REPOSITORIO INSTITUCIONAL DA UFOP: Um método de determinação de origem-destino e contagem de veículos em ambiente urbano.

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  ❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❋❊❉❊❘❆▲ ❉❊ ❖❯❘❖ P❘❊❚❖

  ❯♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦

  ❏❡❛♥ ❈❛r❧♦ ▼❡♥❞❡s ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❖✉r♦ Pr❡t♦

  ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ ➪❧✈❛r♦ ❘♦❞r✐❣✉❡s P❡r❡✐r❛ ❏ú♥✐♦r ❈♦♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛✿ ❆♥❞r❡❛ ●♦♠❡s ❈❛♠♣♦s ❇✐❛♥❝❤✐

  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛ ❛♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❊①❛t❛s ❡ ❇✐♦❧ó❣✐❝❛s ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❖✉r♦ Pr❡t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ tít✉❧♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ❡♠ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦

  ❖✉r♦ Pr❡t♦✱ ❖✉t✉❜r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✺

  M538m Mendes, Jean Carlo.

  Um método de determinação de origem-destino e contagem de veículos em ambiente urbano [manuscrito] / Jean Carlo Mendes. - 2015. 64f.: il.: color; tabs. Orientador: Prof. Dr. Álvaro Rodrigues Pereira Júnior. Coorientadora: Profa. Dra. Andrea Gomes Campos Bianchi. Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas. Departamento de Computação. Programa de Pós- Graduação em Ciência da Computação. Área de Concentração: Sistemas de Computação.

  1. Rastreamento automatico. 2. Processamento de Imagens. 3. Engenharia de trafego. I. Pereira Júnior, Álvaro Rodrigues. II. Bianchi, Andrea Gomes Campos. III. Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. IV. Titulo. CDU: 656.11

  

Catalogação: www.sisbin.ufop.br

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❘❡s✉♠♦

  ❆ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ tr❛♥s✐t❛♠ ♣❡❧❛s ✈✐❛s ✉r❜❛♥❛s tê♠ ❝r❡s❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ s❡ t♦r♥❡ ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛❞❛✳ ❖s ór❣ã♦s ❣♦✈❡r♥❛♠❡♥t❛✐s s❡ ✈ê❡♠ ♦❜r✐❣❛❞♦s ❛ ❛❞♦t❛r ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ♠❛✐s rí❣✐❞❛s ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ r♦❞í③✐♦ ♦♥❞❡ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥q✉❛❞r❛♠ ❡♠ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ♣r❡✲❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐❞❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ tr❛❢❡❣❛r ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦s ❞✐❛s ❡ ❤♦rár✐♦s✳ ❆ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ q✉❛✐s ✈✐❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛♠ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r✈❡♥çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❞✐❢í❝✐❧ ❡ ❞❡♠♦r❛❞❛ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❢❡✐t❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠❛♥✉❛❧✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐❛s ❡ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❝✐❞❛❞❡ é ❣r❛♥❞❡✳ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❡st❡ ❝❡♥ár✐♦✱ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ ✉r❜❛♥♦✳ ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ♥♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛♠ ❛ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❡rr♦s ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ r❛str❡✐♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✳ ❆ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❢♦✐ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❞❡❧❛s ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝♦ ❡ ♦✉tr❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ ✐♥st❛❧❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝r✉③❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❛♣✐t❛❧ ❜r❛s✐❧❡✐r❛✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ✉♠ ❣❛♥❤♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡❧✐♥❡✳ P❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡✿ ❘❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✱ Pr♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s✱ ❚rá❢❡❣♦

  ✐✐✐

  

❆❜str❛❝t

  ❚❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡s ♣❛ss✐♥❣ t❤r♦✉❣❤ t❤❡ ❝✐t② str❡❡ts ❤❛s ❣r♦✇♥✳ ❋♦r t❤✐s r❡❛s♦♥ tr❛✣❝ ❝♦♥tr♦❧ ❜❡❝♦♠❡s ❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣❧② ❞✐✣❝✉❧t t❛s❦✳ ●♦✈❡r♥♠❡♥t ❛❣❡♥❝✐❡s ❛r❡ ❢♦r❝❡❞ t♦ ❛❞♦♣t ♠♦r❡ str✐❝t ❝♦♥tr♦❧ ♣♦❧✐❝✐❡s s✉❝❤ ❛s✱ ❢♦r ❡①❛♠♣❧❡✱ t❤❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ s②st❡♠s ✇❤❡r❡ ♦♥❧② ❛ ❣r♦✉♣ ♦❢ ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡s ✇✐t❤✐♥ ❛♥ ❡st❛❜❧✐s❤❡❞ ❝❛t❡❣♦r② ❝❛♥ tr❛✈❡❧ ♦♥ ❝❡rt❛✐♥ ❞❛②s ❛♥❞ s❝❤❡❞✉❧❡s✳ ❖♥ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ❤❛♥❞✱ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥✐♥❣ ✇❤✐❝❤ r♦❛❞s ♥❡❡❞ ✐♥t❡r✈❡♥t✐♦♥ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❛ ❞✐✣❝✉❧t ❛♥❞ ❛ t✐♠❡ ❝♦♥s✉♠✐♥❣ t❛s❦ ✇❤❡♥ ❞♦♥❡ ♠❛♥✉❛❧❧②✱ s✐♥❝❡ t❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ r♦✉t❡s ❛♥❞ ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t ✐♥ ❛ ❝✐t② ✐s ❤✐❣❤✳ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r✐♥❣ t❤✐s s❝❡♥❛r✐♦✱ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s ❢♦r ❛✉t♦♠❛t❡❞ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ♦r✐❣✐♥✱ ❞❡st✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡ ❝♦✉♥t✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✈❡r② ❤❡❧♣❢✉❧ ✐♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧ ❝✐t② tr❛✣❝✳ ❚❤✐s t❤❡s✐s ♣r♦♣♦s❡s ❛♥ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡♠❡♥t ❢♦r t❤❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ♦❢ ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡s ♦r✐❣✐♥✲❞❡st✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ❜② ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣✐♥❣ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s t❤❛t ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❡ t❤❡ ♦❝❝✉rr❡♥❝❡ ♦❢ ❡rr♦rs ✐♥ ♦❜❥❡❝ts s❡❣♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣✳ ❚❤❡ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣❡❞ ❢r❛✲ ♠❡✇♦r❦ ✇❛s ❡✈❛❧✉❛t❡❞ ❜② ✉s✐♥❣ t✇♦ ❞✐st✐♥❝t ✈✐❞❡♦ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡s✱ ♦♥❡ ♦❢ ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❞♦♠❛✐♥ ❛♥❞ ❛♥♦t❤❡r ❝❛♣t✉r❡❞ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❛ ❝❛♠❡r❛ ✐♥st❛❧❧❡❞ ❛t ❛♥ ✐♥t❡rs❡❝t✐♦♥ ✐♥ ❛ ❇r❛③✐❧✐❛♥ ❝❛♣✐t❛❧ ❝✐t②✳ ❚❤❡ r❡s✉❧ts ♦❜t❛✐♥❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣❡❞ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡♠❡♥ts ♣r❡s❡♥t❡❞ ❛♥ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t ❣❛✐♥ ✇❤❡♥ ❝♦♠♣❛r❡❞ t♦ r❡s✉❧ts ♦❜t❛✐♥❡❞ ✉s✐♥❣ t❤❡ tr❛❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛❧❣♦r✐t❤♠✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✇❛s ❝♦♥✲ s✐❞❡r❡❞ ❛s ❜❛s❡❧✐♥❡✳ ❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❖❜❥❡❝t tr❛❝❦✐♥❣✱ ■♠❛❣❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣✱ ❚r❛✣❝

  ✈

  

❉❡❝❧❛r❛çã♦

  ❊st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ é r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♠❡✉ ♣ró♣r✐♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❡①❝❡t♦ ♦♥❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❡①♣❧í❝✐t❛ é ❢❡✐t❛ ❛♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s✱ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❢♦✐ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr❛ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥❡st❛ ♥❡♠ ❡♠ ♦✉tr❛ ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡✳

  ❏❡❛♥ ❈❛r❧♦ ▼❡♥❞❡s

  ✈✐✐

  

❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

  ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❞❡❞✐❝❛❞♦ à ♠✐♥❤❛ ❡s♣♦s❛ ❋❡r♥❛♥❞❛ q✉❡ ♠❡ ❛♣♦✐♦✉ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❝♦♥❞✐✲ ❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ t❡♠♣♦✳

  ●♦st❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r à ❯❋❖P ❡ ❛♦ ❉❊❈❖▼ ♣❡❧❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❡ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✳

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ✉♠ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ❛♦s ♠❡✉s ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❡s ❆♥❞r❡❛ ●♦♠❡s ❡ ➪❧✈❛r♦ P❡r❡✐r❛ ♣♦r t♦❞❛ ❛ ❞❡❞✐❝❛çã♦✱ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❙✉♠ár✐♦

   ①✐

   ①✐✐✐

   ✶

   ✸

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺

   ✼

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵

   ✶✶

  

  ✶✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

  ① ❙❯▼➪❘■❖

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾

   ✸✶

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵

   ✹✸

   ✹✺

  ▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✶ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✷✼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾

  ①✐✐ ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❋■●❯❘❆❙

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷

   ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸

   ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺

  ▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✳ ✳ ✸✼

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽

  ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵

  ◆♦♠❡♥❝❧❛t✉r❛

  ●▼▼ ●❛✉ss✐❛♥ ▼✐①t✉r❡ ▼♦❞❡❧ ●P❙ ●❧♦❜❛❧ P♦s✐t✐♦♥✐♥❣ ❙②st❡♠ ❑▲❚ ❑❛♥❛❞❡✲▲✉❝❛s✲❚♦♠❛s✐ ❘❖■ ❘❡❣✐♦♥ ♦❢ ✐♥t❡r❡st ❳▼▲ ❊①t❡♥s✐❜❧❡ ▼❛r❦✉♣ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

  ■♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞♦ trá❢❡❣♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡✱ ✐♥t❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡✱ r♦t❛s t♦♠❛✲ ❞❛s ❡ t❛♥t❛s ♦✉tr❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦r✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡♠á❢♦r♦s✱ ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s r♦t❛s ❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❛♦s ór❣ã♦s ❣♦✈❡r♥❛♠❡♥t❛✐s à ❡str✉t✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s ♣ú❜❧✐❝❛s r❡❧❛t✐✈❛s ❛♦ trâ♥s✐t♦✳ ❊st❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❞❡ ✈ár✐❛s ❢♦r♠❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ s❡♥s♦r❡s ✐♥❢r❛✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦s✱ r❛❞❛r❡s✱ s❡♥s♦r❡s ❞❡ ♣❡s♦ ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦s s♦❜ ♦ ❛s❢❛❧t♦ ❡ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❣❡♦❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦s ❞❡ ●P❙ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✳ P♦ré♠✱ t♦✲ ❞❛s ❡st❛s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛♠ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r✈❡♥çõ❡s ❡ ✐♥st❛❧❛çõ❡s ❝✉st♦s❛s ❡ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❛s♦s ✭❝♦♠♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❣❡♦❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦✮ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❢❡r✐r ❛ ♣r✐✈❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s✳

  ◆♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✈✐sã♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s t❡♠ ❞❡s♣❡rt❛❞♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ♥❛s ár❡❛s t❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝❛ ❡ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛ ♣♦r ❝♦♥t❛ ❞❛ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♥❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❡ ♣❡❧♦ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡①tr❛í❞❛✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦✳ ❖ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝â♠❡r❛s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ✐♥st❛❧❛❞❛s ❡ ❡♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ❡ ♦ ❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡r ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ♥♦s ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡s tê♠ ❞❡s♣❡rt❛❞♦ ♦ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ♥❛ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s

  ❆❧❣✉♥s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r tr❛t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ ♣❛ss❛♠ ♣♦r ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❡♠ ✉♠ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦✳ ❯♠ ❞❡st❡s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s é ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✳ ❆s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡st❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞♦ trá❢❡❣♦ ❡♠ r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ♠❛✐♦r ✢✉①♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ s✐♠♣❧❡s ❤á ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❛s♦s✱ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛r ♦

  ✹ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

  ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ♣❡r❝♦rr✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛s ✈✐❛s✳ ❊st❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ ♥♦s ❛❥✉❞❛r ❛ ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♥❛s ✈✐❛s✱ ❞❡t❡❝t❛r ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❞❡ ❞✐r❡çã♦ ❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛✈❡r✐❣✉❛r ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛s ❢❛✐①❛s ❞❡ r♦❧❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛r ♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ ♣❡r❝✉rs♦✱ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛ s✉❛ r♦t❛ ✭❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ s✉❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✮ ♣♦❞❡ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ór❣ã♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦✳ ❊st❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ q✉❛❧ r❡❣✐ã♦ é ♠❛✐s ❛❝❡ss❛❞❛ ❡ ❝♦♠ q✉❛❧ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛r ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s t♦♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ r♦t❛s ✐♥✈á❧✐❞❛s ✭✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rsõ❡s ♥ã♦ ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞❛s ♦✉ tr❛❢❡❣❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♥tr❛ ❛ ♠ã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐r❡çã♦✮✳

  ❖ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❡♠ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ t♦r♥❛♠ ❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❤✉♠❛♥♦s ❝✉st♦s❛ ❡ ❞✐❢í❝✐❧✳ ❊♠ ár❡❛s ✉r❜❛♥❛s ❡ ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡st❛ t❛r❡❢❛ é ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ❞✐s♣❡♥❞✐♦s❛ ❡ ✐♥tr♦❞✉③ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ tr❛t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✈✐st♦s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ♦♥❞❡ t❡♠♦s ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛rt❡s ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣♦r ♦✉tr♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ❛ ❛❧t❛ ❞❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❝❡♥❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ❞✐r❡çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ✭r♦t❛s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s✮ ❍á ❛✐♥❞❛ ♦✉tr♦s ❢❛t♦r❡s q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r tr❛t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦✱ ❛s ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❛ ❜❛✐①❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s✱ ♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦ ❡✱ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❛s♦s✱ ❛ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ✭♦✉ ❞♦ s✉♣♦rt❡✮ ♣♦r ❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✈❡♥t♦ ♦✉ tr❡♣✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ s♦❧♦✳

  P❛r❛ ♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛✉t♦✲❡str❛❞❛s✱ ♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❜♦♥s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ é ♥❡st❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❝♦♥❝❡♥tr❛♠ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s à ár❡❛ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❡♠

  ✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s

  ❖ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ✉r❜❛♥♦s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦✱ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ▲✉❝❛s✲❑❛♥❛❞❡ ❡ ❚♦♠❛s✐ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ ✐♥t❡♥s♦✱ ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s✱ ❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛✱ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✐♥✈♦❧✉♥tár✐❛ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s

  ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✺

  ❈♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✈✐s❛ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✱ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛r ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❛rt❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r♦t✉❧❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝r✉③❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐❛s ✉r❜❛♥❛s ❝♦♠ trá❢❡❣♦ ✐♥t❡♥s♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❡tró♣♦❧❡ ❜r❛s✐❧❡✐r❛✳

  ✭❛✮ ❆❧t❛ ❞❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ✭❜✮ ❖❝❧✉sã♦

✭❝✮ ❘♦t❛s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶✿ ■❧✉str❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦✳

  ✶✳✷ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦s

  ❊ss❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❡stá ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ s❡✐s ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦s✳ ❊st❡ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ é ✉♠❛ ✐♥tr♦✲ ❞✉çã♦ ❛♦ t❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✳ ❖ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s t❡ór✐❝♦s ❜ás✐❝♦s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡✲ s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✳ ❖ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s à ár❡❛ ❞❡

  ✻ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

  ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❡ ✜♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ❡ s✉❣❡stõ❡s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❢✉t✉r♦✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷ ❋✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛çã♦ t❡ór✐❝❛

