Estudo e modelagem de uma nova topologia de consor Buck quadrático CCCC não isolado

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❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá

❈❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❚❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛

❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛

Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛

❲❊▲❚❖◆ ❉❆ ❙■▲❱❆ ▲■▼❆

❊❙❚❯❉❖ ❊ ▼❖❉❊▲❆●❊▼ ❉❊ ❯▼❆ ◆❖❱❆ ❚❖P❖▲❖●■❆ ❉❊ ❈❖◆❱❊❘❙❖❘ ❇❯❈❑ ◗❯❆❉❘➪❚■❈❖ ❈❈✲❈❈ ◆➹❖ ■❙❖▲❆❉❖

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❲❊▲❚❖◆ ❉❆ ❙■▲❱❆ ▲■▼❆

❊❙❚❯❉❖ ❊ ▼❖❉❊▲❆●❊▼ ❉❊ ❯▼❆ ◆❖❱❆ ❚❖P❖▲❖●■❆ ❉❊ ❈❖◆❱❊❘❙❖❘ ❇❯❈❑ ◗❯❆❉❘➪❚■❈❖ ❈❈✲❈❈ ◆➹❖ ■❙❖▲❆❉❖

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛ ❞♦ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá✱ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ✜♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ tít✉❧♦ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❊❧étr✐❝❛✳ ➪r❡❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❝❡♥tr❛çã♦✿ ❊❧❡trô♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ P♦tê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❆❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❊❧étr✐❝♦s✳

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ▲✉✐③ ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡ ❙✐❧✈❛ ❈♦❧❛❞♦ ❇❛rr❡t♦✳

❈♦♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ P❛✉❧♦ P❡✐①♦t♦ Pr❛ç❛✳

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Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação Universidade Federal do Ceará

Biblioteca de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia - BPGE

L711e Lima, Welton da Silva.

Estudo e modelagem de uma nova topologia de conversor Buck quadrático CC-CC não isolado / Welton da Silva Lima. – 2014.

101 f. : il. color., enc. ; 30 cm.

Dissertação (mestrado) – Universidade Federal do Ceará, Centro de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica, Fortaleza, 2014.

Área de Concentração: Eletrônica de Potência e Acionamentos Elétricos. Orientação: Prof. Dr. Luiz Henrique Silva Colado Barreto.

Coorientação: Prof. Dr. Paulo Peixoto Praça.

1. Engenharia elétrica. 2. Métodos de simulação. I. Título.

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❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

❆ ❉❡✉s✱ ❝r✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❝♦✐s❛s ✈✐sí✈❡✐s ❡ ✐♥✈✐sí✈❡✐s✳

❆♦ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ▲✉✐③ ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡ ❙✐❧✈❛ ❈♦❧❛❞♦ ❇❛rr❡t♦✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ ♣❡❧❛ ❝r❡❞✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❡✉ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ❢♦ss❡ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♠✱ ✉♠❛ ár❡❛ ❛té ❡♥tã♦ ❞❡s❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛✳

❆♦ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ P❛✉❧♦ P❡✐①♦t♦ Pr❛ç❛✱ ♣❡❧❛s ✈❛❧✐♦s❛s ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❡ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❢❛s❡ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦✳

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❘❡s✉♠♦

◆❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦✱ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❈❈✲❈❈✱ ♦ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❈❈✲❈❈ ♥ã♦ ✐s♦❧❛❞♦ ✭◗❇❈✮✳ ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❡ q✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❞❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❡♠ ♠♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛ ✭▼❈❈✮✱ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♦❜t❡♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐♠❡♥s✐♦♥❛r ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛❞♦s✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✱ ✉t✐❧✐③♦✉✲s❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ✈✐❛ P❙♣✐❝❡✳ ❆♣ós ❡ss❛ ❡t❛♣❛✱ ✐♥✐❝✐♦✉✲s❡ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦tót✐♣♦ ❝♦♠ ✺✵✵ ❲ ❞❡ ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛✱ ♦♣❡r❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✷✵ ❦❍③✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♥✜r♠❛♠ q✉❡ ❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ♣rát✐❝❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝❛rr❡❣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❜❛t❡r✐❛s✳

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❆❜str❛❝t

■♥ t❤✐s ♣❛♣❡r ✐s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡❞ t❤❡ st✉❞②✱ ♠♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❞❡s✐❣♥ ♦❢ ❛ ♥❡✇ ❉❈✲❉❈ ❝♦♥✈❡rt❡r t♦♣♦❧♦❣②✱ t❤❡ ❈♦♥✈❡rt❡r ◗✉❛❞r❛t✐❝ ❇✉❝❦ ❉❈✲❉❈ ♥♦♥✲✐s♦❧❛t❡❞ ✭◗❇❈✮✳ ■♥✐t✐❛❧❧②✱ ✇❛s ♠❛❞❡ t❤❡ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ q✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❡ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ♦❢ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ t♦♣♦❧♦❣② ♦❢ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s ❝♦♥❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ♠♦❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛t✐♦♥ ✭▼❈❈✮✱ t❤❡ st❡♣s ♦❢ ♦♣❡r❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ t❤✉s t❤❡ r❡❧❛t✐♦♥s❤✐♣ ♦❢ ✈♦❧t❛❣❡ ❛♥❞ ❝✉rr❡♥t t♦ s✐③❡ t❤❡ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥ts ❝♦♥✈❡rt❡r ♣r♦❥❡❝t✱ ✇❛s ❛❧s♦ ❤❡❧❞ t❤❡ s②st❡♠ ♠♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ t❤r♦✉❣❤ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ♦♥ t❤❡ ❙t❛t❡ s♣❛❝❡✳ ❚❤❡♥✱ ✐♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ✈❛❧✐❞❛t❡ t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ t♦♣♦❧♦❣②✱ ✇❛s ✉s❡❞ s✐♠✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ✈✐❛ P❙♣✐❝❡✳ ❆❢t❡r t❤✐s st❡♣✱ ❜❡❣❛♥ t❤❡ ❝♦♥str✉❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❛ ♣r♦t♦t②♣❡ ✇✐t❤ ✺✵✵ ❲ t♦t❛❧ ♣♦✇❡r ♦✉t♣✉t✱ ♦♣❡r❛t✐♥❣ ❛t ✷✵ ❦❍③✳ ❚❤❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ r❡s✉❧ts ♦❜t❛✐♥❡❞ ❝♦♥✜r♠ t❤❛t t❤❡ ♣r♦♣♦s❡❞ t♦♣♦❧♦❣② ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✉s❡❞ ✐♥ ♣r❛❝t✐❝❛❧ ❛❝t✐✈✐t✐❡s✱ ❢♦r ❡①❛♠♣❧❡✱ ❢♦r ❜❛tt❡r② ❝❤❛r❣✐♥❣✳

