Human-Chimpanzee Sympatry and Interactions in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau: Current Research and Future Directions

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  Human-Chimpanzee Sympatry and Interactions in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau: Current Research and Future Directions Author(s): Kimberley J. Hockings and Claudia Sousa Source: Primate Conservation, 26(1):57-65. Published By: Conservation International URL:

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  Primate Conservation 2013 (26): 57–65

Human-Chimpanzee Sympatry and Interactions in Cantanhez National

Park, Guinea-Bissau: Current Research and Future Directions

, , , 1 Kimberley J. Hockings¹ ² ³ and Claudia Sousa¹ ²

  

Departmento de Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas,Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

2 3 Centre for Research in Anthropology (CRIA), Portugal

Anthropology Centre for Conservation, Environment and Development, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK

Abstract: Increasing human populations and the rapid conversion of forest to agricultural land increase the likelihood of interac-

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  DV RQH RI VHYHQ SULRULW\ DUHDV LQ :HVW $IULFD IRU XUJHQW FKLPSDQ]HH FRQVHUYDWLRQ HIIRUWV .RUPRV et al. 2003. West African Chim-

  panzees. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan

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  Introduction

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  Increasing human populations and the rapid conversion

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  SUHVHQW LQ WKH IRUHVWHG DUHDV RI FHQWUDO &DQWDQKH] VHH )LJ

  Hockings and Sousa

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  Humans and Chimpanzees in Guinea-Bissau

  &DGLTXH GXH WR GLIIHUHQWLDO XVH RI FDVKHZ SODQWV E\ KXPDQV and chimpanzees (Hockings and Sousa in press), the raiding RI RWKHU FURSV VXFK DV RUDQJHV LQ SDUWV RI &13 DUH NQRZQ to have resulted in retaliatory killings of chimpanzees by farmers.

  IUXLWV DW WKH HGJHV RI IRUHVWV DQG DORQJ URDGV VHH )LJ although the timber is used in construction. Chimpanzees at Figure 3.

  DUH HDWHQ LQIUHTXHQWO\ E\ ORFDO SHRSOH FKLOGUHQ SLFN WKH

  2WKHU FKLPSDQ]HH IRRG VSHFLHV LGHQWL¿HG LQFOXGH WKH fruits of Parinari excelsa and Dialium guineense ZKLFK

  QHJDWLYHO\ UHODWHG WR WKHLU FURS IHHGLQJ 0F/HQQDQ

  WLRQ RI WKH IUXLW KDV QRW \HW EHHQ FRQ¿UPHG EXW LW LV VHDVRQDOO\ LPSRUWDQW IRU FKLPSDQ]HHV OLYLQJ LQ D IRUHVW IDUP PDWUL[ DW %XOLQGL 8JDQGD ZKHUH LWV FRQVXPSWLRQ E\ FKLPSDQ]HHV LV

  $OWKRXJK KXPDQ XVH RI WKLV SDOP DSSHDUV ORZ FKLPSDQ]HHV FRQVXPH WKH SLWK DQG GLVFDUG GLVWLQFWLYH ZDGJHV &RQVXPS-

  WKH YLOODJHUV 7KH $IULFDQ IDQ SDOP LV SURWHFWHG DQG LWV XVH by local people for construction materials is restricted but FRPPRQSODFH 7KH SURGXFWLRQ RI DOFRKRO IURP WKLV VSHFLHV LV forbidden as it ultimately kills the tree, but some local people FRQWLQXH WR XVH LW IRU WKLV SXUSRVH 7HPXGR DQG 6FKLHIHU (2003) suggest that because of this, the palm has almost com- pletely disappeared from the Cantanhez area. Chimpanzees DW &DLTXHQH &DGLTXH HDW WKH IUXLWV RI WKLV SDOP WKH IUXLWV DUH DURXQG J HDFK DQG KDYH D ODUJH DQG ¿EURXV SXOS DOWKRXJK LWV LPSRUWDQFH LQ WKHLU GLHW LV XQNQRZQ 7KH ZLOG GDWH SDOP LV IRXQG H[WHQVLYHO\ LQ ZHWWHU DUHDV ERUGHULQJ WKH PDQJURYHV