  ❯♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s✳ ●❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛✐s t❡♠ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛ ♣r❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦ss❛ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡r✳ ❯♠ ♣ré✲ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐♥t✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜t❡r ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♠ ❛s q✉❛✐s s❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ❧✐❞❛r✳ ❆ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çõ❡s ♠♦r❢♦❧ó❣✐❝❛s ♥❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♦ ❢❡❝❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ♥❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦s q✉❡ ♣♦r ✈❡♥t✉r❛ ♣♦ss❛♠ t❡r s✐❞♦ s❡♣❛r❛❞♦s ❡q✉✐✈♦❝❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ❝♦❧♦r✐❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ❡♠ ♣r❡t♦ ❡ ❜r❛♥❝♦✳ ❖ ✜❧tr♦ ❞❛ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ t❛♠❜é♠ é ♠✉✐t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ♦❜t❡r ✉♠❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ❝♦♠ t❡①t✉r❛ ✉♥✐❢♦r♠❡ ✭❡❧✐♠✐♥❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦s✮✳

  ❆♣ós ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ♣ré✲♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛✲s❡ ❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦ ❞❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❡stát✐❝❛ ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ✭❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✮✳ ❆♣ós ❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦✱ ❡❧❡s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r s❡❣♠❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r tr❛t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧ ❡ ❛ss✐♠ ✐♥✐❝✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s✳

  ✷✳✶ ❙❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞

  ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ é ✉♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡r ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ♥♦s ✈í❞❡♦s ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ✉♠❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡

  ✽ ❋✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛çã♦ t❡ór✐❝❛

  ❆ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ é ♠❛r❝❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥❛s ❢❛s❡s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✳ ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s s✐st❡♠❛s✱ ❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s é ✉♠❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠❛♥❡❝❡ ❡stát✐❝❛✳ ■st♦ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❡♠ ♠✉✐t♦ ❜❡♠✳

  ❊①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s ❞❡❧❛s é ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❜tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✱ ♦♥❞❡ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✉❜tr❛çã♦ ❞♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ q✉❛❞r♦ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ✭❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛ ✲ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✮✳ ❆ ♠❛tr✐③ r❡s✉❧t❛♥t❡ ❞❡st❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣✐①❡❧s ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦✳ ❊st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛ ❜❡♠ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛❞♦s ♦♥❞❡ ♥ã♦ ❤á ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❡ ♥❡♠ ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✳ ❯♠ ♦✉tr♦ ❢❛t♦r ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡st❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❡ ❝♦rr❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ é ❛ ❡①✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ q✉❛❞r♦ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ✈í❞❡♦ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦ss✉❛ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦✳

  ❖✉tr❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ é ❛ s✉❜tr❛çã♦ ❞♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ✭t✮ ❞♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ✭t✲✶✮✱ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛ss✐♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡ t❡r ✉♠ q✉❛❞r♦ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ✭s❡♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦✮✳ ❯♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ é ✉s❛❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ r❡❧❛t✐✈♦ ❛ ✉♠ q✉❛❞r♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❡st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♥ã♦ é ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ ❧✐❞❛r ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠ ♦s ♣✐①❡❧s ✐♥t❡r♥♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡s ❞✐♠❡♥sõ❡s ✭♥❡st❡s ❝❛s♦s ♦s ♣✐①❡❧s ✐♥t❡r♥♦s s❡r✐❛♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦✮✳ ❖✉tr♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦ ♥❡st❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ é ❛ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡ ❞❡t❡❝t❛r ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦✳ ❖s ♣✐①❡❧s ❞❛s ár❡❛s ♦♥❞❡ ❤♦✉✈❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ❥á q✉❡ ♦s s❡✉s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❡st❛r✐❛♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳

  ❯♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ♠❛✐s r♦❜✉st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ é ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✳ ❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛r ❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❝❛✉s❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛s ❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦✱ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦s ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✱ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛ ❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦s ♣❡r✐ó❞✐❝♦s ✭❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♦ ❜❛❧❛♥ç❛r ❞❡ ❢♦❧❤❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ár✈♦r❡✮✳

  ❊♠ ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ✉s❛r❛♠ ✉♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❜❛✲ s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ t❡♠♣♦r❛❧ ❞♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s q✉❛❞r♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s✳ ❊st❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦ é ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ s✉❜tr❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡✳ ❆ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ t❡♠♣♦r❛❧ ❞♦s q✉❛❞r♦s ❝r✐❛ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❛ss❡♠❡❧❤❛ à

  ❋✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛çã♦ t❡ór✐❝❛ ✾

  ♣❛rt❡ ❡stát✐❝❛ ❞♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❛ s✉❜tr❛çã♦ ❞♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✱ ♥❛

  ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s ❝❛s♦s✱ ❜❛s❡✐❛✲s❡ ♥♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s s✐♠♣❧❡s ❞♦s ♣✐①❡❧s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡ ♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛✳ ❊♠ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣✐①❡❧ ❢♦r❛♠ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠✐st✉r❛ ❞❡ ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛s✳ ❈♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥❛ ✈❛r✐â♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛s s❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r q✉❛✐s ❞❡❧❛s ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♠ ❛s ❝♦r❡s ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦✳

  ❖s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ♣✐①❡❧s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♠ às ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ sã♦ ❝♦♥✲ s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞✳ ❆ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣✐①❡❧ t❡r ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r x N N

  ♥♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ s♦♠❛ ♣♦♥❞❡r❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❑ ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛s✳ ❆ ❡q✉❛çã♦ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♥t❡ à ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧íst✐❝❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥❛s ●✉❛ss✐❛♥❛s ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st❛ ❡♠ K

  X p (x ) = w η (x ; θ ) N j N j esima j=1 ✭✷✳✶✮ )

  ♦♥❞❡ w j é ♦ ♣❡s♦ ❞❛ k ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛ η(x; θ k ✱ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ♣♦r 1 −1 T P

  1 − (x−µ k (x−µ 2 k k ) ) η , e

  (x; θ ) = η(x; µ Σ ) = k k k P (D/2) 1/2 ✭✷✳✷✮ k k (2π) | | k esima ♦♥❞❡ µ é ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❡ Σ é ❛ ♠❛tr✐③ ❞❡ ❝♦✈❛r✐â♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ k ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛✳ ❖s ♣❡s♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛s r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ♣♦rçã♦ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛

  ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❝♦r ❡st❛✈❛ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ♥❛ ❝❡♥❛✳ ❖ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ é ❡♥tã♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛s ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛s r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛t✐✈❛s ❞❛s ❝♦r❡s ♦✉ ✐♥t❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡s ♠❛✐s ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❝❡♥❛✳

  ❖s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❡♠ ♠♦♥str❛♠ q✉❡ ❡st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ❜❡♠ às ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦✱ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡♣❡t✐t✐✈♦s ❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ s❡ ♠♦✈❡♠ ❧❡♥t❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❊st❡ ♠ét♦❞♦ é ✉♠ ❞♦s ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❡ ❢♦✐ ♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆❧❣✉♠❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ♥♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ ♠✐st✉r❛ ❞❡ ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛s ❥á ❢♦r❛♠ ♣r♦♣♦st❛s✳ ❊♠ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ✐♥tr♦❞✉③✐r❛♠ ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ s♦♠❜r❛s✳

  ✶✵ ❋✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛çã♦ t❡ór✐❝❛

  ✷✳✷ ❋❧✉①♦ Ó♣t✐❝♦

  ❖ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ é ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❛ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❛♣❛r❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❞❡ ❧✉♠✐♥♦s✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r ♦ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ✉♠ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦r✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❛rr❛♥❥♦ ❡s♣❛❝✐❛❧ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡ ❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❞❡st❡s ❛rr❛♥❥♦s✳

  ❖ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♥❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❞✐s❝♦♥t✐♥✉✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ♣♦❞❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡stát✐❝♦✳

  ✷✳✸ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ▲✉❝❛s✲❑❛♥❛❞❡ ❡ ❚♦♠❛s✐ ✲ ❑▲❚

  ❖ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♣♦✐♥ts é ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ▲✉❝❛s✱ ❑❛♥❛❞❡ ❡ ❚♦♠❛s✐✳ ❆ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣❡❧♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛ ♦ ❞❡s❧♦❝❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❥❛♥❡❧❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr♦✳ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❥❛♥❡❧❛ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣✐①❡❧ ú♥✐❝♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣♦✐s ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ♣♦♥t♦ é ♠✉✐t♦ s✉s❝❡♣tí✈❡❧ à ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦s ♥❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠✱ ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❛❞❥❛❝❡♥t❡s✱ ❡t❝✳ ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❡♥tã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛ ❛ ❥❛♥❡❧❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♥tê♠ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❥❛♥❡❧❛ ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ❖ ❞❡s❧♦❝❛♠❡♥t♦ é ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈❡t♦r ❞❡ ❞❡s❧♦❝❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ♣❛rt❡ ❝❡♥tr❛❧ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❑▲❚ é ❛ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦s ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♣♦✐♥ts q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦✳ ❖ ❣r❛❞✐❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ♣r♦✈ê ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞❛ ✐♥t❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ❧✐♥❡❛r ❡ ❞❛ t❡①t✉r❛ ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❛s ❢❡❛t✉r❡s r❛str❡á✈❡✐s ♣♦❞❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡r ❞❛ t❡①t✉r❛✳ ❯♠ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ t❡①t✉r❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧♦s ♣✐①❡❧s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❡rt❛ ár❡❛ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r❛♠ ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❡♠

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s

  ❖ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ ✉r❜❛♥♦ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s s✉❜♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s✳ P♦❞❡♠♦s q✉❡r❡r s❛❜❡r ♦ q✉ã♦ ✐♥t❡♥s♦ é ♦ tr❛❢❡❣♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ tr❛❢❡❣❛♠ ♥❛ ✈✐❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ♦✉ ❛✐♥❞❛ q✉❡r❡r ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r q✉❛✐s sã♦ ❛s r♦t❛s ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞♦ s❡✉ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ s❡✉ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❛té ♦ s❡✉ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛✳

  ❊ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❡❢❡t✐✈♦✱ q✉❡ tr❛t❛ ♣r♦✲ ❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❣✉✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s à ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ r♦t❛s ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦✳ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞❡st❡s ♠ét♦❞♦s✱ ❧❡✈❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦ ❛ s✉❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

  ❯♠ ❞♦s ♣❛ss♦s ♠❛✐s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ♥♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ✈í❞❡♦ é ❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠ tr❛t❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦✳ ❯♠ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ é ❛q✉❡❧❡ ♦♥❞❡✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦❧❤❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ár✈♦r❡s✱ s♦♠❜r❡❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥✈♦❧✉♥tár✐♦ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✳ ❖s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❝r✐❛r❛♠ ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞♦ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ s♦❜ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❞❡ ❇❛②❡s✳ ❆ r❡❣r❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❞❡ ❇❛②❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❡ ❞♦ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ❢♦✐ ❢♦r♠✉❧❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈❡t♦r ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✳ ❆s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞❛s ❝♦r❡s ♠❛✐s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛♥t❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ❛s ♣❛rt❡s ❡stát✐❝❛s ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ❡ ❛s ❝♦✲♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛s ♠❛✐s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛♥t❡s ❞❛s ❝♦r❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ✭♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❛ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦

  ✶✷ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s

  ❞❛s ❢♦❧❤❛❣❡♥s ❞❛s ár✈♦r❡s✮✳ ❖s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ sã♦ ❡①tr❛í❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❢✉sã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s ❞❡t❡❝çõ❡s ❞♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❡stát✐❝♦s ❡ ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦✳ ❖ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ♥♦✈❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s s❡❥❛♠ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ♠♦str❛r❛♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s✳ ❖ ♣♦♥t♦ ❢r❛❝♦ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ é ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛✐s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♣✐①❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦✳ ■st♦ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠❛♥❡ç❛♠ ❡♠ ♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡stát✐❝❛ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❧♦♥❣♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♦✉ q✉❡ s❡ ♠♦✈❛♠ ♠✉✐t♦ ❧❡♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ s❡❥❛♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♥ã♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❆❧é♠ ❞❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦ ♥❛s ❝❡♥❛s✱ ♥❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s ❝❛s♦s ❛s ✐♠❛✲ ❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ sã♦ ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ❝â♠❡r❛s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦✳ ❊st❛s ❝â♠❡r❛s ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣r♦❞✉③❡♠ ✐♠❛❣❡s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♠✉✐t❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❞✐✜❝✉❧t❛ ❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✳ ❊♠♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❡st✐♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♠ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦ ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐✈♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ✜❧tr♦ ❞❛ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ r✉í❞♦ é ♦t✐♠✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ r❡♠♦çã♦✳ ❖s ♣✐①❡❧s sã♦ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐③❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ r✉í❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ s❡✉ ❝♦♥tr❛st❡ ❝♦♠ ♦s ♣✐①❡❧s ✈✐③✐♥❤♦s✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❞✐ss✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ♣✐①❡❧ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✈✐③✐♥❤❛♥ç❛ ❡ ❞♦ s❡✉ ♥ã♦ ❛❧✐♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❧ó❣✐❝♦ ❡❧❡ é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❝❛♥❞✐❞❛t♦ ❛ r✉í❞♦✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s s❡ ♠♦str❛r❛♠ s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦s ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❛❝❡rt♦ ✈❛r✐❛♥❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ✾✵✪ ❡ ✾✸✪✳ ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ♣♦ss✉✐ ❢❛❧❤❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s à ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣❡q✉❡♥♦s ♣♦r ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♠❛✐♦r❡s✳

  ❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❱❡❡r❛r❛❣❤❛✈❛♥✱ ▼❛s♦✉❞✱ ❡ P❛♣❛♥✐❦♦❧♦♣♦✉❧♦s ❡♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐✈♦ ●▼▼ ✭●❛✉s✲ s✐❛♥ ♠✐①t✉r❡ ♠♦❞❡❧✮✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♦♥❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♣✐①❡❧ ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ é ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛s ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ s✉❛s ✐♥t❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ◆❡st❡ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♦ r❡s✉❧✲ t❛❞♦ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛t✉❛❧ é ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ❆♣ós ❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛ ♣♦s✐çã♦ ❡st✐♠❛❞❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ é ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✜❧tr♦ ❞❡ ❑❛❧♠❛♥ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡❞✐çã♦ ❡ ❡st✐♠❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❡♠r❡❧❛t❛♠ ❜♦♥s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛♦ tr❛t❛r ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s ✭❝♦♠✉♥s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ✉r❜❛♥♦s✮✱ ❧♦❣♦ ❞❡st❛❝❛✲s❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❞♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡♠♦çã♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✳ ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s

  ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✶✸

  ❜❛♥♦s ❝♦♠ trá❢❡❣♦ ✐♥t❡♥s♦✳ ◆❡st❡s ❝❛s♦s ❛ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦rt✐♠♦ é ❞❡❣r❛❞❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t♦s ❝á❧❝✉❧♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❛ ❞❡❣r❛❞❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s r❡❧❛t❛r❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❢❛❧❤❛ ♥❛ ❞✐st✐♥çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ✉♠❛ ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❆♣ós ❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ ✈í❞❡♦✳ ❊♠ ▲❡❡ ❡ ❇❛✐❦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ q✉❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛ ❛ tr❛❥❡tór✐❛ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❧❡♥t❡ ✏♦❧❤♦ ❞❡ ♣❡✐①❡✑ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ â♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❡ ✈✐sã♦ ❣r❛♥❞❡✳ ❊st❛ ❧❡♥t❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡✱ s❡ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❝❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ✐♥t❡rs❡çã♦ ✭❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❛ s♦❧♦✮✱ s❡❥❛ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞❛ ✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❞❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ✈✐❛s r❡❞✉③✐♥❞♦ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛❧❛çã♦✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❧❡♥t❡ tr❛③ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❛ ♠❛✐s q✉❡ é ❛ ❞✐st♦rçã♦ r❛❞✐❛❧ ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ♦❜t✐❞❛s✳ ❊st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❞✐st♦rçã♦ é ♠❛✐s ♣r♦♥✉♥❝✐❛❞❛ ♥❛s ❜♦r❞❛s ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠✱ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ❞❡ ✉♠ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✳ P❛r❛ ♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ✉s❛r❛♠ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❊st✐♠❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❙❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ▼♦♥t❡ ❈❛r❧♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✜❧tr❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♣❛rtí❝✉❧❛s✱ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❜♦♥s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♥♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♠♦str❛❞♦ ❡♠ ➱ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛♥t❡ ♥♦t❛r q✉❡ ❡♠ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❧❛t❛❞♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ❞♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❛❧✈♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛ ❝❛✉s❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♠❡r❛ ✭♦❜❥❡t♦s ♣ró①✐♠♦s sã♦ ♠❛✐♦r❡s✮✳ ❊st❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❢❡③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❢❛❧❤❛ss❡ ❡♠ ✈ár✐❛s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s✳ ❆ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ✉♠❛ r♦t✐♥❛ ❞❡ ❛❥✉st❡ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ r❡❧❛t✐✈♦✳ ◆♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❡♠ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉s❛❞❛s ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s r❡❛✐s✱ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ tr❛❞✉③ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦❡r❡♥t❡ ❛s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s r❡❛✐s✱ ♣♦r s❡r ✉♠ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦ ❡ s❡♠ ♠✉✐t❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s✳ ❖s ❛✉t♦r❡s r❡❧❛t❛♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ♥♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛♣ós ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ✭✉s❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦✮✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠

  ❈♦♠♦ ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠ ❞♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ ✉s❛ ❝â♠❡r❛s ♣♦s✐✲ ❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❛s ✈✐❛s é ❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❣❡♦♠étr✐❝❛ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s✱ q✉❛♥t♦ ♠❛✐s ❞✐st❛♥t❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ à ❝â♠❡r❛✱ ♠❡♥♦r ❡❧❡ s❡rá✳ ❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❧❡✈❛ ❡♠ ❝♦♥t❛ ❡st❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❣❡♦♠étr✐❝❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦①❡s ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐✈♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ s✉❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡st✐♠❛❞❛ ❡♠ r❡❧❛✲ çã♦ à ❝â♠❡r❛✳ ❖ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① é ♦❜t✐❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❛té ♦ ♣✐①❡❧ ❝❡♥tr❛❧ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦✳ ❆ ❡st✐♠❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦s t❛♠❛♥❤♦s ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ❞❛❞♦s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s ❡ trá❢❡❣♦ ❝♦♥✲ ❣❡st✐♦♥❛❞♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♥❡st❛s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s s❡rá ❛❧t❡r❛❞♦✳ ❖s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡❧❛t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ♠♦str❛r❛♠ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♥s s❡♠♣r❡ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r❡s às r❡❛✐s✱

  ✶✹ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s

  ❡♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ú♥✐❝♦s✳ ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❧❡✈♦✉ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦ ♦ s❡✉ ✉s♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝â♠❡r❛s ❡stát✐❝❛s✱ ♣♦ré♠ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ r❡❛❧ ❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ♣♦❞❡ s♦❢r❡r ❧❡✈❡s ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦s ✭❡❧❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✈❡♥t♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✳ ❊st❡ ❢❛t♦ ❢❡③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ❞♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s t❡st❛❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ss❡♠ t❛①❛s ❞❡ ❡rr♦ q✉❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r❛♠ ❛ ✷✵✪✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ❡❧❡✈❛❞♦✳

  P❛r❛ ❧✐❞❛r ❝♦♠ ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ❝❛✉s❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦✱ ❍❛s❤♠✐ ❡ ❑❡s❦❛r ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❡♠ ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡s ❧♦❝❛✐s ❞♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ♥❛ ✐♥t❡rs❡çã♦✳ ❖s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r❛♠ ✈ár✐❛s ③♦♥❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛s ✈✐❛s ❝♦❜r✐♥❞♦ ♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛✳ ❆ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ✜♥❛❧ é ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡q✉❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛ ❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ③♦♥❛ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛ é ❢❡✐t❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❛tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡s♦s ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ③♦♥❛ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ✭❛ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❛ ❞❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ✈❛r✐❛♠ ❞❡ ③♦♥❛ ♣❛r❛ ③♦♥❛✮✳ ❖s ♣❡s♦s sã♦ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çõ❡s ❢❛❧s❛s ❡ ✈❡r❞❛❞❡✐r❛s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ③♦♥❛ ❡ sã♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s ✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ✉♠❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❛❝❡rt♦ ✈❛r✐❛♥❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ✽✺✪ ❡ ✾✷✪✱ ♠❛s ♣♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ é s❡♠♣r❡ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ r❡❛❧ ✭❞❡✈✐❞♦ à s♦❜r❡♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ③♦♥❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞✉♣❧❛s ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✮✳ P❛r❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛r❛♠ ❛ t❛①❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ ❢❛❧s♦ ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❡ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r❛♠ ✉♠ ❛❥✉st❡ ♥♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ s♦♠❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛ t❛①❛ ❡s♣❡r❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❢❛❧s♦s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s✳ ❈♦♠♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s r❡♣♦rt❛r❛♠ ✉♠❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ s✉❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✽✺✱✾✸✪ ♥❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦✱ ✽✽✱✷✸✪ ♥❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ✾✷ ✪ ♥❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ❡st❛tíst✐❝♦ ❡st✐♠❛❞♦✱ ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ♥ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ❛s t❛①❛s ❞❡ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ❡ r❡✈♦❝❛çã♦✳

  ❖ ♣❛ss♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ à ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ é ♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛s ❝❡♥❛s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦✳ ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ r❛str❡✐♦ ♣♦r ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ ✈❡♠ s❡♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✈ár✐♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ é ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s à ✐♠❛❣❡♠✳ ❖ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❛str❡✐♦ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ é ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❑❛♥❛❞❡✲▲✉❝❛s✲❚♦♠❛s✐ ✭❑▲❚✮✳ ❊st❡ ♠ét♦❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❛ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❡ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s✱ ✐♥tr♦❞✉③✐❞♦ ♣♦r ❑❛♥❛❞❡ ❡ ❚♦♠❛s✐ ❡♠ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐✲ ♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ♣♦♥t♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ sã♦ ❡①tr❛í❞♦s ❡ s✉❛ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ é ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡st✐♠❛❞❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ❖ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❑▲❚ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ❜❡♠ ❡♠ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡ ❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ s❡ ❛❧t❡r❛♠ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ t❡①t✉r❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧ ❛♣❛r❡♥t❡✳ ❊♠

  ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✶✺

  ♠✉❞❛ s✉❛ tr❛❥❡tór✐❛ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡stát✐❝❛ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ q✉❡r❡r ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r ♦

  ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦✱ ♦✉ r♦t❛✱ t♦♠❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❡❧❡✳ P❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛ r♦t❛ ♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s✉❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ s❡❥❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛✳ ❘✐t❝❤✐❡✱ ❏✉♥✲❙♦❦ ❡ ❏❛②❛❦r✐s❤♥❛♥ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❧❛r❣✉r❛✱ ❛❧t✉r❛ ❡ ❝♦r✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦ ✉s❛r❛♠ ❧♦♦♣s ✐♥❞✉t✐✈♦s ❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝r✐❛r ♦ q✉❡ ❝❤❛♠❛r❛♠ ❞❡ ✏❛ss✐♥❛t✉r❛ ❞♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦✑✳ ▲♦❣♦✱ ❞♦✐s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ s❡♥❞♦ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ❝❛s♦ s✉❛s ❛ss✐♥❛t✉r❛s s❡❥❛♠ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡s✳ ❖s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❡♠ ✉s❛r❛♠ ③♦♥❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s sã♦ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❛s ❞❡t❡❝çõ❡s ♣ré✈✐❛s✳

  ❆ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛s r♦t❛s ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♥✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ❡ s❡♠ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ s❡♥s♦r❡s✳ ▲❡❡ ❡ ❇❛✐❦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ❝♦♠ ❡st❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✳ ❖s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❝❛♣t✉r❛r❛♠ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❧❡♥t❡ ✏♦❧❤♦ ❞❡ ♣❡✐①❡✑ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣✉❞❡ss❡♠ t❡r ✉♠ â♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❡ ✈✐sã♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❡ q✉❡ ❛❜r❛♥❣❡ss❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥t❡rs❡❝çõ❡s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✈✐❛✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛r❛♠ ♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ✜❧tr❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♣❛rtí❝✉❧❛s✱ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r q✉❛❧ ♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ s✉❛ ❞✐r❡çã♦✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❛s ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♥s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❡st✐♠❛t✐✈❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦✳

  ■♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❇r❛❣❛tt♦ ❛t ❛❧ ❡♠ ❖s ❛✉t♦r❡s ✉s❛r❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❛ q✉❛tr♦ ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❛❧t✉r❛ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ s♦❧♦✱ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡ ♣✉❞❡ss❡♠ ♦❜t❡r ✉♠ â♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❡ ✈✐sã♦ q✉❡ ❛❜r❛♥❣❡ss❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥t❡rs❡❝çõ❡s ❞❛s ✈✐❛s✳ ❆s ③♦♥❛s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ✈✐❛s sã♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛s ♠❛♥✉✲ ❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ♦❜t✐❞❛s ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛♠ ❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ s✉❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✱ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐st♦ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❍❛rr✐s ❝♦r♥❡rs ❈♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡rís❝❛s ♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s sã♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦s ❡ r❛str❡❛❞♦s ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ s❡✉ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❛té ♦ s❡✉ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛✳ ❖s ❛✉t♦r❡s r❡♣♦rt❛r❛♠ ✉♠❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❛❝❡rt♦ ❞❡ ✾✻ ✪ ❡♠ ✈✐❛s s✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ❞❡ ✼✷ ✪ ❡♠ ✈✐❛s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛s✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹ ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦

  ◆❡st❛ s❡çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠♦s ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠✱ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ ✐♥t❡♥s♦ ✭❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦✮✳

  ❖ ✢✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✐❧✉str❛ ❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❝♦♠❡ç❛♥❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ✭❙❡çã♦ ♦♥❞❡ sã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❞❛ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ✭❙❡çã♦ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ sã♦ s❡♣❛r❛❞♦s ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦✳ ❖s ❝♦♠♣♦✲ ♥❡♥t❡s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s sã♦ ❡♥tã♦ r❡♣❛ss❛❞♦s ❛♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❜❧♦❜s ✭❙❡çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r s❡ sã♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ✈á❧✐❞♦s✳ ❙❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✢✉①♦ t❡♠♦s ♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ✭❙❡çã♦ q✉❡ é ♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ ❡ r❛str❡✐♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛ r❡♣❛ss❛❞♦s ❛♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ✭❙❡çã♦ ♦♥❞❡ s❡rã♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♣r❡✈✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s✳ ❖ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣❛ss♦ é ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ✭❙❡çã♦ ♦♥❞❡ s❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛ s❡ ♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ s❡♥❞♦ r❛str❡❛❞♦s ❡stã♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s❡ r❡♣❡t❡ ❛té q✉❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ❞♦s ✈í❞❡♦ t❡♥❤❛♠ s✐❞♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s✳

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✶✽

  ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✿ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦

  ✹✳✶ ■♥✐❝✐❛❧✐③❛çã♦

  ◆❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ❢❛③ ♦ ❝❛rr❡❣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✈í❞❡♦ ❛ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❢r❛♠❡✳ ❖ ✢✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ♣❛ss♦s q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r s❡❣✉✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✷✿ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❆♣ós ♦ ❝❛rr❛❣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ❡st❛rá ❛♣t♦ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐r ✈✐s✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ r❡❣✐ã♦

  ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ q✉❡ é ❛ ♣♦rçã♦ ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s s❡rã♦ ❜✉s❝❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✈✐s❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐r ♦ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛✱ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛♥❞♦ r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ♣❛ss❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♣❡❞❡str❡s✱ ár❡❛s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ❝é✉ ❡ ♣♦rçõ❡s ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♥ã♦ tr❛❢❡❣❛♠✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐r ❛s ✐♥t❡r❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❡①t❡r♥❛s às ✈✐❛s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ ❞❡♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦

  ✶✾ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♠❛♥✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ✭❘❖■s✮ q✉❡ sã♦ ❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ✈✐❛s✳ ❊st❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ s❡rá ✉s❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ♣❛r❡s ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦✳

  ❆s ár❡❛s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♥❛ ✈✐❛ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ♣♦❧í❣♦✲ ♥♦s q✉❡ ❝✉❜r❛♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❡s♣❛ç♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s q✉❡ ✉♠ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ♣♦ss❛ ♦❝✉♣❛r ❛♦ ❡♥tr❛r✴s❛✐r ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ✈✐❛s✳ ❊st❡s ♣♦❧í❣♦♥♦s ❞❡✈❡♠ r❡❝❡❜❡r ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ♦ s❡✉ t✐♣♦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ✭♣❛r❛ ♣♦❧í❣♦♥♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✱ ♦ t✐♣♦ s❡rá ✏✐♥✑❀ ♣❛r❛ ♣♦❧í❣♦♥♦s ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✏♦✉t✑✮✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❡st❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ t✐♣♦s ❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r❡s é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s r♦t❛s✳ ❈❛❞❛ ♣❛r ❞❡ ♣♦❧í❣♦♥♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✴s❛í❞❛ ✐rá r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠❛ r♦t❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❯♠❛ ✈❡③ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s ❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❡ ♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣♦❞❡rá ✐♥✐❝✐❛r s✉❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ❘❖■s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ é ✐♥✐❝✐❛❞❛ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♠♦str❛ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❞♦ ✈í❞❡♦ ❛ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦✳ ◆♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❡sq✉❡r❞♦ ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ t❡♠♦s ❛ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ♣♦❧í❣♦♥♦ ✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ ♦ ♣♦❧í❣♦♥♦ ❛③✉❧ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ r♦t❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✸✿ ❚❡❧❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r♦t❛✳

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✷✵

  ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦

  ✹✳✷ ❉❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❋♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞

  ❆ ❢❛s❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s é ❛ ❞❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞✳ ❊st❡ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r s❡rá ♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r s❡♣❛r❛r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡stát✐❝♦s ✭❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✮ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡✲ t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞✳ ❆ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ❡ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛ q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ t❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝✉❥❛s ❛❧✲ t❡r❛çõ❡s ❞❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ s❡ ❛❧t❡r❛♠ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✳ ❖✉tr♦ ❢❛t♦r r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡ ♥❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ é ❛ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ q✉❡ s✉♣♦st❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡✈❡r✐❛ ❡st❛r ❡stát✐❝❛✳ ❊♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ r❡❛❧ ♦♥❞❡ ❤á ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛t✉r❛❧ ❞♦s ✈❡♥t♦s ❡ ❛ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣❡s❛❞♦s✱ é ❝♦♠✉♠ ❛ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✳

  ❖ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ♣♦ss✉í ❞✉❛s ❡t❛♣❛s✱ q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ✐❧✉str❛❞❛s ♥♦ ✢✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥✲ t♦✴❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❡ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛r ♦s ❡❢❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥✈♦❧✉♥tár✐♦s ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✳ ❊st❛ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦s ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s ♠✐❧ ❡ ♦✐t♦❝❡♥t♦s q✉❛❞r♦s ❞♦ ✈í❞❡♦ ✭q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛ ✉♠ ♠✐♥✉t♦ ❞❡ ❞✉r❛çã♦✮✳ ❖ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ✶ ♠✐♥✉t♦ ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ♣♦r s❡r ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♦ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦❜r✐r s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ trá❢❡❣♦ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡ ❡ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❧✉♠✐♥♦s✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❆ té❝♥✐❝❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❛✉t♦r❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♠❡s❝❧❛ ❞❡ ●❛✉ss✐❛♥❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ às ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✳ ❊st❛ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦ é ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛ ❡ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛♣ós ♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♥♦✈♦ q✉❛❞r♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✹✿ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞♦✐s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s✱ ✭✐✮ é ❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ q✉❡