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

✷✳✶ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ❈❈✲❈❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✷✳✷ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❇✉❝❦ ❈❈✲❈❈ ❡♠ ❝❛s❝❛t❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✷✳✸ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✷✳✹ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❩❈❙ q✉❛s❡✲r❡ss♦♥❛♥t❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠

❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❈❆✲❈❈ tr✐❢ás✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻ ✷✳✺ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❈❈✲❈❈ ❞❡ ú♥✐❝♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻ ✷✳✻ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✷✳✼ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇♦♦st ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❝❤❛✈❡❛❞♦ ❡ ✐♥❞✉❝t♦r ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦

♣❛r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡♠ P❛í♥é✐s ❱♦❧t♦✈♦❧á✐❝♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✷✳✽ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇♦♦st ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❩❈✲❩❱❙✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✾ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ q✉❛s❡✲r❡ss♦♥❛♥t❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✶✵ ❘❡t✐✜❝❛❞♦r P❋❈ ❝♦♠ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st ❝♦♠ ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾ ✷✳✶✶ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st s❡♠✐✲q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾ ✷✳✶✷ ❈é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✷✳✶✸ ❈é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✷✳✶✹ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶ ✷✳✶✺ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ♥ã♦ ✐s♦❧❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶ ✷✳✶✻ P✉❧s♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠❛♥❞♦ ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ Sw ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷

✸✳✶ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✸✳✷ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❡q✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❡st❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r

❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✭❛✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❢❡❝❤❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❜✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❛❜❡rt❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✸✳✸ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞♦ ◗❇❈ ♦♣❡r❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ▼❈❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✸✳✹ ●❛♥❤♦ ❡stát✐❝♦ ▼✭❉✮ ❡♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❛ r❛③ã♦ ❝í❝❧✐❝❛ ❉✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✸✳✺ ❘❡❧❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s r❛③õ❡s ❝í❝❧✐❝❛s ① ●❛♥❤♦ ❡stát✐❝♦ ▼✭❉✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✸✳✻ ❋♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ tr✐❛♥❣✉❧❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✸✳✼ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦rCa✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹

✸✳✽ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦rCo✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻

✹✳✶ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ s♥✉❜❜❡r ❘❈❉ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐♦❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✺✳✶ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❡q✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❡st❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r

❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✭❛✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❢❡❝❤❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❜✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❛❜❡rt❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✺✳✷ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❢♦♥t❡✱ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ❡ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✺✳✸ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❢♦♥t❡✱ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦ ❡ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✺✳✹ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣❡❧♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ❡ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷

(11)

✺✳✺ ▼❛❧❤❛ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣❡❧♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r✱ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦ ❡ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦✳ ✺✷ ✺✳✻ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❈❈✲❈❈ ♥♦ P❙♣✐❝❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✺✳✼ ❙❛í❞❛ ❞♦ Pr♦❜❡ ♥♦ P❙♣✐❝❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝❤❛✈❡❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✺✳✽ ❘❡s♣♦st❛ ❛♦ ❞❡❣r❛✉ ❞❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠

♥♦ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛❞♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✺✳✾ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦ ❖r❝❛❞ ❡ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❡♠ ❞❡❣r❛✉ ❞♦ ▼❆❚▲❆❇✳ ✺✼ ✻✳✶ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ❞♦ ◗❇❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾ ✻✳✷ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ s✐♠✉❧❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵ ✻✳✸ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ s✐♠✉❧❛❞❛s ❞♦ ❞✐♦❞♦D1✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶

✻✳✹ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ s✐♠✉❧❛❞❛s ❞♦ ❞✐♦❞♦D2✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶

✻✳✺ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ s✐♠✉❧❛❞❛s ❞♦ ❞✐♦❞♦D3✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷

✻✳✻ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ s✐♠✉❧❛❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦rLa✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷

✻✳✼ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ s✐♠✉❧❛❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦rLo✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸

✻✳✽ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ s✐♠✉❧❛❞❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ✻✳✾ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ♥❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ✻✳✶✵ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D1✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹

✻✳✶✶ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D2✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺

✻✳✶✷ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D3✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺

✻✳✶✸ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r La✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

✻✳✶✹ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r Lo✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

✻✳✶✺ ❚❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛❧ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼ ✻✳✶✻ ❘❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼ ✼✳✶ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❈❈✲❈❈ ♥ã♦ ✐s♦❧❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵ ❆✳✶ P❧❛❝❛ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❉❊✶ ❞❛ ❆❧t❡r❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✸ ❆✳✷ ❇❧♦❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ❙❛í❞❛ P❲▼✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✹ ❆✳✸ ❈♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❖♣t♦❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦r ❍❈P▲✲✸✶✷✵✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼ ❆✳✹ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❞✐❣✐t❛❧✲❛♥❛❧ó❣✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ r❡❞❡ R2R✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s