  ZLOG GDWH SDOP $V HOVHZKHUH LQ :HVW $IULFD IRU H[DPSOH LQ *XLQHD +XPOH DQG 0DWVX]DZD RLO SDOPV DUH VFDW- tered on the edges of the forest (see Sousa et al. 2011) and local people harvest the fruits mainly to produce oil. Although FKLPSDQ]HHV HDW WKH IUXLW SLWK DQG ÀRZHU 6RXVD et al. 2011), the abundance of oil palms and their distribution on the edges of forests means that there is very little competition felt by

  sus aethiopum (African fan palm) and Phoenix reclinata

  7KHUH DUH WKUHH VSHFLHV RI SDOP WUHH LQ WKH FKLPSDQ]HHV¶ NQRZQ UDQJH QDPHO\ Elaeis guineensis (oil palm), Boras-

  WLRQ EHORZ VRPH SURPLQHQW ZLOG IRRGV WKDW ERWK FKLPSDQ]HHV DQG ORFDO SHRSOH XVH LQ &DLTXHQH DQG &DGLTXH

  E\ 1DOX SHRSOH $OWKRXJK LW LV WRR HDUO\ WR SUHFLVHO\ FDWD- ORJXH WKH IHHGLQJ EHKDYLRUV RI FKLPSDQ]HHV LQ &13 ZH PHQ-

  /RFDO SHRSOH LQ &13 XVH D ZLGH UDQJH RI IRUHVW UHVRXUFHV for construction, medicinal and subsistence purposes (see )UD]mR 0RUHLUD > @ IRU D GHWDLOHG UHYLHZ RI UHVRXUFH XVH

  Overlapping forest resource use

  :KLOH WKH OHYHO RI FRQÀLFW RYHU FDVKHZ WKH FRXQWU\¶V PDMRU FDVK FURS FXUUHQWO\ DSSHDUV TXLWH ORZ LQ &DLTXHQH DQG

  FKLPSDQ]HHV LQ &DQWDQKH] DUH FODVVL¿HG DV µKLJKO\ QRQ HGL- EOH¶ DPRQJ WKH %DODQWD HWKQLF JURXS RZLQJ WR WKHLU UHVHP- blance to humans. Although chimpanzee meat is not con- sumed, there is some suggestion that other body parts still PLJKW EH XVHG LQ WUDGLWLRQDO PHGLFLQH *LSSROLWL et al. 2003), and an illegal pet trade in infant chimpanzees persists (Casa- nova and Sousa 2006).

  )DUPHUV UHSRUW WKDW FKLPSDQ]HHV VRPHWLPHV GDPDJH FDVKHZ trees by snapping branches to obtain the fruits more easily, EXW DOVR SRLQW WR D EHQH¿W RI FKLPSDQ]HH UDLGLQJ DV FKLPSDQ- zees leave the nuts in manageable piles thereby making nut collection easier (Hockings and Sousa in press).

  As a result the fruits are rarely sold, and it is acceptable to take fruit from a farm for personal consumption if the nut is left.

  WLRQV WKURXJKRXW WKHLU KRPH UDQJH 7KH QXW LV QHYHU FRQVXPHG probably because it is enclosed by a potent skin irritant (Hock- LQJV DQG 6RXVD LQ SUHVV 7KH VNLQ RI WKH FDVKHZ IUXLW LV IUDJLOH making it less suitable than other fruits for transport and retail.

  &KLPSDQ]HHV DW &DLTXHQH &DGLTXH HDW WKH MXLF\ FDVKHZ SVHXGRIUXLW KHUHDIWHU IUXLW DW QXPHURXV ORFD-

  FRZSHD EHDQ (Vigna unguiculata), baobab (Adansonia digitata), mango (Mangifera indica) and orange (Citrus sinensis

  dium occidentale

  Chimpanzees in this community eat at least 10 different crop species, including papaya (Carica papaya FDVKHZ Anacar-

  FORVH WR SHRSOH¶V KRXVHV DQG WKH PDMRULW\ RI FXOWLYDWHG DUHDV FRQWDLQ WKH FDVK FURS FDVKHZ +RFNLQJV DQG 6RXVD LQ SUHVV

  VS %UXJLqUH et al. $ UDQJH RI VXEVLVWHQFH IRRGV DV ZHOO DV FDVK FURSV DUH FXOWLYDWHG E\ SHRSOH LQ WKH YLOODJHV RI &DLTXHQH DQG &DGLTXH 0RVW IUXLW WUHHV DUH LQ VPDOO SDWFKHV

  ,Q WHUPV RI UHVRXUFH FRPSHWLWLRQ RI LQWHUYLHZ- HHV IURP D TXHVWLRQQDLUH VXUYH\ RI ORFDO KXQWHUV LQ VRXWK- HUQ *XLQHD %LVVDX UHSRUWHG WKDW FKLPSDQ]HHV UDLGHG FURSV especially maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum

  Overlapping resource use – crops

  0F/HQQDQ DQG +LOO 3UHOLPLQDU\ REVHUYDWLRQV VXJJHVW that people mostly remain calm in the presence of the chim- SDQ]HHV +RFNLQJV XQSXEOLVKHG GDWD VHH )LJ 7R FRUURER- rate this, to date there have been no reports of attacks by chim- panzees on local people at this site, and this likely contributes to their indifferent or positive perceptions of chimpanzees in this area.