  ❡stá ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❧✐❣❛❞❛ ❛♦ q✉ã♦ rá♣✐❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡ ❛❞❡q✉❛rá às ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❞❡ ❧✉♠✐♥♦s✐✲ ❞❛❞❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❝❡♥❛✱ ✉♠❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡♥❞✐③❛❣❡♠ ❜❛✐①❛ ❢❛rá ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ q✉❛❞r♦s ♠❛✐♦r ❛té ❛❜s♦r✈❡r ❛s ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s❀ ❡ ✭✐✐✮ ❛ r❛③ã♦ ♠í♠✐♠❛

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦

  ✷✶ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦✳

  ◆♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ é ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♥♦✈♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❧✐❞♦ ❞♦ ✈í❞❡♦✳ ■st♦ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡❥❛ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛ ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝❛✉s❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛s ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❝❡♥❛✳

  ❆ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ é ✉♠❛ ♠ás❝❛r❛ ❜✐♥ár✐❛ ♦♥❞❡ s❡ t❡♠ ❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥❛ ❝❡♥❛✳ ❊st❛ s❛í❞❛ ❡stá ❡①❡♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ♦♥❞❡ t♦♠❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♣♦r ❜❛s❡ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧ ❞♦ ✈í❞❡♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❡①tr❛t♦r ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ♣♦rçã♦ ❜r❛♥❝❛ ♥❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠✳ ❊st❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ r❡s✉❧t❛♥t❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ r✉í❞♦s ❝❛✉s❛❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❜❛❧❛♥ç❛r ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✳ ❊st❡s r✉í❞♦s s❡rã♦ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❡t❛♣❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡✳

  

✭❛✮ ❋r❛♠❡ ✭❜✮ ❋♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✺✿ ❉❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞✳ ❋r❛♠❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ✭❛✮ ❡ ▼ás❝❛r❛ ❞❡ ❋♦r❡✲ ❣r♦✉♥❞ ✭❜✮✳

  ✹✳✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❜❧♦❜s

  ❆♣ós ❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ✭❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞✮ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡stát✐❝♦s ❡ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ✭❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✮✱ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❡st❛rá ❛♣t♦ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❜❧♦❜s ✭❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ ♣✐①❡❧ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s✮ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✳ ❖ ✢✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ♦♣❡r❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❜❧♦❜s✳

  ❚♦♠❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♣♦r ❜❛s❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ✉♠❛ sér✐❡

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✷✷

  ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻✿ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❜❧♦❜s q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦ ♥❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ s❡❥❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐❞❛✳ ❯♠ ✜❧tr♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐❛♥❛✱ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ✺

  ① ✺✱ ❢♦✐ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❤♦✉✈❡ss❡ ✉♠❛ s✉❛✈✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❜♦r❞❛s ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ ✜❧tr♦ ✉♠❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♥st✐t✉í❞❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢❡❝❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦ ❡str✉t✉r❛♥t❡ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❞✐s❝♦ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ✷✮ ❡ ✉♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤✐♠❡♥t♦ sã♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛s✳ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❛s ♦♣❡r❛çõ❡s ♠♦r❢♦❧ó❣✐❝❛s é ♣r❡❡♥❝❤❡r ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ✏❜✉r❛❝♦s✑ ❞❡✐①❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦✳

  ◆❡st❡ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ♦s r✉í❞♦s ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ sã♦ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✳ ❇❧♦❜s ❝✉❥♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ t♦t❛❧ é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ sã♦ ❞❡s❝❛rt❛❞♦s ✭♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s s♦♠❡♥t❡ ❜❧♦❜s ❝♦♠ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ♠í♠✐♥♦ ♠❛✐♦r q✉❡ ✶✵✵ ♣✐①❡❧s✮✳ ❊st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❛ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦✱ tr❛③ ✉♠ ❣❛♥❤♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❛♦ ♠ét♦❞♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡s♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ s♦❜r❡ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ ♣✐①❡❧s q✉❡ s❛❜✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥ã♦ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♠ ❛ ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳ ❊st❡ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❢♦✐ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞♦ t♦♠❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♣♦r ❜❛s❡ ♦ ♠❡♥♦r t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛✳

  P❛r❛ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s r❡st❛♥t❡s ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛ ❡ ❝❛♣t✉r❛ ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✿ ár❡❛✱ ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡ ❡ ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛❞❛s ❞♦ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① ✭q✉❛❞r♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r t♦❞♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦✮✳ ❖ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞♦ ♥❡st❡ ♣❛ss♦ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦s ♣❛ss♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❝♦♠♦ ár❡❛ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦✳

  ❆ r❛③ã♦ ❞❡ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❧❛r❣✉r❛ ❡ ❛❧t✉r❛ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s é ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞❛ ❝♦♠

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦

  ✷✸ ✉♠ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦✱ ❝♦♠ ✐st♦ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❝✉❥❛ r❛③ã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❝♦♠♣r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❧❛r❣✉r❛ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❡♥tr❡ ✷ ❡ ✶✻ sã♦ ❞❡s❝❛rt❛❞♦s✳ ❊st❛ ❢❛✐①❛ ❞❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❛❜r❛♥❥❡ ❛ r❛③ã♦ ❞❡ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ❡s♣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦t♦s✱ ❝❛rr♦s✱ ô♥✐❜✉s ❡ ❝❛♠✐♥❤õ❡s✱ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ♥♦s t❛♠❛♥❤♦s ♠é❞✐♦s ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦ ❜r❛s✐❧❡✐r♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❛tr✐❜✉✐ ❛♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ✉♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r✱ ❝❛s♦ ❡❧❡ ♣♦ss✉❛ ✉♠❛ r❛③ã♦ ❞❡ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ❛❝❡✐tá✈❡❧ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✳ ❊ss❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r s❡rá ✉s❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❞♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦✳

  ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❞♦✐s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡stã♦ s❡ ♠♦✈❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ♣♦s✐çõ❡s ♠✉✐t♦ ♣ró①✐♠❛s ✉♠ ❞♦ ♦✉tr♦ ♦ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❜❧♦❜s t❡♥❞❡ ❛ ❢❛❧❤❛r✳ ■st♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♣♦rq✉❡ ❛s ❞✉❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ♥ã♦ ✐rã♦ s❡♣❛r❛r ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ♦✉tr♦ ❡ ✐rá ❝♦♥s✐❞❡rá✲❧♦s ❝♦♠♦ s❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦ ❞❡ ♣✐①❡❧s✳ P❛r❛ r❡s♦❧✈❡r ❡st❡ ♣r♦✲ ❜❧❡♠❛ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✐♥t❡r♥❛ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s✳ ❆ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ é ❛ ❑✲♠❡❛♥s ✭✉s❛♥❞♦ ❦ ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ ✷✮✳ ❖ r❡s✉❧✲ t❛❞♦ ❞❡st❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✐rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❞♦✐s ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ ♣✐①❡❧s ❛❣r✉♣❛❞♦s s❡❣✉♥❞♦ s✉❛ ♣r♦①✐♠✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❆ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝❡♥tr♦s ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ ❞❡st❡s ❞♦✐s ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s é ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞❛ ❡ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ é ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✳ ❈❛s♦ ♦s ❝❡♥tr♦s ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ♠❛✐s ❞✐st❛♥t❡s ❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ s❡rá s❡♣❛r❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❞♦✐s✳

  ❖ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ♣♦❞❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢❛❧❤❛r ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❝♦♠♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❞♦✐s ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s s❡♣❛r❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♣✐①❡❧s✳ ❊st❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝❛✉s❛❞❛ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡ ❛ ❝❡♥❛ ❝❛✉s❛ ✉♠❛ ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ♥♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠ ♣♦st❡ ❞❡ s✐♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ♦❝✉❧t❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ q✉❡ s❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t❛ s♦❜ ❡❧❡✳ P❛r❛ ❛♠❡♥✐③❛r ❡st❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ q✉❡ t♦♠❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡s ❞♦s ❜❧♦❜s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❡ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡✉❝❧✐❞✐❛♥❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s✳ ❈❛s♦ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❊✉❝❧✐❞✐❛♥❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❞♦✐s ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡s s❡❥❛ ♠❡♥♦r ❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦ ✭❧✐♠✐❛r ♣ré✲❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✮ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛ q✉❡ ❛s ❞✉❛s ♣♦rçõ❡s ❞❡ ♣✐①❡❧s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♠ ❛ ✉♠ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❛ ✉♥✐ã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s✳ P❛r❛ ❡st❡s ❝❛s♦s✱ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ♠❛✐s ❛♥t✐❣♦ sã♦ ♠❛♥t✐❞❛s ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❞❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦✳ ❖ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① é r❡❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛ ❡♥❣❧♦❜❛r t♦❞❛ ❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❡ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ❝❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ é ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞♦✳

  ❆ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❜❧♦❜s é✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ✉♠❛ ♠ás❝❛r❛ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❛ s❡r r❛str❡❛❞♦✴❝♦♥t❛❞♦ ❡stá s❡♣❛r❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❡ ♦s r✉í❞♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ❡stã♦ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ♠♦str❛ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡ ❞❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❜❧♦❜s ❡ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ♠ás❝❛r❛ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ♦s r✉í❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❡①tr❛t♦r ❞❡

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✷✹

  ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✼✿ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ♣❛r❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦❝✉❧t♦s

  ✭❛✮ ❋r❛♠❡ ✭❜✮ ❋♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✽✿ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❜❧♦❜✳ ❋r❛♠❡ ❞❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ✭❛✮ ❡ ▼ás❝❛r❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❛♣ós ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦ ❜❧♦❜ ✭❜✮✳

  ✹✳✹ ❈á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦

  ❖ r❛str❡✐♦ ❞♦ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦✳ ❊st❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♣♦r

  ❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ♣❡rt❡❝❡♥t❡s ❛♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s✳ ❆s

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦

  ✷✺ ✭q✉✐♥❛s✮ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣✐①❡❧s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦✳

  ❖ ✢✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ❛çõ❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ r❛str❡✐♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✾✿ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s sã♦ ❝♦♠♣❛✲ r❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛♠ s❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣✐①❡❧s

  ❞❡❧✐♠✐t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① s❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦✉✳ ❆ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ é ♣❛r❛♠❡tr✐③❛❞❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ s❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ✭❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦①✮ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛r ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♦ ♣❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❞❡ ✏❝❛s❛♠❡♥t♦✑ ❞❛s ♣♦s✐çõ❡s ❞♦s ♣✐①❡❧s ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♣✐①❡❧s ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛t✉❛❧✳ ❈❛s♦ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞❛s ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ s❡rá ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❞❡✈❡rá ❡♥tr❛r ♥♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❝r✉③ ✈❡r♠❡❧❤❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ ❝♦♠♦ s❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣♦♥t♦ ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❆ ❝â♠❡r❛ ✉s❛❞❛ ♥♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦✐ ♠♦♥t❛❞❛ s♦❜r❡ ✉♠ ♣♦st❡ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❡sq✉✐♥❛s ❞❛s ✈✐❛s✳ ❊st❡ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s s❡ ❛❧t❡r❡♠

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✷✻

  ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✵✿ ❖❜❥❡t♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦✳

  ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ✭q✉❡ é ✜①❛✮✳ ❯♠ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♣❛r❡❝❡rá ♠❛✐♦r q✉❛♥❞♦ ❡st✐✈❡r ♣ró①✐♠♦ à ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡ ♦ s❡✉ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ s❡rá ❣r❛❞❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ r❡❞✉③✐❞♦ à ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❛❢❛st❛ ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✜①❛çã♦✳ ❖ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛ ♦ ❞❡s❧♦❝❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ♣✐①❡❧s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ❛ss✉♠✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ s✉❛✈✐③❛çã♦ ❧♦❝❛❧✳ ❙❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❛❧t❡r❛ ♦ s❡✉ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❢❛❧❤❛r✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡✱ ♠✉✐t♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❞❡s❛♣❛r❡❝❡r ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛ ✭q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ s❡ ❛❢❛st❛ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✮ ❡ ♥♦✈♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ✐rã♦ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r ✭q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ s❡ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✮✳ ❉❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ ❡st❡ ❢❛t♦r✱ ✉♠❛ r❡❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s s❡ ❢❛③ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❡ ❛ s❡r r❛str❡❛❞♦✳ ❊st❛ r❡❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ✭r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❜❧♦❜s✮ ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛t✉❛❧✳ ❈❛s♦ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❡st❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ♠♦str❡ q✉❡ ❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❝♦✐♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ s❡❥❛ ♠❛✐♦r q✉❡ ✉♠ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✺✺✪ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❝♦✐♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s ✭♦ q✉❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ ♠❛✐s ❞❛ ♠❡t❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❥á ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❝♦✐♥❝✐❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦✮ ♦ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ é ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡ r❡♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✳ ❖s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ s❡rã♦ ❡♥tã♦ r❡❛❞q✉✐r✐❞♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ♥♦✈❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡❧✐♠✐t❛❞❛ ❡ ♦ ♥♦✈♦ ❝❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ é ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦✳

  ❯♠ ✈❡t♦r ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝❡♥tr♦s ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s é ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦

  ✷✼ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦s ❢r❛♠❡s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ♠♦str❛ ♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ♣❡r❝♦rr✐❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ r❡❣✐str♦ ❞❛s ♣♦s✐çõ❡s ❞♦ s❡✉ ❝❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✶✿ ❈❛♠✐♥❤♦ ♣❡r❝♦rr✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦✴❘♦t❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♠ét♦❞♦

  ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ t❡♠ s❡✉ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦ ❡ s❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛ q✉❡ ❡st❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❥á ❤❛✈✐❛ s✐❞♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ s✉❛ ✐❞❛❞❡ é ✐♥❝r❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡ t❡r ♦ r❡❣✐str♦ ❞❡ ❡♠ q✉❛♥t♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ❝♦♥s❡❝✉t✐✈♦s ❡st❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❢♦✐ r❛str❡❛❞♦✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ r❡❣✐str❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡s ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡st❛✈❛ ✈✐sí✈❡❧ ✭r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r✮ ❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡s ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ✜❝♦✉ ✐♥✈✐sí✈❡❧ ✭r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❞♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ✲ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧✮✳ ❊st❡s r❡❣✐str♦s sã♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ s❡ tr❛t❛r ❛s ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s✳ ❈❛s♦ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ♦ s❡✉ r❡❣✐str♦ ♥ã♦ é ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛❞♦ ✐♠❡❞✐❛t❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❆ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ é t❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ ♣ró①✐♠❛ ✐t❡r❛çã♦✳ ❖ r❡❣✐str♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ só é ❞❡✜♥✐t✐✈❛♠❡t❡ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛❞♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ♥ã♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♣♦r ♦✐t♦ ❢r❛♠❡s ❝♦♥s❡❝✉t✐✈♦s✳ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ ♠é❞✐❛ ❡ ♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✱ ♦s ♦✐t♦ ❢r❛♠❡s r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ✐❞❡❛❧✱ ❛✈❡r✐❣✉❛❞♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡s ♦s t❡st❡s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ♣❡r❞✐❞♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ tr❛❥❡t♦✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ♠♦str❛ ✉♠ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛❞♦ ❞♦ s❡✉ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ❡ ❞❡ s✉❛ ✐❞❛❞❡

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✷✽

  ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✷✿ ■❉ ❞♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ❡ ✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ r❛str❡✐♦

  ✹✳✺ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s

  ❆ t♦❞♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ t❡r❡♠♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♥tr❛♥❞♦ ❡ ❞❡✐①❛♥❞♦ ❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❞❡♠❛r❝❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♥♦✈♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❧✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ t❡♥❤❛ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐❞✐r s❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ é ♥♦✈♦ ♦✉ s❡ ❢❛③ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ♥♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✳ ❖ ✢✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s t❛r❡❢❛s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s✳

  ❉❡♣♦✐s ❞❛ ❡①tr❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ s❡♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❜❧♦❜s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ✐t❡r❛çã♦ ❛t✉❛❧ ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛ ♦ s❡✉ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛s ♣♦s✐çõ❡s ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s ✭❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡s ♥❛ ❥❛♥❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❧t❡r❛❞♦ ♣♦r ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s✮✳ ❆ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ é ❢❡✐t❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❊✉❝❧✐❞✐❛♥❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝❡♥tr♦s ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛✳ ❙❡ ♦ ❝❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ ❞❛ ✏♥♦✈❛✑ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❡stá ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♦ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ✭❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❧✐♠✐❛r ♣ré✲❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐❞♦✮ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ❝❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❥á ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦✱ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❥á ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦✳ ❙✉❛ ✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tã♦ é ✐♥❝r❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡ s❡✉ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ❝❛s♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ♥ã♦ ❡st❡❥❛ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♦ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♦✉tr♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❥á ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦✱ ❡❧❡ é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦✱ ❣❛♥❤❛ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ❡ t❡♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s s✉❛s