✹✳✶ ❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✹✳✷ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✹✳✸ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✹✳✹ ❉❛❞♦s ❞♦ ♥ú❝❧❡♦ ◆❊❊✲✻✺✴✸✸✴✷✻ ❞❛ ❚❤♦r♥t♦♥✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✹✳✺ ❉❛❞♦s ❞♦ ✜♦ ❞❡ ❝♦❜r❡ ❆❲●✷✻✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✹✳✻ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ■♥❞✉t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛rLa✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻

✹✳✼ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❞❡ s❛í❞❛Lo✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽

✹✳✽ ❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ✹✳✾ ❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✹✳✶✵ ❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞♦s ❞✐♦❞♦s ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ◗❇❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✶✶ ❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❖♣t♦❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❆❜r❡✈✐❛t✉r❛s ❡ ❙✐❣❧❛s

❈❈ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❈♦♥tí♥✉❛

❈❈▼ ❈♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s ❈♦♥❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ▼♦❞❡✭▼♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❈♦♥tí♥✉❛✮ ❈♥♣q ❈♦♥s❡❧❤♦ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❈✐❡♥tí✜❝♦ ❡ ❚❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝♦ ▼❖❙❋❊❚ ▼❡t❛❧✲❖①✐❞❡ ❙❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉❝t♦r ❋✐❡❧❞✲❊✛❡❝t ❚r❛♥s✐st♦r

P❲▼ P✉❧s❡ ❲✐❞t❤ ▼♦❞✉❧❛t✐♦♥

◗❇❈ ◗✉❛❞r❛t✐❝ ❇✉❝❦ ❈♦♥✈❡rt❡r ✭❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✮

r♠s ❘♦♦t ▼❡❛♥ ❙q✉❛r❡

❯❋❈ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá

Ca ❈❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r

Ca,min ❈❛♣❛❝✐tâ♥❝✐❛ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❞❡ Ca

Co ❈❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦

Co,min ❈❛♣❛❝✐tâ♥❝✐❛ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ❞❡ Co

❉ ❘❛③ã♦ ❝í❝❧✐❝❛

∆ILa ❖♥❞✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r La ∆ILo ❖♥❞✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r Lo ∆VCa ❖♥❞✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦rCa ∆VCo ❖♥❞✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦rCo fs ❋r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝❤❛✈❡❛♠❡♥t♦

iCa ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦rCo iCo ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦rCo iD1 ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦D1 ID1,rms ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡✜❝❛③♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D1

iD2 ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦D2 ID2,rms ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡✜❝❛③ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D2 iD3 ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦D3 ID3,rms ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡✜❝❛③ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D3 IDM,Sw ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♣✐❝♦ ♥❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❙✇

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ILa,min ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r La iLo ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r Lo ILo ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♠é❞✐❛ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r Lo ILo,max ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♠á①✐♠❛ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r Lo ILo,min ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♠í♥✐♠❛ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r Lo IR ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♠é❞✐❛ ♥❛ ❝❛r❣❛

iR ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ❞❡ ❘

Is ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❛ ❡♥tr❛❞❛

isw ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❙✇

Isw ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♠é❞✐❛ ♥❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❙✇

Isw,rms ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ❡✜❝❛③ ♥❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❙✇

La ■♥❞✉t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r

Lo ■♥❞✉t♦r ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦

Po P♦tê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛

Ps P♦tê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛

QCa ❱❛r✐❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ Ca QCo ❱❛r✐❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ Co R ❘❡s✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ✭❝❛r❣❛✮

T P❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❤❛✈❡❛♠❡♥t♦

t0 ■♥st❛t❡ ❞❡ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❙✇

t1 ■♥st❛t❡ ❞❡ ❜❧♦q✉❡✐♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❙✇

vCa ❚❡♥sã♦ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r Ca VCa ❚❡♥sã♦ ♠é❞✐❛ ♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r Ca

Vcc ❚❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♦♣t♦❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦r

vCo ❚❡♥sã♦ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r Co vD1 ❚❡♥sã♦ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D1 vD2 ❚❡♥sã♦ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D2 vD3 ❚❡♥sã♦ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D3 VGS ❚❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ ❣❛t✐❧❤♦

vLa ❚❡♥sã♦ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r La vLo ❚❡♥sã♦ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r Lo Vo ❚❡♥sã♦ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛

VR,D1 ❚❡♥sã♦ r❡✈❡rs❛ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦D1 VR,D2 ❚❡♥sã♦ r❡✈❡rs❛ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦D2 VR,D3 ❚❡♥sã♦ r❡✈❡rs❛ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦D3 Vs ❚❡♥sã♦ ♠é❞✐❛ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛

vsw ❚❡♥sã♦ ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛ ♥❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❙✇

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❙í♠❜♦❧♦s

A ❛♠♣èr❡

F ❢❛r❛❞

H ❤❡♥r②

Hz ❤❡rt③

s s❡❣✉♥❞♦

V ✈♦❧t

W ✇❛tt

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❙✉♠ár✐♦

✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶

✷ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ❈❈✲❈❈ ✹

✷✳✶ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✷✳✶✳✶ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✷✳✶✳✷ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇♦♦st ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✷✳✶✳✸ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦✲❇♦♦st ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾ ✷✳✷ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ Pr♦♣♦st❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✷✳✷✳✶ ❈é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉t❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✷✳✷✳✷ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ Pr♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶ ✷✳✷✳✸ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠❛♥❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷ ✷✳✸ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷

✸ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ◗✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❡ ◗✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✶✸ ✸✳✶ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ◗✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦ ◗❇❈ ✲ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸

✸✳✶✳✶ Pr✐♥❝í♣✐♦ ❞❡ ❖♣❡r❛çã♦ ✲ ❖♣❡r❛çã♦ ❡♠ ▼♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛ ✭❈❈▼✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✸✳✶✳✷ ❋♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛s t❡ór✐❝❛s ❞♦ ◗❇❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ◗✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦ ◗❇❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✸✳✷✳✶ ●❛♥❤♦ ❊stát✐❝♦ ▼✭❉✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✸✳✷✳✷ ❖♥❞✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❈♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥♦s ■♥❞✉t♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✸✳✷✳✷✳✶ ■♥❞✉t♦r La ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

✸✳✷✳✷✳✷ ■♥❞✉t♦r Lo ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶

✸✳✷✳✷✳✸ ❱❛❧♦r ❘▼❙ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛s tr✐❛♥❣✉❧❛r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✸✳✷✳✸ ❖♥❞✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❚❡♥sã♦ ♥♦s ❈❛♣❛❝✐t♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✸✳✷✳✸✳✶ ❈❛♣❛❝✐t♦r Ca ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸

✸✳✷✳✸✳✷ ❈❛♣❛❝✐t♦r Co ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺

✸✳✷✳✹ ❊s❢♦rç♦s ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥♦s s❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉t♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✸✳✷✳✹✳✶ ❈❤❛✈❡ Sw ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼

✸✳✷✳✹✳✷ ❉✐♦❞♦ D1 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽

✸✳✷✳✹✳✸ ❉✐♦❞♦ D2 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾

✸✳✷✳✹✳✹ ❉✐♦❞♦ D3 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵

✸✳✸ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶

(17)

✹ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✸✷ ✹✳✶ P❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✹✳✷ ❉✐♠❡♥s✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r Pr♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✹✳✷✳✶ ❉✐♠❡♥s✐♦♥❛♠❡t♦ ❞♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✹✳✷✳✶✳✶ ■♥❞✉t♦r La ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸

✹✳✷✳✶✳✷ ■♥❞✉t♦r Lo ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻

✹✳✷✳✷ ❉✐♠❡♥s✐♦♥❛♠❡t♦ ❞♦s ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ✹✳✷✳✷✳✶ ❈❛♣❛❝✐t♦r Ca ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽

✹✳✷✳✷✳✷ ❈❛♣❛❝✐t♦r Co ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾

✹✳✷✳✸ ❉✐♠❡♥s✐♦♥❛♠❡t♦ ❞♦s s❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉t♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✹✳✷✳✸✳✶ ❈❤❛✈❡ Sw ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾

✹✳✷✳✸✳✷ ❉✐♦❞♦ D1 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵

✹✳✷✳✸✳✸ ❉✐♦❞♦ D2 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶

✹✳✷✳✸✳✹ ❉✐♦❞♦ D3 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶

✹✳✸ ❉r✐✈❡r ❞❡ ■s♦❧❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✹ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦s ❙♥✉❜❜❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✹✳✶ ❉✐♦❞♦ D1 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸

✹✳✹✳✷ ❉✐♦❞♦ D2 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹

✹✳✹✳✸ ❉✐♦❞♦ D3 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹

✹✳✺ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺

✺ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ✹✻

✺✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ♥♦ ❊s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❊st❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✺✳✶✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❱❛r✐á✈❡✐s ▼é❞✐❛s ♥♦ ❊s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❊st❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✺✳✷ P❡q✉❡♥♦s ❙✐♥❛✐s ❡ ❘❡❣✐♠❡ P❡r♠❛♥❡♥t❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✺✳✸ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥♦ ❊s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❊st❛❞♦s ❞♦ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ✺✳✸✳✶ ❈❤❛✈❡ ❋❡❝❤❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ✺✳✸✳✷ ❈❤❛✈❡ ❆❜❡rt❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✺✳✹ ❙❛í❞❛ ❡♠ ❘❡❣✐♠❡ P❡r♠❛♥❡♥t❡ ❡ ❋✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ P❡q✉❡♥♦ ❙✐♥❛❧ ✺✸ ✺✳✺ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✺✳✻ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽

✻ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❙✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ❡ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s ✺✾

✻✳✶ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ❙✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾ ✻✳✷ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❙✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵ ✻✳✷✳✶ P❛r❛ ❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵ ✻✳✷✳✷ P❛r❛ ♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D1 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶

✻✳✷✳✸ P❛r❛ ♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D2 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶

✻✳✷✳✹ P❛r❛ ♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D3 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷

✻✳✷✳✺ P❛r❛ ♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r La✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷

✻✳✷✳✻ P❛r❛ ♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r Lo ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸

✻✳✷✳✼ P❛r❛ ❛ ❝❛r❣❛ R ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸

✻✳✸ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ✻✳✸✳✶ P❛r❛ ❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ✻✳✸✳✷ P❛r❛ ♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D1 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹

✻✳✸✳✸ P❛r❛ ♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D2 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺

✻✳✸✳✹ P❛r❛ ♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ D3 ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺

✻✳✸✳✺ P❛r❛ ♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r La✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

✻✳✸✳✻ P❛r❛ ♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r Lo ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

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❙✉♠ár✐♦ ①✈✐✐

✻✳✸✳✼ P❛r❛ ❛ ❝❛r❣❛ R ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼

✻✳✸✳✽ ❘❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ◗❇❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼ ✻✳✹ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✽

✼ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ✻✾

❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❇✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s ✼✷

❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❆ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠❛♥❞♦ ❞❛ ❈❤❛✈❡ ✼✸

❆✳✶ ❙❛í❞❛ ▼♦❞✉❧❛❞❛ ♣♦r ▲❛r❣✉r❛ ❞❡ P✉❧s♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✸ ❆✳✶✳✶ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛s q✉❡ ❈♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦s ❇❧♦❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✹ ❆✳✶✳✶✳✶ ❉✐✈✐s♦r ❞❡ ❋r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺ ❆✳✶✳✶✳✷ P♦rt❛❞♦r❛ ✭❉❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❙❡rr❛✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺ ❆✳✶✳✶✳✸ ❙✐♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✻ ❆✳✶✳✶✳✹ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛❞♦r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✻ ❆✳✷ ❈✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ✐s♦❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼ ❆✳✸ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❞✐❣✐t❛❧✲❛♥❛❧ó❣✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼

❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❇ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛s ❡♠ ▼❆❚▲❆❇ ✼✽

❇✳✶ ●❛♥❤♦ ❊stát✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✽ ❇✳✷ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✾ ❇✳✸ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s ❡ ❞❡ ❙✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✶

❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❈ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ◗❇❈ ❈♦♥❢❡❝❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ✽✺

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦

1

■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

❖s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❈❈✲❈❈ sã♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦s ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rt❡♠ ✉♠❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❈❈ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛ ❛♠♣❧✐t✉❞❡ ❡♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❈❈✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❡ss❡s ♥í✈❡✐s✱ ♠❛✐♦r❡s ♦✉ ♠❡♥♦r❡s q✉❡ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❞❛ ❢♦♥t❡✳ ❖s ❝❤♦♣♣❡rs✱ ❝♦♠♦ t❛♠❜é♠ sã♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ♦s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❈❈✲❈❈✱ sã♦ ❛♠♣❧❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ✐♥❞ústr✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛✱ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ ❣✉✐♥❞❛st❡s✱ ❡♠♣✐❧❤❛❞❡✐r❛s ❡ tró❧❡❜✉s ✭❘❆❙❍■❉✱ ✷✵✵✹✮✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ❡♠ ❢♦♥t❡s ❞❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✭❢♦♥t❡s ❝❤❛✈❡❛❞❛s✮ ❞❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ♠é❞✐❝♦s✱ ❡❧❡tr♦❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦s✱ ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦♠ést✐❝♦s ❡ ❛❡r♦❡s♣❛❝✐❛✐s✱ ♦✉ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥♦ ❝❛rr❡❣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❜❛t❡r✐❛s ❞❡ ✈❡í❝✉❧♦s ❡❧étr✐❝♦s✳

❖s ❝❤♦♣♣❡rs ❈❈ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛ s❡ ♦❜t❡r ✉♠❛ s❛í❞❛ r❡❣✉❧❛❞❛✱ ♣❛r❛ t❛♥t♦✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠✲s❡ ❝❤❛✈❡s ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝❛s ✭▼❖❙❋❊❚✬s✱ ❚❏❇✬s✱ ■●❇❚✬s ❡ ❡t❝✳✮ ❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛çã♦ ♣♦r ❧❛r❣✉r❛ ❞❡ ♣✉❧s♦ ✭P❲▼✮ ✭❘❆❙❍■❉✱ ✷✵✵✹✮✳ ❊ss❡s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s sã♦ ❝♦♠✉♠❡♥t❡ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦♥t❡s ❝❤❛✈❡❛❞❛s ♦✉ ❝❤❛✈❡❛❞♦r❡s ✭❍❆❘❚✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❜ás✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❈❈✲❈❈ sã♦ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ ♦✉ ❛❜❛✐①❛❞♦r✱ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st ♦✉ ❡❧❡✈❛❞♦r ❡ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❜❛✐①❛❞♦r ♦✉ ❡❧❡✈❛❞♦r ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦✱ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✳

❚❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ ❛ ❛♠♣❧❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❈❈✲❈❈✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞♦ ❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡ ✉s♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❡♥❡r❣✐❛ q✉❡ ❛♣r♦✈❡✐t❛♠ ❢♦♥t❡s ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s✱ ❢❛③✲s❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❈❈✲❈❈✳

◆♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ s✉r❣❡♠ ♦s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s q✉❛❞rá❞✐❝♦s✱ ❝✉❥❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❥á s✉❣❡r❡✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ D2

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✉s❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❜ás✐❝♦s ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ✭❇❆❙❙❆◆❀

▼❖❙❈❍❖P❖❯▲❖❙✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳

❊♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❛rr❡❣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❜❛t❡r✐❛s✱ ❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✱ ♦ q✉❡ s✉❣❡r❡ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❜✉❝❦✱ s❡♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦rr❡t❛ r❡❣✉❧❛çã♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❝♦♥❤❡ç❛ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❛trá✈❡s ❞♦ ❊s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡ ❊st❛❞♦s ✭❈❆❘❇❆❏❆▲✲●❯❚■é❘❘❊❩❀

▼❖❘❆▲❊❙✲❙❆▲❉❆ñ❆❀ ▲❊❨❱❆✲❘❆▼❖❙✱ ✷✵✵✺✮ ✭❑❆❘❆❑❊❚❀ ❇❯◆▲❆❑❙❆◆❆◆❯❙❖❘◆✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳

P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❛❜❛✐①❛❞♦r ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♥ã♦ ✐s♦❧❛❞♦✳ ❚❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s✱ ♣r♦❥❡t❛r ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳

❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡stá ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡t❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦s✱ q✉❡ sã♦ r❡s✉♠✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ s❡ s❡❣✉❡✳

