpt from Lectio I of
Si quis ministrat Lc XII Qui amate animam sua…
Qui amate animam sua… Lc XI Item alio modo
Omelia beati Augustini: Se autem dicebat… Lc X Iam vero exhortans ad passionis
Insolita igitur luminis Lc IX Omelia beati Augustini: Se autem dicebat…
Si consideretur in ista passione humana patientia… (excerpt from Lectio III of Alc. 432)
Christum… Qui cum dixisset discipulis suis… (excerpt from Lectio II of
Nunc beati Vincentii passionis Lc VIII Beato martiri nostro refrigerium… Recolite fratres Dominum
Advertite, fratres. Duplicem, dixi (excerpt from Lectio II of Alc. 432)
Christum…(excerpt from Lectio II of
Igitur beati Vincentii Lc VII Poterat martir noster Habebat in sermone… Recolite Dominum
Quid ergo miramur… (excerpt from Lectio II of Alc. 432)
Recolite Dominum Christum… (excerpt from Lectio II of Alc. 432)
Primitive Cistercian Breviary (1147)
Christus… Vultis nosse quia utrumque… Acceperat hec utraque beatus (excerpt from Lectio I of
Ergo martiri nostro refrigerium… Lc V Promisit testibus suis
Habebat levita Vincentius in sermone… (excerpt from Lectio I of Alc. 432)
Lc IV Habebat beatus Vincentius in sermone… In omnibus ille agnoscendus In omnibus ille
agnoscendus(excerpt from Lectio I of
Si consideretur in ista passione humana patientia…
Vultis fratres nosse quia utrumque… (excerpt from Lectio I of Alc. 432)
Recolite Dominum Christum… Lc III Vultis nosse quia utrumque… Quomodo corruptibilis pulvis Quomodo corruptibilis pulvis (excerpt from Lectio I of
(excerpt from Lectio I of
Alc. 432)Agnoscitur ergo operata divinitas (excerpt from Lectio I of Alc. 432)
Lc II Agnoscitur ergo operata divinitas Tot convicta miraculis… Tot convicta miraculis…
Lc I Sermo sancti Augustini: In passione beati Vincentii… Sermo sancti Augustini: In passione beati Vincentii… Sermo sancti Augustini: In passione beati Vincentii… Sermo sancti Augustini: In passione beati Vincentii… Sermo sancti Augustini: In passione beati Vincentii…
Lectionary of The Office, Alc. 432
Troyes Breviary (1247) Matinal, Alc. 66 Winter Breviary, Alc. 54
Quid fit ministrare Table 3. Comparison of the readings and lessons for the Office of Saint Vincent taken from the Sermons of Saint Augustine. ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 271
Fig. 9. Matinal Alc. 66, fol. 231 : Saint Vincent in lower margin, end of 13 / begin-th ning of 14
c., BNP, Lisbon. (photo: author)
patron of the diocese as well as the municipality of Lisbon, as evidenced by two seals dating from 1233 and 1255 in which the boat and crows, traditional Vincen- tian symbols in Portugal, are represented.
I believe it is possible to place this illuminated drawing in time, and propose that it was produced after 1342-1345 when King Afonso IV ordered extensive
work in Lisbon Cathedral where Saint Vincent’s relics were located. In his will of 1345, the king sought to obtain the protection of Saint Vincent for himself and his family by transforming the cathedral into a royal mausoleum where he was to
be buried. Descriptions before the 1755 earthquake indicate that the king’s tomb
was decorated with scenes from the martyrdom of Saint Vincent. My hypothesis is that both this illumination, and that of the martyrdom of Saint Stephen, were produced between the renovations of Lisbon cathedral in 1342-1345 when the cult of Saint Vincent was fashionable, and the end date of the Chronicon, 1355. The
Chronicon was an addition, made not long after the core of the manuscript, and
covered the reigns of all Portuguese kings from Afonso Henriques up to Afonso IV, ending in 1355. 81 erreira ernandes
F , “The Lisbon Office…” (see n. 72), p. 81; F , “D. Afonso IV e a Sé de Lisboa…”, ousa p. 151-153; s , D. Afonso IV,(see n. 54), p. 255-256. 82 ousa António Caetano de s , Provas Genealógicas da Casa Real Portuguesa, Lisbon 1739-1748,
272 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA
3. The filigree initials
The colour filigree initials in this Matinal are important because of the identity of the illuminated production of this scriptorium in the context of the studies sur-
rounding other manuscripts copied in Alcobaça. The research carried out by Patricia Stirnemann on filigreed initials demonstrates as much:
“Ornament is even more important than miniatures as a tool for dating and placing manuscripts because of the pyramid of craftsmen. (…) Monasteries with large homemade libraries operate largely in a vacuum and tend to create ingrown fami- lies of books with similar script, ornament and display script that we can structure 85 in time.”