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦

  ✷✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✸✿ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s

  ✹✳✻ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡

  ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ♦ ❝❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ♣❛ss❛ s♦❜r❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ✭❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♦✉ s❛í❞❛✮✱ ♦ ■❉ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ♣♦r ♦♥❞❡ ❡❧❡ ♣❛ss♦✉ é ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡✉ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s✳ ❊st❡ ■❉ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ s❡rá ✉s❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❞❡ ✈✐❞❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡ ♣♦ss❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r ❛ s✉❛ r♦t❛ ❛♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❖ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ t❛♠❜é♠ é ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ✈❡t♦r ♣ré✈✐♦ ❞❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡✈✐t❛r ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s✳ ❊st❡ ♣❛ss♦ s❡ ❢❛③ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ sã♦ ❞❡❧✐♠✐t❛❞❛s ♣♦r ♣♦❧í❣♦♥♦s ✭♥ã♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❧✐♥❤❛s s✐♠♣❧❡s✮✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❝❛❞❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦ t❡rá ♦ s❡✉ ❝❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❢r❛♠❡s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ♣❛ss❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ♦ s❡✉ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r é ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✳ ❈❛s♦ ❡❧❡ ♥ã♦ ❡st❡❥❛ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡✱ s❡rá ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❡ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♥t❛❞♦ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ s✉❛ ♣❛ss❛❣❡♠ ♣❡❧❛ r❡❣✐ã♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ♠♦str❛ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡ ❝♦♠ ❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ✭❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛✮ ❞❡❧✐♠✐t❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳

  ✹✳✼ ❉❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❖r✐❣❡♠✲❉❡st✐♥♦

  ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ♣❛ss❛ s♦❜r❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ s❛í❞❛ ✭✏♦✉t✑✮ s✉❛ r♦t❛

  ▼ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✸✵

  ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✹✿ ❋r❛♠❡ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛

  ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ♥♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ s❡✉ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❞❡ ✈✐❞❛✳ ❖ ❝♦♥t❛❞♦r r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ♣❛r ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ é ❡♥tã♦ ✐♥❝r❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ ❝r✉③❛r❛♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ r♦t❛✳ ❊st❡ ♣❛ss♦ é ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❧❡✐t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦❞❡r❡♠♦s t❡r ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡✐①❛♥❞♦ ❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❝♦❜❡rt❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞❡✐①❛♥❞♦ ❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳

  ❆♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ♦s ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡❧❛s✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  ◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❡ q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛❝❡ss♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝♦✳ ❙❡rã♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s✳

  ✺✳✶ ❇❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s

  P❛r❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ✈í❞❡♦s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ❢♦♥t❡s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s✳

  ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥♦ ✈í❞❡♦ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡rs❡çã♦ ❞❡ r✉❛s ♥❛ ❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ▼♦♥tr❡❛❧ ✭❙t✲▼❛r❝ ❝♦♠ ▼❛✐s♦♥♥❡✉✈❡✮✱ ♥♦ ❈❛♥❛❞á✳ ❊st❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛q✉✐ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❇❛s❡ ❙t✲▼❛r❝✱ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❏♦❞♦✐♥✱ ❇✐❧♦❞❡❛✉ ❡ ❙❛✉♥✐❡r ❡♠ q✉❡ ❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛r❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ✉s♦✳ ❖ ✈í❞❡♦ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✶✵✵✵ ❢r❛♠❡s t♦♠❛❞♦s ❛ ✉♠❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ✸✵ ❢r❛♠❡s ♣♦r s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❡ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✶✵✷✹ ① ✺✼✻ ♣✐①❡❧s✳ ❆s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❞❡st❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡stát✐❝❛ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❛ ✈✐❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛s ✐♥t❡rs❡çõ❡s ✜③❡ss❡♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❜♦❛ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❜❛✐①❛ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦s✳ ❆ ❜❛s❡ ❙t✲▼❛r❝✱ ♦♥❞❡ t❡♠♦s ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♦✐t♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✱ ❝♦♥t❛ ❝♦♠ ❞✉❛s ✈✐❛s ✭r♦t❛s✮ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ✏❆✑ ❡ ✏❇✑ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛

  ❆ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ três s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡rs❡çã♦ ❞❡ ✈✐❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❛♣✐t❛❧ ❜r❛s✐❧❡✐r❛✱ t♦♠❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❤♦rár✐♦s

  ✸✷ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦✳ ❆s s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s ❛ ✉♠❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ✷✾ ❢r❛♠❡s ♣♦r s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❡ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ q✉❛❞r♦s ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ✼✷✵①✹✽✵ ♣✐①❡❧s✳ ❆s s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ✶ ❡ ✷ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s à ❧✉③ ❞♦ ❞✐❛✱ ❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ✸ ❥á ❛♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛ t❛r❞❡ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ♥❛t✉r❛❧ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✈❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉í❞❛✳

  P❛r❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♦s ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s s❡✐s ♠✐♥✉t♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♠✐♥✉t♦ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❝❛rt❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ♣♦✐s ♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❡st❡ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ❖s ❝✐♥❝♦ ♠✐♥✉t♦s r❡st❛♥t❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡✳ ❆ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s r♦t❛s ❡ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛

  ✭❛✮ ❘♦t❛s ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❙t✲▼❛r❝ ✭❜✮ ❘♦t❛s ❞❛ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✿ ■❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s r♦t❛s✳ ✭❛✮ ❘♦t❛s ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❙t✲▼❛r❝✳ ✭❜✮ ❘♦t❛s ❞❛ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡

  ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✶✿ ❉❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞❛ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❙❡q✳ ❱❡í❝✉❧♦s ✭❆✮ ❱❡í❝✉❧♦s✭❇✮ ✵✶ ✻✾ ✶✶✷ ✵✷ ✽✶ ✶✷✻ ✵✸ ✶✷✽ ✶✵✶

  ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠♦s ❡①❡♠♣❧♦s ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡s ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡

  ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✸✸

  

✭❛✮ ❙❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ✵✶ ✭❜✮ ❙❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ✵✷

✭❝✮ ❙❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ✵✸

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✷✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛♠❡s ❞❛ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡✳ ✭❛✮ ❡ ✭❜✮ ❈♦♥❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ♥❛t✉r❛❧ ❝♦♠ ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s ❡ s♦♠❜r❛s ✭❝✮ ❋✐♠ ❞❛ t❛r❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❜❛✐①❛s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ♥❛t✉r❛❧✳

  ✺✳✷ ❈♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s

  ❖s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ três ♣❛rt❡s✳ ◆❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í✲

  ❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ ♣❛ss❛r❛♠ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞♦ ✈í❞❡♦✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭❙t✲▼❛r❝ ❡ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡✮✳ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ q✉❛❧✐✲ ❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ à ár❡❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧ ❞❛ ✈✐❛✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❡st❛ ár❡❛ ♣♦ss✉í ✉♠❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❢♦❝❛❧ ♠é❞✐❛ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡✈✐t❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s s❡❥❛♠ ♣❡r❞✐❞♦s ♣♦r ❡st❛r❡♠

  ✸✹ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♦ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥t❡r ✉♠ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦ ❡♠ s❡✉ ✐♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ s❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐✲

  ♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❜r❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛ ✉♠❛ r♦t✐♥❛ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣✉❞❡ss❡ s❡r ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ r❡❛❧ ✭❢❡✐t❛ ♠❛♥✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✮✳ P❛r❛ ✐st♦ s❡♣❛r❛♠♦s ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ q✉✐♥③❡ ❢r❛♠❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❯r✲ ❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❡ ✜③❡♠♦s ✉♠❛ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ r❡tâ♥❣✉❧♦ q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ✭❇♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❇♦①✮✳ ❆s ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛❞❛s ❞♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞♦s ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① ❢♦r❛♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❳▼▲ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣✉❞❡ss❡♠ s❡r r❡❝✉♣❡r❛❞❛s ♣♦st❡r✐✲ ♦r♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❊st❛ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥❛ ❝❡♥❛ t♦r♥♦✉ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ✈✐s✉❛❧ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦① ♦❜t✐❞♦ ♥❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛✲ ♠❡♥t♦ r❡❛❧ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦✳ ❊st❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ s❡r✈✐✉ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛❥✉st❡s ♥♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛ ❞❡t❡❝✲ çã♦✳ ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠♦s ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❞♦ ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ ❜♦①✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ r❡tâ♥❣✉❧♦ ♥❛ ❝♦r ✈❡r❞❡✱ ❡ ❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠ ♣❡❧♦ r❡tâ♥❣✉❧♦ ❛♠❛r❡❧♦✳

  ◆❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❡t❛♣❛s ❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❞✉❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐st✐♥t❛s✳ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱ ✉s❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡❧✐♥❡ ❡ q✉❡ s❡rá ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✏❇✑✱ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❑▲❚ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ s❡♠ ❛s r♦t✐♥❛s ❝r✐❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛s ♥❛s ❙❡çõ❡s ❆ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ s❡rá ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✏▼✑✱ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❑▲❚ ❛❝r❡s❝✐❞♦ ❞❛s r♦t✐♥❛s ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s✳

  ◆❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s s❡t❡ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r❡s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ✈❛r✐❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s✳ P❛r❛ ❡st❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❢♦✲ r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♦s ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦s s❡✐s ♠✐♥✉t♦s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡✳ ❆ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r♦t✐♥❛ ❞❡ ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ✈❛❧♦r❡s✳ ❆ ❝❛❞❛ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛ r♦t✐♥❛ s❡ ❡♥✲ ❝❛rr❡❣❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛r ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✱ ❛❧t❡r❛r ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ♣ré✲❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐❞♦s ❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❉♦✐s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s s♦❢r❡r❛♠ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞✉r❛♥t❡s ♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❖ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦

  ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✸✺

  ✭❛✮ ❋r❛♠❡ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧ ✭❜✮ ❖❜❥❡t♦s s❡❣♠❡♥t❛❞♦s

✭❝✮ ▼❛r❝❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ① ❉❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞♦ s✐s✲

t❡♠❛

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✸✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ✭❛✮ é ♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧ ✭❜✮ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✭❝✮❈♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ✭✈❡r❞❡✮ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✭❛♠❛r❡❧♦✮✳

  ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ✭t❤❊❞✮ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡s ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ❜❧♦❜s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡❧❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛ ✉♠ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦✳ ❖ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ✭♠♣✮ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❢r❛♠❡ s❡❥❛ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❢r❛♠❡ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳ ❊st❡s ❞♦✐s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s ♣♦r t❡r❡♠ ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞✐r❡t❛ ♥❛ s❡❣♠❡♥✲ t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ✭♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ t❤❊❞✮ ❡ ♥♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ✭♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ♠♣✮✳

  P❛r❛ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥❡st❛ ❢❛s❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦✐ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ♦ ●r♦✉♥❞tr✉t❤ ❞♦s s❡❣♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ ❯r❜❛♥ ❚r❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦

  ✸✻ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ♠❛♥✉❛❧ ❢♦✐ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛ ❡ ❡stá ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s✳

  ❖s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♥❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ♣❛rt❡✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐st✐✉ ♥❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛s r♦t❛s t♦♠❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✳ ◆❡st❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t♦ ♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ❛ s✉❛ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❝❡♥❛✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❞❡♠❛r❝❛❞❛✱ ❛té ❛ s✉❛ s❛í❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞❡♠❛r❝❛❞❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛tr✐❜✉✐ ✉♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❡❧❡ ♣❛ss❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✱ ❜❛st❛ ❡♥tã♦ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ❡st❡ ♠❡s♠♦ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ♣❛ss♦✉ s♦❜r❡ ❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r ♦ ♣❡r❝✉rs♦ t♦♠❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❡❧❡✳

  ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♣❛rt❡s ❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❡stã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♥❛s ❙❡çõ❡s

  ✺✳✸ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s

  ◆♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❙t✲▼❛r❝ ♦❜t❡✈❡✲s❡ ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡rt♦ ❞❡ ✶✵✵✪ ♥❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ ♣❛ss❛r❛♠ ♥❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❝❡♥tr❛❧ ❞❛ ✈✐❛✳ ❊st❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❡stá r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ à ❜♦❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❡ ❛✉sê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✳ ❘❡ss❛❧t❛✲s❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ ♣❡q✉❡♥❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦s✱ ❜❛✐①❛ ❞❡♥s✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡ ♣♦✉❝❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛s ❝❡♥❛s✳ ❊st❡s ❢❛t♦r❡s ✜③❡r❛♠ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛ss❡ ♠✉✐t♦ ❜❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❙t✲ ▼❛r❝✳

  ❆ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦s ❙t✲▼❛r❝✳ ❆ ❝♦❧✉♥❛ ●r♦✉♥❞tr✉t❤ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ r❡❛❧ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ tr❛❢❡❣❛r❛♠ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r♦t❛ ❡ ❛ ❝♦❧✉♥❛ ✏❈♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✑ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ à ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✳

  ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✷✿ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ✲ ❇❛s❡ ❙t✲▼❛r❝ ❙t ▼❛r❝

  ❘♦t❛ ●r♦✉♥❞tr✉t❤ ❈♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❆❝✉rá❝✐❛ ❘♦t❛ ❆✲❆ ✹ ✹ ✶✵✵✱✵✪ ❘♦t❛ ❇✲❇ ✹ ✹ ✶✵✵✱✵✪

  ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✸✼

  ❆ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡✳ P♦❞❡ s❡r ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ❝❤❡❣♦✉ ❛ ✾✶✪ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r♦t❛ ❆✲❆ ♥❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦✳ ❊st❛ ❛❧t❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ❡stá r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞❡♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✳ ❆ ár❡❛ ❞❡♠❛r❝❛❞❛ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛ ✈✐❛ ❡ ❡stá ♣ró①✐♠❛ à r❡❣✐ã♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❢♦✐ ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞❛✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✐♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ❛s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❥á q✉❡ ❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡stá ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♣♦s✐çã♦ q✉❛s❡ ♣❡r♣❡♥❞✐❝✉❧❛r ❛♦ ❡✐①♦ ❝❡♥tr❛❧ ❞❛ ár❡❛ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛✳ ❈♦♠ ❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ às ♦✉tr❛s r♦t❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ✉♠❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ✐♥❝✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❝❛✉s❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✳ ❖ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡♠❛r❝❛❞❛ é ♠❛✐♦r ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❡❧❡ ❡♠ ♦✉tr❛s ár❡❛s ❞♦ ❢r❛♠❡✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❛ ár❡❛ ❡stá ♣ró①✐♠❛ à ♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✳ ❊st❡ ❢❛t♦r ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛ ♥♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♦❜t✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ♥♦s ♠♦str❛♠ ❛✐♥❞❛ q✉❡ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ r❡✈♦❝❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ r♦t❛ ❆✲❆ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s s❣♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s q✉❡ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ r❡✈♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ r♦t❛ ❇✲❇✳ ■st♦ s❡ ❞❡✈❡ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❛ ♣♦s✐çã♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞❛ r♦t❛ ❇✲❇ ❡st❛r ❞✐st❛♥t❡ ❞❛ ♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♠♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✳ ❈♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❛ r♦t❛✱ ❤á ♠❛✐s ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ ❥✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♣ró①✐♠♦s✱ ❡❧❡✈❛♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❧s♦s ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦s ❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ♠❛✐s ❜❛✐①♦s ❞❡ r❡✈♦❝❛çã♦✳

  ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✸✿ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✲ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛✲ ❜❛s❡