◆♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡✲s❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛♦s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❈❈✲❈❈ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❡str✉t✉r❛s q✉❛❞rát✐❝❛s✱ ❜✉❝❦✱ ❜♦♦st ❡ ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❝♦♥✈❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✭❖❘❚■❩✲▲❖P❊❩ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✱ ❢♦✐ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ❞♦✐s ♥♦✈♦s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❜✉❝❦ ❡ ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st ❈❈✲❈❈✱ s❡♥❞♦ q✉❡✱ é ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✭◗❇❈✮ ❈❈✲❈❈ ♥ã♦ ✐s♦❧❛❞♦ ♦♣❡r❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ♠♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛ ✭▼❈❈✮✳

◆♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛✲s❡ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❡ q✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦ ◗❇❈ ♦♣❡r❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ♠♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ♠♦str❛ ♦ ♣r✐♥❝í♣✐♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛s t❡ór✐❝❛s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✳ ◆❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ q✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛ sã♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♦ ❣❛♥❤♦ ❡stát✐❝♦✱ ❛s ♦♥❞✉❧❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ❞♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s✱ ❛s ♦♥❞✉❧❛çõ❡s ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❞♦s ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r❡s ❡ ♦s ❡s❢♦rç♦s ♥♦s s❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉t♦r❡s✳

◆♦ q✉❛rt♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ♠♦str❛✲s❡ ❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✳ ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ sã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♦s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❡ ❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ sã♦ ❞✐♠❡♥s✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s✱ ♦s ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r❡s ❡ ♦s s❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉t♦r❡s✳ ❆♣r❡s❡♥t❛✲s❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♦ ❞r✐✈❡r ❞❡ ✐s♦❧❛çã♦ ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❡ ♦s ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦s s♥✉❜❜❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥♦s ❞✐♦❞♦s✳

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❞❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s✱ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥♦s ✐♥❞✉t♦r❡s ❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♥♦s ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r❡s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✳ ❈♦♠ ❡ss❡ ♠ét♦❞♦✱ é ♦❜t✐❞♦ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ ❡♠ r❡❣✐♠❡ ♣❡r♠❛♥❡♥t❡ ❡ ❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦ s✐♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✳ ❆♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ é ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♦❜t✐❞♦✳

◆♦ s❡①t♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ sã♦ ♠♦str❛❞♦s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❖r❝❛❞✱ ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ t❡ór✐❝♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s ❡①tr❛í❞♦s ❞♦ ♣r♦tót✐♣♦ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ♠♦♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❧❛❜♦r❛tór✐♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠♣r♦✈❛r s✉❛ r❡❛❧ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦✳

P♦r ✜♠✱ ♥♦ sét✐♠♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠✲s❡ ❛s ❝♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❛s s✉❣❡stõ❡s ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢✉t✉r♦s✳

(22)

❈❛♣ít✉❧♦

2

❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ❈❈✲❈❈

◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ❈❈✲❈❈✳ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❡st❡s✱ é ♦❜t✐❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ q✉❡ r❡s✉❧t❛ ❡♠ ❞✉❛s ♥♦✈❛s t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❈❈✲❈❈ ♥ã♦ ✐s♦❧❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♥st✐t✉✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❡ ✉♠ ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❡st❡✱ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

✷✳✶ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s

❖s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❈❈✲❈❈ ❝❧áss✐❝♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ❜✉❝❦✱ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✱ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛s❝❛t❛ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❡♠ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s q✉❛❞rát✐❝❛s

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ❈❈✲❈❈✳ L

+ vC C

-R D

Vs

+-iL iC iR

Sw

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ❊❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳

❆ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rsã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r é ❞❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❊q✉❛çã♦ ✷✳✶✳

M(D) = Vo Vs

(23)

✷✳✶✳ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ✺

❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ✧❝❛s❝❛t❡❛♠❡♥t♦✧❡♠ ✷ ♥í✈❡✐s✱ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❇✉❝❦ ❈❈✲❈❈ ❡♠ ❝❛s❝❛t❛✳

L1 Lo

+ vCa Ca

-+ vCo Co

-R D1

Vs

+-iLa iLo iCo iR

D2 S1

S1

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ❊❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳

❆ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rsã♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❣❡r❛❧ é ❡①♣r❡ss❛ ♣♦r✱

M(D) =

Vo

Vs

n

=Dn ✭✷✳✷✮

♦♥❞❡n é ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❜✉❝❦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛s❝❛t❛ ❡ D é ❛ r❛③ã♦ ❝í❝❧✐❝❛✳

◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✱n = 2✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱

M(D) =

Vo

Vs

2

=D2

❉❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❣❡r❛❧✱ ♦s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s sã♦ ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✳

✷✳✶✳✶ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦

❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❡st✉❞❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✭▼❆❑❙■▼❖❱■❈❀ ❈❯❑✱ ✶✾✾✶✮ ❡ ✭▼❆❚❙❯❖❀ ❍❆❉❆❘❆✱ ✶✾✼✻✮✱ q✉❡ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡ ❛♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✱ ♠❛s ❝♦♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡✳

La Lo

+ vCa Ca

- +

vCo Co

- R

D1

Vs

+-iLa iLo iCo

D3

D2

S1

(24)

✷✳✶✳ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ✻

❊♠ ✭❇❆❙❙❆◆❀ ▼❖❙❈❍❖P❖❯▲❖❙✱ ✷✵✵✼✮ sã♦ ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞❛s ❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡

❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦s ❞❡ ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♠ t❛①❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rsã♦ q✉❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♠ q✉❛❞r❛t✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❛ r❛③ã♦ ❝í❝❧✐❝❛✳ ➱ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ s✉❛✈❡ ❞❡ ú♥✐❝❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❈❆✲❈❈ tr✐❢ás✐❝♦✱ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✹✳ ❖ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♦♣❡r❛ ♣♦r ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥✉❧❛ ✭❩❈❙✮ q✉❛s❡✲r❡ss♦♥❛♥t❡ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛r ❝♦♠ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♠❡♥♦r ♥❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦✱ ♣♦r ❝❛✉s❛ ❞❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ q✉❛❞rát✐❝❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❡st✉❞❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✭❳■❆❖◗■❆◆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t♦ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❛ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞♦ ❢❛t♦r ❞❡ ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✹✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❩❈❙ q✉❛s❡✲r❡ss♦♥❛♥t❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❈❆✲❈❈ tr✐❢ás✐❝♦✳

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ✭❇❆❙❙❆◆❀ ▼❖❙❈❍❖P❖❯▲❖❙✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳

❊♠ ✭❈❍❊◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✱ é ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❈❈✲❈❈ ❞❡ ú♥✐❝♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ✉s❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♠é❞✐❛✱ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✺✳ ❊♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rsã♦ ❈❈✲❈❈ q✉❡ ❡①✐❣❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❛♠♣❧❛ ❣❛♠❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sõ❡s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡✴♦✉ s❛í❞❛✱ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ❜✉❝❦ ❝♦♥✈❡♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s s❡♠♣r❡ ♦♣❡r❛♠ ❝♦♠ r❛③õ❡s ❝í❝❧✐❝❛s ❜❛✐①❛s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❧✐♠✐t❛ ❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❢r❡qüê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❝❤❛✈❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ♠❛✐s ❜❛✐①❛s ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♠✉❞❛r ❞❡ ❡st❛❞♦✳ ❆s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✭❈❍❊◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✱ sã♦ r❡s♣♦st❛ tr❛♥s✐tór✐❛ rá♣✐❞❛✱ ❛❧t❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rsã♦ ❡ r❡❞✉çã♦ ♥♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✺✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❈❈✲❈❈ ❞❡ ú♥✐❝♦ ✐♥❞✉t♦r✳

(25)

✷✳✶✳ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ✼

✷✳✶✳✷ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇♦♦st ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦

◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✻✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✭❖❘❚■❩✲▲❖P❊❩ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✻✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳

+ vCa Ca

-+ vCo Co

-R D3

Vs

+-iCo iR Lo

iLo

S1

D2 La

iLa D1

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ❊❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳

❆ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❛❧t❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rsã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❈❈✲❈❈ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♥✉❧❛ ✭❩❱❙✮ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦❧t♦✈♦❧t❛í❝♦✱ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✼✳ ❈♦♠❜✐♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❞❡ r❡❜♦♦st✱ ✉♠ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛t❡r✐❛ sã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ♦ ❣❛♥❤♦ ❞❡ ❛❧t❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝❛✳ ❖ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡❜♦♦st é ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ t♦r♥❛r ♦ ❣❛♥❤♦ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♠❛✐s ❡❧❡✈❛❞❛✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ t♦r♥❛r ♠❛✐♦r ❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✼✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇♦♦st ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❝❤❛✈❡❛❞♦ ❡ ✐♥❞✉❝t♦r ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡♠ P❛í♥é✐s ❱♦❧t♦✈♦❧á✐❝♦s✳

(26)

✷✳✶✳ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ✽

❊♠ ✭❆▲✲❙❆❋❋❆❘❀ ■❙▼❆■▲❀ ❙❆❇❩❆▲■✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r

❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ s✉❛✈❡ ❝♦♠❛♥❞❛❞♦ ♣♦r ♠♦❞✉❧❛çã♦ ♣♦r ❧❛r❣✉r❛ ❞❡ ♣✉❧s♦ ✭P❲▼✮✱ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✽✱ q✉❡ é ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❝é❧✉❧❛s ❢♦t♦✈♦❧t❛✐❝❛s ❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠❜✉stí✈❡❧✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❤á ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ♥❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✳ ❆s ❝❤❛✈❡s ❛t✐✈❛s sã♦ ❧✐❣❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❝♦r❡♥t❡ ♥✉❧❛ ✭❩❈❙✮ ❡ t❡♥sã♦ ♥✉❧❛ ✭❩❱❙✮✱ ❡ sã♦ ❞❡s❧✐❣❛❞❛s ♣♦r t❡♥sã♦ ♥✉❧❛ ✭❩❱❙✮✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✽✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇♦♦st ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❩❈✲❩❱❙✳

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ✭❆▲✲❙❆❋❋❆❘❀ ■❙▼❆■▲❀ ❙❆❇❩❆▲■✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳

◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✾✱ ✉♠ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ r❡❞❡ q✉❛s❡✲r❡ss♦♥❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ s✉❛✈❡ é ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✭❇❆❘❘❊❚❖ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✺✮✳ ❯♠ ✐♥❞✉t♦r✱ ✉♠ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r r❡ss♦♥❛♥t❡✱ ❡ ✉♠ ✐♥t❡rr✉♣t♦r ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ❢♦r♠❛♠ ❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ r❡ss♦♥â♥❝✐❛ ❡ ♦ ✐♥t❡rr✉♣t♦r ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♦♣❡r❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♥✉❧❛ ✭❩❈❙✮✳ ❉❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t❛✐s✱ ❡st❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡ ✉♠❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rsã♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st ❝♦♥✈❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✭♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛❞❛ r❛③ã♦ ❝í❝❧✐❝❛✮✱ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ót✐♠♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ♣♦r ♦♣❡r❛r ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ s✉❛✈❡ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ú♥✐❝❛ r❡❞❡ r❡ss♦♥❛♥t❡✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✾✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ q✉❛s❡✲r❡ss♦♥❛♥t❡✳

