UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE ALAGOAS INSTITUTO DE COMPUTAÇÃO PROGRAMA DE PÓS GRADUAÇÃO EM INFORMÁTICA

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❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❋❊❉❊❘❆▲ ❉❊ ❆▲❆●❖❆❙ ■◆❙❚■❚❯❚❖ ❉❊ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖

❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❋❊❉❊❘❆▲ ❉❊ ❆▲❆●❖❆❙ ■◆❙❚■❚❯❚❖ ❉❊ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖P❘❖●❘❆▼❆ ❉❊ PÓ❙ ●❘❆❉❯❆➬➹❖ ❊▼ ■◆❋❖❘▼➪❚■❈❆ ●■▲❚❖◆ ❏❖❙➱ ❋❊❘❘❊■❘❆ ❉❆ ❙■▲❱❆❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ❉❊ ▼❖◆■❚❖❘❆▼❊◆❚❖ ▼Ó❱❊▲ ❉❊ ❙■◆❆■❙ ❈❆❘❉❮❆❈❖❙ P❆❘❆ ❯❙❖ ❊▼ ❆❙❙■❙❚✃◆❈■❆ ❉❖▼■❈■▲■❆❘▼❛❝❡✐ó ✷✵✶✺ ●✐❧t♦♥ ❏♦sé ❋❡rr❡✐r❛ ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ❉❊ ▼❖◆■❚❖❘❆▼❊◆❚❖ ▼Ó❱❊▲ ❉❊ ❙■◆❆■❙ ❈❆❘❉❮❆❈❖❙ P❆❘❆ ❯❙❖ ❊▼ ❆❙❙■❙❚✃◆❈■❆ ❉❖▼■❈■▲■❆❘ ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r✲❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ♣❡❧♦Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ■♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ▲❡❛♥❞r♦ ❉✐❛s ❞❛❙✐❧✈❛ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❈❧❡✉♠❛r ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛▼♦r❡✐r❛ ▼❛❝❡✐ó ✷✵✶✺ ✧◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♣♦rt❛ s❡ ❢❡❝❤❛✱ ♦✉tr❛ s❡ ❛❜r❡✳ ▼❛s ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ♥ós ✜❝❛♠♦s ♦❧❤❛♥❞♦ t❛♥t♦ t❡♠♣♦✱ tr✐st❡s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣♦rt❛ ❢❡❝❤❛❞❛✱ q✉❡ ♥❡♠ ♥♦t❛♠♦s ❛q✉❡❧❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❛❜r✐✉ ♣❛r❛♥ós✳✧ ❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙Pr✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❣♦st❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛ ❉❡✉s ♣♦r t❡r ♠❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r ♦ q✉❡ t❡♥❤♦ ❛té ❤♦❥❡ q✉❡ s❡♠ ❞✉✈✐❞❛s s❡♠ ♦ q✉❛❧ ♥❛❞❛ s❡r✐❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧✳➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✱ ♣♦r ❡st❛r❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ❝♦♠✐❣♦ ❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ❡♠ ♠✐♠✳❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦✱ t❛♠❜é♠✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥♦✐✈❛✱ ▲②❣✐❛✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦✳❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ Pr♦❢✳ ❈❧❡✉♠❛r ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♠❡ ♦r✐❡♥t❛r ♥❡st❡ ♥♦✈♦ ❝❛♠✐✲ ♥❤♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♠✱ ♦ ♠❡str❛❞♦❀ ♣♦r s✉❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦❞✐s♣❡♥s❛❞❛✳ ❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ Pr♦❢✳ ▲❡❛♥❞r♦ ❉✐❛s ♣❡❧❛ s✉❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ♣❡❧❛♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❞✐s♣❡♥s❛❞❛✳ ❆♦ Pr♦❢✳ P❛✉❧♦ ❈✉♥❤❛✱ ♣♦r t❡r ♠❡ ❛❥✉❞❛❞♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t❛s♣❛rt❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆ Pr♦❢❛✳ ▼ô♥✐❝❛ ❳✐♠❡♥❡s✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❡ ♣♦r ♠❡♠♦t✐✈❛r ❛ ❞❛r ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❛♦ ♠❡str❛❞♦✳ ❆♦ ♠❡✉ ❛♠✐❣♦ Pr♦❢✳ ■✈♦ ❈❛❧❛❞♦✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛r❝❡r✐❛ ♥♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s q✉❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛r❛♠♠✐♥❤❛ ❥♦r♥❛❞❛ ♥❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳ ❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❙■ ❞♦ ■❋❆▲ ❝♦♠ q✉❡♠ t✐✈❡ ❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈✐✈❡r ❡❝r❡s❝❡r ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦✿ ❯③✐❡❧✱ ❋❡❧✐♣❡ ❆❧❡♥❝❛r✱ ❍❛♥❞r✐❦✱ ❚♦♥✐❊st❡✈❡s✱ ●❡r❛❧❞♦✱ P❡❞r♦✱ ▼❛✐❧s♦♥✱ ❱❛❧t❡r✳ ❱♦❝ês sã♦ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❝♦♠ ❛s q✉❛✐s ❛♣r❡♥❞✐ ❜❛st❛♥t❡❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r♦ ❡①❝❡❧❡♥t❡s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❞♦ ■❈ ❞❛ ❯❋❆▲✿ ◆❡t♦ ❈❛✈❛❧❝❛♥t❡✱ ❏✉s❝✐❧❛♥✱ ■r❛♥✱ ▼❛r❝❡❧♦✱ ■❣♦r✱ ▼✐❝❤❡❧✱❉❛♥✐❡❧✱ ❚❛ss✐♦✱ ❊③❡q✉✐❡❧✱ ❇✐❛ ▼❛r✐❛✱ ❆r♠❛♥❞♦✱ ❉❛✈✐❞ ❏♦♥❡s✱ ❆❧❡③②✳✳✳ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ ❈♦♠♦s q✉❛✐s ♣❛ss❛♠♦s ♠✉✐t❛s ❤♦r❛s ❡st✉❞❛♥❞♦ ❡ ❥✉♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s❞❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s ❡ ♣❡❧❛ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡ ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞❛✳ ❆♦s P❡ss♦❛❧ q✉❡ ❢❡③ ♦✉ ❢❛③ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ P❘P■✴■❋❆▲✿ ❈❛r❧♦s ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡✱ ❉❛♥✐ ●♦♠❡s✱ ❉❛♥✐❈❧❛r❛✱ ▲✉❝❛s✱ ❙t♦é❝✐♦✱ ●✐♥❛❧❞♦ ❏r✱ ❆❞r✐❛♥❛✱ ▲❡♦♥❛r❞♦✱ ❋❡❧✐♣❡✱ ▼✐❧❧❛♥❡✱ ❇✐❛✱ ❆❧t❛♥②s✱❋❧á✈✐❛✱ ❊❧❛✐♥❡✱ ❋r❛♥❝❡❛♥❡✱ ▼❛r✐❛ ■✈❡t❡✳✳✳ ❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s✿ ▼❛r❝♦ ❆♥tô♥✐♦ ❡ ▲✉❝❛s ❚♦rq✉❛t♦ ♣❡❧❛s ❞✐❝❛s ❡ ❛❥✉❞❛✳◆ã♦ ♣♦ss♦ ❡sq✉❡❝❡r ❞❡ ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛r ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉ír❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦✳ Pr♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞❛ ❯❋❆▲✱ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞♦ ■❋❆▲✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❡ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ sã♦ ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ q✉❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r❛♠ ♥♦ ♠❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞♦s ♠❡✉s ❡st✉❞♦s ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✳ ❊♥✜♠✱ ❛❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ❛ t♦❞♦s ❛q✉❡❧❡s q✉❡ ❡st✐✈❡r❛♠ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛ ❡ q✉❡✱ ❞❡❛❧❣✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♦✉tr❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉ír❛♠ ❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛♠ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡✉ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❘❊❙❯▼❖❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♠ s✉❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ q✉❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡♠ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦✱ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ❝❧í♥✐❝♦s ♣ós✲❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❡❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛✭❊❈●✮ ❡ ❡♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛❧❡rt❛s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❝rít✐❝❛s ♥❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳❖ s✐st❡♠❛ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ três ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s✿ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ q✉❡ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣❡❧❛❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦rtát❡✐s ❞❡♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧❀ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡st✐♥❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ♣❡rs✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠♥✉✈❡♠ ❡ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ q✉❡ é ✉♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❝♦♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♥❛ t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡❞❡❝✐sã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és❞❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❡ ❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳ ❋♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ❛✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ t❡st❡s ✉♥✐tár✐♦s✱ t❡st❡s❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ❏á ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✱ ♥♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✱❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❢♦r❛♠ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏♠❡t❡r✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t♦s ❡♥✈✐♦s ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s s✐♠✉❧tâ♥❡♦s✳ ❖s t❡st❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✱❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s✱ r❡✈❡❧❛♠ ❛ ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❞❡♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳P❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡s✿ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❆ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r✳ ❆♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ▼ó✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ❙❛ú❞❡✳ ❆♥✲❞r♦✐❞✳ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛✳ ❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚❚❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r❡s❡♥ts t❤❡ ❞❡s✐❣♥ ❛♥❞ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♦❢ ❛ s②st❡♠ ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞ t♦ ❛ss✐st ❤❡❛❧t❤✲❝❛r❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s ✐♥ t❤❡✐r tr❡❛t♠❡♥t ♦❢ ♣❛t✐❡♥ts ✐♥ ❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ s②st❡♠ t❛s❦s t❤❛t r❡q✉✐r❡❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s❧② ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ♣❛t✐❡♥ts ✇❤♦ ❛r❡ ✐♥ ♣♦st✲s✉r❣✐❝❛❧ ❝❧✐♥✐❝❛❧ ❝❛s❡s ♦❢ ❝❛r✲❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠s✳ ❚❤✉s✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛t✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ♣r❡s❡♥t✐♥❣ t♦♦❧s ❢♦r ❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ ♦❢✈✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥s ❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠ ✭❊❈●✮ ❛♥❞ ✐ss✉✐♥❣ ❛❧❡rts ❛❝❝♦r❞✐♥❣ ❝r✐t✐❝❛❧ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ✐♥ ❤❡❛rt r❛t❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✳ ❚❤❡ s②st❡♠ ✐s ❞✐✈✐❞❡❞ ✐♥t♦ t❤r❡❡ ❞✐st✐♥❝t ♠♦❞✉❧❡s✿ ▲♦❝❛❧ ♠♦❞✉❧❡ t❤❛t✐s r❡s♣♦♥s✐❜❧❡ ❢♦r ❛❝q✉✐r✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✬s ✈✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥s✱ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ♠♦♥✐✲ t♦r✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐♣♠❡♥t s✉❝❤ ❛s ❛ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤❀ ❚❤❡ ❲❡❜ ♠♦❞✉❧❡ t❤❛t ✐s ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞t♦ ♣❡r❢♦r♠ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❡❞ ❝♦❧❧❡❝t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ st♦r❛❣❡ ♦❢ ❞❛t❛ ✐♥ ❛ ❝❧♦✉❞ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ▼♦❜✐❧❡▼♦❞✉❧❡ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❛ ❢♦❝✉s❡❞ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❞❡✈✐❝❡s ✇✐t❤ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ♦♣❡r❛t✐♥❣ s②st❡♠✱✇❤✐❝❤ ❛✐♠s t♦ ❛ss✐st ❤❡❛❧t❤ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s ✐♥ ❞❡❝✐s✐♦♥ ❞❡❝✐s✐♦♥s ♦♥ t❤❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✬s tr❡❛t♠❡♥t ✐♥ t❤❡ ❡✈❡♥t ♦❢ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ✐♥ ❝❧✐♥✐❝❛❧ st❛t✉s t❤r♦✉❣❤ r❡❛❧✲t✐♠❡ ❞✐s♣❧❛② ♦❢ ✈✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥s ❛♥❞ r❡❝❡✐✈✐♥❣❛❧❡rts✳ ❈❤❡❝❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ s②st❡♠ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t ✐t ✇❛s t❛❦❡♥ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ✉♥✐t t❡st✐♥❣✱ t❡st✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ✐♥t❡❣r❛t✐♦♥ t❡st✐♥❣ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ❆❧r❡❛❞② t❤❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛t✐♦♥ ✇❛s ♣❡r❢♦r♠❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡✐♥t❡❣r❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❛ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤ ❝♦✉♣❧❡❞ t♦ ❛ s✐♠✉❧❛t♦r ♦❢ ❊❈● s✐❣♥❛❧s✱ t❤❡▲♦❝❛❧ ▼♦❞✉❧❡✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❲❡❜ ♠♦❞✉❧❡✱ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ t❡sts ✇❡r❡ s✉❜♠✐tt❡❞ ❜② ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏♠❡t❡r t♦♦❧✱ ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡② ✇❡r❡ ♠❛❞❡ s✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥s s✐♠✉❧t❛♥❡♦✉s ❛❧❡rts✳ ❚❤❡ t❡sts ❝❛rr✐❡❞ ♦✉t ✇✐t❤♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s✱ s❤♦✇ t❤❡ ❢❡❛s✐❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ✉s✐♥❣ t❤❡ s②st❡♠ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❝❛r❡ ♦❢ ♣❛t✐❡♥ts ✐♥ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❍♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❙②st❡♠s✳ ♠❍❡❛❧t❤✳ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠✳ ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ■▲❯❙❚❘❆➬Õ❊❙❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶ ✕ ❈❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ❈â♠❛r❛s ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ❡ ✢✉①♦ ❞♦ s❛♥❣✉❡ ♣❡❧❛s ❝â♠❛r❛s ❡ ✈á❧✈✉❧❛s ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸ ✕✳ ✷✸ ❉✐✈❡rs♦s ❡✈❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹ ✕✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺ ✕ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ◆♦r♠❛❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻ ✕ ❉✐s♣♦s✐çã♦ ❝♦♥✈❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❚r✐❛♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❊✐♥t❤♦✈❡♥ ❡stá s♦❜r❡♣♦st♦ ❛♦ t♦rá①✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼ ✕ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣♦r ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽ ✕ P❧❛❝❛ ❝♦♥❢❡❝❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❡ ♦ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❊❈● ♠♦♥t❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾ ✕ ■♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ▼♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷ ✕ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ P❧♦t❛♥❞♦ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞♦ ❡❧tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦✜s✐s♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡♥✉ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó✲ ❜✐❧❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛❧❡rt❛ s❡♥❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐✲ t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✶ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣❧♦t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ✳ ✺✷❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✷ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✸ ✕ ❙✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✳ ✺✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✹ ✕ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ♣❧♦t❛♥❞♦ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❙✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✺ ✕ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ●◗▼✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✻ ✕ ●◗▼ ♣❛r❛ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✼ ✕ ▼é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛ às q✉❡stõ❡s ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✽ ✕ ●◗▼ ♣❛r❛ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✾ ✕ ▼é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛ às q✉❡stõ❡s ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✵ ✕ ●rá✜❝♦ ❞❡♠♦str❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❧❛tê♥❝✐❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✶ ✕ ●rá✜❝♦ ❞❡♠♦str❛♥❞♦ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ t❤r♦✉❣❤♣✉t ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✽ ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❚❆❇❊▲❆❙❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✽ ✕ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✸ ✕ P❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏▼❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✽✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✷ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✼✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✻✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✺✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✾ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✹✳ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✸✳ ❉❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ❜✐♣♦❧❛r❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✼ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✷✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✻ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✶✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺ ✕ ❊s❝❛❧❛ ▲✐❦❡rt✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹ ✕ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸ ✕ ❉❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ✉♥✐♣♦❧❛r❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷ ✕ ✷✵✶✺✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✼ ▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❙❮▼❇❖▲❖❙❊❈● ✲ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛❖▼❙ ✲ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ▼✉♥❞✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❙❛ú❞❡●◗▼ ✲ ●♦❛❧ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ ▼❡tr✐❝◆❆❙❆ ✲ ◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❆❡r♦♥❛✉t✐❝s ❛♥❞ ❙♣❛❝❡ ❆❞♠✐♥✐str❛t✐♦♥✳❋P●❆ ✲ ❋✐❡❧❞ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠❛❜❧❡ ●❛t❡ ❆rr❛②❉❙P ✲ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ❙✐❣♥❛❧ Pr♦❝❡ss♦r❍■❱ ✲ ❍✉♠❛♥ ■♠♠✉♥♦❞❡✜❝✐❡♥❝② ❱✐r✉s❲❊❇ ✲ ❲♦r❧❞ ❲✐❞❡ ❲❡❜●P❙ ✲ ●❧♦❜❛❧ P♦s✐t✐♦♥✐♥❣ ❙②st❡♠❲■❋■ ✲ ❲✐r❡❧❡ss ❋✐❞❡❧✐t②❯❙❇ ✲ ❯♥✐✈❡rs❛❧ ❙❡r✐❛❧ ❇✉sP❈ ✲ P❡rs♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r■❙❖ ✲ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞✐③❛t✐♦♥■❊❈ ✲ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❊❧❡❝tr♦t❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ ❈♦♠♠✐ss✐♦♥❆◆❱■❙❆ ✲ ❆❣ê♥❝✐❛ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❱✐❣✐❧â♥❝✐❛ ❙❛♥✐tár✐❛❙❉❑ ✲ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ❑✐t❏❱▼ ✲ ❏❛✈❛ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡❉❱▼ ✲ ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡❆P■ ✲ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠✐♥❣ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡❏❙❖◆ ✲ ❏❛✈❛❙❝r✐♣t ❖❜❥❡❝t ◆♦t❛t✐♦♥❊❈▼❆ ✲ ❊✉r♦♣❡❛♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ▼❛♥✉❢❛❝t✉r❡rs ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥❆◆❙■ ✲ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞s ■♥st✐t✉t❡❇P▼ ✲ ❇❡❛ts P❡r ▼✐♥✉t❡❍❚❚P ✲ ❍②♣❡r❚❡①t ❚r❛♥s❢❡r Pr♦t♦❝♦❧❍❉ ✲ ❍❛r❞ ❉✐s❦❙❙❉ ✲ ❙♦❧✐❞✲❙t❛t❡ ❉r✐✈❡ ❙❯▼➪❘■❖✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✶✳✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●❡r❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✶✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❊s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹✶✳✷ ❏✉st✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✶✳✸ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❉♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺✷ ❋❯◆❉❆▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❚❊Ó❘■❈❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✷✳✶ ❍♦♠❡❈❛r❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼✷✳✷ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽✷✳✷✳✶ ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✶ ❑❡r♥❡❧ ▲✐♥✉① ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✷ ▲✐❜r❛r✐❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✸ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❘✉♥t✐♠❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✹ ❆♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✺ ❆♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✷✳✸ ❖ ❈♦r❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛✜❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✷✳✸✳✶ ◆♦çõ❡s ❞❡ ❆♥❛t♦♠✐❛ ❡ ❋✐s✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❈❛r❞í❛❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶✷✳✸✳✷ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛✜❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹✸ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❈❖❘❘❊▲❆❚❖❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾✸✳✶ ▼❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❛s ❜✉s❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸✹ ❊▲❊❚❘❖❈❆❘❉■Ó●❘❆❋❖ P❖❘❚➪❚■▲ ❉❊ ❇❆■❳❖ ❈❖◆❙❯▼❖ ✳ ✸✹✹✳✶ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹✹✳✷ ❚❡st❡s ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺✹✳✸ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ r❡❝❡♣çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❊❈● ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺✺ ■▼P▲❊▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❉❖ ❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼✺✳✶ ❱✐sã♦ ●❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼✺✳✷ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾✺✳✸ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺✺✳✹ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻✻ ❱❊❘■❋■❈❆➬➹❖ ❊ ❱❆▲■❉❆➬➹❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹✻✳✶ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✻✳✷ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹✻✳✷✳✶ ❊s❝❛❧❛ ❞❡ ▲✐❦❡rt ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻✻✳✷✳✷ ❆❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ●◗▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼✻✳✷✳✸ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ✻✳✷✳✸✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✴♠❡t❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ●◗▼✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ✻✳✷✳✸✳✷ ❈♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶ ✻✳✷✳✹ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ✻✳✷✳✹✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✴♠❡t❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ●◗▼✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ✻✳✷✳✹✳✷ ❈♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ✻✳✷✳✺ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ❡ ❞♦s ❆❧❡rt❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺✻✳✷✳✻ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✾✼ ❈❖◆❈▲❯❙Õ❊❙ ❊ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❋❯❚❯❘❖❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✷❆◆❊❳❖ ❆ ✕ ❆◆❊❳❖ ■ ✕ ◗❯❊❙❚■❖◆➪❘■❖ ❯❚■▲■❩❆❉❖ ◆❆ ❆❱❆✲ ▲■❆➬➹❖ ❉❖❙ ▼Ó❉❯▲❖❙ ❉❖ ❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺❆✳✶ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺❆✳✷ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✻ ✶✷ ✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖❆ t❡❧❡❢♦♥✐❛ ♠ó✈❡❧ t❡♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s ✭◗■❆◆● ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♦❝♦rr❡✉ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ✭s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s✱ t❛❜❧❡ts✱ ♣❛❧♠t♦♣s✮ ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ t❛✐s❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠✱ ❡♠ ✈✐rt✉❞❡ ❞✐st♦✱ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛sár❡❛s ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ à ♣r♦♠♦çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ◆❛ t❡❧❡♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛❞❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ❥✉♥çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❥á ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✳ ❖ q✉❡ ❞❡✉ ♦r✐❣❡♠❛♦ t❡r♠♦ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ♦✉ ♠❍❡❛❧t❤✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❝♦♠✉♥s❞♦ ❞✐❛✲❛✲❞✐❛ ❞❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s✱ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ♠❡❞✐❝♦ ❛ ❞✐st❛♥❝✐❛✱ ♦♥❞❡♦ ❢♦❝♦✱ ❡st❛r ❡♠ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ♥❛ r♦t✐♥❛ ❞♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❖s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ❡♠ s❛ú❞❡✱ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ ❛♣r✐♠♦r❛r❛♠ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞❛s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ♣❡❧❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤✱ ♣♦✐s✉♠ ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ♣✉❞❡ss❡♠ t❡r ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦ ❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛❞♦s✱ ❡♠ s✉❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛✳ ❆ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♥♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ tr❛③❡♠ ❣❛♥❤♦s s✐❣✲♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ár❡❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s s❡♥❞♦❛t❡♥❞✐❞♦s✱ r❛♣✐❞❡③ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♠❡❞✐❝❛s✱ ❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜s✲ s✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❞✐ss❡♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❡ ❛❣✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ✭❈❖❘❘❊■❆✱ ✷✵✶✶✮ ✭❊❱❆◆●❊▲■❙❚❆✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡s ✐♥✈❡st✐♠❡♥t♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❞❡ ❣♦✈❡r♥♦s ❞❡ ♣❛ís❡s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐✲❞♦s✱ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ s❛ú❞❡ ❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❛ ❡st❛ ár❡❛✳ P❡r♠❛♥❡❝❡❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♦✿ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛✲çõ❡s ♠é❞✐❝❛s✱ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ s❛ú❞❡ ❡ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭❆◆❆◆❉❀❙❘■❱❆❚❙❆✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ♥❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❡st✉❞♦s ❛♣♦♥t❛♠ q✉❡ ♥♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❡♠♠❍❡❛❧t❤✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❞❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ ❡ ♠❡s♠♦❛ss✐♠✱ ♥♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦✱ ♣♦✉❝❛s sã♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦s❝✉st♦s ❛❧t♦s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ✭■❲❆❨❆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❙❡ ❤♦✉✈❡ss❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ♦❢❡rt❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ ❝♦♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦✱ ♠✉✐t♦s ❧❡✐t♦s ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r❡s s❡r✐❛♠ ❞❡s♦❝✉♣❛❞♦s ❡ ✜❝❛r✐❛♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠ ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ♠❛✐s ❣r❛✈❡s✳ ◆♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ✭❊❱❆◆●❊▲■❙❚❆✱ ✷✵✶✹✮ é r❡❧❛t❛❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ✈❛❣❛s ❡♠ ❤♦s♣✐t❛✐s sã♦ ♦❝✉♣❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠ ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❝rô♥✐❝❛s ✶✸♥ã♦ tr❛♥s♠✐ssí✈❡✐s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ s❡r tr❛t❛❞♦s ❡♠ s✉❛s r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳ ❆s ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r❡s ❡stã♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❛s ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❝rô♥✐❝❛s ♥ã♦ tr❛♥s✲♠✐ssí✈❡✐s ❡✱ ❛✐♥❞❛✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❛ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ▼✉♥❞✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❙❛ú❞❡ ✭❖▼❙✮✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧❝❛✉s❛ ❞❡ ♠♦rt❡s ❡♠ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡t❛ ♥❛ ✉❧t✐♠❛ ❞é❝❛❞❛✳ P♦r ❡ss❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s✱ ✶✼ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s❞❡ ♠♦rt❡s ❡♠ ♠é❞✐❛ ♣♦r ❛♥♦✱ ❛t✐♥❣✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✶✸✱✷ ❞♦ ♣❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❞❛s ❝❛✉s❛s ❞❡♠♦rt❡ ♥♦ ♠✉♥❞♦ ✭❖▼❙✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ P❛r❛ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛♠ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ♣ós✲❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦✲♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r✱ ❤á ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦✲ r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ sã♦ ♦s ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦s✳ ❊❧❡s ❡stã♦ s❡♠♣r❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s♥♦s ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦s ❛ ❡ss❡s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ✭P❆❙❚❖❘❊❀ ❙❆▼❊❙■▼❆❀ ▼❯◆❊❘❆❚❖✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❝♦♠ ❞♦s ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❞❡❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ✭❝♦♠♦ ♠✐❝r♦❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❋P●❆s✱ ❉❙Ps ❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❡♠❜❛r❝❛❞♦s✮✱ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦s ❛ s✐st❡♠❛s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❡♠ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ r❡♠♦t❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛❧ té❝♥✐❝♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ◆♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❝✐❡♥t✐✜❝♦✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❞❡ss❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s✳ ◆♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✭❘❆▼❆◆❆❚❍❆◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦♠ó✈❡❧ q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ♦ ❞✐❛ ❛ ❞✐❛ ❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s ♣♦rt❛❞♦r❛s ❞♦ ✈ír✉s ❍■❱✱ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s✳ ◆❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ❖❞❡❤ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✺✮ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠❛❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛r ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❝♦♠ ❝â♥❝❡r✱ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♥❞♦ ♥♦s❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞✐❛ ❛ ❞✐❛ ❞❛ ❞♦❡♥ç❛ ❡ ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐❝❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❡①✐❜✐r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s❛❝❡r❝❛ ❞❛ ❞♦❡♥ç❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❏á ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❡ ❊str✐♥ ❡ ❙✐♠ ✭✷✵✶✵✮ ❡ ▲✐♥ ❡t ❛❧✳✭✷✵✶✺✮✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♠ ❛ t❡❧❡♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❛✱ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡♥❞♦ ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♠é❞✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ❞❡❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s q✉❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛♠ ❝r✐❛r ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦✳ ❖s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❡ ▲♦♣❡s✱ ❱❛✐❞②❛ ❡ ❘♦❞r✐❣✉❡s ✭✷✵✶✸✮ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛✱ q✉❡ ❛tr❛✈és❞♦s s❡♥s♦r❡s ❞❡ ●P❙ ❡ ❛❝❡❧❡rô♠❡tr♦✱ ❞❡t❡❝t❛♠ q✉❡❞❛s ❡ ❡♥✈✐❛♠ ❛❧❡rt❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦r❡s✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ é ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♣❡ss♦❛s ✐❞♦s❛s✱ ♣r♦♣✐❝✐❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ ✈✐❞❛✳ ◆♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❡①✐st❡♠ ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❡ ✭❈❍❆◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱✷✵✶✷✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛r s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s é ✐♠✲♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡ q✉❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛ ❛♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ♠❛✐♦r ♠♦❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣♦✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡ q✉❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✸●✴❲✐✜ ❡♥✈✐❛ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ♥❛ ♥✉✈❡♠✳ ❘❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ❊st❡ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ s❡♠ ✜♦ ✭✇✐r❡❧❡ss✮✱ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛❧❝❛♥❝❡ t❡st❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✼✵ ♠❡tr♦s s❡♠ ❜❛rr❡✐r❛ ❡ s❡♠ ❝♦rt❡s ♥♦ s✐♥❛❧✳ ❖ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❯❙❇ ❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧ ✭P❈✮✳ P❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠ ♦❛❝♦♣❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❉❡s❦t♦♣ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❊❈● ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ✶✹❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐✲ ❧✐❛r ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♠ s✉❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ q✉❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡♠ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦✱ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥✲ t❡s q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ❝❧í♥✐❝♦s ♣ós✲❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r❡s✳ ❈♦♠✐ss♦✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐✲ t❛✐s ❞❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ✭❊❈●✮ ❡ ❡♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛❧❡rt❛s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❝rít✐❝❛s ♥❛❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ três ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s✿ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ q✉❡ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s♣❡❧❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦rtát❡✐s❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮❀ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡st✐♥❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ♣❡rs✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❡ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ q✉❡ é ✉♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱❝♦♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♥❛ t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡❞❡❝✐sã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és❞❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❡ ❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳ ❋♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ t❡st❡s✉♥✐tár✐♦s✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ❏á ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❝♦♠❡r❝✐❛❧ ♥♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❢♦r❛♠ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏♠❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮✱♦♥❞❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t♦s ❡♥✈✐♦s ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s s✐♠✉❧tâ♥❡♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ q✉❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛♠ ♦✉ ❥á tr❛❜❛✲❧❤❛r❛♠ ❝♦♠ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ q✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧ó❣✐❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠●♦❛❧ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ ▼❡❝tr✐❝s ✭●◗▼ ✮ ❡ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ▲✐❦❡rt✱ ❛✜♠ ❞❡ r❡❧❛t❛r ♦♣✐♥✐õ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛✲❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✶✳✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●❡r❛❧ ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛✲♠❡♥t❛ q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♠ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❡♠ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ❝❧í♥✐❝♦s❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✳✶✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❊s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❉❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♣❡r❝✉rs♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ❛♦ ❝✉♠♣r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛ q✉❡ s❡ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s✿ ✶✺❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡st✉❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❛ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♠ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐♦ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡❀ ✶✳✷ ❏✉st✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛◆♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s♦♠❛r ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❣❛♥❤♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ♥❛ ár❡❛✱ ❜✉s❝❛ ❛✐♥❞❛✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r✲s❡ ❛♦✉tr❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ✭❤❛r❞✇❛r❡✱ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✮ ❥á ❝r✐❛❞♦s ♥♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❝✐❡♥t✐✜❝♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ é ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡✲ tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ r❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦r ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ✭▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✮ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✳ ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛✲s❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛✱ ♥♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛r❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❛t❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s❡ s❡✉s ❡♥t❡s ❡♠ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ ❛té ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❡♠ ❡♠ ✉♠❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐r ❞❡❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r♦♣❡r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr❛s ❢♦♥t❡s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦✳✶✳✸ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❉♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡stá ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❞❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❢♦r♠❛✿ ✶✻◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷✿ ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❚❡ór✐❝❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♠❜❛s❛r ♦ ✶✼ ✷ ❋❯◆❉❆▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❚❊Ó❘■❈❆❊st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❡①♣õ❡ ♦ ❡♠❜❛s❛♠❡♥t♦ t❡ór✐❝♦ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦s t❡♠❛s ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦s ♥❡st❡ ❞♦✲ ❝✉♠❡♥t♦✳✷✳✶ ❍♦♠❡❈❛r❡ ◆♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❍♦♠❡❝❛r❡ sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r✳ ❙❡✉ ♣r✐♥✲❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ❛t✐♥❣✐r ✉♠❛ ❡st❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦ ✐♥t❡r❛❣✐♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r ❡ ✉♠❛ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛✳ ♦ ➱ r❡❣✉❧❛♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❘❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❆♥✈✐s❛✴❘❉❈ ♥ ✶✶✱ ❞❡ ✷✻ ❞❡ ❥❛♥❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✵✻ ✭❆◆✲❱■❙❆✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ ❊ss❛ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦ é ❛♣❧✐❝á✈❡❧ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❆t❡♥çã♦ ❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r✱ ♣ú✲❜❧✐❝♦s ♦✉ ♣r✐✈❛❞♦s✱ q✉❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡♠ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❡✴♦✉ ✐♥t❡r♥❛çã♦ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r✳ ❆t❡♥çã♦ ❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r é ✉♠ t❡r♠♦ q✉❡ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦ à s❛ú❞❡✱ s✉❜s✲ t✐t✉t✐✈❛ ♦✉ ❝♦♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r às ❥á ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s✱ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛❞❛ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛çõ❡s ❞❡♣r♦♠♦çã♦ à s❛ú❞❡✱ ♣r❡✈❡♥çã♦ ❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❡ r❡❛❜✐❧✐t❛çã♦ ♣r❡st❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❞♦♠✐✲❝í❧✐♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❣❛r❛♥t✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛ às r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦ à s❛ú❞❡✭❇❘❆❙■▲✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❆ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r é ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝❛rát❡r ❛♠❜✉❧❛t♦r✐❛❧✱ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞❛s❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛❞❛s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ❡♠ ❞♦♠✐❝í❧✐♦ ✭❆◆❱■❙❆✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ ❆ ❆t❡♥çã♦ ❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛ r❡♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❛s❡q✉✐♣❡s q✉❡ ♣r❡st❛♠ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ♥❛ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❜ás✐❝❛✱ ❛♠❜✉❧❛t♦r✐❛❧✱ ♥♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡✉r❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❡♠❡r❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r✱ ❝♦♠ ✈✐st❛s à r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ❛t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r ❡✴♦✉ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ♣❡r♠❛♥ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ✐♥t❡r♥❛❞♦s✱ ❛ ❤✉♠❛♥✐③❛çã♦❞❛ ❛t❡♥çã♦✱ ❛ ❞❡s✐♥st✐t✉❝✐♦♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❛♠♣❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛✉t♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ✭❇❘❆❙■▲✱✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❘❡❣✐str♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ❤á ♥♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ♣♦r ✈♦❧t❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠✐❧❤ã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ sã♦ tr❛t❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✷✵✵ ♠✐❧ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛t✉❛r❡♠ ♥❛s r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❞♦s♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ✭P❆❊❙✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ❆t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ❛ ✐♥st❛❧❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦✱ ♥❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ❞❡❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ♣♦rtát❡✐s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✈❛r✐❛r ❞❡s❞❡ ♦s ❞❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ♣♦r✉♠❛ ♣❡ss♦❛ ✐♥str✉í❞❛ ♥❛ ❤♦r❛ ✭✉♠ ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✮ ❛té ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛♠ ❞❡ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛✐s ♣♦r ✉♠ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛❞♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛♦ ♠❛♥✉s❡✐♦ ❡ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ✭❚❯❘◆❊❘ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✾✮✳ ❖s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❛t✉❛♥t❡s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛s r❡s✐❞❡♥❝✐❛s ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ♥❡st❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ♠♦✲❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ♦ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❞♦ ❈✉✐❞❛❞♦r✱ q✉❡ é ✉♠❛ ♣❡ss♦❛ ❝♦♠ ♦✉ s❡♠✈í♥❝✉❧♦ ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐á✲❧♦ ❡♠ s✉❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❛t✐✈✐✲❞❛❞❡s ❞❛ ✈✐❞❛ ❝♦t✐❞✐❛♥❛ ♦✉ ✉♠ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛❞♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ✉♠❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ✶✽♠✉❧t✐♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳ ❊ss❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ é ❢♦r♠❛❞❛ ♣♦r ♠é❞✐❝♦s✱❡♥❢❡r♠❡✐r♦s✱ té❝♥✐❝♦s ❡♠ ❡♥❢❡r♠❛❣❡♠✱ ✜s✐♦t❡r❛♣❡✉t❛s✱ ❛ss✐st❡♥t❡s s♦❝✐❛❧✱ ❢♦♥♦❛✉❞✐ó❧♦❣♦s✱♥✉tr✐❝✐♦♥✐st❛s✱ t❡r❛♣❡✉t❛s ♦❝✉♣❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♦❞♦♥tó❧♦❣♦s✱ ♣s✐❝ó❧♦❣♦s ❡ ❢❛r♠❛❝ê✉t✐❝♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❛♥✉s❡✐♦ ❞❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❛✉✲①✐❧✐❡♠ ♥♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ ✭❇❘❆❙■▲✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❖ ❛✈❛♥ç♦ ❞❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❡ ❞♦s ♠❡✐♦s ❞❡ t❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❛✉✲♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ♣❡❧♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ✭❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✮✱ ♣r♦♣♦r✲❝✐♦♥❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ✈ár✐❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♠♦ ❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦s r✐s❝♦s ❞❡ ✐♥❢❡❝çã♦❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r ❡ ❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❝✉st♦s ❝♦♠ ❣❛st♦s ♦r✐✉♥❞♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r♥❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝❧í✲♥✐❝♦ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ❛♠♣❧✐❛r ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❣❛s ♥♦s ❧❡✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❡♠ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ❛❧t❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r tr❛t❛❞♦s ❡♠ s✉❛sr❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s✳ ❖✉tr♦ss✐♠✱ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛♠ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ ❡ s❡✉s ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r❡s✱ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♥❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐❞❛ ❡ ❤✉♠❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✳✷✳✷ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❆ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ é ❛ ❞♦♠✐♥❛♥t❡ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s ❡ t❛❜❧❡ts ✭●❆❘❚◆❊❘✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ◆♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ❝❤❡❣❛ ❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ✾✵✪ ❞♦s ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦s♥♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦ ✭❱❊◆❚❯❘❆✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ é ✉♠❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛ q✉❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❑❡r♥❡❧▲✐♥✉①✱ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡✱ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛✉♠ ❑✐t ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ✭❙❉❑ ✕ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ❑✐t✮ q✉❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❜ás✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦✱♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❏❛✈❛ ✭❆◆❉❘❖■❉✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳✷✳✷✳✶ ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✱ é ❢♦r♠❛❞❛ ♣♦r ✈ár✐❛s❝❛♠❛❞❛s✳ ❈❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♠ ♥♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✳ ✶✾❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶ ✕ ❈❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❆◆❉❘❖■❉✱ ✷✵✶✹✮ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✶ ❑❡r♥❡❧ ▲✐♥✉①➱ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❛ ♣✐❧❤❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❞❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❡ ❢♦✐ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥❛ ✈❡rsã♦ ✷✳✻ ❞♦ ▲✐♥✉①✳ ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ♣r♦✈❡r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ♦❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛✱ ❛s ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çõ❡s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✱ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡♥❡r❣✐❛ ❡❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✈ár✐♦s ✈ár✐♦s ❞r✐✈❡rs ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ s❡r ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❛❜str❛çã♦❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❡ ♦ r❡st♦ ❞❛ ♣✐❧❤❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳✷✳✷✳✶✳✷ ▲✐❜r❛r✐❡s ❆ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❧✐❜r❛r✐❡s✱ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛r ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ❛❝❡ss❛r ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❊ss❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠❛ s❡r✐❡ ❞❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❈✴❈✰✰ q✉❡ sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r ✈ár✐♦s ❝♦♠✲♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❡ ❡①♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ♣❡❧❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❆❧❣✉♠❛s ❞❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s sã♦ ❧✐st❛❞❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦✿ ❙②st❡♠ ❈ ▲✐❜r❛r② ✕ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ✈✐♥❞❛ ❞❛ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❛❜❡rt♦ sã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ss❡ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❢♦♥t❡✱ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✹✳✹❇❙❉✲▲✐t❡✳ ❊♠ ❛❞✐çã♦✱ t❛✐s s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♥st✐t✉❡♠✲s❡ ❞❡ ✈ár✐❛s ♣♦rçõ❡s ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦❥❡t♦s ❞❡ ❈ó❞✐❣♦❆❜❡rt♦✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ♥♦tá✈❡❧ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ●◆❯ ✭❋❘❊❊❇❙❉✱ ✷✵✶✺✮✳ ✷✵▲✐♥✉①✳ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✸ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❘✉♥t✐♠❡❊ss❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❞♦ ❈♦r❡ ❏❛✈❛✳ ➱ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❏❆❱❆✳ P♦ss✉✐ ❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❉❛❧✈✐❦✱ ♦♥❞❡ sã♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✳❆ ▼áq✉✐♥❛ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ✉s❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐✲ t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✳ ❖s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ❏❛✈❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s sã♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣✐❧❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜②t❡❝♦❞❡s ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❡✱ ❛♣ós ✐ss♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦s ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦✳ ▼❡s♠♦ ❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ s❡♥❞♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❏❛✈❛✱ ❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛✈✐rt✉❛❧ s✉♣r❛❝✐t❛❞❛ ♥ã♦ é ✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❏❛✈❛✱ ♣♦✐s ♥ã♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛ ❜②t❡❝♦❞❡ ❏❱▼❡ s✐♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ♦t✐♠✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✱ ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❊①❡❝✉t❛❜❧❡✭✳❞❡①✮✳ ❆ ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡ ✭❉❱▼✮ é ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❦❡r♥❡❧ ❞♦ ▲✐♥✉① ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s s✉❜❥❛❝❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠♦ t❤r❡❛❞✐♥❣ ❡ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛✳✷✳✷✳✶✳✹ ❆♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❊ss❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛✱ é ❢♦r♠❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛✲ t✐✈♦s ❞❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♥❞♦ ❛♦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s ❆P■s q✉❡ ♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s❜ás✐❝♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣r♦✈✐♥❞❛s ❞♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❣❡♦❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛✲çã♦ ❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦✱ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦✱ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❛r♠❡s✱ ❛❞✐çã♦ ✷✶❞❡ ♥♦t✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ♥❛ ❜❛rr❛ ❞❡ st❛t✉s✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ P♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ r❡✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s✱ ♦♥❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♣♦❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛r s✉❛s ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♦✉tr♦♣♦❞❡ ❢❛③❡r ✉s♦ ❞❡st❛s ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡s ✭❛çõ❡s s✉❥❡✐t❛s ❛♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❞♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❢r❛✲♠❡✇♦r❦✮✳ ❊st❡ ♠❡s♠♦ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r s✉❜st✐t✉í❞♦s♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞♦r ✭❆◆❉❘❖■❉✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ❙❡❣✉❡ ❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ s✉❜s✐st❡♠❛s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥❡st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛✿❡①t❡♥sí✈❡❧ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐❡✇s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✺ ❆♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s❊stá ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ♦❝✉♣❛ ♦ t♦♣♦ ❞❛ ♣✐❧❤❛ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ❊❧❛ é ❛ q✉❡ ♣r♦✈❡r ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❞✐r❡t❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ✜♥❛✐s✱ ♣♦✐s ❛s ♦✉tr❛s q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛♠ ❛❜❛✐①♦❞❡st❛ sã♦ ❛❝❡ss❛❞❛s ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ❡ ❢❛❜r✐❝❛♥t❡s ❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s✳◆❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ✈❡♠ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛✐s✱❞❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s ✉♠ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❡✲♠❛✐❧✱ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❙▼❙✱ ❛❣❡♥❞❛✱ ♠❛♣❛s✱ ♥❛✈❡❣❛❞♦r✱ ❝♦♥t❛t♦s❡ ♦✉tr❛s✳✷✳✸ ❖ ❈♦r❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛✜❛ ❖ ❝♦r❛çã♦ é ❝♦♥st✐t✉í❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝é❧✉❧❛s q✉❡ t❡♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉③✐r❡❧❡tr✐❝✐❞❛❞❡✳ P♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡❧étr✐❝❛s✱ ❞❡ ♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❡s♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠✉s✲❝✉❧❛t✉r❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛✱ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s✐♥❝r♦♥✐③❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr❛çã♦✱ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛❝✐r❝✉❧❛çã♦ s❛♥❣✉í♥❡❛ ✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳✷✳✸✳✶ ◆♦çõ❡s ❞❡ ❆♥❛t♦♠✐❛ ❡ ❋✐s✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❈❛r❞í❛❝❛ ❖ ❝♦r❛çã♦ é ✉♠ ór❣ã♦ ♠✉s❝✉❧❛r ❞♦ ❝♦r♣♦ ❤✉♠❛♥♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❞✐✈✐❞❡ ❡♠ ❞♦✐s ❧❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠✲♣r❡❡♥❞✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❞✉❛s ❜♦♠❜❛s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛s ❞❡✿ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ❞✐r❡✐t♦ ✭❜♦♠❜❡✐❛ s❛♥❣✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣✉❧♠õ❡s✮ ❡ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ❡sq✉❡r❞♦ ✭❜♦♠❜❡✐❛ s❛♥❣✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ór❣ã♦ ♣❡r✐❢ér✐❝♦s✮ ✷✷✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ P♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③✱ ❡st❡s ❧❛❞♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❞✉❛s ❝â♠❛r❛s✱ ✉♠ átr✐♦ ❡✉♠ ✈❡♥trí❝✉❧♦ ✭P❆❙❚❖❘❊❀ ❙❆▼❊❙■▼❆❀ ▼❯◆❊❘❆❚❖✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✿ ➪tr✐♦ ❞✐r❡✐t♦❀ ❝✉❧♦s✳ ❈â♠❛r❛s ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷ ✕ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❍❆❘❚❩❖●✱ ✷✵✵✷✮ ▼❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛✐s ♥♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛♠ ❛ s✉❝❡ssã♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr❛çõ❡s ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛s✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛s ❞❡ r✐t♠♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦ ✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳◆❡ss❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ ♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ ❝é❧✉❧❛s q✉❡ tê♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉③✐r ♦ ✐♠♣✉❧s♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦✱ ❝é❧✉❧❛s ♠❛r❝❛✲♣❛ss♦ ✭P❆❙❚❖❘❊❀ ❙❆▼❊❙■▼❆❀ ▼❯◆❊✲❘❆❚❖✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳ ❊st❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❡ss❛s ❝é❧✉❧❛s ♣♦ss✉ír❡♠ ✉♠ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❛çã♦ q✉❡✱ ❡s♣♦♥t❛♥❡❛♠❡♥t❡✱ é ❞❡✢❛❣r❛❞♦ ❣❡r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡s♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❛t✐✈❛r❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❝é❧✉❧❛s ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛s✳ P❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡st❛ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡s♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦ ♣♦ss❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r t♦❞❛s ❛s ✷✸❝é❧✉❧❛s ♠✉s❝✉❧❛r❡s ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✉♠ ✧❙✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❞✉çã♦✧✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ♦ ✐♠♣✉❧s♦❝❛♠✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ rá♣✐❞❛✳ ❖ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝é❧✉❧❛s ♠❛r❝❛✲♣❛ss♦ ❛❣r✉♣❛❞❛s ❡ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✱❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♥♦❞♦ s✐♥✉s❛❧✱ é ♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ❡♥✈✐❛r ♦♥❞❛s ❞❡ ❞❡s♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦ ♥✉♠❛❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♠❛✐♦r✱ ♣♦r ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♠❛♥❞❛♥❞♦ ♦ r✐t♠♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦ ♦✉ ❘✐t♠♦ ❙✐♥✉s❛❧✳ ❆ sér✐❡ ❞❡ ❡✈❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ♥♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❜❛t✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦❞♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❝✐❝❧♦ é ✐♥✐❝✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❣❡r❛çã♦ ❡s♣♦♥tâ♥❡❛❞❡ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♥♦❞♦ s✐♥✉s❛❧✱ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❧❛t❡r❛❧ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❞♦ átr✐♦ ❞✐r❡✐t♦✱♣ró①✐♠♦ à ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❞❛ ✈❡✐❛ ❝❛✈❛ s✉♣❡r✐♦r✳ ❖ ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❛çã♦ ❡①♣❛♥❞❡✲s❡ ♣❡❧♦s átr✐♦s❛té ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛♦s ✈❡♥trí❝✉❧♦s ✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ ❊♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❞♦ ❜❛t✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ❛s ❝é❧✉❧❛s ♠❛r❝❛✲♣❛ss♦✱ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ♥♦❞♦ s✐♥✉s❛❧✱ ❡♥✈✐❛♠ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❞❡s♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦ q✉❡ sã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦ ♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦❡ss❡s s✐♥❛✐s ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛♠ ❛s ❝é❧✉❧❛s ♠✉s❝✉❧❛r❡s ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛s✱ ♣r♦✈♦❝❛♠ ❛ ❝♦♥tr❛çã♦ ♠✉s❝✉❧❛r❡ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❝é❧✉❧❛s ♠❛r❝❛✲♣❛ss♦✱ ✐♥✐❜❡✲❛s ✭P❆❙❚❖❘❊❀ ❙❆▼❊❙■▼❆❀▼❯◆❊❘❆❚❖✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❞✐r❡çã♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ s❛♥❣✉í♥❡♦ ❢❡✐t❛ ♣❡❧❛s ❝â♠❛r❛s ❡ ✈á❧✈✉❧❛s ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛s✳ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ❡ ✢✉①♦ ❞♦ s❛♥❣✉❡ ♣❡❧❛s ❝â♠❛r❛s ❡ ✈á❧✈✉❧❛s ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛s✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸ ✕ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮ ✷✹❙❡❣✉♥❞♦ P❛st♦r❡✱ ❙❛♠❡s✐♠❛ ❡ ▼✉♥❡r❛t♦ ✭✷✵✶✶✮ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉çã♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦ ❝♦♠✲ ♣r❡❡♥❞❡✿ ❖ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛✱ ❜❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛①❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❞❡❞✐ást♦❧❡✱ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ❡♥❝❤❡✲s❡ ❞❡ s❛♥❣✉❡✳ ▲♦❣♦ ❛♣ós ✈❡♠ ✉♠ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡❝♦♥tr❛çã♦ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❞❡ síst♦❧❡ ✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ♦s ❡✈❡♥t♦s ✈❛r✐❛❞♦s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✿ ❖ ❝♦r❛çã♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❡stí♠✉❧♦s ❡❧étr✐❝♦s✱ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ♦ ❜♦♠❜❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s❛♥❣✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❡st♦ ❞♦ ❝♦r♣♦✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❧❡✐t✉r❛ ❞❡ss❡s ✐♠♣✉❧s♦s ❡❧étr✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝♦ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦✳✷✳✸✳✷ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛✜❛ ❖ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ é ♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r r❡❣✐str❛r ♦ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ♦✉ ❊❈●✭✐♠♣r❡ssã♦ ♦✉ ❛ss✐♥❛t✉r❛ ❞♦ r❡❣✐str♦ ❞♦s ✐♠♣✉❧s♦s ❡❧étr✐❝♦s ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦✮✳ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❊❈● é✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r❡s✳ P❛r❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛r♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❧♦❝❛✐s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s❞♦ ❝♦r♣♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❝✉❥❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ é ❡♥✈✐❛r ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❡❧étr✐❝❛s ♣r♦✈✐♥❞❛s ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ ✷✺ ❉✐✈❡rs♦s ❡✈❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹ ✕ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮ ❖ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣❡❧❛ ♦♥❞❛ P✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦ ◗❘❙ ❡ ♣❡❧❛ ♦♥❞❛❚✳ ❆ ♦♥❞❛ P é ❣❡r❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❞❡s♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❛tr✐❛❧✱ ♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦ ◗❘❙ ♣❡❧❛ ❞❡s♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦✈❡♥tr✐❝✉❧❛r ❡ ❛ ♦♥❞❛ ❚ ♣❡❧❛ r❡♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦ ✈❡♥tr✐❝✉❧❛r✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦✲❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺ ✕ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ◆♦r♠❛❧✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✷✻◆♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ❤á ❛ ❝❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✈❡t♦r❡s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❞❡s♣♦❧❛r✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ♣♦❧❛r✐✲ ③❛çã♦ ❞♦s átr✐♦s ❡ ❞♦s ✈❡♥trí❝✉❧♦s✳ ❊ss❛ ❝❛♣t❛çã♦ é ❢❡✐t❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s✱ q✉❡❡st❛rã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡ s❡❣✉✐rã♦ ✉♠❛ ♣❛❞r♦♥✐③❛çã♦✱ ♥♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦s ❡ tór❛① ❢♦r♠❛♥❞♦❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻ ❡①✐❜❡ ❛s ❝♦♥❡①õ❡s ❡❧étr✐❝❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r✲❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦✳ ❖❜t❡♥❞♦ ❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦ ❊❈●✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ❜✐♣♦❧❛r❡s✳ ❖♥❞❡ ♦ ❊❈●é r❡❣✐str❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❞♦✐s ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ♣♦s✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♥♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦s s✉♣❡r✐♦r❡s ❞♦ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦✱ ❞❡❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐st✐♥t❛✳ ❯♠❛ ❞❡r✐✈❛çã♦ é ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ✜♦s ❡ s❡✉s❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s✱ ❢♦r♠❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ❡ ♦ ❝♦r♣♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻ ✕ ❉✐s♣♦s✐çã♦ ❝♦♥✈❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❚r✐❛♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❊✐♥t❤♦✈❡♥ ❡stá s♦❜r❡♣♦st♦ ❛♦ t♦rá①✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮ ❖s ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ❞♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣rá✜❝♦ ❢♦r♠❛♠ ❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s✱ s❡♥❞♦ r❡t❛s q✉❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭P❆❙❚❖❘❊❀ ❙❆▼❊❙■▼❆❀ ▼❯◆❊❘❆❚❖✱ ✷✵✶✶✮ ♦ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ✐♥t❡r❝♦st❛❧ à ❜♦r❞❛ ❡st❡r♥❛❧ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛❀ ♦ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ✐♥t❡r❝♦st❛❧ à ❜♦❞❛ ❡st❡r♥❛❧ ❞✐r❡✐t❛❀ ♦ ❏á ♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❤♦r✐③♦♥t❛❧ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣❡❧❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ♣r❡❝♦r❞✐❛✐s✱ ♦♥❞❡ t♦❞❛s sã♦ ✉♥✐♣♦❧❛✲ r❡s ❡ sã♦ ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♣♦s✐çõ❡s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s ❞♦s ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ é ❞❡♠♦♥str❛❞♦♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✿ ❉❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ❜✐♣♦❧❛r❡s ❊❧❡tr♦❞♦ ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❊❧❡tr♦❞♦ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦❉✶ ❇r❛ç♦ ❡sq✉❡r❞♦ ❇r❛ç♦ ❞✐r❡✐t♦❉✷ P❡r♥❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛ ❇r❛ç♦ ❞✐r❡✐t♦❉✸ P❡r♥❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛ ❉❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ❜✐♣♦❧❛r❡s✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶ ✕ ❙❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣r♦❝❡❞✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s sã♦ ♦❜t✐❞❛s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛❞✐s♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶ ✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦❝❛s♦ ❞❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ❜✐♣♦❧❛r❡s✳ ❖ P❧❛♥♦ ❢r♦♥t❛❧ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣❡❧❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ❝❧áss✐❝❛s ♦✉ ❞♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦s✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ sã♦✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s q✉❛tr♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦st♦s ♥♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦s ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r❡s ❡ s✉♣❡r✐♦r❡s✿ ✷✼✉♥❡♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ❜✐♣♦❧❛r❡s ✭♣♦s✐t✐✈♦✲♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦✮ ♦✉ ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ✉♥✐♣♦❧❛r❡s ❛♦ ❝❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡✲çã♦✳ ❈❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡ss❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s t❡♠ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ✉♠ ♠❡s♠♦ ✈❡t♦r ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛s❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♣r♦✈♦❝❛♥❞♦✱ ❝♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ✐♥s❝r✐çõ❡s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s ♥♦ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❞♦ ❊❈●✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ t♦r♥❛♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈❡t♦r ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡çã♦ ♥♦s ♣❧❛♥♦s ❢r♦♥t❛❧ ❡ ❤♦r✐③♦♥t❛❧✳ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ✐♥t❡r❝♦st❛❧ à ❧✐♥❤❛ ❤❡♠✐❝❧❛✈✐❝✉❧❛r ❡sq✉❡r❞❛❀ ✷✽ ❉❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ✉♥✐♣♦❧❛r❡s✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷ ✕❉❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ✉♥✐♣♦❧❛r❡s P♦t❡♥❝✐❛❧ r❡❣✐str❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❛❱❘ ❇r❛ç♦ ❞✐r❡✐t♦❛❱▲ ❇r❛ç♦ ❡sq✉❡r❞♦❛❱❋ P❡r♥❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭P❆❙❚❖❘❊❀ ❙❆▼❊❙■▼❆❀ ▼❯◆❊❘❆❚❖✱ ✷✵✶✶✮ ❖ tr✐❛♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❊✐♥t❤♦✈❡♥ é ❛ ✜❣✉r❛ ❣❡♦♠étr✐❝❛ ❢♦r♠❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❞♦✐s❜r❛ç♦s ❡ ❛ ♣❡r♥❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛♠ ♦s á♣✐❝❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ tr✐❛♥❣✉❧♦ q✉❡ ❝✐r❝✉♥❞❛ ♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦✳ ❖sá♣✐❝❡s s✉♣❡r✐♦r❡s ❞❡ss❡ tr✐❛♥❣✉❧♦ sã♦ ♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ♣❡❧♦s q✉❛✐s ♦s ❞♦✐s ❜r❛ç♦s s❡ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛♠✱❡❧❡tr✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛♦s ❧íq✉✐❞♦s s✐t✉❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✈♦❧t❛ ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦✱ ❥á ♦ á♣✐❝❡ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r é ♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ♣❡❧♦ q✉❛❧ ❛ ♣❡r♥❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛ s❡ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛ ❛ ❡ss❡s ❧íq✉✐❞♦s ✭●❯❨❚❖◆❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ ✷✾ ✸ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❈❖❘❘❊▲❆❚❖❙❊st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ tr❛t❛ ❞❛ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ t❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳P❛r❛ ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ✉♠❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❞♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❛t✉❛✐s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s ❛♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆♣ós ❢♦r❛♠ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♦✐t♦tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡s✉❧t❛♥t❡s ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s é ❞❡s❝r✐t❛ ♥❡st❛ s❡ssã♦✳ ❆ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✿ ❙❝♦♣✉s✱ ■❊❊❊ ❳♣❧♦r❡✱❲❡❜ ♦❢ ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❡ P✉❜▼❡❞ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❛✐①❛ t❡♠♣♦r❛❧ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❡♥tr❡ ✷✵✶✵❛ ✷✵✶✺✳ ❖✐t♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢♦r❛♠ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛ ❡ ♣❛r❛♦❜t❡r ♠❛✐s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❡ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛✳ ❯♠ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✹✸✶✷ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢♦✐ r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦s ❝♦♠ ❢♦❝♦ ❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s♠ó✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✱ ❢♦r❛♠❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✳ ❆ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❡s♣❡❧❤❛ ♦ q✉❡ é ❞✐t♦ ♥❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r❇❡rt ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✹✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❡①♣❧❛♥❛ q✉❡✱ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s t♦r♥❛r❛♠✲ s❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ✐♥❞✐s♣❡♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞✐❛ ❛ ❞✐❛ ❞♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳ ❊q✉❡ ❡ss❛ ❡①♣❛♥sã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ♣♦ss✉✐ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①♣❛♥sã♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ♣❡ss♦❛✐s ❞❡ ❞é❝❛❞❛s ❛♥t❡r✐♦r❡s✳✸✳✶ ▼❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❛s ❜✉s❝❛s ❆ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣r❛✜❛ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❣❡r❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ✉♠❛ str✐♥❣ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s ❞❛ ❙❝♦♣✉s ❡ ❞❡♣♦✐s ❡stá str✐♥❣ ❢♦✐ r❡✜♥❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s✭■❊❊❊ ❳♣❧♦r❡✱ ❲❡❜ ♦❢ ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❡ P✉❜▼❡❞✮✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r ❡stã♦ ❛s str✐♥❣s ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❛rt✐❣♦s✿❙❝♦♣✉s✿ ❆▲▲✭ ✭❍♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❙②st❡♠✮ ❖❘ ✭❍♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡ ❙②st❡♠✮ ❖❘ ✭❤♦♠❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❝❛r❡ s②st❡♠✮ ✮❆◆❉ ❆▲▲✭ ✭♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤✮ ❖❘ ✭♠❍❡❛❧t❤✮ ❖❘ ✭♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤❝❛r❡✮ ❖❘ ✭♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✮ ✮ ❆◆❉ ❆▲▲✭ ✭❊❈●✮ ❖❘ ✭❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠✮ ✮ ❆◆❉ P❯❇❨❊❆❘ ❃ ✷✵✵✾ ❲❡❜ ♦❢ ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡✿ ✸✵❚❙❂✭ ✭❍♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❙②st❡♠✮ ❖❘ ✭❍♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡ ❙②st❡♠✮ ❖❘ ✭❤♦♠❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❝❛r❡ s②st❡♠✮ ✮❆◆❉ ❚❙❂✭ ✭♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤✮ ❖❘ ✭♠❍❡❛❧t❤✮ ❖❘ ✭♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤❝❛r❡✮ ❖❘ ✭♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✮ ✮ ❆◆❉ ❚❙❂✭ ✭❊❈●✮ ❖❘ ✭❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠✮ ✮ ❚✐♠❡s♣❛♥❂✷✵✶✵✲✷✵✶✺ ■❊❊❊ ❳♣❧♦r❡✿✭✭✭✭✭✭✭✭✭❍♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❙②st❡♠✮ ❖❘ ❍♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡ ❙②st❡♠✮ ❖❘ ❤♦♠❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❝❛r❡ s②st❡♠✮❆◆❉ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤✮ ❖❘ ♠❍❡❛❧t❤✮ ❖❘ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤❝❛r❡✮ ❖❘ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡✮❆◆❉ ❊❈●✮ ❖❘ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠✮ ❛♥❞ r❡✜♥❡❞ ❜② ❨❡❛r✿ ✷✵✶✵✲✷✵✶✺ P✉❜▼❡❞✿✭✭✭✭✭✭✭✭❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ s②st❡♠❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❖❘ ✭✭✧♥✉rs✐♥❣✧❬❙✉❜❤❡❛❞✐♥❣❪ ❖❘✧♥✉rs✐♥❣✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘ ✭✧❤♦♠❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❖❘ ✧❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘ ✧❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✧❬▼❡❙❍ ❚❡r♠s❪ ❖❘ ✭✧❤♦♠❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉✧❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧s❡r✈✐❝❡s✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❖❘ ✧❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘✭✧❤♦♠❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮✮ ❆◆❉ s②st❡♠❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮✮ ❖❘ ✭✭✧❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✧❬▼❡❙❍ ❚❡r♠s❪ ❖❘ ✭✧❤♦♠❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉✧s❡r✈✐❝❡s✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❖❘ ✧❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘ ✭✧❤♦♠❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪❆◆❉ ✧❤❡❛❧t❤✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❖❘ ✧❤♦♠❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮❆◆❉ s②st❡♠❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮✮ ❆◆❉ ✭✧t❡❧❡♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❡✧❬▼❡❙❍ ❚❡r♠s❪ ❖❘ ✧t❡❧❡♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❡✧❬❆❧❧❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘ ✭✧♠♦❜✐❧❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧❤❡❛❧t❤✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❖❘ ✧♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤✧❬❆❧❧❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮✮ ❖❘ ✭✧❤❡❛❧t❤✧❬▼❡❙❍ ❚❡r♠s❪ ❖❘ ✧❤❡❛❧t❤✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮✮ ❖❘ ✭♠♦❜✐❧❡❬❆❧❧ ❋✐✲❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✭✧❞❡❧✐✈❡r② ♦❢ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❝❛r❡✧❬▼❡❙❍ ❚❡r♠s❪ ❖❘ ✭✧❞❡❧✐✈❡r②✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉✧❤❡❛❧t❤✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❖❘ ✧❞❡❧✐✈❡r② ♦❢ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪❖❘ ✧❤❡❛❧t❤❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮✮✮ ❖❘ ✭♠♦❜✐❧❡❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✭✧♥✉rs✐♥❣✧❬❙✉❜❤❡❛❞✐♥❣❪❖❘ ✧♥✉rs✐♥❣✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘ ✭✧❤♦♠❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❖❘ ✧❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘ ✧❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✧❬▼❡❙❍ ❚❡r♠s❪ ❖❘ ✭✧❤♦♠❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉✧❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧s❡r✈✐❝❡s✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❖❘ ✧❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡ s❡r✈✐❝❡s✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘✭✧❤♦♠❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❆◆❉ ✧❝❛r❡✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮✮✮✮ ❆◆❉ ✭✧❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤②✧❬▼❡❙❍❚❡r♠s❪ ❖❘ ✧❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤②✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘ ✧❡❝❣✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮✮ ❆◆❉ ✭✧❡❧❡❝tr♦✲❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤②✧❬▼❡❙❍ ❚❡r♠s❪ ❖❘ ✧❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤②✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪ ❖❘ ✧❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐✲♦❣r❛♠✧❬❆❧❧ ❋✐❡❧❞s❪✮ ❆◆❉ ✭✧✷✵✶✵✴✵✶✴✵✶✧❬P❉❆❚❪ ✿ ✧✷✵✶✺✴✶✷✴✸✶✧❬P❉❆❚❪✮ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❢♦r❛♠ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❙t❆rt ✲ ❙t❛t❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❆rt t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❙②st❡♠❛t✐❝ ❘❡✈✐❡✇ ✭❙❖❋❚❲❆❘❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❢♦ss❡♠ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s♠❛✐s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✱ ❝♦♠ ❜❛s❡ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❝r✐t✐❝❛ ❞❛s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s r❡s✉♠♦ ❡ ✸✶❈❛❞❛ ❛rt✐❣♦ r❡s✉❧t❛♥t❡ ❞❛s str✐♥❣s ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❢♦✐ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦✱ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ r❛♥❦✐♥❣ ❞❡✲ ♠♦♥str❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❙t❆rt ✲ ❙t❛t❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❆rt t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❙②st❡♠❛t✐❝ ❘❡✈✐❡✇ ✭❙❖❋❚✲❲❆❘❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮ ❡ ❞❡♣♦✐s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧✱ ❆♣ós ❛ r❡♠♦çã♦ ❞♦s ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❡ ❞♦s q✉❡ t✐♥❤❛ ✵ ❝♦♠♦ ❙❝♦r❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛✱ r❡st❛r❛♠ ✸✵ ❛rt✐❣♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ s✐st❡♠❛s❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✳ ❊ss❡s ❢♦r❛♠ t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ❞❡❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ♥♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❢♦r❛♠ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ♦s ♦✐t♦ q✉❡ ♠❛✐s t❡♠ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣♦✐s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s✱ ❊❈● ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❝♦♠❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ◆❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❛ ♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❛ ❡ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s q✉❡ sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠❞❡t❡❝t❛❞♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❡s❞❡ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❛té ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛s q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♠❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡rã♦ s❡r ❝r✐❛❞❛s ♥♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❝✐❡♥t✐✜❝♦ ❡ ❝♦♠❡r❝✐❛❧✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r ✉♠❛ ❜r❡✈❡❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✿ ❈❤❛♥ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✷✮ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡✉ ✉♠ ♣r♦tót✐♣♦ ✇✐r❡❧❡ss ❞❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♥té♠✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦ ❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r❡s ♦✉ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r❡s✳ ❆❧é♠❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ ❝♦♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱✉t✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❇❧✉❡t♦♦t❤✱ r❡❝❡❜❡ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❡ ❡♥✈✐❛✲♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ♥❛♥✉✈❡♠ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r♥❡t ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐♦ ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ♠ó✈❡❧ ✸● ♦✉ ❲✐✲❋✐ ❞♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦✳ P♦ss✐✲❜✐❧✐t❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ s❡❥❛ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦ t❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❢❡❝❤❛❞♦s✱ q✉❛rt♦s ❞❡ ❤♦s♣✐t❛✐s✱ q✉❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❛❜❡rt♦s✱ ❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦ s✉❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ❞✐❛ ❛ ❞✐❛✳ ◆♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ●❛❦❛r❡ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✷✮ é ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ q✉❡ ❞❡t❡❝t❛ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s❞❡ ♦♥❞❛s ❘❘ ❡♠ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ♥♦r♠❛✐s✱ ❛✜♠ ❞❡ ♦❜t❡r ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛❝❛r❞í❛❝❛✳ ❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ s❡ ❞❡st✐♥❛ ❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❛ t♦♠❛r❡♠ ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s♣r❡❝✐s❛s ❜❛s❡❛❞❛s ♥❛s ✐♥❞✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛♥♦♠❛❧✐❛ ❞♦s ❜❛t✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦s✳ ❊♠ s✉❛ ❛rq✉✐✲ t❡t✉r❛ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱ ♦♥❞❡✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❇❧✉❡t♦♦t❤ ❞♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦✱ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● sã♦ ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ♥❛ ❲❡❜♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦s s✐❛♥✐s s❡❥❛♠ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❢♦✐ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s❞❡ ❊❈● ❣r❛✈❛❞♦s ♣♦r ✉♠ ❍♦❧t❡r ❡ ♣❡❧♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♥t✐❞♦s ♥❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❜❛t✐✲♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ▼■❚✲❇■❍✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❧✐♠✐t❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ q✉❡ ❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s t❡♠ q✉❡ s❡r ♠❛♥✉❛❧✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❣❛r❛♥t❛ ❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦✳ ❲❛♥❣ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✷✮ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡✉ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ ✈♦✲ t❛❞♦ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♥♦♠❛❧✐❛s ♥♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✳ ❖ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ t❛♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳ ❙✉❜❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦s ❡♠ três ❝♦♠♣♦✲♥❡♥t❡s✿ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦✱ ✉♠ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✲♦ ❡ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛❞♦♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s r❡❝❡❜✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐✲③❛çã♦ ❞♦s três ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ é ♣r♦✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡❝♦♠ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❛ ♣r❡st❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡❊❈●✳ ✸✷❑♦ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✷✮ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣❧❛t❛✲ ❢♦r♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❇❧✉❡t♦♦t❤ ❡ r❡❝❡❜❡ ❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✱❝❛s♦ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛✈❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦ ❛ ♣♦st❡r✐♦r❡ ♣♦r ✉♠ ♣r♦✲✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳ ❖ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ❝❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❊❈● é ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ❝✐♥t♦ ❝♦♥❞✉t♦r q✉❡ é ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦ ♥❛ ❛❧t✉r❛ ❞♦ tór❛① ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❆s ♦♥❞❛s ❛❞✈✐♥❞❛s ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛sã♦ ♣❧♦t❛❞❛s ♥❛ t❡❧❛ ❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✳ P❛r❛ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠ q✉❛❞r♦❝❧í♥✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ❞♦❡♥ç❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛✱ ❡ss❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❣r❛✈❛r ♦s ❡❢❡✐t♦s♣r♦✈♦❝❛❞♦s ❛♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦s ❛♣ós ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♠❡❞✐❝❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦♥❛ t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❝❛s♦ ✈❡♥❤❛ ❛ ♦❝♦rr❡r ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠át✐❝❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❆s✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ ♦✉ ❡♥✈✐❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠✳ ◆♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ❖st❡r ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✸✮ é ❢❡✐t♦ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛♥❛❧✐s❡ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ ❝♦♠ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ❖ ❢♦❝♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ és❡r ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡ ❞❡ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❧✐✈r❡✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ t❛♥t♦ ❝♦♠♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❛❧t❛ r❡♥❞❛ q✉❛♥t♦ ❞❡ ❜❛✐①❛ r❡♥❞❛✱ t❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❝✉st♦s ❝♦♠ ❛✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♠❍❡❛❧t❤✳ ❖ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ r❡❝❡❜❡r ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛ ❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ❡st❡s s❡r❡♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr♦s s✐st❡♠❛s✳ ◆❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❨❛♣ ❡ ❏❡♦♥❣ ✭✷✵✶✸✮ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ t❛❜❧❡ts❝♦♠ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ❖♥❞❡ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❝✐♥t♦ ♣r❡s♦ ❛ ❝✐♥t✉r❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❖ ❝✐♥t♦ ❝♦♥t❡♠ ✉♠ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡t❡❝t❛r s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✱ ❡ ❞♦✐s ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦s ❝♦♠ tr❛♥s♠✐ss♦r❡s ❩✐❣❜❡❡ ❡ ❇❧✉❡❚♦♦t❤✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱t❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♠ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❲✐✜ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r✳ ❖s❞❛❞♦s ♦r✐✉♥❞♦s ❞♦ ❝✐♥t♦ sã♦ tr❛♥s♠✐t✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ t❛❜❧❡t q✉❡ ❡♥✈✐❛ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ♣❛r❛ ♦❡♠❛✐❧ ❞❡ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛♥❛❧✐s❡✱ ♦✛✲❧✐♥❡✱ ♣♦st❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✳ ◆❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❞❡ ❍✉❛♥❣ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✹✮✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❲❊✲❈❆❘❊ ✭❆♥ ■♥✲ t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❚❡❧❡❝❛r❞✐♦❧♦❣② ❙②st❡♠ t♦ ❊♥❛❜❧❡ ♠❍❡❛❧t❤ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✮✱ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥✐❛s ❞❡ ❊❈● q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦✱ ❣❛✲ r❛♥t✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♠♦❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♠❛✐♦r ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ✈✐s❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❤♦s♣✐✲ t❛❧❛r❡s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ♣r❡❝✐sã♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❡ ❧❛tê♥❝✐❛ r❡❞✉③✐❞❛ ♥❛ ♣❧♦t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s s✐❛♥✐s❞❡ ❊❈●✳ ❚❡st❡s ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♥♦ ❍♦s♣✐t❛❧ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✲✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ P❡q✉✐♠✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❡♠♦♥str❛r❛♠ q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ t❡✈❡ ♣♦✉❝❛s ♣❡r❞❛s ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s✱ ❡♠ ♠é❞✐❛ ✺ ◆♦ ❛rt✐❣♦ ❞❡ ▼♦❤❛♠♠❡❞ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✹✮ é ❞❡♠♦str❛❞♦ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛✲çã♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱ ♦♥❞❡ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❝♦♥❝❡♣çã♦ ❞❡ ■♦❚ ✭■♥t❡r♥❡t♦❢ ❚❤✐♥❣s✮ ❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠✳ ❋♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✉♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦ ✧❊❈●❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❆♣♣✧✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ❛♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❛ ♣❧♦t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✱ ❡ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ r❡❣✐str♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐✲ ✸✸ t❡t✉r❛ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❞♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ■♦❚ ♣❛r❛ ♣❡rs✐st✐r ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s❞❛ ár❡❛ ♠❡❞✐❝❛✳✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s ◆❡st❛ s❡çã♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s ❛♥❛❧✐✲ s❛❞♦s ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡ss❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦✳❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ q✉❡✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦s ❛♣♦✐❛r❡♠✲s❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ s✐st❡♠❛s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s s❡♥❞♦ tr❛t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ss❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ✱ ♠✉✐t♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♦ ❢♦❝♦ ❡♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ✈❡rt❡♥t❡s✿ ♥❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦✱♥❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦✱ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ♦✉ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠♣❛r❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♠❡❞✐❝❛s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦✉tr♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞✐st✐♥çã♦ ❞❛ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛é ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❥✉♥t♦ ❛ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳ ◆❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♦✐t♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s ❝♦♠❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸ ✕Pr♦❥❡t♦ ✶ ✷ ✸ ✹ ✺ ✻✭❈❍❆◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ① ① ①✭●❆❑❆❘❊ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ① ① ① ①✭❲❆◆● ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ① ①✭❑❖ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ① ① ①✭❖❙❚❊❘ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮ ① ① ① ①✭❨❆P❀ ❏❊❖◆●✱ ✷✵✶✸✮ ① ① ①✭❍❯❆◆● ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮ ① ① ①✭▼❖❍❆▼▼❊❉ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✹✮ ① ① ① ①Pr♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ① ① ① ① ① ① ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❈♦♠ ♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐♦ ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❛✱ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♥♦t❛r q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❛❜r❛♥❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ss❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✱ ♥♦ q✉❡ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ r❡s✐❞❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✳ P♦✐s ❝♦♥✲ s❡❣✉❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♠♣õ❡✱ ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞♦s ♣r♦✜s✐s♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳ ✸✹ ✹ ❊▲❊❚❘❖❈❆❘❉■Ó●❘❆❋❖ P❖❘❚➪❚■▲ ❉❊ ❇❆■❳❖ ❈❖◆❙❯▼❖❘❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❈✉♥❤❛ ✭✷✵✶✷✮ ❝r✐♦✉ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦✲ ♥✐t♦r❛r s✐♥❛✐s ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦s✳ ❖ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ t❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧✱ q✉❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ♥♦t❡❜♦♦❦s ♦✉ ♦✉tr♦s ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥❤❛♠ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ ✈✐❛ ♣♦rt❛ ❯❙❇✳❊ss❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦ s❡r✈❡ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❡st✉❞♦s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✳✹✳✶ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦ ❖ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✭❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼✮ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛r s✐♥❛✐s ❝❛r❞í❛✲❝♦s✱ ♣♦ss✉✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ s✉❜s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✐❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭❛♠♣❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ✜❧tr❛❣❡♠✮ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❞✉③✐❞❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦✳ ❆ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ✶ ♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ❡ ♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❧❛❝❛ ❩✐❣❜❡❡ ✱ ❝♦♠ ❛❢❛✐①❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✷✱✹●❍③ ❡ ✉♠ ❛❧❝❛♥❝❡ t❡st❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✼✵ ♠❡tr♦s✱ s❡♠ ❜❛rr❡✐r❛✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ r❡❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦✱ ✈✐❛ ♣♦rt❛ ❯❙❇ ❞❛ ♣❧❛❝❛✱ ♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ ❛ ❝❛♣t❛çã♦ ❡ ♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼ ✕ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣♦r ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✶ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❩✐❣❇❡❡ é ✉♠❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❝r✐❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❩✐❣❇❡❡ ❆❧❧✐❛♥❝❡✱ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ r❡❞❡s s❡♠ ✜♦s ❝♦♠ ê♥❢❛s❡ ♥❛ ❜❛✐①❛ ♣♦tê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦✱ ♥❛ ❜❛✐①❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡ ♥♦ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ✭❇❆❘❖◆❚■ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✼✮✳ ✸✺✹✳✷ ❚❡st❡s ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦ ❖ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❦✐t ❡❩✹✸✵❘❋✷✺✵✵ ❞❛ ❚❡①❛s ■♥str✉✲♠❡♥t✬s✱ q✉❡ ❢❛③ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❞❡ ♠✐❝r♦❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r❡s ✉❧tr❛✲❧♦✇✲♣♦✇❡r ❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❊ss❛❢❛♠í❧✐❛ ❞❡ ♠✐❝r♦❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r❡s é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦ ❡ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦r ❞❡ ✐♥str✉♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❡ ❡st✉❞♦s✈♦❧t❛❞♦s ❛ ✐♥str✉♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❜✐♦♠é❞✐❝❛s ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s✳ ❈♦♠ ❡❢❡✐t♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ ❦✐t ❞❡ ♠✐❝r♦❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❡ ♣♦r❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧✳ ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r❛ ♣❧❛❝❛ ❝♦♥❢❡❝❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❡ ♦ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❊❈● ♠♦♥t❛❞♦✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽ ✕ P❧❛❝❛ ❝♦♥❢❡❝❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❡ ♦ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❊❈● ♠♦♥t❛❞♦✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ✹✳✸ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ r❡❝❡♣çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❊❈●❆ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ q✉❡ r❡❝❡❜❡ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♥s❡r✐❞❛ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧ ❝♦♠ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❯❙❇✳ ✸✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾ ✕ ■♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ❖ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣♦r ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ é ❞❡s❝r✐t♦♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾ ♦♥❞❡ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ❞❡ ❊❈● ❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ♣❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❡st❡❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ✐♥t❡r❧✐❣❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧ ❝♦♠ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❯❙❇ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡✉♠❛ ♣❧❛❝❛ ❩✐❣❜❡❡✳ ❖ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ s❡rá ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠♦❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦✳ ❖♥❞❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✱ q✉❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣❧♦t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡❊❈●✱ s❡rá ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✳ ✸✼ ✺ ■▼P▲❊▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❉❖ ❙■❙❚❊▼❆◆❡st❡ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ✺✳✶ ❱✐sã♦ ●❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛❚❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❞❡✈❡ t❡r ❝♦♠ s❡✉s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ ♦❝♦rr❡r✱ ❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s❡r✈❡ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ❛ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ♣r❡st❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♥❛s r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❛ ❞✐st❛♥❝✐❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✉♠ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ q✉❛❞r♦ ♣ós✲❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❞♦❡♥ç❛ ❝❛r❞✐♦✲✈❛s❝✉❧❛r✱ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡ ❡st❛r ❡♠ ✉♠ ❧❡✐t♦ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r✱ ♣♦ré♠ ♣r❡❝✐s❡ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦❝♦♥st❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉ ❡st❛❞♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦ ❡ ❣❛r❛♥t✐❛ ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❛ t❡♠♣♦✱❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❝❧í♥✐❝❛s✳ ❊st❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❝♦♥tr❛t♦✉ ✉♠❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ♣❛r❛❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛r ❡ss❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ s✉❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❞❡st❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❡st❛rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ s✐s✲ t❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❡❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r✱ ♥♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡ s❡✉s ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r❡s ❡ ✉♠ ♠é❞✐❝♦❝❛r❞✐♦❧♦❣✐st❛ q✉❡ ❡st❛rá r❡❝❡❜❡♥❞♦ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛ ❞✐st❛♥❝✐❛✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❡①✐st❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣♦ss❛ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r s✉❛ r♦t✐♥❛ ❞✐ár✐❛✳ ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡st✐♥❛ ❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛❡ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s❛❞q✉✐r✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✭✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛✮ ❡ ✉♠❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✱ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ rá♣✐❞❛ tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦ ❡ ❛❝❡ss♦✳ ❆❥✉❞❛♥❞♦ t❛♥t♦ ♦s♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ ❛ t♦♠❛r❡♠ ✉♠ rá♣✐❞♦ ❞✐❛❣♥óst✐❝♦ ❡ ♣r❡st❛r ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛✱ q✉❛♥t♦ ♦s♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ ❛ ❛❞q✉✐r✐r ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐❞❛ ❥✉♥t♦ à ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✳ ❈♦♣❡tt✐ ✭✷✵✶✵✮✱ ♣r♦♣õ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❣❡♥ér✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ r❡s✐❞❡♥❝✐❛❧✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳ ◆❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛✱❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✜s✐♦❧ó❣✐❝♦s ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s sã♦ ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦r✲ tát❡✐s ❧✐❣❛❞♦s ❛♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❆♣ós✱ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s sã♦ ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❣❛t❡✇❛② ❧♦❝❛❧ q✉❡♣r♦❝❡ss❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡ ❛s ❡♥✈✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦✈❡❞♦r ❢♦r❛ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r✱ ❝✉❥❛♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❢✉♥çã♦ é ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❡♠❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❝❧✐♥✐❝♦ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r❡s✳ ❆ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❡st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲s❡ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❣❡♥ér✐❝❛❞❡ ❈♦♣❡tt✐ ✭✷✵✶✵✮✱ ♣♦ré♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♠ó✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ três ♠ó❞✉❧♦s✿▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ✸✽▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✭✶✮ sã♦ ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦s ♥♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛✜❛✱ q✉❡ s❡ tr❛t❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠ét♦❞♦ ♥ã♦✲✐♥✈❛s✐✈♦✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡st❡ ♣♦♥t♦ ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡ ❞❛❡q✉✐♣❡ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛ ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡♣❛r❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧✳ ❆ ❝❛❞❛ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❞❡ ✻✵ ♠✐♥✉t♦s é ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ✭✷✮ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦s❜❛t✐♠❡♥t♦s ❡ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ ♣❡rs✐st✐❞❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ✸✾❖ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❛❝❡ss❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡ ✭✸✮ ✳ ❈❛s♦ ♦❝♦rr❛ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ♥♦s ❜❛t✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦s❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡ss❡ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❡♥✈✐❛ ✉♠ ❛❧❡rt❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡ ❞♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ♣❧♦t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❣rá✜❝♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ P❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❏❙❖◆ ✭❏❛✈❛❙❝r✐♣t ❖❜❥❡❝t◆♦t❛t✐♦♥✮✱ ♣♦✐s ❡st❡ é ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❧❡✈❡ ♣❛r❛ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❞❡ ❢á❝✐❧ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ➱❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ s✉❜❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❏❛✈❛❙❝r✐♣t s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ♦s ♣❛❞rõ❡s❊❈▼❆✲✷✻✷ ✸❛ ❊❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❡③❡♠❜r♦ ❞❡ ✶✾✾✾✱ ♠❛s ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✈ár✐❛s ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ✭❏❙❖◆✱ ✷✵✶✺✮✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ tr♦❝❛❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ s❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r ❝♦♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ ♦t✐♠✐③❛r ❣❛st♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❡❝♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❞❡ ❡♥❡r❣✐❛ ❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ tr❛♥s♣♦rt❡ ✭❉❆❙❀❉❆❙✱ ✷✵✶✺✮✳✺✳✷ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❉❡s❦t♦♣ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❏❛✈❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❡✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❏❆❱❆ ❡ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss✉❛ r❡str✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❡♥❡r❣✐❛ ❡ q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛ ✉♠ ❛❝❡ss♦❝♦♥tí♥✉♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡r♥❡t✳ ❊st❡ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❝♦❧❡t❛❞❛s♣❡❧♦s ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦s ❞❡ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s ❛♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ q✉❡ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r✲❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱❝❛s♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦✱ ❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ❡♥✈✐♦✳ ❆✐♥❞❛✱ ❡♥✈✐❛r ❛❧❡rt❛s s♦❜r❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥♦s q✉❛❞r♦s ❝❧í♥✐❝♦s❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛r t❡❧❛s ♣❛r❛ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛r ❡ ♣❧♦t❛r ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s❞❡ ❊❈●✱ ❢♦❝♦ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❝❛♣t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧❞❡ ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✳ ✹✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ▼♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❆♣ós ❛ ✐♥s❡rçã♦ ❞♦s ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ♥♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ t❡♠ q✉❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉✲ r❛r ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❞❡♠♦str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶✱ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ✭✶✮ ❞❡♥tr❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❞❛r ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❛♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛ ❞❡✈❡ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r q✉❛❧ ❛ ♣♦rt❛ s❡r✐❛❧ ✭✷✮ q✉❡ ♦ s❡♥s♦r ❞❡ ❝❛♣t❛çã♦ ❩✐❣❇❡❡ ❡stá✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦✳ ❖ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❛ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ✶ ❞♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ ✏❇❛✉❞ ❘❛t❡✑ ✭✸✮❀ ❡st❡ ✈❛❧♦r ✈❛✐ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡r ❞❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❞❡♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛ s❡♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦❀ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❡ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛❞♦ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r❞❡ ✾✻✵✵ ❜❛✉❞s✳ ❊ ♣❛r❛ ✜♥❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s q✉❡❢♦r♠❛rã♦ ❛ t❡❧❛ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛✳ ❆♦ ❝❧✐❝❛r ♥♦ ❜♦tã♦ ✏❈❖◆❊❈❚❆❘✑ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ s❡rá✐♥✐❝✐❛❞♦ ❡ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❊❈● ❝♦♠❡ç❛rá✳ ■ss♦ é ❞❡♠♦str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷✳ ✶❇❛✉❞ r❛t❡ é ❛ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝❛♥❛❧✳ ❊stá ♥♦r♠❛t✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ♥♦r♠❛ ❆◆❙■✴❊■❆ ❘❙✷✸✷✳ ✹✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷ ✕ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ P❧♦t❛♥❞♦ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ✭✶✮ ❞♦ ♣❛✲❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦✱ ♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛♣❧♦t❛❞♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ✭✷✮ ❡ ✉♠ ❜♦tã♦ ✭✸✮✱ ✏❉❊❙❈❖◆❊❈❚❆❘✑ ♣❛r❛ ✜♥❛❧✐③❛r ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛✲♠❡♥t♦ ❝❛s♦ ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ q✉❡✐r❛ ❡♥❝❡r❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛✲s❡ ♣❡❧❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐✲❞❛❞❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸✳ ✹✷❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❖ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ✏▼❛♥t❡r P❛❝✐❡♥t❡✑ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳ ❏á ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ✏▼❛♥t❡r❞❛❞♦s ❊❈●✑ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✐♥✐❝✐❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦♣♦rtát✐❧✳ ❖s ❛❧❡rt❛s sã♦ ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ✏▼❛♥t❡r ❆❧❡rt❛✑✳ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ♣♦❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❞♦✐s ✢✉①♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s ♦ ✢✉①♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳ ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ❞❡ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞❡✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✜s✐♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❛❞✈✐♥❞❛s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦♣♦rtát✐❧✳ ✹✸❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞♦ ❡❧tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❖s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● sã♦ ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❞❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦✲❣✐❛ ❩■❣❜❡❡✱ ✭✶✮ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s sã♦ ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞♦s ♣♦r ✉♠ r❡❝❡♣t♦r ♥❛ ♣♦rt❛ ❯❙❇ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r♣❡ss♦❛❧✱ ❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s sã♦ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛❞❛s ❡♠ s✐♥❛✐s ♥❛ ♣♦rt❛ s❡r✐❛❧ ❞♦ P❈✱ ♦♥❞❡ sã♦❝❛♣t✉r❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✳ ➱ ♣❧♦t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❣rá✜❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❡ss❡s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ✭✷✮✱ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛ é ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞❛ ❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ✭✸✮ ✱ ❡♥tã♦ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r é ♣❧♦t❛❞♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ ❣rá✜❝♦✭✹✮✳ P♦r ✜♠ ❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s sã♦ s❛❧✈❛s ❡♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❧♦❝❛❧✳ ❖ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ✭❇P▼✮ é ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ t❡❧❛ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✻✵✵ s✐♥❛✐s ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞♦s✳ ❯t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♣❛r❛ ✐ss♦❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❈✉♥❤❛ ✭✷✵✶✷✮ q✉❡ ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛ ❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✹✹ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ♦♥❞❛ ❘ ♥♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦ ◗❘❙✳❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ♣♦❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❞♦✐s ✢✉①♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s ♦ ✢✉①♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦✜s✐s♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✹✺❖s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● sã♦ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ✭✶✮✱ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛ é ❝❛❧❝✉❧❛❞❛ ❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ✭✷✮✱ ❡♥tã♦ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ é ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ❡st❛r❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ♣r❡❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ❯♠❛❧❡rt❛ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ é ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ✭✹✮✳ P♦r ✜♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ s❡ ♦ ❛❧❡rt❛ ❢♦✐ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦✳ ❊❢❡t✉❛♥❞♦♦ r❡❡♥✈✐♦✱ ❝❛s♦ ♥ã♦ t❡♥❤❛ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦✳✺✳✸ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ❊st❡ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ♠❛♥t❡r ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ ❞♦s❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡ ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s s❛❧✈❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r ✉♠❛✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♣❛r❛ s✐♥❝r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ ❡ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✳■ss♦ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛ q✉❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ♣♦st❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛✲çõ❡s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ s❡✉s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞❛s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❡st❛✈❛♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ▲✐♥ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✺✮✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❛❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♠é❞✐❝❛s é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛r ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ s❡❣✉r♦ ❡ ♠❛✐s❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✭♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✮✳ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛✲s❡ ♣❡❧❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻✳ ✹✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❊st❡ t❛♠❜é♠ r❡❝❡❜❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❝♦♥❡❝t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦▲♦❝❛❧ ❡ ❝❛s♦ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡st❡❥❛ ❞❡s❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦ ✭s❡♠ ♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦✱❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧✱ ♦✉ s❡♠ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡r♥❡t✮ s❡rá ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❛❧❡rt❛✱ q✉❡❝❤❡❣❛rá ♥♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ sá✉❞❡✳✺✳✹ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❖ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❏❛✈❛ ♥❛t✐✈❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉s♦ ♥❛♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ❊ss❛ ♣❛rt❡ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳ ❊st❡ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ t❛♠❜é♠ é ❞❡st✐♥❛❞♦ ❛♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦❞♦s ❛❧❡rt❛s ❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❛♥♦♠❛❧✐❛s ♥♦s ❜❛t✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝ár❞✐❝♦s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦ ❡♠ s✉❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛✳ ❊st❡ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ é ❢♦r♠❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❛❧❣✉♠❛s t❡❧❛s ❝✉❥❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s✱ sã♦✿P❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ✭♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛✮✿ ✹✼❊q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ✭❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦✮✿ ✹✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦s ✭✶✮ ❡ s❡✉s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦r❡s ✭✷✮ s❡ ❡stã♦ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s ❛ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ♦✉ s❡ ❡stã♦ ❞❡s❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s✳ ❆ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ✭✸✮ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ❜♦tã♦ ♥♦ ❝❛♥t♦ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r ❞❛ t❡❧❛✳ ◆❛♣❛rt❡ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r í❝♦♥❡s q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❜✉s❝❛♣♦r ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ✭✹✮✱ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ é ❢❡✐t❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞♦ ❈P❋ ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦ ♥♦♣r♦♥t✉ár✐♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦✱ ✉♠ ❜♦tã♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❝r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ✭✺✮ é ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝❛s♦ ♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ q✉❡✐r❛ s✐♥❝r♦♥✐③❛r ✐♥st❛♥t❛♥❡❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ✇❡❜ ✭é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❡♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❡st❡❥❛ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡st❛ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✮✳ ❊♠ ✭✻✮ t❡♠♦s ♦ ❜♦tã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡♥✉ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾✳ ❆♦ ❝❧✐❝❛r ❡♠ ✭✼✮ ❛❧é♠ ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❡ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ❞♦s ✐♥t❡❣r❛♥t❡s ❞❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✹✾❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡♥✉ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ t❡❧❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♦ ♠❡♥✉ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦s ✭✶✮✱ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ s❡r✈❡♠♣❛r❛ ❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ✭✷✮ ❡ ♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ❞❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ✭✸✮✳ ✺✵❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çõ❡s ✭✶✮ q✉❡ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ♠❡♥✉ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çõ❡s ❞♦♣❡r✜❧ ❞♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ✭✷✮ ❡ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ♣❛r❛ s❛✐r ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✭✸✮✳ ❖s ❛❧❡rt❛s ✭❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ♥♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✮ sã♦ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦♠ó✈❡❧ ❡♠ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✈✐s♦ ♣♦♣✉♣ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ♥♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ❡ss❡s ❛❧❡rt❛s ♥❛ t❡❧❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡✳ ✺✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛❧❡rt❛ s❡♥❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❆♣ós ♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛❧❡rt❛ ❛♦ ❝❧✐❝❛r ♥♦ ❛✈✐s♦ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✶ ✺✷❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✶ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣❧♦t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛✲s❡ ♣❡❧❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐✲❞❛❞❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✷✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✷ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❖s ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ✏❘❡❝❡❜❡r ❆❧❡rt❛✑ ❡ ✏❱✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ❊❈●✑ sã♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ ✺✸✈✐t❛✐s ❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ♥♦s ❜❛t✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❖s ♦✉tr♦s ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s t❛♥t♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ q✉❛♥t♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ té❝♥✐❝♦✐♥t❡❣r❛♥t❡ ❞❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ ♠✉❧t✐❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛r ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❡❢❡t✉❛r ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çõ❡s ❞♦♠ó❞✉❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦✱ sã♦✿ ❖ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ✏▼❛♥t❡r P❛❝✐❡♥t❡✑ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳ ❖ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ✏▼❛♥t❡r ❊q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦✑ q✉❡ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ❡q✉✐✲♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❊❈●✳ ❖ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ✧▼❛♥t❡r ❊q✉✐♣❡✧q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s ♠❡♠❜r♦s ✐♥❞❡❣r❛♥t❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❞♦♠✐❝í❧✐♦✳◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ✏▼❛♥t❡r ❯s✉ár✐♦✑ é ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛❞♦ ♦ ♣❡r✜❧ ❞♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ r❡s✲ ♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡st❛s ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çõ❡s é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ q✉❡ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ✐♠♣♦rt❛❞❛s♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr♦s ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❝❛s♦ s❡❥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ✺✹ ✻ ❱❊❘■❋■❈❆➬➹❖ ❊ ❱❆▲■❉❆➬➹❖◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ✻✳✶ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛❆ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ t❡♠ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r s❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♦✉ s❡r✈✐ç♦ r❡✲ s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ r❡✢❡t❡ ❝♦rr❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ às ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❆❜♦r❞❛ ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❡ ❝r✐tér✐♦s ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♣r♦❞✉t♦s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❊♥✈♦❧✈❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ✭■❙❖✴■❊❈✱✷✵✵✸✮✳ ❯♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✈❡r✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❡ ❞❡♣♦✐s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❛ ✉♠❛ ❝❤❡❝❛❣❡♠ ❞❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ✭❙❖▼▼❊❘❱■▲▲❊✱ ✷✵✵✸✮✳❖s t❡st❡s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ sã♦ ♣♦r s✐ ♠❡s♠♦s ✉♠❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❣❛r❛♥t✐❛ ❞❡ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✭P❘❊❙❙▼❆◆✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳❆ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ✉♥✐tár✐♦s✱ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦✳◆♦s t❡st❡s ✉♥✐tár✐♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛s ❛s ❡♥tr❛❞❛s ❡ s❛í❞❛s ❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♠ét♦❞♦s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ♣❛ss❛❞♦s ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s r❡s✉❧t❛♥t❡s✱♥❛ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❛s ❝❧❛ss❡s ❡r❛♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s✳ ❖s t❡st❡s ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞♦s ✈✐❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❣rá✜❝❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❢♦r❛♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦s❝❡♥ár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✳ ❖s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❛ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s✳ P♦r ♠♦t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ❡s❝♦♣♦✱ ♥♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛❞♦s ♦s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✱ ❞❡✐①❛♥❞♦ ❡ss❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢✉t✉r♦s✳✻✳✷ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ t❡♠ ♣♦r ✜♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛r s❡ ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ♣r❡✲ t❡♥❞✐❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♦✉ s❡r✈✐ç♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ sã♦ s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦s✳❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ❡ ❝r✐tér✐♦s ♣❛r❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♣r♦❞✉t♦s ❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s❞❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ✭■❙❖✴■❊❈✱ ✷✵✵✸✮✳ ❋♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ✶ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ❢❛❜r✐❝❛♥t❡ ❘❡❉ ▼❡❞✐q ✲ ❍❛♥❞② ❙✐♠ ❍❙✲✷✵ ❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ✶ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣♦r ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✸✳ ❖ ❙✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r P♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ ❊❈● ❍❛♥❞② ❙✐♠ ❍❙✲✷✵ é ✉♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ ❊❈● ❡ ❙❛t✉r❛çã♦ P❡r✐✲ ❢ér✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❖①✐❣ê♥✐♦ ❞❡ ❞✐♠❡♥sõ❡s r❡❞✉③✐❞❛s✳ ❖ ❍❙✷✵ ❣❡r❛ s✐♥❛❧ ❞❡✿ ❊❈● ♥❛s ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ✸✵ ✲ ✻✵ ✲✽✵ ✲✶✷✵ ✲ ✶✽✵ ✲ ✷✹✵ ❜♣♠✳ ✺✺❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✸ ✕ ❙✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✹ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐st❛ ❛ ♣❧♦t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❊❈● ♥♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ❞❡♠♦♥s✲ tr❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞✐❛❝❛ ❡ ♦ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● P♦rtát✐❧ ❝♦♠❡r❝✐❛❧✳ ✺✻❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✹ ✕ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ♣❧♦t❛♥❞♦ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❙✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ✉♠ q✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦❛ três ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ♣❡r✜s ❞❡ ár❡❛✿ P❡r✜❧ ✶✿ ▼é❞✐❝♦ ❝❛r❞✐♦❧♦❣✐st❛❀ ❛t✉❛♥❞♦ ♥♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦❀ ❆ ♣r✐♦r✐ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ s❡✉s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ✐♥❞✐✈✐✲❞✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦✳ ❆♣ós ❡stá ❡t❛♣❛ ❢♦✐ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♦ q✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦✳ P❛r❛ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝❡r ✉♠❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ s✐st❡♠át✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ q✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦ ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ ✈❛❧✐✲❞❛r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉s♦ ❞♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❞✐çã♦ t❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦❜❛s❡ ❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ●♦❛❧ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ ▼❡❝tr✐❝s ✭●◗▼✮ ✭❇❆❙■▲■❀ ❈❆▲❉■❊❘❆❀ ❘❖▼❇❆❈❍✱✶✾✾✹✮ ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❞❡ ▲✐❦❡rt ✭✶✾✸✷✮✳✻✳✷✳✶ ❊s❝❛❧❛ ❞❡ ▲✐❦❡rt P❛r❛ ❛ ❢♦r♠✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦ q✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦ ❢♦✐ ❛❞♦t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ▲✐❦❡rt✱ ♣♦✐s é ❤❛❜✐t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s q✉❡ ✺✼❢♦❝❛♠ ♥✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞❛ ♦♣✐♥✐ã♦ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❆ ❡s❝❛❧❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ✐t❡♥s✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ é r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ✉♠❛ ❛✜r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡st✐♥❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛♦ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉♦ q✉❡ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ♦❜❡❞❡❝❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❝r✐tér✐♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r✉s❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♦✉ s✉❜❥❡t✐✈♦✳ ●❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ♠❡♥s✉r❛r q✉❛❧ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡❝♦♥❝♦r❞â♥❝✐❛ ♦✉ ❞✐s❝♦r❞â♥❝✐❛ q✉❡ ♦ ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦ ♣♦ss✉✐✉ ❝♦♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❛✜r♠❛çã♦✳ ◆❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ✈❡③❡s sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❝✐♥❝♦ ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛s✱ ♠❛s ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❞❛♣tá✈❡❧♣❛r❛ ♠❛✐s ♥í✈❡✐s✳ ❖ ♣❛❞rã♦ sã♦ ♦s ✺ ✐t❡♥s✿ ❝♦♥❝♦r❞♦✲❢♦rt❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♥❝♦r❞♦✱ ✐♥❞❡❝✐s♦✱ ❞✐s✲❝♦r❞♦ ❡✱ ♣♦r ✜♠✱ ❞✐s❝♦r❞♦✲❢♦rt❡♠❡♥t❡✳ ❖♥❞❡ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ é ❥✉st✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ♦♣çã♦ ♠❛r❝❛❞❛✳ ❊♠ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ▲✐❦❡rt ✭✶✾✸✷✮ ❢♦✐ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s❞❛s q✉❡stõ❡s✱ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✿ ❊s❝❛❧❛ ▲✐❦❡rt✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹ ✕❘❡s♣♦st❛s ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❈♦♠✲ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ■♥❞✐❢❡✲ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ P❛rt❡ r❡♥t❡ ❡♠ P❛rt❡ ❈♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡❱❛❧♦r❡s ✶ ✷ ✸ ✹ ✺ P❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ✵✪ ✷✺✪ ✺✵✪ ✼✺✪ ✶✵✵✪ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✻✳✷✳✷ ❆❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ●◗▼❉❡✜♥✐❞❛ ♣♦r ✭❇❆❙■▲■❀ ❈❆▲❉■❊❘❆❀ ❘❖▼❇❆❈❍✱ ✶✾✾✹✮✱ ❛ ♣r✐♦r✐ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐♥t✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡♠ ♣r♦❥❡t♦s ♣❡❧❛ ◆❆❙❆ ✭◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❆❡r♦♥❛✉t✐❝s ❛♥❞ ❙♣❛❝❡❆❞♠✐♥✐str❛t✐♦♥✮ ❡ ❡♠♣r❡❣❛ ✉♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐çã♦ q✉❡ t❡♠ ♣♦r ❜❛s❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✴✲♠❡t❛s✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛ ❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡st✐♥❛❞♦s❛ ♠❡❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉t♦s✱ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ♦✉ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ t❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡✲ ríst✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❝✐♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❜❛✐①♦ ✭❚♦♣✲❉♦✇♥✮ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐çã♦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❞❡❜❛✐①♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝✐♠❛ ✭❇♦tt♦♠✲❯♣✮ ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✳ ❖ ●◗▼ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ três ♥í✈❡✐s✿✶✳ ❈♦♥❝❡✐t✉❛❧ ✭●❖❆▲✮ ✕ é ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✴♠❡t❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ s❡r ✉♠ ♣r♦❞✉t♦✱ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♦✉ ✉♠ r❡❝✉rs♦✳✷✳ ❖♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✭◗❯❊❙❚■❖◆✮ ✕ ♣❛r❛ tr❛ç❛r ✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❞❡ ❛t✐♥❣✐r ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡stõ❡s✳✸✳ ◗✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈♦ ✭▼❊❚❘■❈✮ ✕ ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ q✉❛♥t✐t❛t✐✈❛ é ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞♦ ❛ ❡❧❛s ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ✺✽❈♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✺✱ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞✐st✐♥t♦ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛r✲s❡ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♠❛✐s q✉❡stõ❡s✳❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✺ ✕ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ●◗▼✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❇❆❙■▲■❀ ❈❆▲❉■❊❘❆❀ ❘❖▼❇❆❈❍✱ ✶✾✾✹✮ ✻✳✷✳✸ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ♠♦❜✐❧❡❆ s❡❣✉✐r s❡rã♦ ❡①♣♦st❛s ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ●◗▼ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ♠♦❜✐❧❡✿✻✳✷✳✸✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✴♠❡t❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ●◗▼✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✶✳❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖ ●✶✿ ■♥st❛❧❛r ❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞♦✳ Pr♦♣ós✐t♦✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r◗✉❡stã♦✿ ❛ ✐♥st❛❧❛çã♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❖❜❥❡t♦✿ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧P♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛✿ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦s ♣❡r✜s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s ◗✉❡stã♦ ▼étr✐❝❛◗✶✳✶ ✿ ❖ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧❄ ▼✶✳✶✿ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦✳◗✶✳✷ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧❄ ▼✶✶✳✷✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ❛♦ ❝❧✐❝❛r ♥♦ í❝♦♥❡ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡✳◗✶✳✸✿ ❖ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✜♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦❄ ▼✶✳✸❛✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛ ❡♠ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❛♣ós ❛❝✐♦♥❛r ♦ ❝♦♠❛♥❞♦ s❛✐r✳▼✶✳✸❜✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛ ❡♠ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❛♣ós ❛❝✐♦♥❛r♦ ❜♦tã♦ ✈♦❧t❛r ❡♠ s✉❛ t❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✺✾ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✷✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✻ ✕ ❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖ ●✷✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳ Pr♦♣ós✐t♦✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ◗✉❡stã♦✿ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦s ❖❜❥❡t♦✿ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧P♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛✿ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦s ♣❡r✜s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s ◗✉❡stã♦ ▼étr✐❝❛ ▼✷✳✶❛✿ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥❛ t❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦✳◗✷✳✶ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦s❄ ▼✷✳✶❜✿ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦s✳◗✷✳✷ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❜✉s❝❛s ❞❡ ▼✷✳✷✿ ■♥s❡r✐r ✉♠ ♥♦♠❡ ♦✉ ❈P❋ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r✳♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s❄ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✸✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✼ ✕ ❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖ ●✸✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ❝❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳Pr♦♣ós✐t♦✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ◗✉❡stã♦✿ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛str❛r ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ✐♥s❡r✐♥❞♦ s✉❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s❖❜❥❡t♦✿ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ P♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛✿ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦s ♣❡r✜s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s◗✉❡stã♦ ▼étr✐❝❛ ◗✸✳✶ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✐♥s❡r✐r ♥♦✈♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s❄ ▼✸✳✶✿ ❈❧✐❝❛r ♥♦ ❜♦tã♦ ✏❆❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r✑ ♥❛ t❡❧❛♣r✐♥✲❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✻✵ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✹✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✽ ✕ ❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖ ●✹✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ r❡❧❡✈â♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❛ s❡r❡♠ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳Pr♦♣ós✐t♦✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ◗✉❡stã♦✿ s❡ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦s sã♦ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❞❡✈✐❞♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s❝♦♠ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❖❜❥❡t♦✿ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧P♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛✿ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦s ♣❡r✜s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s ◗✉❡stã♦ ▼étr✐❝❛ ◗✹✳✶ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦ ❊●❈ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ▼✹✳✶✿ ❈❧✐❝❛r s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ♥❛ t❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐✲♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡❄ ♣❛❧ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦✳ ❖✉ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❈P❋ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡ ❛♣ós ❝❧✐❝❛r s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✺✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✾ ✕ ❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖ ●✺✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳Pr♦♣ós✐t♦✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ◗✉❡stã♦✿ s❡ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ r❡❝❡❜❡r ❛❧❡rt❛s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡❖❜❥❡t♦✿ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ P♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛✿ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦s ♣❡r✜s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s◗✉❡stã♦ ▼étr✐❝❛ ◗✺✳✶ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ❛❧❡rt❛s ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ▼✺✳✶✿ ❈❧✐❝❛r s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♣♦♣ ✉♣ ♥❛ ❜❛rr❛ ❞❡ ♥♦t✐✲❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡❄ ✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✻ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ✉♠ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ●◗▼ ❞♦▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡✳ ✻✶❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✻ ✕ ●◗▼ ♣❛r❛ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✻✳✷✳✸✳✷ ❈♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦sP❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡ ❞♦ ❢❛❜r✐❝❛♥t❡ ▼♦t♦r♦❧❛✱ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ▼♦t♦ ● ❳❚✶✵✸✸ ❉✉❛❧✱ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r q✉❛❞r✐❝♦r❡ ❞❡ ✶✷✵✵ ▼❤③✱ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ✐♥t❡r♥❛ ❞❡✶✻●❇ ❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ✹✳✹✳✹ ❑✐t❑❛t✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s s✉♣r❛❝✐t❛❞♦s ❛t✐♥❣✐r❛♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦s✱ ♣♦st♦ q✉❡♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♦❜t❡✈❡ ê①✐t♦ ♥❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞✐st✐♥t♦❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s ❞♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s✳ ❱❛❧❡ s❛❧✐❡♥t❛r q✉❡❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡ss❛s ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s ❡stá ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛ ❛ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✴♠❡t❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✼ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ✉♠ ❣rá✜❝♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❝♦♥st❛ ❛s ♠é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛s ❛♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✼ ✕ ▼é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛ às q✉❡stõ❡s ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✻✷♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦✱ t♦❞♦s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦✳ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✷ ✲ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳◆❡ss❡ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s s❡♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s✱ ❡ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❛❝❤❛r❛♠ ♠✉✐t♦ ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦✳ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✸ ✲ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ❝❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❖s ♣r♦✲✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦✱ ♣♦ré♠ ❢♦✐ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦ q✉❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦ ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❞♦ ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡r❛♠ ❝♦♠✲♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❞❡ ✐♥s❡r✐r✱ ♣♦✐s ❢♦✐ t❡st❛❞♦ ♦ ❝❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦♣r♦♥t✉ár✐♦✳ ❖s ❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s ❝✐r❝✉❧❛r❛♠ ❡♠ t♦❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✐♠♣♦rt❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦♥t✉ár✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ ♦✉ ♦ ❝❛❞❛str♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣á❣✐♥❛ ✇❡❜ ❝♦♥✈❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✹ ✲ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ r❡❧❡✈â♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❛ s❡r❡♠ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ s✐s✲ t❡♠❛✳ ▼❡s♠♦ s❡♥❞♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ♣❧♦t❛❣❡♠❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s✳ ❖❙ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❛t❡♥t❛r❛♠ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛r ♦✉tr❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ❡ ❞❡ ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ❞❡t❡❝çõ❡s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞❛s s♦❜r❡ ❛♥♦♠❛❧✐❛s ♥❛s ♦♥❞❛s♣❧♦t❛❞❛s✳ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✺ ✲ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳ ▼❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦s ❛❧❡rt❛s ♥♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✳ ❖s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r❛♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠ s♦♥s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♦✉ ✈✐❜r❛çõ❡s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s ❞♦s ❛❧❡rt❛s ♦r✐✉♥❞♦s❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ❞♦ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡✱ ❛✜♠ ❞❡ ♣r✐♦r✐③❛r ♦s ❛❧❡rt❛s✳✻✳✷✳✹ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r s❡rã♦ ❡①♣♦st❛s ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ●◗▼ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❧♦❝❛❧✿✻✳✷✳✹✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✴♠❡t❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ●◗▼✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ✻✸ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✻✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖ ●✻✿ ■♥st❛❧❛r ❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧✳Pr♦♣ós✐t♦✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ◗✉❡stã♦✿ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥st❛❧❛çã♦ ❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r♣❡ss♦❛❧✳ ❖❜❥❡t♦✿ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡s❦t♦♣P♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛✿ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦s ♣❡r✜s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s ◗✉❡stã♦ ▼étr✐❝❛ ◗✻✳✶ ✿ ❖ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ▼✻✳✶✿ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧❄ ❡①❡❝✉tá✈❡✐s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦✳ ◗✻✳✷ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ▼✻✳✷✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❛♦ ❝❧✐✲❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧❄ ❝❛r ♥♦ ❡①❡❝✉tá✈❡❧ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧✳ ◗✻✳✸✿ ❖ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✜♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦❄ ▼✻✳✸✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❡♠ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❛♣ós ❝❧✐❝❛r ♥♦ ❜♦tã♦ ✏❢❡❝❤❛r✑✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✼✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖ ●✼✿ ❯s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s t❡❧❛s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳Pr♦♣ós✐t♦✿ ❆✈❛❧✐❛r ◗✉❡stã♦✿ ❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❢✉♥çõ❡s✳❖❜❥❡t♦✿ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡s❦t♦♣ P♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛✿ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦s ♣❡r✜s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s◗✉❡stã♦ ▼étr✐❝❛ ◗✼✳✶ ✿ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞❛s ❢✉♥✲ ▼✼✳✶✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ♦s í❝♦♥❡s ❡ ♠❡♥✉s q✉❡ ❢♦r♠❛♠çõ❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛❄ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❣rá✜❝❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦✳ ◗✼✳✷ ✿ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❛✛♦r❞❛♥❝❡ ❞♦s í❝♦♥❡s ▼✼✳✷✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ♦s í❝♦♥❡s r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❛❞❛s t❡❧❛s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛❄ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❢✉♥çõ❡s✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✻✹ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✽✳ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✷ ✕ ❖❇❏❊❚■❱❖ ●✽✿ ❙❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳Pr♦♣ós✐t♦✿ ❆✈❛❧✐❛r ◗✉❡stã♦✿ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❛♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛❖❜❥❡t♦✿ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡s❦t♦♣ P♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛✿ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦s ♣❡r✜s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s ◗✉❡stã♦ ▼étr✐❝❛ ◗✽✳✶ ✿ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛♣r❡✲ ▼✽✳✶✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❣rá✜❝❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦❄s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ◗✽✳✷ ✿ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❝❧❛r❡③❛ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ▼✽✳✷✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❣rá✜❝❛ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦❄ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✽ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ✉♠ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ●◗▼ ❞♦▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✽ ✕ ●◗▼ ♣❛r❛ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✻✳✷✳✹✳✷ ❈♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s❖ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❏❛✈❛ ❞❡s❦t♦♣ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠✲ ♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ♣❡ss♦❛✐s t❡✈❡ t❡st❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s✳ ✻✺P❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ ♥♦t❡❜♦♦❦ ❞♦ ❢❛❜r✐❝❛♥t❡ ❍P✱ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ Pr♦❜♦♦❦ ✻✸✻✵❜✱ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ■♥t❡❧ ❈♦r❡ ✐✺ ✷✺✹✵▼✱ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞❡ ✹●❇ ❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧❲✐♥❞♦✇s ✼ Pr♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s s✉♣r❛❝✐t❛❞♦s ❛t✐♥❣✐r❛♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦s✱ ♣♦st♦ q✉❡♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ♦❜t❡✈❡ ê①✐t♦ ♥❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞✐st✐♥t♦❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❝♦♠❡♥tár✐♦s ❞♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s✳ ❱❛❧❡ s❛❧✐❡♥t❛r q✉❡❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡ss❛s ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛s ❡stá ❛ss♦❝✐❛❞❛ ❛ ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✴♠❡t❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✾ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ✉♠ ❣rá✜❝♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❝♦♥st❛ ❛s ♠é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛s ❛♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✾ ✕ ▼é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s r❡s♣♦st❛ às q✉❡stõ❡s ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✻ ✲ ■♥st❛❧❛r ❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧✳ ❚♦❞♦s ♦s♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♥ã♦ ✜③❡r❛♠ ♦❜❥❡çã♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ✐♥st❛❧❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r✿ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✼ ✲ ❯s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s t❡❧❛s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ s❡r ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆❧❣✉♥s í❝♦♥❡s ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ tã♦ ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ q✉❡ só ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r❛♠ ❞❡s❝♦❜r✐r ❛ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛♣ós ✐♥str✉çã♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞♦❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦✳ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✽ ✲ ❙❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r✉♠❛ ❜♦❛ s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦✳ ❆❧❣✉♠❛s ♣❛rt❡s ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ s❡r ♠❡❧❤♦r❛❞❛s❡ ♠❛✐s ♣❛r❡❝✐❞❛s ❝♦♠ s♦❢t✇❛r❡s ❝♦♠❡r❝✐❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝❧í♥✐❝❛s ❡ ♣r♦♥t✉ár✐♦s ♠é❞✐❝♦s✳✻✳✷✳✺ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ❡ ❞♦s ❆❧❡rt❛s P❛r❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❞❡ t❡st❡ ❞❡❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏▼❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮✳ ❊st❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥✈✐♦s ❞❡ r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s ✐♥❢❡r✐♥❞♦ ❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐✲❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✱ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦s ❡①tr❡♠♦s ❞❡ ✉s♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ t❛♠❜é♠✱ ✻✻➱ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❡♠ ❛♣❧✐✲ ❝❛çõ❡s ✇❡❜ ❡ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏▼❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮ é ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ tr❛t❛❞❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐çõ❡s✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r❢❛t♦r❡s q✉❡ ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ❞♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s t❡st❛❞❛s ✭P❆❚❊▲✱✷✵✶✹✮✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛r ❛❝❡ss♦s ❛♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✱ ♣♦❞❡♠♦s t❛♠❜é♠❞❡✜♥✐r ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s✱ ♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s✱ ❡ q✉❛♥t❛s ✈❡③❡s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r r❡♣❡t✐❞♦s ♦s t❡st❡s✳ ❉❡st❡ ♠♦❞♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t♦ ♦ t❡st❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ✺✱ ✶✵✱ ✷✵ r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s❍❚❚P s✐♠✉❧t❛♥❡❛♠❡♥t❡✱ s✐♠✉❧❛♥❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❝♦♥t❡♥❞♦ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r✲♠❛çõ❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛❧❡rt❛ ❡♠✐t✐❞♦✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ✭❛❧t❡r❛çõ❡s ♥♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛✮✱ ♣❛r❛ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s❡✲ q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❡♥✈✐❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡✱ q✉❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛ ♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦❛❧❡rt❛✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ tr❛♥s♠✐t✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❍❚❚P✱ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡stã♦ ♥♦ ❢♦r✲♠❛t♦ ❏s♦♥ ✭❏❙❖◆✱ ✷✵✶✺✮ ❡ sã♦ ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s✿ ▼❡♥s❛❣❡♠✱ ❛❧❡rt❛✱ ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ P❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✿④ ✧❞❛t❛✧✿④✧❛❧❡rt✧✿✧❆❧❡rt❛ ❞❡ P❛❝✐❡♥t❡✧✱ ✧♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡❴✐❞✧✿✧✷✧✱✧♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ♥♦♠❡✧✿✧P❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❚❡st❡✧✱✧t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐❝❛♦✧✿✧❋r❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞✐❛❝❛✧✱✧✈❛❧♦r✧✿✧✷✵✵ ❜♣♠✧✱✧❞❛t❡✧✿✧❙❛t ❏✉♥ ✷✵ ✷✵✶✺ ✷✷✿✹✽✿✶✾ ●▼❚✲✵✸✵✵ ✭❍♦r❛ ♦❢✐❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ❇r❛s✐❧✮✧ ⑥⑥ ▼❡♥s❛❣❡♠✱ ❡♥✈✐❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ♣❡❧♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ❛♦ r❡❝❡❜❡r ❛ ♥♦t✐✜❝❛çã♦❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❡rt❛ ♣❡❧♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡✿ ④✧r❡s✉❧t✧✿tr✉❡⑥ ✻✼❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✸ ✕ P❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏▼❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ P❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♥✈✐❛♥❞♦ ❛❧❡rt❛s s✐♠✉❧t❛♥❡❛♠❡♥t❡ ■♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s ✭s❡❣✉♥❞♦s✮ ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ r❡♣❡t✐çõ❡s✺ ✵ ✶✵✵ ✶✵ ✵ ✶✵✵ ✷✵ ✵ ✶✵✵ ✺ ✶✵ ✶✵✵✶✵ ✶✵ ✶✵✵ ✷✵ ✶✵ ✶✵✵ ✺ ✶✺ ✶✵✵ ✶✵ ✶✺ ✶✵✵✷✵ ✶✺ ✶✵✵ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❖ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ✇❡❜ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❆♣❛✲❝❤❡ ❏▼❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮ ❢♦✐ ❢♦r♠❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✾ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❆❧❡rt❛s s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦s ❡ ♦ ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s✳ ❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ r❡♣❡t✐çõ❡s♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ❞❡ ✶✵✵ ✈❡③❡s✳ ◆❛ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✸ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ✉s❛❞❛♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡✳ ❊♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❛♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦❲❡❜ ❝♦♠ r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❛ ✺✱ ✶✵ ❡ ✶✵✵ ❛❧❡rt❛s s✐♠✉❧tâ♥❡♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦s❝♦♠ t❡♠♣♦s ❞❡ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s ✈❛r✐❛♥❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ✵✱ ✶✵ ❡ ✶✺ s❡❣✉♥❞♦s ❡ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡♣❡t✐❞♦s ✶✵✵ ✈❡③❡s✳ ❖ s❡r✈✐❞♦r q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✿ ❙❡r✈✐❞♦r❆♣❛❝❤❡✱ P❤♣ ✺✱ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ▼②sq❧ ✻✱ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❡❜✐❛♥ ▲✐♥✉① ✼ ✇❤❡❡③② ❞❡✻✹ ❜✐ts✱ ✺✶✷ ▼❇ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ✱ ✷✵ ●❇ ❞❡ ❍❉ ❙❙❉ ❉✐s❦✳ ❖ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡ ❢♦✐ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ♥♦t❡❜♦♦❦ ❞♦ ❢❛❜r✐❝❛♥t❡ ❍P✱ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ Pr♦❜♦♦❦✻✸✻✵❜✱ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ■♥t❡❧ ❈♦r❡ ✐✺ ✷✺✹✵▼✱ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞❡ ✹●❇ ❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧❲✐♥❞♦✇s ✼ Pr♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❖s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s ●rá✜❝♦s ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✿◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✵ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❣rá✜❝♦ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ❧❛tê♥❝✐❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏▼❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮✳ ✻✽❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✵ ✕ ●rá✜❝♦ ❞❡♠♦str❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❧❛tê♥❝✐❛ ♠é❞✐❛ ♦❜t✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✶ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❣rá✜❝♦ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ t❤r♦✉❣❤♣✉t ♦❜t✐❞♦s♣❡❧♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏▼❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮✳ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✶ ✕ ●rá✜❝♦ ❞❡♠♦str❛♥❞♦ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ t❤r♦✉❣❤♣✉t ♦❜t✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ♣❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡✳ ❋♦♥t❡✿ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ✻✾✻✳✷✳✻ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❈♦♠ ♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ q✉❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛♠ ♦✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r❛♠ ❝♦♠ s✐st❡♠❛s❞❡ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❞♦♠✐❝í❧✐♦ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛❞q✉✐r✐r ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ♠❛t✉r✐❞❛❞❡ s♦❜r❡♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❋♦✐ ♣❡r❝❡❜✐❞♦ q✉❡ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❡①✐st✐r❡♠ ♦✉tr♦s s✐st❡♠❛s♥♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡ ❞♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ é ❛❧❣♦ q✉❡ ❝❤❛♠♦✉ ❛ ❛t❡♥çã♦❞♦s ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ q✉❡ é ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ à s❛ú❞❡✳ ❆s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✐♥❞✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s✱ ♣❡❧♦s♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣r✐♠♦r❛r ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦r❛♠ à ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❡♠❛ r❡♣r♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr❛s ❞❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❡ ❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s s❡♥s♦r❡s ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s❛♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ✼✵ ✼ ❈❖◆❈▲❯❙Õ❊❙ ❊ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❋❯❚❯❘❖❙◆❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ r❡♠♦t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r três ♠ó❞✉❧♦s q✉❡ ✈✐s❛♠ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ q✉❡ s❡❡♥❝♦♥tr❛ ❡♠ s✉❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ t❡✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ✉♥✐tár✐♦s✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦✱ t♦❞♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛s❛s ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛s r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞❛s ♥♦s ❧✐✈r♦s ❝♦♥s❛❣r❛❞♦s ❞❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳❉❡st❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛❜r❛♥❣❡♥❞♦ t❛♥t♦ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛✲❣❡♥s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s✱ ❛té ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❣rá✜❝❛✳ ❆ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❡❢❡t✐✈❛❞❛ ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ❛ ♣♦✉❝♦ t❡♠♣♦ ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ ❝✉❥♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❢♦✐ ❝❛♣t❛r♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❝♦♠❡r❝✐❛❧ ❞♦❢❛❜r✐❝❛♥t❡ ❘❡❉ ▼❡❞✐q ✲ ❍❛♥❞② ❙✐♠ ❍❙✲✷✵✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦✐ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ✉♠ q✉❡st✐♦✲♥ár✐♦✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❞❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ●◗▼✱ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❛ ár❡❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛✉♠❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❡♥tr❡✈✐st❛❞♦✱ ❡①♣♦♥❞♦ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❤✐♣♦tét✐❝❛s❞❡ ✉s♦ ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦✱ ❡♥tã♦ ❛s r❡s♣♦st❛s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦♥❢r♦♥t❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❛s ♦♣✐♥✐õ❡s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①♣❡r✐❡♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦s♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❆ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ s❡♣❛r❛r ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♠ ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ♣❡r♠✐t✐✉ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣♦✐s❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ s❡♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥♦s ♦✉tr♦s✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❢✉t✉r❛s ♦ s✐st❡♠❛♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ ❛❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♠ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥♦s ❛t✉❛✐s ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛ t♦r♥❛r tr❛♥s♣❛r❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❡st♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ▼❡s♠♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛s ♠✉✐t❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s ♥❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ❢♦✐♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❡stã♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ♣❛r❛❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❡ ❡♠✐ssã♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s✳ ❊♥q✉❛♥t♦ q✉❡ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡s ❡ ❞❡♦✉tr♦s ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❛r ♦ ✉s♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ r❡❛❧ ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s❝♦♠❡r❝✐❛✐s ♣❛r❛ t❡r ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳ ➱ ♥♦tór✐♦ q✉❡ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠ t❛♥t❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡stá ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s s❡❞✐❢✉♥❞✐♥❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛♠♣❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠❡✐♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦✱❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❞✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡s✱ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡♦✉tr♦s✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢✉t✉r♦s✱ ❛❜❛✐①♦ sã♦ ❧✐st❛❞❛s ❛s ♠❛✐s ✼✶ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✿✶✳ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♣❡ss♦❛s✱ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ❛ ❛♣r♦✲ ✈❛çã♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ ❝♦♠✐tê ❞❡ ét✐❝❛❀✷✳ ❆❝♦♣❧❛r ♦✉tr♦s ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ♠♦♥✐t♦r❡s ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❊❈●❀✸✳ ❚♦r♥❛r ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ♠✉❧t✐♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❛ s❡r ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧❀✹✳ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡stã♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦❀✺✳ ■♥s❡r✐r ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ■♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❛❝✉rá❝✐❛ ❞♦s ❛❧❡rt❛s ❡♠✐t✐❞♦s ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣♥óst✐❝♦✳ ✼✷ ❘❊❋❊❘✃◆❈■❆❙❆◆❆◆❉✱ ❘✳❀ ❙❘■❱❆❚❙❆✱ ❙✳ ■♠♣❛❝t ♦❢ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❝❛r❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ s②st❡♠✳ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ❖❢ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣ ❆♥❞ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡✱ ✈✳ ✸✱ ♣✳ ✽✸✵✸✕✽✸✵✽✱✷✵✶✹✳❆◆❉❘❖■❉✳ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣❡r ●✉✐❞❡✿ ❙✐t❡✳ ✷✵✶✹✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴❞❡✈❡❧♦♣❡r✳❛♥❞r♦✐❞✳❝♦♠❃✳ ❆❝❡ss♦ ❡♠✿ ✷✵✶✹✳✶✶✳✶✹✳ ♦ ❆◆❱■❙❆✳ ❘❊❙❖▲❯➬➹❖ ❆◆❱■❙❆✴❘❉❈ ◆ ✶✶✱ ❉❊ ✷✻ ❉❊ ❏❆◆❊■❘❖ ❉❊ ✷✵✵✻✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✱✷✵✵✻✳❆P❆❈❍❊✳ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏▼❡t❡r✳ ✷✵✶✺✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴❥♠❡t❡r✳❛♣❛❝❤❡✳♦r❣✴❃✳❇❆❘❖◆❚■✱ P✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❲✐r❡❧❡ss s❡♥s♦r ♥❡t✇♦r❦s✿ ❆ s✉r✈❡② ♦♥ t❤❡ st❛t❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❛rt ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ✽✵✷✳✶✺✳✹ ❛♥❞ ③✐❣❜❡❡ st❛♥❞❛r❞s✳ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✱ ✈✳ ✸✵✱ ♥✳ ✼✱ ♣✳ ✶✻✺✺ ✕✶✻✾✺✱ ✷✵✵✼✳ ■❙❙◆ ✵✶✹✵✲✸✻✻✹✳ ❲✐r❡❞✴❲✐r❡❧❡ss ■♥t❡r♥❡t ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❝✐❡♥❝❡❞✐r❡❝t✳❝♦♠✴s❝✐❡♥❝❡✴❛rt✐❝❧❡✴♣✐✐✴❙✵✶✹✵✸✻✻✹✵✻✵✵✹✼✹✾❃✳❇❆❙■▲■✱ ❱✳ ❘✳❀ ❈❆▲❉■❊❘❆✱ ●✳❀ ❘❖▼❇❆❈❍✱ ❍✳ ❉✳ ❚❤❡ ❣♦❛❧ q✉❡st✐♦♥ ♠❡tr✐❝ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤✳■♥✿ ❊♥❝②❝❧♦♣❡❞✐❛ ♦❢ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✿ ❲✐❧❡②✱ ✶✾✾✹✳❇❊❘❚✱ ❋✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❙♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s ❛♥❞ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ♣r♦♠♦t✐♦♥✿ ❛ r❡✈✐❡✇ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝❡✳ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧♦❢ ♠❡❞✐❝❛❧ s②st❡♠s✱ ❙♣r✐♥❣❡r✱ ✈✳ ✸✽✱ ♥✳ ✶✱ ♣✳ ✶✕✶✶✱ ✷✵✶✹✳ ♦ ❇❘❆❙■▲✱ ▼✳ ❞✳ ❙✳ ▼✐♥✐stér✐♦ ❞❛ ❙❛ú❞❡✳ P❖❘❚❆❘■❆ ◆ ✾✻✸✱ ❉❊ ✷✼ ❉❊ ▼❆■❖ ❉❊ ✷✵✶✸✲ ❘❡❞❡✜♥❡ ❛ ❆t❡♥çã♦ ❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ♥♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛ Ú♥✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❙❛ú❞❡ ✭❙❯❙✮✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✱✷✵✶✸✳❈❍❆◆✱ ❈✳✲❈✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ▲✐✈❡ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛t✐♦♥✿ ❆ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❡❝❣ ❤❡❛❧t❤❝❛r❡ ♣❧❛t❢♦r♠✳ ■♥✿❇✐♦♠❡❞✐❝❛❧ ❈✐r❝✉✐ts ❛♥❞ ❙②st❡♠s ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ✭❇✐♦❈❆❙✮✱ ✷✵✶✷ ■❊❊❊✳ ❬❙✳❧✳✿ s✳♥✳❪✱ ✷✵✶✷✳ ♣✳✽✼✕✽✼✳❈❖P❊❚❚■✱ ❆✳ ▼♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ■♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❡ ❙❡♥s✙✈❡❧ ❛♦ ❈♦♥t❡①t♦ ♥❛ ❆ss✐stê♥❝✐❛❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ❚❡❧❡♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞❛✳ ❚❡s❡ ✭❉♦✉t♦r❛❞♦✮ ✖ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❋❧✉♠✐♥❡♥s❡✱ ✷✵✶✵✳❈❖❘❘❊■❆✱ ❘✳ ❏✳ P✳ ❇♦r❜♦❧❡t❛✿ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ t❡❧❡ss❛ú❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ à ❛t❡♥çã♦ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r✳ ❚❡s❡ ✭❉♦✉t♦r❛❞♦✮ ✖ ▼✐❝r♦s♦❢t ❘❡s❡❛r❝❤✱ ✷✵✶✶✳❈❯◆❍❆✱ P✳ ❈✳ ◆✳ ❯♠ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ P♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ ❇❛✐①♦ ❈♦♥s✉♠♦✳❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✭❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❡str❛❞♦ ❡♠ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✮✖ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s ✭❯❋❆▲✮✱ ✷✵✶✷✳❉❆❙✱ P✳❀ ❉❆❙✱ ❆✳ ❈❡♥tr❛❧✐③❡❞ ❛✉t❤♦r✐③❛t✐♦♥ s❡r✈✐❝❡ ✭❝❛✉t❤s✮ ♦r ❛✉t❤♦r✐③❛t✐♦♥ ❛s ❛ s❡r✈✐❝❡ ✭❛✉t❤❛❛s✮ â ❬❡✉r♦❪✧❛ ❝♦♥❝❡♣t✉❛❧ ❛r❝❤✐t❡❝t✉r❡✳ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✱ ❋♦✉♥❞❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡✱ ✈✳ ✶✶✸✱ ♥✳ ✶✽✱ ✷✵✶✺✳❊❙❚❘■◆✱ ❉✳❀ ❙■▼✱ ■✳ ❖♣❡♥ ♠❤❡❛❧t❤ ❛r❝❤✐t❡❝t✉r❡✿ ❛♥ ❡♥❣✐♥❡ ❢♦r ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❝❛r❡ ✐♥♥♦✈❛t✐♦♥✳❙❝✐❡♥❝❡✭❲❛s❤✐♥❣t♦♥✮✱ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r t❤❡ ❆❞✈❛♥❝❡♠❡♥t ♦❢ ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡✱ ✶✷✵✵ ◆❡✇❨♦r❦ ❆✈❡♥✉❡✱ ◆❲ ❲❛s❤✐♥❣t♦♥ ❉❈ ✷✵✵✵✺ ❯❙❆✱ ✈✳ ✸✸✵✱ ♥✳ ✻✵✵✺✱ ♣✳ ✼✺✾✕✼✻✵✱ ✷✵✶✵✳ ✼✸❊❱❆◆●❊▲■❙❚❆✱ ▼✳ ❙✳ ▲✐♠✐t❡s ❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❞❡ ❛♣♦✐♦ à ❣❡stã♦❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ♣❛r❛ ❢❛✈♦r❡❝❡r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s♦s♣✐t❛❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ✷✵✶✹✳❋❘❊❊❇❙❉✳ ❚❤❡ ❢r❡❡❇❙❉ Pr♦❥❡❝t✿ ❙✐t❡✳ ✷✵✶✺✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❁❤tt♣s✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❢r❡❡❜s❞✳♦r❣❃✳ ❆❝❡ss♦ ❡♠✿ ✷✵✶✺✳✵✸✳✸✵✳●❆❑❆❘❊✱ P✳ ❑✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❘❡❛❧ t✐♠❡ ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ❡①tr❛❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❡❝❣ s✐❣♥❛❧ ♦♥ ❛♥❞r♦✐❞ ♣❧❛t❢♦r♠✳■♥✿ ■❊❊❊✳ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥✱ ■♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ✫ ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣② ✭■❈❈■❈❚✮✱ ✷✵✶✷■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✱ ✷✵✶✷✳ ♣✳ ✶✕✺✳●❆❘❚◆❊❘✳ ●❛rt♥❡r ❙❛②s ❲♦r❧❞✇✐❞❡ ❚❛❜❧❡t ❙❛❧❡s ●r❡✇ ✻✽ P❡r❝❡♥t ✐♥ ✷✵✶✸✱❲✐t❤ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❈❛♣t✉r✐♥❣ ✻✷ P❡r❝❡♥t ♦❢ t❤❡ ▼❛r❦❡t✿ ❙✐t❡✳ ✷✵✶✹✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❣❛rt♥❡r✳❝♦♠✴♥❡✇sr♦♦♠✴✐❞✴✷✻✼✹✷✶✺❃✳ ❆❝❡ss♦ ❡♠✿ ✷✵✶✹✳✶✶✳✶✵✳●❯❨❚❖◆✱ ❆✳ ❈✳❀ ❍❆▲▲✱ ❏✳ ❊✳ ❚r❛t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❋✐s✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ▼é❞✐❝❛✳ ❬❙✳❧✳✿ s✳♥✳❪✱ ✷✵✵✻✳❍❆❘❚❩❖●✱ ❑✳ ❈✳ ❚❤❡ ❈❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r ❙②st❡♠✿ ❙✐t❡✳ ✷✵✵✷✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳st❛rs❛♥❞s❡❛s✳❝♦♠✴❙❆❙✪✷✵P❤②s✐♦❧♦❣②✴❈❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r✴❈❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r✳❤t♠❃✳❆❝❡ss♦ ❡♠✿ ✷✵✶✹✳✶✶✳✶✵✳❍❯❆◆●✱ ❆✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❲❡✲❝❛r❡✿ ❛♥ ✐♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ♠♦❜✐❧❡ t❡❧❡❝❛r❞✐♦❧♦❣② s②st❡♠ t♦ ❡♥❛❜❧❡♠❤❡❛❧t❤ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✳ ❇✐♦♠❡❞✐❝❛❧ ❛♥❞ ❍❡❛❧t❤ ■♥❢♦r♠❛t✐❝s✱ ■❊❊❊ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢✱ ■❊❊❊✱ ✈✳ ✶✽✱♥✳ ✷✱ ♣✳ ✻✾✸✕✼✵✷✱ ✷✵✶✹✳■❙❖✴■❊❈✳ ❙P■❈❊ ✲ ■❙❖✴■❊❈ ✶✺✺✵✹✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✱ ✷✵✵✸✳■❲❆❨❆✱ ▲✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ✐♥ ❡♠❡r❣✐♥❣ ❝♦✉♥tr✐❡s✿ ❆ s✉r✈❡② ♦❢ r❡s❡❛r❝❤ ✐♥✐t✐❛t✐✈❡s✐♥ ❜r❛③✐❧✳ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❥♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ♠❡❞✐❝❛❧ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐❝s✱ ❊❧s❡✈✐❡r✱ ✈✳ ✽✷✱ ♥✳ ✺✱ ♣✳ ✷✽✸✕✷✾✽✱✷✵✶✸✳❏❙❖◆✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉❝✐♥❣ ❏❙❖◆✳ ✷✵✶✺✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❥s♦♥✳♦r❣✴❃✳❑❖✱ ❙✳✲❨✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❆ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ❡❝❣ r❡❝♦r❞❡r✳ ■♥✿ ■❊❊❊✳ ❈♦♥s✉♠❡r ❊❧❡❝tr♦♥✐❝s✱❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❛♥❞ ◆❡t✇♦r❦s ✭❈❊❈◆❡t✮✱ ✷✵✶✷ ✷♥❞ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✱✷✵✶✷✳ ♣✳ ✸✵✻✸✕✸✵✻✼✳▲■❑❊❘❚✱ ❘✳ ❆ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡ ❢♦r t❤❡ ♠❡❛s✉r❡♠❡♥t ♦❢ ❛tt✐t✉❞❡s✳ ❆r❝❤✐✈❡s ♦❢ Ps②❝❤♦❧♦❣②✱✈✳ ✹✵✱ ♣✳ ✶✕✺✺✱ ✶✾✸✷✳▲■◆✱ ❇✳✲❙✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❉❡s✐❣♥ ❛♥❞ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❛ s❡t✲t♦♣ ❜♦①✕❜❛s❡❞ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ s②st❡♠✉s✐♥❣ ❤②❜r✐❞ ❝❧♦✉❞✳ ❚❡❧❡♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❡ ❛♥❞ ❡✲❍❡❛❧t❤✱ ▼❛r② ❆♥♥ ▲✐❡❜❡rt✱ ■♥❝✳ ✶✹✵ ❍✉❣✉❡♥♦t❙tr❡❡t✱ ✸r❞ ❋❧♦♦r ◆❡✇ ❘♦❝❤❡❧❧❡✱ ◆❨ ✶✵✽✵✶ ❯❙❆✱ ✷✵✶✺✳▲❖P❊❙✱ ■✳ ❈✳❀ ❱❆■❉❨❆✱ ❇✳❀ ❘❖❉❘■●❯❊❙✱ ❏✳ ❏✳ ❚♦✇❛r❞s ❛♥ ❛✉t♦♥♦♠♦✉s ❢❛❧❧ ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥❛♥❞ ❛❧❡rt✐♥❣ s②st❡♠ ♦♥ ❛ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❛♥❞ ♣❡r✈❛s✐✈❡ ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t✳ ❚❡❧❡❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❙②st❡♠s✱❙♣r✐♥❣❡r✱ ✈✳ ✺✷✱ ♥✳ ✹✱ ♣✳ ✷✷✾✾✕✷✸✶✵✱ ✷✵✶✸✳▼❖❍❆▼▼❊❉✱ ❏✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ♦❢ t❤✐♥❣s✿ ❘❡♠♦t❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ ✉s✐♥❣ ✇❡❜ s❡r✈✐❝❡s❛♥❞ ❝❧♦✉❞ ❝♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣✳ ■♥✿ ■❊❊❊✳ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ♦❢ ❚❤✐♥❣s ✭✐❚❤✐♥❣s✮✱ ✷✵✶✹ ■❊❊❊ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥✱ ❛♥❞ ●r❡❡♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✭●r❡❡♥❈♦♠✮✱ ■❊❊❊ ❛♥❞❈②❜❡r✱ P❤②s✐❝❛❧ ❛♥❞ ❙♦❝✐❛❧ ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ✭❈P❙❈♦♠✮✱ ■❊❊❊✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✱ ✷✵✶✹✳ ♣✳ ✷✺✻✕✷✻✸✳❖❉❊❍✱ ❇✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❖♣t✐♠✐③✐♥❣ ❝❛♥❝❡r ❝❛r❡ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤✳ ❙✉♣♣♦rt✐✈❡ ❈❛r❡ ✐♥ ✼✹❖▼❙✱ ❖✳ ▼✳ ❞✳ ❙✳ ❚❤❡ t♦♣ ✶✵ ❝❛✉s❡s ♦❢ ❞❡❛t❤✿ ❙✐t❡✳ ✷✵✶✹✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇❤♦✳✐♥t✴♠❡❞✐❛❝❡♥tr❡✴❢❛❝ts❤❡❡ts✴❢s✸✶✵✴❡♥✴❃✳ ❆❝❡ss♦ ❡♠✿ ✷✵✶✹✳✶✶✳✶✵✳❖❙❚❊❘✱ ❏✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❖♣❡♥ s♦✉r❝❡ ❥❛✈❛✲❜❛s❡❞ ❡❝❣ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❛♥❞ ❛♥❞r♦✐❞ ❛♣♣ ❢♦r ❛tr✐❛❧✜❜r✐❧❧❛t✐♦♥ s❝r❡❡♥✐♥❣✳ ■♥✿ ■❊❊❊✳ ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ✐♥ ❈❛r❞✐♦❧♦❣② ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ✭❈✐♥❈✮✱ ✷✵✶✸✳❬❙✳❧✳❪✱ ✷✵✶✸✳ ♣✳ ✼✸✶✕✼✸✹✳P❆❊❙✱ ❊✳ ◆♦ ❇r❛s✐❧✱ ✬❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡✬ é ❝♦♥❢✉♥❞✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦r❀ ❡♥t❡♥❞❛ ❛❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛✿ ❙✐t❡✳ ✷✵✶✹✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴s❛✉❞❡✳✐❣✳❝♦♠✳❜r✴♠✐♥❤❛s❛✉❞❡✴✷✵✶✹✲✵✻✲✷✼✴♥♦✲❜r❛s✐❧✲❤♦♠❡✲❝❛r❡✲❡✲❝♦♥❢✉♥❞✐❞♦✲❝♦♠✲s❡r✈✐❝♦✲❞❡✲❝✉✐❞❛❞♦r✲❡♥t❡♥❞❛✲❛✲❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝❛✳❤t♠❧❃✳❆❝❡ss♦ ❡♠✿ ✷✵✶✹✳✶✶✳✶✵✳P❆❙❚❖❘❊✱ ❈✳ ❆✳❀ ❙❆▼❊❙■▼❆✱ ◆✳❀ ▼❯◆❊❘❆❚❖✱ ❘✳ ❆❇❉ ❞♦ ❊❈●✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✿ ▼❡❞❝❡❧✱✷✵✶✶✳P❆❚❊▲✱ ❙✳ ■❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ P❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ■♠♣r♦✈✐♥❣ ❋❛❝t♦rs ❢♦r ❲❡❜ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❜②P❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❚❡st✐♥❣✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✿ ❈✐t❡s❡❡r✱ ✷✵✶✹✳P❘❊❙❙▼❆◆✱ ❘✳ ❙✳ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✿ ▼❝●r❛✇ ❍✐❧❧ ❇r❛s✐❧✱ ✷✵✶✶✳◗■❆◆●✱ ❈✳ ❩✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❢♦r t❤❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ s❡❝t♦r✳ ❲❛s❤✐♥❣t♦♥✿ ❲♦r❧❞ ❇❛♥❦✱✷✵✶✶✳❘❆▼❆◆❆❚❍❆◆✱ ◆✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ■❞❡♥t✐❢②✐♥❣ ♣r❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡s ❢♦r ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❢♦r s❡❧❢✲♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ s❡❧❢✲♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t✿ ❋♦❝✉s ❣r♦✉♣ ✜♥❞✐♥❣s ❢r♦♠ ❤✐✈✲♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ♣❡rs♦♥s❛♥❞ ②♦✉♥❣ ♠♦t❤❡rs✳ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❥♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ♠❡❞✐❝❛❧ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐❝s✱ ❊❧s❡✈✐❡r✱ ✈✳ ✽✷✱ ♥✳ ✹✱ ♣✳❡✸✽✕❡✹✻✱ ✷✵✶✸✳❙❖❋❚❲❆❘❊✱ ▲✳ ▲✳ ❞❡ P❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❛❤r✐❛ ❞❡✳ ❙t❆rt ✲ ❙t❛t❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❆rt t❤r♦✉❣❤❙②st❡♠❛t✐❝ ❘❡✈✐❡✇✳ ✷✵✶✺✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴❧❛♣❡s✳❞❝✳✉❢s❝❛r✳❜r✴t♦♦❧s✴st❛rt❴t♦♦❧❃✳❙❖▼▼❊❘❱■▲▲❊✱ ■✳ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡✳ ❬❙✳❧✳✿ s✳♥✳❪✱ ✷✵✵✸✳❚❯❘◆❊❘✱ ❑✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ▼❛♥❛❣✐♥❣ ❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡ ♥❡t✇♦r❦s✳ ■♥✿ ◆❡t✇♦r❦s✱ ✷✵✵✾✳ ■❈◆ ✬✵✾✳ ❊✐❣❤t❤■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥✳ ❬❙✳❧✳✿ s✳♥✳❪✱ ✷✵✵✾✳ ♣✳ ✸✺✹✕✸✺✾✳❱❊◆❚❯❘❆✱ ❋✳ ◆♦ ❇r❛s✐❧✱ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❞♦♠✐♥❛♠ ✾✵❲✐♥❞♦✇s P❤♦♥❡ t❡♥t❛ ✉❧tr❛♣❛ss❛r ✐❖❙✿ ❙✐t❡✳ ✷✵✶✸✳ ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴❣✐③♠♦❞♦✳✉♦❧✳❝♦♠✳❜r✴s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s✲❜r❛s✐❧✲✷q✷✵✶✸✴❃✳ ❆❝❡ss♦ ❡♠✿ ✷✵✶✹✳✶✶✳✶✵✳❲❆◆●✱ ▲✳✲❍✳ ❡t ❛❧✳ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❛ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ s②st❡♠ ✐♥ ❝❛r❞✐♦❧♦❣②❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥✳ ■♥✿ ■❊❊❊✳ ❈✐r❝✉✐ts ❛♥❞ ❙②st❡♠s ✭❆P❈❈❆❙✮✱ ✷✵✶✷ ■❊❊❊ ❆s✐❛ P❛❝✐✜❝❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✱ ✷✵✶✷✳ ♣✳ ✷✸✻✕✷✸✾✳❨❆P✱ ❏✳ ❍✳❀ ❏❊❖◆●✱ ❉✳ ❯✳ ❉❡s✐❣♥ ❛♥❞ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ✉❜✐q✉✐t♦✉s ❡❝❣ ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ s②st❡♠ ❜② ✉s✐♥❣ ❛♥❞r♦✐❞ t❛❜❧❡t✳ ■♥✿ ❯❜✐q✉✐t♦✉s ■♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ❛♥❞❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✳ ❬❙✳❧✳❪✿ ❙♣r✐♥❣❡r✱ ✷✵✶✸✳ ♣✳ ✷✻✾✕✷✼✼✳ ✼✺ ❆◆❊❳❖ ❆ ✕ ❆◆❊❳❖ ■ ✕ ◗❯❊❙❚■❖◆➪❘■❖ ❯❚■▲■❩❆❉❖ ◆❆ ❆❱❆▲■❆➬➹❖ ❉❖❙▼Ó❉❯▲❖❙ ❉❖ ❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ◗❯❊❙❚■❖◆➪❘■❖ ❆ ❘❊❙P❊■❚❖ ❉❖❙ ▼Ó❉❯▲❖❙ ❉❖ ❙■❙❚❊▼❆✿❊s❝❛❧❛ ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛✿ ❞❡ ✶ ❂ ❚♦t❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❞❡s❛❝♦r❞♦ ❛ ✺ ❂ ❚♦t❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦✳ ❖s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ✷✱ ✸ ❡ ✹ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ♣♦s✐çõ❡s ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐❛s✳❆✳✶ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✶✿ ■♥st❛❧❛r ❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ ❛♣r♦✲♣r✐❛❞♦✳ ◗ ✶✳✶ ✿ ❖ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡◗ ✶✳✷ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡◗ ✶✳✸✿ ❖ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✜♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✷✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❝❛❞❛str♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳◗ ✷✳✶ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❝❛❞❛str❛❞♦s✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ✼✻✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡◗ ✷✳✷ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❜✉s❝❛s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✸✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ❝❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳◗ ✸✳✶ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✐♥s❡r✐r ♥♦✈♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✹✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ r❡❧❡✈â♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❛ s❡r❡♠ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳◗ ✹✳✶ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦ ❊●❈ ❝♦❧❡t❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✺✿ ❱❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳◗✺✳✶ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ❛❧❡rt❛s ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❆✳✷ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✻✿ ■♥st❛❧❛r ❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡s✲ ✼✼◗ ✻✳✶ ✿ ❖ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡◗ ✻✳✷ ✿ ➱ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ♣❡ss♦❛❧✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡◗ ✻✳✸✿ ❖ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✜♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✼✿ ❯s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s t❡❧❛s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳◗ ✼✳✶ ✿ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞❛s ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡◗ ✼✳✷ ✿ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❛✛♦r❞❛♥❝❡ ❞♦s í❝♦♥❡s ❞❛s t❡❧❛s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✽✿ ❙❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳◗ ✽✳✶ ✿ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ s❛t✐s❢❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ✼✽✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡◗ ✽✳✷ ✿ ◗✉❛❧ ♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❝❧❛r❡③❛ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳✶ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✷ ❬ ❪ ❉✐s❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✸ ❬ ❪ ■♥❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✹ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡✺ ❬ ❪ ❈♦♥❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛♠❡♥t❡

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