  ❙❡❣✳✴❘♦t❛ Pr❡❝✳ ❘❡✈♦❝✳ ❋✶ ❙✵✶✴❆✲❆ ✾✶✱✵✼✪ ✽✺✱✵✵✪ ✽✼✱✾✸✪ ❙✵✶✴❇✲❇ ✾✶✱✸✻✪ ✼✵✱✹✽✪ ✼✾✱✺✼✪ ❙✵✷✴❆✲❆ ✽✼✱✸✷✪ ✽✸✱✼✽✪ ✽✺✱✽✶✪ ❙✵✷✴❇✲❇ ✽✻✱✽✶✪ ✻✾✱✷✾✪ ✼✼✱✵✼✪ ❙✵✸✴❆✲❆ ✼✼✱✻✼✪ ✽✹✱✹✻✪ ✽✵✱✾✸✪ ❙✵✸✴❇✲❇ ✼✵✱✼✸✪ ✻✼✱✹✹✪ ✻✾✱✵✹✪

  ✸✽ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  

✺✳✹ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r❡s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲

❞❡st✐♥♦

  ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r❡s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✈✐st♦s ♥❛s ❚❛❜❡❧❛s ♦♥❞❡ t❤❊❞ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝❡♥tr♦s ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡❥❛♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ú♥✐❝♦s ❡ ♠♣ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r r❛str❡❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦✳ ◆❡st❡s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♦s s❡❣♠❡♥t♦s ✵✶✱ ✵✷ ❡ ✵✸ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛

  ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✹✿ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r❡s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ✲ ❙❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ✵✶

  ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s Pr❡❝✳✭▼✮ ❘❡✈✳✭▼✮ ❋✶✭▼✮ ❚✶ t❤❊❞❂✼✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✺✽✱✽✷✪ ✼✽✱✾✺✪ ✻✼✱✹✶✪ ❚✷ t❤❊❞❂✽✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✻✵✱✵✵✪ ✼✻✱✾✷✪ ✻✼✱✹✷✪ ❚✸ t❤❊❞❂✶✵✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✼✶✱✹✸✪ ✼✺✱✹✼✪ ✼✸✱✸✾✪ ❚✹ t❤❊❞❂✶✷✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✻✽✱✵✵✪ ✻✹✱✶✺✪ ✻✻✱✵✵✪ ❚✺ t❤❊❞❂✶✸✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✻✻✱✻✼✪ ✻✵✱✸✽✪ ✻✸✱✸✻✪ ❚✻ t❤❊❞❂✶✵✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✵ ✼✶✱✹✸✪ ✼✺✱✹✼✪ ✼✸✱✸✾✪ ❚✼ t❤❊❞❂✶✵✵❀ ♠♣❂✷✺ ✻✺✱✸✽✪ ✻✻✱✻✻✪ ✻✻✱✵✷✪

  ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✺✿ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r❡s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ✲ ❙❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ✵✷

  ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s Pr❡❝✳✭▼✮ ❘❡✈✳✭▼✮ ❋✶✭▼✮ ❚✶ t❤❊❞❂✼✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✼✷✱✶✸✪ ✻✽✱✼✺✪ ✼✵✱✹✵✪ ❚✷ t❤❊❞❂✽✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✼✻✱✷✼✪ ✻✼✱✶✻✪ ✼✶✱✹✷✪ ❚✸ t❤❊❞❂✶✵✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✽✷✱✽✶✪ ✼✺✱✼✶✪ ✼✾✱✶✵✪ ❚✹ t❤❊❞❂✶✷✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✽✶✱✸✺✪ ✻✽✱✺✼✪ ✼✹✱✹✶✪ ❚✺ t❤❊❞❂✶✸✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✼✾✱✻✷✪ ✻✶✱✹✸✪ ✻✾✱✸✺✪ ❚✻ t❤❊❞❂✶✵✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✵ ✽✷✱✽✶✪ ✼✺✱✼✶✪ ✼✾✱✶✵✪ ❚✼ t❤❊❞❂✶✵✵❀ ♠♣❂✷✺ ✼✹✱✺✽✪ ✻✻✱✻✼✪ ✼✵✱✹✵✪

  ❈♦♠♦ s❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♥❛s ❚❛❜❡❧❛s ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡

  ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✸✾

  ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✻✿ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r❡s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ✲ ❙❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ✵✸

  

❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s Pr❡❝✳✭▼✮ ❘❡✈✳✭▼✮ ❋✶✭▼✮

❚✶ t❤❊❞❂✼✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✻✹✱✷✽✪ ✺✺✱✶✵✪ ✺✾✱✸✹✪

❚✷ t❤❊❞❂✽✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✻✼✱✽✺✪ ✺✻✱✹✸✪ ✻✶✱✻✷✪

❚✸ t❤❊❞❂✶✵✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✼✹✱✶✺✪ ✻✷✱✽✺✪ ✻✽✱✵✹✪

❚✹ t❤❊❞❂✶✷✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✼✶✱✻✵✪ ✺✺✱✷✸✪ ✻✷✱✸✻✪

❚✺ t❤❊❞❂✶✸✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✺ ✻✾✱✼✸✪ ✺✵✱✹✼✪ ✺✽✱✺✻✪

❚✻ t❤❊❞❂✶✵✵❀ ♠♣❂✶✵ ✼✹✱✶✺✪ ✻✷✱✽✺✪ ✻✽✱✵✹✪

❚✼ t❤❊❞❂✶✵✵❀ ♠♣❂✷✺ ✻✺✱✽✷✪ ✺✶✱✹✽✪ ✺✼✱✼✼✪

  q✉❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❡ ✶✵✵ ♣r♦✈♦❝❛r❛♠ ✉♠❛ ♣✐♦r❛ ❞❛ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦✳ ■st♦ s❡ ❞❡✈❡ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡s ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ❜❧♦❜s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡❥❛♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ú♥✐❝♦ ♣r♦✈♦❝❛ ✉♠❛ ❥✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s q✉❡ s❡ ❧♦❝♦♠♦✈❡♠ ♣ró①✐♠♦s ✉♥s ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ✭❝❛✉s❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ❞❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s✮✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ✈❡r q✉❡ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛♠ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ❛ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦✳

  ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❞♦✐s ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ✭❡♠ ❤♦rár✐♦s ❞♦ ❞✐❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✮✱ ♦s ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥❡st❛ ❢❛s❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ♦s ❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❚✸✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦r ❝✐♥③❛ ♥❛s ❚❛❜❡❧❛s q✉❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r❛♠ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❝❛❧✐❜r❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉s❛❞♦s ♥♦ r❡st❛♥t❡ ❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♦❜t✐❞♦ ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❚✸ ❢♦✐ ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛♦ ♦❜t✐❞♦ ♥♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❚✻✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦ ❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ✭♠♣✮ ❞❡ ✶✺ ♣❛r❛ ✶✵ ♥ã♦ ✐♥✢✉✐✉ ♥♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦✳

  ✺✳✺ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦

  ❆ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✲❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ❆ ❝♦❧✉♥❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✏❇✑ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❜❛s❡❧✐♥❡ ❡ ♦ ✏▼✑ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡ ❛♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❛❝r❡s❝✐❞♦ ❞❛s r♦t✐♥❛s ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦

  ❖s ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ✭❙✵✶✮✱ r♦t❛

  ✹✵ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s

  ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ✭♣♦r t❡r s✐❞♦ ❣r❛✈❛❞❛ ♥♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞❛ t❛r❞❡✮✳ ❆ r♦t❛ ❆✲❆ é ❛ r♦t❛ q✉❡ ❡stá ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♠❛✐s ♣ró①✐♠❛ ❞❛ ♠♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✱ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❢♦❝❛❧ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛té ❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ s❡❥❛ ♠❡♥♦r✳ ❖ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ❡st❛ r♦t❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢❛✈♦r❡❝❡ ❛ ♠❡♥♦r ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s ✭❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡stá ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♣♦s✐çã♦ q✉❛s❡ ✈❡rt✐❝❛❧ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ à r♦t❛✮✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ❡stá ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♣r❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡st❛ r♦t❛✱ ❤á ✉♠❛ ♠❡♥♦r ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛ ✭à ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ s❡ ❛❢❛st❛ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✱ s❡✉ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐✮✳ ❆ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ♣r♦✈♦❝❛ ❛ ♣❡r❞❛ ❞♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♣r♦✈♦❝❛ ❛ ♣❡r❞❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦ ♥♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ❞❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛ r♦t❛✳

  P♦❞❡✲s❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥♦s s❡❣♠❡♥t♦s ❙✵✶ ❡ ❙✵✷ ❢♦r❛♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥♦ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ❙✵✸✳ ❊st❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ♣♦❞❡ ❡st❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ à ❜❛✐①❛ ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛çã♦ ♥❛t✉r❛❧ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ♥❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❡❧❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s ❥á ♥♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛ t❛r❞❡✳ ❉❡✈✐❞♦ à ❜❛✐①❛ ❧✉♠✐♥♦s✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❤á ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ✐♥❝✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ár❡❛s ❞❡ s♦♠❜r❛ ❛♦ r❡❞♦r ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✳ ❆s s♦♠❜r❛s ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛♠ ❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s✱ ♣♦✐s sã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❛♠ ♠❛✐s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢❛❧s♦s ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦s ✭♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ s❡ ✉♥✐r ♣❡❧❛s s♦♠❜r❛s ❡ s❡r❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦✮✳

  ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✼✿ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ r♦t❛s

  

❙❡❣✳✴❘♦t❛ Pr❡❝✳ ✭❇✮ ❘❡✈♦❝✳ ✭❇✮ ❋✶ ✭❇✮ Pr❡❝✳ ✭▼♦❞✳✮ ❘❡✈♦❝✳ ✭▼♦❞✳✮ ❋✶ ✭▼♦❞

❙✵✶✴❆✲❆ ✺✾✱✺✷✪ ✹✽✱✶✵✪ ✺✸✱✷✵✪ ✼✶✱✹✸✪ ✼✺✱✹✼✪ ✼✸✱✸✾✪

❙✵✶✴❇✲❇ ✼✸✱✸✸✪ ✸✸✱✵✵✪ ✹✺✱✺✶✪ ✽✻✱✾✺✪ ✺✽✱✷✺✪ ✻✾✱✼✼✪

❙✵✷✴❆✲❆ ✼✵✱✽✸✪ ✺✵✱✵✼✪ ✺✾✱✶✸✪ ✽✷✱✽✶✪ ✼✺✱✼✶✪ ✼✾✱✶✵✪

❙✵✷✴❇✲❇ ✻✷✱✶✵✪ ✷✽✱✾✼✪ ✸✾✱✹✾✪ ✼✵✱✻✼✪ ✺✵✱✾✻✪ ✺✾✱✷✶✪

❙✵✸✴❆✲❆ ✻✷✱✸✽✪ ✹✽✱✺✵✪ ✺✹✱✺✹✪ ✼✹✱✶✺✪ ✻✷✱✽✺✪ ✻✽✱✵✹✪

❙✵✸✴❇✲❇ ✺✽✱✾✼✪ ✷✼✱✵✻✪ ✸✼✱✵✾✪ ✻✼✱✷✹✪ ✹✼✱✺✻✪ ✺✺✱✼✶✪

  ✺✳✻ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s

  ◆❡st❛ s❡çã♦ s❡rã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s r❡❧❛t✐✈♦s ❛♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❙t✲▼❛r❝ ❡ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡✳

  ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✹✶ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ q✉❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❥á ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✱ é ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦

  ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛ r♦t❛✳ ❖s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ♠♦str❛r❛♠ q✉❡ ❛ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ é ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠✳ ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ ♠❡s❝❧❛ ❞❡ ❣❛✉ss✐❛♥❛s✳ ❊st❡ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❝♦♥stró✐ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❢♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ q✉❡ é tr❡✐♥❛❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♦s ❢r❛♠❡s ✐♥✐❝✐❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈í❞❡♦✳

  ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♠♦str❛r❛♠ q✉❡ ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❤á ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ♦♥❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡stã♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦s✱ s❡ ❢❛③❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ s❡❥❛♠ r♦❜✉st❛s ♦ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ❝♦♥s✐❣❛♠ ❝♦rr✐❣✐r ❛ ♣❡r❞❛ ❞♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆❡st❛s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ♥❛s ❙❡çõ❡s ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r❛♠ ✉♠ ❣❛♥❤♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❞❡ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ❞❡ ❝❡r❝❛ ❞❡ ✷✹✪ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❜❛s❡❧✐♥❡ ♥♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ r♦t❛s✳

  ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ♣r❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r❡s ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ✈❛r✐❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛s r♦t✐♥❛s ❞❡ ❞❡s❛♠❜✐❣✉❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦✳ ❊st❛s r♦t✐♥❛s sã♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣❡❧❛ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❞❡ ✉♥✐r ❜❧♦❜s ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ s❡♣❛r❛r ✉♠ ❜❧♦❜ ❡♠ ❞♦✐s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡st❡s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ s❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ♠é❞✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛❞♦ ♥❛s ❚❛❜❡❧❛s

  P❡r❝❡❜❡✉✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♠✉✐t♦ ♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❛❝❡✐tá✈❡❧ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡❝✲ çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡rá✲❧♦s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛ ✉♠ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❢❡③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ❥✉♥çõ❡s ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ss❡ ✭❝❛✉s❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❛❧t❛ ♥❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❢❛❧s♦s ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦s✮✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❞♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ❞❡ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡s ❢❡③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s s❡♣❛r❛❞♦s ❡rr♦♥❡❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝r❡s❝❡ss❡✱ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❢❛❧s♦s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s✳ ■st♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♠♣r♦✈❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡s s♦❢r❡✉ ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❡♥tr❡ ✼✵ ❡ ✶✸✵✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ✐❞❡❛❧ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦ ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ ✶✵✵✳ ➚ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❝❡♥tr♦s ❞❡ ♠❛ss❛ ❢♦✐ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ✭✈❛❧♦r❡s ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❞❡ ✶✸✵✮ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❧s♦s ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦s ❛✉♠❡♥t♦✉ ✭♦❜❥❡t♦s r❡❧❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉♥✐❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦✮✳ ➚ ♠❡✲ ❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❞♦s ❝❡♥tró✐❞❡s ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐✉ ✭✈❛❧♦r❡s ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❛ ✼✵✮ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢❛❧s♦s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❛✉♠❡♥t♦✉ ✭♦❜❥❡t♦s ú♥✐❝♦s q✉❡ ♣♦r ❛❧❣✉♠ ♠♦t✐✈♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦s ❡♠ ❞♦✐s ♦✉ ♠❛✐s s❡❣♠❡♥t♦s ♣❛ss❛r❛♠ ❛ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ♥♦✈♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s✮✳

  ◆♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ✈❛❧❡ ❞❡st❛❝❛r q✉❡ ❡st❛s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s sã♦ ❝❛✉s❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ✐♠♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❡♥tr❡❣❛r ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✶✵✵✪ ❝♦rr❡t♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s

  ✹✷ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s sã♦ ❞❡ ❜❛✐①❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♠ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦s ❡ ♠✉✐t❛s ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sã♦✳

  ❖ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ▲✉❝❛s✲❑❛♥❛❞❡ s❡ ♠♦s✲ tr♦✉ ❡✜❝❛③ s♦♠❡♥t❡ ❛♣ós ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛s r♦t✐♥❛s ❞❡ ❞❡s❛♠❜✐❣✉❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡ ❞❛ r♦t✐♥❛ ❞❡ r❡❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦✳ ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ s❡♠ ❛s r♦t✐♥❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥✲ t❛❞❛s✱ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♦❜t✐❞♦ ♥ã♦ ❢♦✐ s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦✳ ❊st❡ ❢❛t♦r ❡stá ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s ♥♦ ✈í❞❡♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❛s ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❢♦r❛♠ ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝â♠❡r❛ ♠♦♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❧❛t❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ✈✐❛s ❤á ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ à ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ s❡ ❞❡s❧♦❝❛ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛✳ ❊st❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ é ✐♠♣❡❞✐t✐✈❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❜♦♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❑▲❚✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♥❡st❛ tr❛♥s✐çã♦ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❛ ár❡❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ♠✉✐t♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ✭❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♣♦✐♥ts✮ sã♦ ♣❡r❞✐❞♦s✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ r❡❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❜❧♦❜s ❢❡③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ss❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡✳ ❆ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❑▲❚ ❡ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✈✐st♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♥♦s ♠♦str❛♠ q✉❡✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❑▲❚ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ❜♦♥s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♥♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✱ s❡♠ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çõ❡s✱ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♥ã♦ s❡r út✐❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ✉r❜❛♥♦s✳