  GHQFH RI DJJUHVVLYH EHKDYLRUV WRZDUGV ORFDO SHRSOH DQG LQIRUPDO FRQYHUVDWLRQV ZLWK YLOODJHUV VXJJHVW WKDW FKLPSDQ- zees are not considered a physical threat in this particular location (for the opposite situation see Hockings et al.

  $ SRSXODWLRQ RI FKLPSDQ]HHV OLYLQJ LQ SUR[LPLW\ WR WKH YLOODJHV RI &DLTXHQH DQG &DGLTXH FXUUHQWO\ VKRZ OLWWOH HYL-

  $Q DGXOW PDOH FKLPSDQ]HH LQ &DLTXHQH &DGLTXH FURVVLQJ D URDG WKDW bisects the chimpanzees’ home range.

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  7RUUHV et al. 7KLV FRUURERUDWHV ¿QGLQJV HOVHZKHUH WKDW chimpanzee populations can persist in anthropogenic land- scapes provided they are not persecuted through hunting or UHWDOLDWRU\ NLOOLQJV 3UXHW] et al. 'XYDOO +RFN- ings et al.

  SRJHQLF KDELWDWV UHTXLUHV ³QRYHO VWUDWHJLHV VXFK DV DOWHUQDWLYH LQFRPH JHQHUDWLQJ SURMHFWV DQG HQULFKPHQW SODQWLQJ GHYHO- RSHG ZLWK WKH IXOO LQYROYHPHQW RI ORFDO FRPPXQLWLHV DQG Figure 4.

  VHH :UDQJKDP DQG 5RVV PLJKW EH RQH DQVZHU LW LV RIWHQ FRQVLGHUHG LQDSSURSULDWH ZKHUH DSHV DQG SHRSOH OLYH LQ YHU\ FORVH SUR[LPLW\ 0DF)LH DQG :LOOLDPVRQ 0F/HQQDQ and Hill 2010). In reality, chimpanzee conservation in anthro-

  et al. 2005). Although habituation for tourism (and research,

  DUHDV WR ORFDO VRFLRHFRQRPLF GHYHORSPHQW 1DXJKWRQ 7UHYHV

  V\VWHP IXQFWLRQLQJ QHHG WR FRQVLGHU KXPDQ ZHOIDUH DQG WKH UHVXOW LV D VKLIW LQ IDYRU RI SURWHFWHG DUHDV WKDW DOORZ IRU ORFDO UHVRXUFH XVH ZLWK PDQ\ LQLWLDWLYHV DLPLQJ WR OLQN SURWHFWHG

  VXUSDVV WKH FRVWV HYHQ ZLWKLQ WKH ERUGHUV RI RI¿FLDOO\ SUR- tected national parks (Hill et al. 2002). In face of burgeon- LQJ KXPDQ SRSXODWLRQV DUHDV SURWHFWHG IRU ZLOGOLIH DQG HFR-

  7KH EHQH¿WV WR ORFDO FRPPXQLWLHV OLYLQJ DORQJVLGH SRWHQWLDOO\ SUREOHPDWLF ZLOGOLIH VXFK DV FKLPSDQ]HHV PXVW WKHUHIRUH

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  \HDUV DJR 6XJL\DPD 6SHFLDO HIIRUWV VKRXOG EH made to preserve key forested areas and ensure that connect- ing areas do not become impassable through the presence of GHQVHO\ SRSXODWHG YLOODJHV ODUJH FDVKHZ SODQWDWLRQV RU ZLGH busy roads.