In an examination of the Alcobaça manuscripts in which the colour filigreed initials are similar to initials of the original core of the manuscript, the closest are
the Missal Alc. 26, the Compendium Theologicae Veritatis, represented by two
manuscripts, Alc. 210 and Alc. 376, and the Doctrinale, Alc. 52, and the Winter
88 Breviary, Alc. 54. (Table 4) In all of these manuscripts, the coloured initial is filled with spiral motifs with curlicues on the outside.
There are many similarities among these filigree initials, especially the curly motifs, which attest to their proximity in time, around the middle of the fourteenth century. When compared to similar earlier motifs, however, I believe that a change occurred between the end of the thirteenth century and the first quarter of the
fourteenth. Testimony to the evolution of the coloured initials with filigree are Alc. 45 (dated to 1289), Alc. 28 (end of the thirteenth century), and Alc. 8 (begin- ning of the fourteenth). These three manuscripts indicate a period of transition—a formal evolution of the scriptorium—which I believe was caused by the arrival of
90 French university manuscripts. My research has proven that at least seven such
manuscripts (some copied by pecia) reached the Alcobaça library between the end
of the thirteenth century and the first years of the fourteenth. These manuscripts influenced the illuminated production of this scriptorium, particularly the filigree initials. 84 arreira 85 B et al., “Through the eyes …”, p. 264. tirneMann Patricia s , “Dating, Placing and Illumination”, The Journal of the Early Book Society
for the study of manuscripts and printing history 11, 2008, p. 155-166, p. 155. See also PatriciatirneMann
s , “Fils de la Vierge. L’initiale à filigranes parisiennes: 1140-1314”, Revue d’Art 90 (1990),p. 58-73. 86 arreira 87 B , “Um missal alcobacense dos inícios do séc. XIV…” (in press). arreira Catarina Fernandes B , “Le Compendium theologicae veritatis de l’abbaye d’Alcobaça”, iranda
in Portuguese Studies on Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts, ed. Maria Adelaide M and AliciaiGuelez M , Barcelona-Madrid 2014, p. 105-129. 88 arreira 89 B et al., “Through the eyes…”, p. 264. arreira 90 B et al., “Through the eyes …”, p. 270-271. arreira 91 B , “ Manuscritos universitários…” (see n.17), p. 99-128. arreira arreira B et al., “Through the eyes …”, p. 263, and B , “ Manuscritos universitários…”,
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 273
Winter Breviary, Alc. 54 Matinal, Alc. 66 Doctrinale, Alc. 52 Missal, Alc. 26 (after 1318) Compendium Theologicae Veritatis, Alc. 210 (c. 1332)
Fol. 153v Fol. 55v Fol. 17v Fol. 290 Fol. 144v Fol. 154 Fol. 173v Fol. 301 Fol. 97 Fol. 132 Fol. 174v Fol. 9v
274 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA
iii. d AtinG overvieW
What may be concluded here? An overview of the time frame for the relevant sections of this Matinal within the context of illuminated decoration may help us to clarify the evolution of the scriptorium (Table 5).
Additions Calendar Temporal Sanctoral Litany of the Additions Chroniconsacrament of anointing the sick
Saint Thomas After 1348 Before 1318 Between Between 1254 After 1318 Finished inafter 1329 and before (absence of the 1268 and and 1261 1355 1356 Office of 1291 Corpus Christi)
Table 5. Summary of dates of the different sections of Alc. 66.
One hypothesis is that the core of the manuscript was made in the second half of the thirteenth century because of the Sanctoral and the Litany, the Calendar being an addition contemporary with other additions as well as the Chronicon. Another hypothesis is that the manuscript was copied in the mid-fourteenth cen- tury—and, for unknown reasons, never updated—using as model a mid-thirteenth century manuscript for the Temporal and the Sanctoral, yet with an updated Calen- dar. A third hypothesis—derived by comparing this Matinal with other manuscripts and considering its filigree initials—is that the core of the manuscript was copied sometime between the last years of the thirteenth century and 1317 (because of the absence of the Corpus Christi Office), using an older manuscript as a model to explain why the Sanctoral and the Litany were not updated. Then, nearly four decades later, a Calendar and various additions, including the Chronicon, were incorporated into the manuscript along with illuminations highlighting the offices of Saint Stephen and Saint Vincent.
There is no doubt but that Alcobaça’s liturgical manuscripts are an important testimony of how questions surrounding liturgical unanimity were applied in prac- tice, and how they developed through the centuries. Liturgical manuscripts can be placed in time with more accuracy that other manuscripts, so they are a significant contribution to the study of the evolution of illuminated decoration, namely of filigreed initials, but also of the identity of Alcobaça’s scriptorium which had pro- found links to local practice.