  ❆s ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s s❡ ♠♦str❛r❛♠ ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❑▲❚ ❡♠ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ♦♥❞❡ ❤á ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s✱ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ r✉í❞♦s ❡ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛✳ ❆s ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r❛♠ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛r ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ❢❛❧s♦s ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐✉ ♣❛r❛ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦s ❞❡ r❡✈♦❝❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✈❡r❞❛❞❡✐r♦s ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❛✉♠❡♥t♦✉✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦✳

  ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❢♦✐ ✉s❛❞❛ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✈í❞❡♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝❛ ❙t✲▼❛r❝✱ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ♠✉✐t♦ ❜♦♥s✳ ■st♦ s❡ ❞❡✈❡ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ s❡r ✉♠ ✈í❞❡♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♣♦✉❝♦s r✉í❞♦s ♥❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠✱ ❛✉sê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✱ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❡♠ ❛❧t❛ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❡ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❢♦❝❛❧ ♣❡q✉❡♥❛ ✭♦ q✉❡ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐ ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s à ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛✮✳ ❖ ✈í❞❡♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ trá❢❡❣♦ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦ ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❛❝❛❜❛ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❛s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sã♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦ ♣♦r ♦✉tr♦ ♥ã♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡ç❛♠✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❙t✲▼❛r❝ sã♦ ❡①✐❜✐❞♦s ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ♦♥❞❡ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❛ ❛❝✉rá❝✐❛ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛❞♦s é ❜❡♠ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❛♦ s❡✉ ✉s♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♠❛✐s ❞❡s❛✜❛❞♦r❡s✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✻ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢✉t✉r♦s

  ◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠♦s ❛s ❞✐s❝✉ssõ❡s ✜♥❛✐s ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛✲ çã♦ ❞❡ r♦t❛s ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛♥❞♦ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦s ❡ ♣r♦♣♦♥❞♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢✉t✉r♦s✳

  ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♥♦s ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ót✐❝♦ é ❜❛st❛♥t❡ s❡♥sí✈❡❧ à ❢❛s❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ✐♠❛❣❡♠✳ P♦r ❡st❡ ♠♦t✐✈♦ ♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧ ❢♦r❛♠ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡ ♣✉❞❡ss❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ s❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✳ ❆ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ♦ ●r♦✉♥❞tr✉t❤ ❡ ❛ r♦t✉❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ ♠❛r❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ r❡❛❧ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❳▼▲ ♥♦s ♣❡r♠✐t✐✉ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛❥✉st❡s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐r❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦✳

  ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ s❡♣❛r❛ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❝♦rr❡t❛ ❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡✱ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ó♣t✐❝♦ é ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡ ♠♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ sã♦ ❝❛♣❛③❡s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝t❛r ❛ tr❛❥❡tór✐❛ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛✳

  ◆♦ q✉❡ ❞✐③ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❛♦ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❑▲❚✱ s❡♠ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛s té❝♥✐✲ ❝❛s ❞❡ r❡❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❡ ❞❛s ❤❡✉ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❞❡s❛♠❜✐❣✉❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s✱ s❡ ♠♦str♦✉ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ✐♥❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ r❛str❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ✉r❜❛♥♦s ❡ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❛s r♦t❛s t♦✲ ♠❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✳ ❆ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❑▲❚ é q✉❡ ❤á ✉♠❛ ♠❡♥♦r ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♣❡r❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ♦❝❛s✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ❣❡♦♠❡tr✐❛ ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ❝❡♥❛✳ ❊st❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❢♦✐ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦

  ✹✹ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢✉t✉r♦s

  ♣♦r ❜❛s❡ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦✳ ❊st❡ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ♣❡r♠✐t✐✉ ✉♠ ❣❛♥❤♦ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✷✹✪ ♥❛ ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❑▲❚✳

  ❆ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❡♠ ♥♦ss♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛ ♦✉tr♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ é ✉♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❞✐✜❝✐❧✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡✱ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ♥ã♦ ❡stá r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ✉r❜❛♥♦ ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♠ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ t❡st❡s ✭❛❧é♠ ❞♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r❡♠ ❝♦♠ ✈í❞❡♦s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛❞♦s✱ s❡♠ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t❛s ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s ♦✉ r✉í❞♦s✮

  ❋✐❝♦✉ ❡✈✐❞❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❧✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ é ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♥♦✐t❡✳ ❊st❛ ❧✐♠✐t❛çã♦ é ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ✐♥❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡❝t❛r ❡ s❡♣❛r❛r ❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡ s♦♠❜r❛ ❝❛✉s❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ❜❛✐①❛ ❧✉♠✐♥♦s✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❖✉tr♦ ❢❛t♦r q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r tr❛t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ♥♦t✉r♥❛s é ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ❧✉♠✐♥♦s✐❞❛❞❡ ❝❛✉s❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ❢❛ró✐s ❞♦s ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s✳ P❛r❛ ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♥❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ s❡ ❢❛③ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✲ ✈♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❧❡✈❡♠ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦ ❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ♥♦t✉r♥❛s✳

  ❖ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ é ❜❛st❛♥t❡ s❡♥sí✈❡❧ à ❢❛s❡ ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ♠ét♦❞♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ✈✐❛s q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛♠ ❞✐st❛♥t❡s ❞❛ ♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♠♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❛ ❝â♠❡r❛✱ s❡❥❛ r✉✐♠✳ ■st♦ s❡ ❞❡✈❡ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❛ ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❢♦❝❛❧ t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡ ♦❝❧✉sõ❡s ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ s❡ ✏✉♥✐r✑ s❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♥✲ s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ú♥✐❝♦s✳ ➱ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦ q✉❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ♥ã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛s ♥❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❞♦ s❡❥❛♠ ❜✉s❝❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❢❛s❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ r♦t❛s✳

  ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❇✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s

  ❬✶❪ ❇❯❈❍✱ ◆✳❀ ❱❊▲❆❙❚■◆✱ ❙✳❀ ❖❘❲❊▲▲✱ ❏✳ ❆ r❡✈✐❡✇ ♦❢ ❝♦♠♣✉t❡r ✈✐s✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s ❢♦r t❤❡ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ♦❢ ✉r❜❛♥ tr❛✣❝✳ ■❊❊❊ ❚r❛♥s❛❝t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❚r❛♥s♣♦rt❛t✐♦♥ ❙②st❡♠s✳✱ ✈✳ ✶✷✱ ♥✳ ✸✱ ♣✳ ✾✷✵✕✾✸✾✱ ❙❡t❡♠❜r♦ ✷✵✶✶✳

  ❬✷❪ ❙❍❊◆●◆❆◆✱ ▲✳❀ ❍❯❆◆❙❍❊◆●✱ ❙✳❀ ❍❯❆✱ ❈✳❀ ●❯❖❋❊◆●✱ ❲✳ ❆ ♣♦✐♥t✲❜❛s❡❞ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣ ❛❧❣♦r✐t❤♠ ❢♦r ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡ tr❛❥❡❝t♦r✐❡s ✐♥ ❝♦♠♣❧❡① ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t✳ ❊♠✿ ❋✐❢t❤ ■♥✲ t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❙②st❡♠s ❉❡s✐❣♥ ❛♥❞ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✭■❙❉❊❆✮✱ ✷✵✶✹✳ ♣✳ ✻✾✕✼✸✳

  ❬✸❪ ❈❍❊◆✱ ❇✳✲❍✳❀ ❍❯❆◆●✱ ❙✳✲❈✳ ❆❝❝✉r❛t❡ ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ♠♦✈✐♥❣ ♦❜❥❡❝ts ✐♥ tr❛✣❝ ✈✐❞❡♦ str❡❛♠s ♦✈❡r ❧✐♠✐t❡❞ ❜❛♥❞✇✐❞t❤ ♥❡t✇♦r❦s✳ ❊♠✿ ■❊❊❊ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙②♠♣♦s✐✉♠ ♦♥ ▼✉❧t✐♠❡❞✐❛ ✭■❙▼✮✱ ✷✵✶✸✳ ♣✳ ✻✾✕✼✺✳

  ❬✹❪ ❍❯❆◆●✱ ❙✳✲❈✳❀ ❈❍❊◆✱ ❇✳✲❍✳ ❍✐❣❤❧② ❛❝❝✉r❛t❡ ♠♦✈✐♥❣ ♦❜❥❡❝t ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥ ✐♥ ✈❛r✐❛✲ ❜❧❡ ❜✐t r❛t❡ ✈✐❞❡♦✲❜❛s❡❞ tr❛✣❝ ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ s②st❡♠s✳ ■❊❊❊ ❚r❛♥s❛❝t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ◆❡✉r❛❧ ◆❡t✇♦r❦s ❛♥❞ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❙②st❡♠s✱ ✈✳ ✷✹✱ ♥✳ ✶✷✱ ♣✳ ✶✾✷✵✕✶✾✸✶✱ ❉❡③❡♠❜r♦ ✷✵✶✸✳

  ❬✺❪ ❘❆●❍❚❆❚❊✱ ●✳❀ ❚■❲❆❘■✱ ❆✳ ❑✳ ▼♦✈✐♥❣ ♦❜❥❡❝t ❝♦✉♥t✐♥❣ ✐♥ ✈✐❞❡♦ s✐❣♥❛❧s✳ ■♥✲ t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣ ❘❡s❡❛r❝❤ ❛♥❞ ●❡♥❡r❛❧ ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡✱ ✈✳ ✷✱ ♥✳ ✸✱ ♣✳ ✹✶✺✕✹✷✵✱ ✷✵✶✹✳

  ❬✻❪ ❉❆■●❆❱❆◆❊✱ P✳❀ ❇❆❏❆❏✱ P✳ ❘❡❛❧ t✐♠❡ ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡ ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❝♦✉♥t✐♥❣ ♠❡t❤♦❞ ❢♦r ✉♥s✉♣❡r✈✐s❡❞ tr❛✣❝ ✈✐❞❡♦ ♦♥ ❤✐❣❤✇❛②s✳ ■❏❈❙◆❙ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡ ❛♥❞ ◆❡t✇♦r❦ ❙❡❝✉r✐t②✱ ✈✳ ✶✵✱ ♥✳ ✽✱ ♣✳ ✶✶✷✕✶✶✼✱ ✷✵✶✵✳

  ❬✼❪ ❚❖▼❆❙■✱ ❈✳❀ ❑❆◆❆❉❊✱ ❚✳ ❉❡t❡❝t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣ ♦❢ ♣♦✐♥t ❢❡❛t✉r❡s✳ ❚❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ r❡♣♦rt✱ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡ ❉❡♣❛rt♠❡♥t✱ ❈❛r♥❡❣✐❡ ▼❡❧❧♦♥ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐t②✳✱ ✶✾✾✶✳

  ❛

  ❬✽❪ ●❖◆❩❆▲❊❩✱ ❘✳ ❈✳❀ ❲❖❖❉❙✱ ❘✳ ❊✳ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ✐♠❛❣❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ✭✸ ❡❞✐çã♦✮✳ ❯♣♣❡r ❙❛❞❞❧❡ ❘✐✈❡r✱ ◆❏✱ ❯❙❆✿ Pr❡♥t✐❝❡✲❍❛❧❧✱ ■♥❝✳✱ ✷✵✵✻✳

  ❬✾❪ P■❈❈❆❘❉■✱ ▼✳ ❇❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ s✉❜tr❛❝t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✿ ❛ r❡✈✐❡✇✳ ❊♠✿ ■❊❊❊ ■♥t❡r✲ ♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❙②st❡♠s✱ ▼❛♥ ❛♥❞ ❈②❜❡r♥❡t✐❝s✱ ✷✵✵✹✳ ✈✳ ✹✳ ♣✳ ✸✵✾✾✕✸✶✵✹ ✈♦❧✳✹✳

  ❬✶✵❪ ▲❖✱ ❇✳❀ ❱❊▲❆❙❚■◆✱ ❙✳ ❆✉t♦♠❛t✐❝ ❝♦♥❣❡st✐♦♥ ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥ s②st❡♠ ❢♦r ✉♥❞❡r❣r♦✉♥❞ ♣❧❛t❢♦r♠s✳ ❊♠✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ ✷✵✵✶ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙②♠♣♦s✐✉♠ ♦♥ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ▼✉❧✲

  ✹✻ ❘❊❋❊❘✃◆❈■❆❙ ❇■❇▲■❖●❘➪❋■❈❆❙

  ❬✶✶❪ ❙❚❆❯❋❋❊❘✱ ❈✳❀ ●❘■▼❙❖◆✱ ❲✳ ❊✳ ▲✳ ❆❞❛♣t✐✈❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ♠✐①t✉r❡ ♠♦❞❡❧s ❢♦r r❡❛❧✲t✐♠❡ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣✳ ❊♠✿ ■❊❊❊ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙♦❝✐❡t② ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❱✐s✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ P❛tt❡r♥ ❘❡❝♦❣♥✐t✐♦♥✱ ✶✾✾✾✳ ✈✳ ✷✳ ♣✳ ✕✷✺✷ ❱♦❧✳ ✷✳

  ❬✶✷❪ ❙❚❆❯❋❋❊❘✱ ❈✳❀ ●❘■▼❙❖◆✱ ❲✳ ❊✳ ▲✳ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ♣❛tt❡r♥s ♦❢ ❛❝t✐✈✐t② ✉s✐♥❣ r❡❛❧✲t✐♠❡ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣✳ ■❊❊❊ ❚r❛♥s❛❝t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ♣❛tt❡r♥ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ❛♥❞ ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡ ✐♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡✳✱ ✈✳ ✷✷✱ ♣✳ ✼✹✼✕✼✺✼✱ ✷✵✵✵✳

  ❬✶✸❪ ❑❆❊❲❚❘❆❑❯▲P❖◆●✱ P✳❀ ❇❖❲❉❊◆✱ ❘✳ ❆♥ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡❞ ❛❞❛♣t✐✈❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ♠✐①t✉r❡ ♠♦❞❡❧ ❢♦r r❡❛❧✲t✐♠❡ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ s❤❛❞♦✇ ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥✱ ✷✵✵✷✳

  ❬✶✹❪ ❍❖❘◆✱ ❇✳ ❑✳ P✳❀ ❙❈❍❯◆❈❑✱ ❇✳ ●✳ ❉❡t❡r♠✐♥✐♥❣ ♦♣t✐❝❛❧ ✢♦✇✳ ❆❘❚■❋■❈❆▲ ■◆✲ ❚❊▲▲■●❊◆❈❊✱ ✈✳ ✶✼✱ ♣✳ ✶✽✺✕✷✵✸✱ ✶✾✽✶✳

  ❬✶✺❪ ❙❍■✱ ❏✳❀ ❚❖▼❆❙■✱ ❈✳ ●♦♦❞ ❢❡❛t✉r❡s t♦ tr❛❝❦✳ ❊♠✿ ■❊❊❊ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙♦❝✐❡t② ❈♦♥✲ ❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❱✐s✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ P❛tt❡r♥ ❘❡❝♦❣♥✐t✐♦♥✱ ✶✾✾✹✳ ♣✳ ✺✾✸✕✻✵✵✳