  FKLPSDQ]HHV LQ &13 ZLOO EH JUHDWO\ LPSURYHG LI GLVSHUVDO RSSRUWXQLWLHV DUH PDLQWDLQHG EHWZHHQ PDMRU IRUHVWV ,PPL- gration into isolated communities that inhabit forest-farm matrices appears problematic for some populations of chim- SDQ]HHV $W %RVVRX LQ *XLQHD IRU H[DPSOH WKHUH KDV EHHQ QR female immigration into the community since research began

  FHQWUDO &DQWDQKH] :H KDYH \HW WR XQGHUVWDQG DW ZKDW SRLQW habitat isolation and degradation make chimpanzees unable to disperse, but the prospects for the long-term viability of

  ,Q DJUHHPHQW ZLWK 0F/HQQDQ WKLV HQIRUFHV WKH FRQVHUYDWLRQ SRWHQWLDO RI VXFK KDELWDWV )XU- WKHUPRUH FKLPSDQ]HHV DUH DEOH WR PRYH EHWZHHQ IRUHVW IUDJ- ments and the communities do not appear overly isolated in

  &KLPSDQ]HHV LQ &DLTXHQH &DGLTXH RFFXU DW D GHQVLW\ RI DSSUR[LPDWHO\ LQGLYLGXDOV NP 2 FODVVL¿HG DV KLJK GHQVLW\ E\

  Hockings and Sousa

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  PDQDJHPHQW LV UHTXLUHG &RQWLQXLQJ UHVHDUFK WR XQGHUVWDQG WKHVH FRPSOH[ LQWHUDFWLRQV DQG FKLPSDQ]HH EHKDYLRU ZLOO

  JRRG XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH VSHFLHV¶ EHKDYLRU :KHQ VSHFLHV have protected status, theoretically problem animals should only be deterred, translocated or tolerated, hence proactive

  &RQÀLFW PLWLJDWLRQ VWUDWHJLHV WKDW WDUJHW SUREOHPDWLF ZLOGOLIH behaviors such as crop-raiding are particularly complicated WR HVWDEOLVK IRU FRJQLWLYHO\ FRPSOH[ VSHFLHV DQG UHTXLUH D

  JURZ LQFUHDVLQJO\ QHJDWLYH LQ FKDUDFWHU HVSHFLDOO\ DV KXPDQ SRSXODWLRQV LQFUHDVH DQG IXUWKHU SUHVVXUH LV H[HUWHG RQ WKH ODQG

  VXI¿FLHQW ZLOG IRRG +RZHYHU LW LV HYLGHQW WKDW FKLPSDQ]HHV LQ &DQWDQKH] 1DWLRQDO 3DUN DQG RWKHU SDUWV RI *XLQHD %LVVDX are being forced to adapt to human encroachment and use of WKH IRUHVW $Q LQHYLWDEOH FRQVHTXHQFH LV D FRQWLQXLQJ ULVH LQ KXPDQ±FKLPSDQ]HH LQWHUDFWLRQV ZKLFK KDYH WKH SRWHQWLDO WR

  )RU WKH PRVW SDUW FKLPSDQ]HHV LQKDELWLQJ ODUJH SURWHFWHG DUHDV DUH OHVV OLNHO\ WR LQWHUDFW ZLWK SHRSOH DQG FRPSHWH RYHU UHVRXUFHV ² FURSV DUH JHQHUDOO\ QRW DYDLODEOH LQ SURWHFWHG areas and the chimpanzees’ sizeable home ranges provide

  Conclusions

  IUXLW DYDLODELOLW\ WR VXFK DQ H[WHQW WKDW FKLPSDQ]HHV ZLOO EH forced to seek alternatives, perhaps increasing consumption RI FXOWLYDWHG FURSV /LNHZLVH LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ WKH HFRQRPLF LPSRUWDQFH RI ZLOG IRRGV WR ORFDO KXPDQV FDQ EH LQFRUSRUDWHG into sustainable management strategies.

  IRXQG WKDW QDWXUDOO\ RFFXUULQJ SODQW VSHFLHV ZHUH HDWHQ E\ ERWK KXPDQV DQG FKLPSDQ]HHV LQ WKH 7RPERURQNRWR UHJLRQ LQ 6HQHJDO 7KH IUXLW IURP WKH IRUHVW OLDQD Saba senegalensis LV D FULWLFDO IRRG VRXUFH IRU FKLPSDQ]HHV DW )RQJROL LQ WKH GU\ season, but it also serves as a cash crop for humans during WLPHV RI KDUGVKLS 6XFK LQIRUPDWLRQ ZLOO KHOS WR JXLGH HIIHF- WLYH PDQDJHPHQW LQ &13 LQ DQ HIIRUW WR HQVXUH WKDW XQVXVWDLQ- DEOH KDUYHVWLQJ RI ZLOG IUXLWV E\ KXPDQV GRHV QRW UHGXFH ZLOG