Nevertheless, research on this Matinal has prompted a number of questions that I cannot yet answer. How long did it take to implement the decisions of the
ALCOBAÇA BREVIARY (MS ALC. 66) 275 does it seem that in this scriptorium at least two liturgical manuscripts were copied from older models and not updated to reflect new feasts? Can the litanies provide sufficient and rigorous enough elements to use them for dating?
The originality of the illuminations in this Matinal raises an interesting point, especially the narrative of Saint Stephen’s martyrdom. Its narrative with histori- ated initials is very different from the other two manuscripts, as is the type of materials used. In the others—Missal Alc. 26 and the winter Breviary Alc. 54— silver and gold leaf were used with a proteinaceous binding medium; this Matinal dis- plays a technique closer to water colour, unlike any other manuscript from Alco- baça.
Also worth noting is Saint Vincent and his identity, strongly linked to Lisbon cathedral, and to the local context and history as exemplified by the Chronicon. This study is still a work in progress, the starting point of a project aimed at examining the liturgical manuscripts produced in the Alcobaça scriptorium in order to date them more accurately. It opens new paths of research concerning Alcobaça’s liturgical manuscripts, new routes that can provide a different under- standing of Alcobaça, its library, the identity of its scriptorium, and the monks who used the manuscripts for their everyday liturgy. Institute for Medieval Studies, NOVA FCSH Catarina Fernandes B arreira Av. de Berna, 26 C Edifício I&D 2º piso, Sala 221 1069-061 Lisbon Portugal
276 CATARINA FERNANDES BARREIRA e
Approches en vue de l’étude d’un bréviaire du XIV siècle provenant de l’abbaye cister-ms cienne d’Alcobaça ( Alc. 66)
La collection des manuscrits médiévaux provenant d’Alcobaça est l’une des plus impor-e e
tantes du monde cistercien : le scriptorium est resté actif de la fin du XII au XVI siècle.
Plus de 460 manuscrits ont survécu ; la plupart d’entre eux ont été produits à l’abbaye, ye
compris le bréviaire du XIV siècle, Ms Alc. 66. Les éléments constitutifs, à savoir le calen-
drier, le sanctoral, les rituels, contiennent des variantes et font l’objet d’une analyse détail-
lée en vue d’une datation soigneuse. Le manuscrit se révèle également intéressant pour son
contenu liturgique et pour ses enluminures bien différentes de celles des autres manuscrits
d’Alcobaça. M s Alc. 66 montre comment l’identité du scriptorium d’Alcobaça est liée au
contexte local, tout en gardant des liens étroits avec les autres abbayes cisterciennes, enparticulier avec Clairvaux. th
Approaches to the Study of a 14 -c. Breviary from the Cistercian Abbey of Alcobaçams ( Alc. 66)
The collection of medieval manuscripts from Alcobaça is one of the most important in theth th
Cistercian world, its scriptorium having remained active from the end of the 12 to the 16
century. More than 460 manuscripts have survived, most of them produced at the abbey,th
including the 14 -c. Breviary, Ms Alc. 66. The written components – namely the calendar,
sanctoral, rituals and the additions – contain inconsistencies, and are the object of a detailed
analysis in view of dating it accurately. The manuscript is also of interest beyond its liturgi-
cal contents, for the illuminations reveal exciting features which differ considerably from
other Alcobaça manuscripts. M s Alc. 66 demonstrates how the identity of the Alcobaça
scriptorium was linked to the local context, while maintaining close ties to other Cistercianabbeys, particularly Clairvaux.
Ansätze zur Untersuchung eines Beviers der Zisterzienserabtei in Alcobaça aus demms
14. Jahrhundert ( Alc. 66)
Die Sammlung mittelalterlicher Manuskripte aus Alcobaça, deren scriptorium vom ausge-
henden 12. bis zum 16. Jahrhundert tätig war, ist eine der bedeutendsten in der Welt der
Zisterzienser. Mehr als 460 Manuskripte sind überliefert; die meisten davon wurden in der
Abtei hergestellt, einschließlich des aus dem 14. Jahrhundert stammenden Breviers, Ms Alc.
66. Die schriftlichen Bestandteile – genauer Kalender, Sanktuale, Rituale und die Anhänge
– enthalten Widersprüchlichkeiten und sind Gegenstand einer detaillierten Analyse im Hin-
blick auf ihre korrekte Datierung. Das Manuskript ist über seinen liturgischen Inhalt hinaus
von Interesse, da die Illustrationen erstaunliche Besonderheiten erkennen lassen, die
beträchtlich von anderen Manuskripten aus Alcobaça abweichen. M s Alc. 66 zeigt auf, wie
die Identität des scriptorium von Alcobaça mit dem lokalen Kontext verknüpft war, wäh-
rend es zugleich enge Beziehungen zu anderen Zisterzienserabteien, vor allem Clairvaux,unterhielt.