(27)

✷✳✶✳ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ✾

✷✳✶✳✸ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦✲❇♦♦st ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦

❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✶✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❈❆✲❈❈ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛ ✭❙✹✮ ❝♦♠ ❝♦rr❡çã♦ ❞♦ ❢❛t♦r ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛ ✭P❋❈✮ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①❛ ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛ ✭✶✺✵ ❲✮ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❛✐①❛ ❞❡ t❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ✉♥✐✈❡rs❛❧ ✭✾✵✲✷✻✺ ❱r♠s✮✳ ❆ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛ ✉♠❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦✱ ❡st❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♣♦❞❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛r ❝♦♠ r❛③ã♦ ❝í❝❧✐❝❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❡♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛s ✭❙✹✮✱ ♣♦r ✐ss♦✱ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦✲♦ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♥ã♦ ✐s♦❧❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❛❧t❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✵✿ ❘❡t✐✜❝❛❞♦r P❋❈ ❝♦♠ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st ❝♦♠ ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ✭❆▲✲❙❆❋❋❆❘❀ ■❙▼❆■▲❀ ❙❆❇❩❆▲■✱ ✷✵✵✾✮✳

❖ ❞❡s❡❥♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❢♦♥t❡s ❞❡ ❡♥❡r❣✐❛ ✈❡r❞❡s ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❡♥❡r❣✐❛ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s ❛ r❡❞❡ ❢♦t♦✈♦❧t❛✐❝❛✳ ❆ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rsã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r s❡♠✐✲q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ s✉❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡♠ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞♦r❡s ♠♦❞✉❧❛r❡s✱ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✶✳ ❖ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡q✉✐♣❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❞❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❜❛✐①❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛ ♣❛r❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ✉♠ ✐♥✈❡rs♦r ♠♦♥♦❢ás✐❝♦ ♠♦❞✉❧❛r✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✶✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦✲❜♦♦st s❡♠✐✲q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳

(28)

✷✳✷✳ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ Pr♦♣♦st❛ ✶✵

✷✳✷ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ Pr♦♣♦st❛

❆❧❣✉♠❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♠♦str❛❞❛ ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✱ ❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

✷✳✷✳✶ ❈é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉t❛çã♦

◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✷✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ s✉❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✷✿ ❈é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜♦♦st q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳

+ vCa Ca

-+ vCo Co

-R

D3

Vs

+-iCo iR

Lo

iLo

S1

D2 La

iLa D1

a

b

c d

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ❊❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳

❉❡ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡✱ ❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❞❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r❡s q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦s é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✸✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✸✿ ❈é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝❛✳

La

Ca D3

D2

D1 S1

a

b c

d

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ❊❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳

(29)

✷✳✷✳ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ Pr♦♣♦st❛ ✶✶

✷✳✷✳✷ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ Pr♦♣♦st♦

❈♦♥❡❝t❛♥❞♦ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱ ✉♠ ✐♥❞✉t♦r ❡ ✉♠ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t♦r ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦✱ ❛♦s t❡r♠✐♥❛✐sa✱ b✱c❡d ❞❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✸✱ ♦❜té♠✲s❡ ♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✳

◆❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✹✱ é ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❡✈✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✹✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳

a

b c

La Lo

+ vCa Ca

-+ vCo Co

-R D3

D2

D1 Vs

+-iLa iLo iCo iR

S1

d

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ❊❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳

❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ é ❡st✉❞❛❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ♥ã♦ ✐s♦❧❛❞♦ ♦♣❡r❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ♠♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛ ✭▼❈❈✮✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✺✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❜✉❝❦ q✉❛❞rát✐❝♦ ♥ã♦ ✐s♦❧❛❞♦✳

La Lo

Ca Co R

D3

D2

D1 Vs

+-❋❖◆❚❊✿ ❊❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳

(30)

✷✳✸✳ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s ✶✷

✷✳✷✳✸ ❊str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠❛♥❞♦

❋♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ♠♦❞✉❧❛çã♦ P❲▼ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝♦♠❛♥❞♦ ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✱ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✻✳ ❖ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠❛♥❞♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ✐s♦❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✈✐st♦s ♥♦ ✭❆P✃◆❉■❈❊ ❆✮✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✻✿ P✉❧s♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠❛♥❞♦ ❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡Sw♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ vGS

DT

t0 t1 T

(1-D)T Vg

❋❖◆❚❊✿ ❊❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❛✉t♦r✳

✷✳✸ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ❋✐♥❛✐s

(31)

❈❛♣ít✉❧♦

3

❆♥á❧✐s❡ ◗✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❡ ◗✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦

❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦

◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ sã♦ ❢❡✐t❛s ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❡ q✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♣rí♥❝✐♣✐♦ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❡ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r✳ ◆❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ q✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛ sã♦ ♠♦str❛❞❛s ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❡q✉❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r q✉❡ s❡r✈❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦✳

✸✳✶ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ◗✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦ ◗❇❈ ✲ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛

❖ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✱ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✱ ❢♦✐ ♦❜t✐❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷✱ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦s ♣♦♥t♦sa✱ b✱ c❡ d❞❛ ❝é❧✉❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ss❡ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡rs♦r

❜✉❝❦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ t❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛ é ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ ❛ ❞❛ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ ❞❡ ♠❡s♠♦ s✐♥❛❧✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✿ ❈♦♥✈❡rs♦r ❇✉❝❦ ◗✉❛❞rát✐❝♦✳

La Lo

Ca Co R

D3

D2

D1 Vs

Figure

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