  IRRGV DUH H[SORLWHG E\ ORFDO SHRSOH IRU FRPPHUFLDO UHDVRQV DV RFFXUV IRU H[DPSOH DW )RQJROL LQ 6HQHJDO 3UXHW]

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  IUXLWV IURP ZLOG VKDGH WUHHV VXFK DV Parkia biglobosa. Chim- panzees in this area also approach human settlements to raid EHHKLYHV DQG DUH UHSRUWHG WR FRPSHWH ZLWK ORFDO SHRSOH IRU DFFHVV WR ZDWHU ZHOOV LQ WKH GU\ VHDVRQ 6RXVD XQSXEOLVKHG GDWD 7KHUH LV D QHHG IRU GHWDLOHG HFRORJLFDO DQG EHKDY- ioral investigations into human and chimpanzee plant con-

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  Acknowledgments

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  3URWHJLGDV *XLQHD %LVVDX :H DOVR WKDQN RXU ORFDO DVVLVWDQWV for their invaluable help and the villagers for their continuing

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  %DUDQ ( DQG 3 7RXV Artisanal Fishing, Sustainable

  Development and Co-management of Resources: Analy- sis of a Successful Project in West Africa.

  ,8&1 *ODQG 6ZLW]HUODQG DQG &DPEULGJH 8. %DUU\ % ( &UHSS\ DQG 4 :RGRQ Cashew produc-

  %DUU\ ( &UHSS\ ( *DFLWXD 0DULR DQG 4 :RGRQ HGV SS ± World Bank Working Paper 7KH :RUOG %DQN :DVKLQJWRQ '&

  %UXJLqUH ' , %DGMLQFD & 6LOYD DQG $ 6HUUD 'LVWUL- EXWLRQ RI FKLPSDQ]HHV DQG LQWHUDFWLRQV ZLWK KXPDQV LQ

  ± %XW\QVNL 7 0 $IULFD¶V JUHDW DSHV ,Q *UHDW $SHV DQG

  Humans: The Ethics of Coexistence,

  % % %HFN 7 6 6WR- LQVNL 0 +XWFKLQV 7 / 0DSOH % 1RUWRQ $ 5RZDQ ( ) 6WHYHQV DQG $ $UOXNH HGV SS ± . Smithsonian

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  • LOO & 0 ) 2VERUQ DQG $ - 3OXPSWUH Human-

GD *XLQp 3RUWXJXHVD ±

  ZLOGOLIH &RQÀLFW ,GHQWLI\LQJ WKH 3UREOHP DQG 3RVVLEOH Solutions. Albertine Rift Technical Report Series, Vol. 1,

  :LOGOLIH &RQVHUYDWLRQ 6RFLHW\ 1HZ <RUN

  FRVWHLUD GD 5HS~EOLFD GD *XLQp %LVVDX H D VXD UHODomR com as comunidades humanas locais. Mission Report

  &DVDQRYD & DQG & 6RXVD 'LVWULEXLomR GDV FRPXQL- dades de chimpanzés (Pan troglodytes verus) QD UHJLmR

  • LOO & 0 DQG $ :HEEHU 3HUFHSWLRQV RI QRQKXPDQ
  • RFNLQJV . - DQG +XPOH 7 %HVW 3UDFWLFH *XLGHOLQHV
  • XPDQV DQG *UHDW $SHV Occasional Paper of the IUCN

  IUCN Species Survival Commission

  /HH 3 & 6KDULQJ VSDFH FDQ HWKQRSULPDWRORJ\ FRQ- tribute to the survival of nonhuman primates in human- dominated globalized landscapes? Am. J. Primatol. 72: ±

  0DF¿H ( - +XPDQ *RULOOD &RQÀLFW 5HVROXWLRQ 5HF- RPPHQGDWLRQV IRU &RPSRQHQW ZLWKLQ ,*&3 8JDQGD

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  0DF¿H ( - DQG :LOOLDPVRQ ( $ %HVW 3UDFWLFH *XLGH- OLQHV IRU *UHDW $SH 7RXULVP Occasional Paper of the

  • RFNLQJV . - DQG 0 5 0F/HQQDQ 6\VWHPDWLF UHYLHZ RI cultivar consumption by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): implications for protected species management in anthro- SRJHQLF KDELWDWV 8QGHU UHYLHZ
  • RFNLQJV . - DQG & 6RXVD ,Q SUHVV 'LIIHUHQWLDO XWLOLVDWLRQ
  • RFNLQJV . - - 5 $QGHUVRQ DQG 7 0DWVX]DZD Road-crossing in chimpanzees: a risky business. Curr.
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