  ❬✶✻❪ ▲❯❈❆❙✱ ❇✳ ❉✳❀ ❑❆◆❆❉❊✱ ❚✳ ❆♥ ✐t❡r❛t✐✈❡ ✐♠❛❣❡ r❡❣✐str❛t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡ ✇✐t❤ ❛♥ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ t♦ st❡r❡♦ ✈✐s✐♦♥✳ ❊♠✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ✼t❤ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❏♦✐♥t ❈♦♥✲ ❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡ ✲ ❱♦❧✉♠❡ ✷✱ ✶✾✽✶✳ ■❏❈❆■✬✽✶✳ ❙❛♥ ❋r❛♥❝✐s❝♦✱ ❈❆✱ ❯❙❆✿ ▼♦r❣❛♥ ❑❛✉❢♠❛♥♥ P✉❜❧✐s❤❡rs ■♥❝✳ ♣✳ ✻✼✹✕✻✼✾✳

  ❬✶✼❪ ❆▲✲◆❆❏❉❆❲■✱ ◆✳❀ ❚❊❉▼❖❘■✱ ❙✳❀ ❊❉■❘■❙■◆●❍❊✱ ❊✳❀ ❇❊❩✱ ❍✳ ❆♥ ❛✉t♦♠❛t❡❞ r❡❛❧✲t✐♠❡ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣ s②st❡♠ ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❦❧t ❢❡❛t✉r❡s ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥✳ ❚❤❡ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❆r❛❜ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ■♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣②✱ ♣✳ ✶✵✵✕✶✵✼✱ ✷✵✶✷✳

  ❬✶✽❪ ▲■✱ ▲✳❀ ❍❯❆◆●✱ ❲✳❀ ●❯✱ ■✳ ❨✳ ❍✳❀ ❚■❆◆✱ ◗✳ ❋♦r❡❣r♦✉♥❞ ♦❜❥❡❝t ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥ ❢r♦♠ ✈✐❞❡♦s ❝♦♥t❛✐♥✐♥❣ ❝♦♠♣❧❡① ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞✳ ❊♠✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❊❧❡✈❡♥t❤ ❆❈▼ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ▼✉❧t✐♠❡❞✐❛✱ ✷✵✵✸✳ ▼❯▲❚■▼❊❉■❆ ✬✵✸✳ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ◆❨✱ ❯❙❆✿ ❆❈▼✳ ♣✳ ✷✕✶✵✳

  ❬✶✾❪ ❙❆◆❑❆❘■✱ ▼✳❀ ▼❊❊◆❆✱ ❈✳ ❊st✐♠❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❞②♥❛♠✐❝ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ ❛♥❞ ♦❜❥❡❝t ❞❡✲ t❡❝t✐♦♥ ✐♥ ♥♦✐s② ✈✐s✉❛❧ s✉r✈❡✐❧❧❛♥❝❡✳ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ❆❞✈❛♥❝❡❞ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✭■❏❆❈❙❆✮✱ ✈✳ ✷✱ ♥✳ ✻✱ ♣✳ ✼✼✕✽✸✱ ✷✵✶✶✳

  ❬✷✵❪ ❱❊❊❘❆❘❆●❍❆❱❆◆✱ ❍✳❀ ▼❆❙❖❯❉✱ ❖✳❀ P❆P❆◆■❑❖▲❖P❖❯▲❖❙✱ ◆✳ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ✈✐s✐♦♥ ❛❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s ❢♦r ✐♥t❡rs❡❝t✐♦♥ ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣✳ ■❊❊❊ ❚r❛♥s❛❝t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❚r❛♥s♣♦rt❛t✐♦♥ ❙②st❡♠s✳✱ ✈✳ ✹✱ ♥✳ ✷✱ ♣✳ ✼✽✕✽✾✱ ❏✉♥❤♦ ✷✵✵✸✳

  ❬✷✶❪ ❲❊▲❈❍✱ ●✳❀ ❇■❙❍❖P✱ ●✳ ❆♥ ■♥tr♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥ t♦ t❤❡ ❑❛❧♠❛♥ ❋✐❧t❡r✿ ❙■●●❘❆P❍ ✷✵✵✶ ❈♦✉rs❡ ✽✳ ❊♠✿ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ●r❛♣❤✐❝s✱ ❆♥♥✉❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ●r❛♣❤✐❝s ✫ ■♥t❡r❛❝t✐✈❡ ❚❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s✱ ✷✵✵✶✳ ♣✳ ✶✷✕✶✼✳

  ❬✷✷❪ ▲❊❊✱ ❙✳✲▼✳❀ ❇❆■❑✱ ❍✳ ❖r✐❣✐♥✲❞❡st✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ✭♦✲❞✮ tr✐♣ t❛❜❧❡ ❡st✐♠❛t✐♦♥ ✉s✐♥❣ tr❛✣❝ ♠♦✈❡♠❡♥t ❝♦✉♥ts ❢r♦♠ ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣ s②st❡♠ ❛t ✐♥t❡rs❡❝t✐♦♥✳ ❊♠✿ ■❊❈❖◆✳ ✸✷♥❞ ❆♥♥✉❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ■❊❊❊ ■♥❞✉str✐❛❧ ❊❧❡❝tr♦♥✐❝s✱ ✷✵✵✻✳ ♣✳ ✸✸✸✷✕✸✸✸✼✳

  ❬✷✸❪ ❆❘◆❆❯❉ ❉❖❯❈❊❚✱ ◆✳ ❉✳ ❋✳ ✳ ◆✳ ●✳ ✭❊❞✳✮✳ ❙❡q✉❡♥t✐❛❧ ▼♦♥t❡ ❈❛r❧♦ ♠❡t❤♦❞s ✐♥

  ❘❊❋❊❘✃◆❈■❆❙ ❇■❇▲■❖●❘➪❋■❈❆❙ ✹✼

  ❬✷✹❪ ■❙❆❘❉✱ ▼✳❀ ▼❆❈❈❖❘▼■❈❑✱ ❏✳ ❇r❛♠❜❧❡✿ ❛ ❜❛②❡s✐❛♥ ♠✉❧t✐♣❧❡✲❜❧♦❜ tr❛❝❦❡r✳ ❊♠✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ ❊✐❣❤t❤ ■❊❊❊ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❱✐s✐♦♥✳ ■❈❈❱✱ ✷✵✵✶✳ ✈✳ ✷✳ ♣✳ ✸✹✕✹✶ ✈♦❧✳✷✳

  ❬✷✺❪ ❱❊❘▼❆❆❑✱ ❏✳❀ ❉❖❯❈❊❚✱ ❆✳❀ P❊❘❊❩✱ P✳ ▼❛✐♥t❛✐♥✐♥❣ ♠✉❧t✐♠♦❞❛❧✐t② t❤r♦✉❣❤ ♠✐①t✉r❡ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣✳ ❊♠✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ ◆✐♥t❤ ■❊❊❊ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❱✐s✐♦♥✱ ✷✵✵✸✳ ♣✳ ✶✶✶✵✕✶✶✶✻ ✈♦❧✳✷✳

  ❬✷✻❪ ❇❆❙✱ ❊✳❀ ❚❊❑❆▲P✱ ❆✳❀ ❙❆▲▼❆◆✱ ❋✳ ❆✉t♦♠❛t✐❝ ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡ ❝♦✉♥t✐♥❣ ❢r♦♠ ✈✐❞❡♦ ❢♦r tr❛✣❝ ✢♦✇ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s✳ ❊♠✿ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❱❡❤✐❝❧❡s ❙②♠♣♦s✐✉♠✱ ✷✵✵✼✳ ♣✳ ✸✾✷✕✸✾✼✳ ❬✷✼❪ ❍❆❙❍▼■✱ ▼✳❀ ❑❊❙❑❆❘✱ ❆✳ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s ❛♥❞ ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ ♦❢ ❛ ❤✐❣❤ ❞❡♥s✐t② tr❛✣❝

  ✢♦✇ ❛t t✲✐♥t❡rs❡❝t✐♦♥ ✉s✐♥❣ st❛t✐st✐❝❛❧ ❝♦♠♣✉t❡r ✈✐s✐♦♥ ❜❛s❡❞ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤✳ ❊♠✿ ✶✷t❤ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❙②st❡♠s ❉❡s✐❣♥ ❛♥❞ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✭■❙❉❆✮✱ ✷✵✶✷✳ ♣✳ ✺✷✕✺✼✳

  ❬✷✽❪ ❑▲❆PP❙❚❊■◆✱ ❏✳❀ ❱❆❯❉❘❊❨✱ ❚✳❀ ❘❆❇❊✱ ❈✳❀ ❲❊❉❊▲✱ ❆✳❀ ❑▲❊❚❚❊✱ ❘✳ ▼♦✈✐♥❣ ♦❜❥❡❝t s❡❣♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ✉s✐♥❣ ♦♣t✐❝❛❧ ✢♦✇ ❛♥❞ ❞❡♣t❤ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥✳ ❊♠✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ✸r❞ P❛❝✐✜❝ ❘✐♠ ❙②♠♣♦s✐✉♠ ♦♥ ❆❞✈❛♥❝❡s ✐♥ ■♠❛❣❡ ❛♥❞ ❱✐❞❡♦ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣②✱ ✷✵✵✽✳ P❙■❱❚ ✬✵✾✳ ❇❡r❧✐♥✱ ❍❡✐❞❡❧❜❡r❣✿ ❙♣r✐♥❣❡r✲❱❡r❧❛❣✳ ♣✳ ✻✶✶✕✻✷✸✳

  ❬✷✾❪ ◆❊❯▼❆◆◆✱ ❯✳❀ ❨❖❯✱ ❙✳ ■♥t❡❣r❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ r❡❣✐♦♥ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ♦♣t✐❝❛❧ ✢♦✇ ❢♦r ✐♠❛❣❡ ♠♦t✐♦♥ ❡st✐♠❛t✐♦♥✳ ❊♠✿ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ■♠❛❣❡ Pr♦❝❡ss✐♥❣✱ ✶✾✾✽✳ ■❈■P ✾✽✳ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s✱ ✶✾✾✽✳ ♣✳ ✻✺✽✕✻✻✷ ✈♦❧✳✸✳

  ❬✸✵❪ ❙❍■◆✱ ❏✳❀ ❑■▼✱ ❙✳❀ ❑❆◆●✱ ❙✳❀ ▲❊❊✱ ❙✳✲❲✳❀ P❆■❑✱ ❏✳❀ ❆❇■❉■✱ ❇✳❀ ❆❇■❉■✱ ▼✳ ❖♣t✐❝❛❧ ✢♦✇✲❜❛s❡❞ r❡❛❧✲t✐♠❡ ♦❜❥❡❝t tr❛❝❦✐♥❣ ✉s✐♥❣ ♥♦♥✲♣r✐♦r tr❛✐♥✐♥❣ ❛❝t✐✈❡ ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♠♦❞❡❧✳ ❘❡❛❧✲❚✐♠❡ ■♠❛❣✐♥❣✱ ▲♦♥❞♦♥✱ ❯❑✱ ❯❑✱ ✈✳ ✶✶✱ ♥✳ ✸✱ ♣✳ ✷✵✹✕✷✶✽✱ ❏✉♥❡ ✷✵✵✺✳

  ❬✸✶❪ ❍❆◆✱ ❇✳❀ P❆❯▲❙❖◆✱ ❈✳❀ ▲❯✱ ❚✳❀ ❲❯✱ ❉✳❀ ❏✳▲■✳ ❚r❛❝❦✐♥❣ ♦❢ ♠✉❧t✐♣❧❡ ♦❜❥❡❝ts ✉♥❞❡r ♣❛rt✐❛❧ ♦❝❝❧✉s✐♦♥✳ ❊♠✿ ❙♦❝✐❡t② ♦❢ P❤♦t♦✲❖♣t✐❝❛❧ ■♥str✉♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡rs ✭❙P■❊✮ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ❙❡r✐❡s✱ ✷✵✵✾✳ ✈✳ ✼✸✸✺ ♦❢ ❙♦❝✐❡t② ♦❢ P❤♦t♦✲❖♣t✐❝❛❧ ■♥str✉♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡rs ✭❙P■❊✮ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ❙❡r✐❡s✳ ♣✳ ✶✺✳

  ❬✸✷❪ ❖❍✱ ❈✳❀ ❘■❚❈❍■❊✱ ❙✳❀ ❖❍✱ ❏✳✲❙✳❀ ❏❆❨❆❑❘■❙❍◆❆◆✱ ❘✳ ❘❡❛❧✲t✐♠❡ ♦r✐❣✐♥✲ ❞❡st✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ✭♦❞✮ ❡st✐♠❛t✐♦♥ ✈✐❛ ❛♥♦♥②♠♦✉s ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣✳ ❊♠✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ ❚❤❡ ■❊❊❊ ✺t❤ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❚r❛♥s♣♦rt❛t✐♦♥ ❙②st❡♠s✱ ✷✵✵✷✳ ♣✳ ✺✽✷✕✺✽✻✳

  ❬✸✸❪ ▲❊❊✱ ❙✳✲▼✳❀ ❇❆■❑✱ ❍✳❀ P❆❘❑✱ ❏✳ ❱✐s✉❛❧ tr❛✣❝ ♠♦✈❡♠❡♥t ❝♦✉♥ts ❛t ✐♥t❡rs❡❝t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ♦r✐❣✐♥✲❞❡st✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ✭♦✲❞✮ tr✐♣ t❛❜❧❡ ❡st✐♠❛t✐♦♥✳ ❊♠✿ ■❊❊❊ ✲ ■❚❙❈✳ ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❚r❛♥s♣♦rt❛t✐♦♥ ❙②st❡♠s ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡✱ ✷✵✵✼✳ ♣✳ ✶✶✵✽✕✶✶✶✸✳

  ❬✸✹❪ ❇❘❆●❆❚❚❖✱ ❚✳❀ ❘❯❆❙✱ ●✳❀ ❇❊◆❙❖✱ ❱✳❀ ▲❆▼❆❘✱ ▼✳❀ ❆▲❉■●❯❊❘■✱ ❉✳❀ ❚❊■✲ ❳❊■❘❆✱ ●✳❀ ❨❆▼❆❙❍■❚❆✱ ❨✳ ❆ ♥❡✇ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤ t♦ ♠✉❧t✐♣❧❡ ✈❡❤✐❝❧❡ tr❛❝❦✐♥❣ ✐♥ ✐♥✲ t❡rs❡❝t✐♦♥s ✉s✐♥❣ ❤❛rr✐s ❝♦r♥❡rs ❛♥❞ ❛❞❛♣t✐✈❡ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞ s✉❜tr❛❝t✐♦♥✳ ❊♠✿ ■❊❊❊✳

  ✹✽ ❘❊❋❊❘✃◆❈■❆❙ ❇■❇▲■❖●❘➪❋■❈❆❙

  ❬✸✺❪ ❍❆❘❘■❙✱ ❈✳❀ ❙❚❊P❍❊◆❙✱ ▼✳ ❆ ❈♦♠❜✐♥❡❞ ❈♦r♥❡r ❛♥❞ ❊❞❣❡ ❉❡t❡❝t✐♦♥✳ ❊♠✿ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ ❚❤❡ ❋♦✉rt❤ ❆❧✈❡② ❱✐s✐♦♥ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡✱ ✶✾✽✽✳ ♣✳ ✶✹✼✕✶✺✶✳

  ❬✸✻❪ ❏❖❉❖■◆✱ ❏✳ P✳❀ ❇■▲❖❉❊❆❯✱ ●✳ ❆✳❀ ❙❆❯◆■❊❘✱ ◆✳ ❯r❜❛♥ tr❛❝❦❡r✿ ▼✉❧t✐♣❧❡ ♦❜❥❡❝t tr❛❝❦✐♥❣ ✐♥ ✉r❜❛♥ ♠✐①❡❞ tr❛✣❝✳ ❊♠✿ ■❊❊❊ ❲✐♥t❡r ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ♦❢ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❱✐s✐♦♥ ✭❲❆❈❱✮✱ ✷✵✶✹✳ ♣✳ ✽✽✺✕✽✾✷✳

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