UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE ALAGOAS INSTITUTO DE COMPUTAÇÃO PROGRAMA DE PÓS GRADUAÇÃO EM INFORMÁTICA

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❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❋❊❉❊❘❆▲ ❉❊ ❆▲❆●❖❆❙

■◆❙❚■❚❯❚❖ ❉❊ ❈❖▼P❯❚❆➬➹❖

P❘❖●❘❆▼❆ ❉❊ PÓ❙ ●❘❆❉❯❆➬➹❖

❊▼ ■◆❋❖❘▼➪❚■❈❆

●■▲❚❖◆ ❏❖❙➱ ❋❊❘❘❊■❘❆ ❉❆ ❙■▲❱❆

❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ❉❊ ▼❖◆■❚❖❘❆▼❊◆❚❖

▼Ó❱❊▲ ❉❊ ❙■◆❆■❙ ❈❆❘❉❮❆❈❖❙ P❆❘❆

❯❙❖ ❊▼ ❆❙❙■❙❚✃◆❈■❆ ❉❖▼■❈■▲■❆❘

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●✐❧t♦♥ ❏♦sé ❋❡rr❡✐r❛ ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛

❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ❉❊ ▼❖◆■❚❖❘❆▼❊◆❚❖ ▼Ó❱❊▲ ❉❊

❙■◆❆■❙ ❈❆❘❉❮❆❈❖❙ P❆❘❆ ❯❙❖ ❊▼ ❆❙❙■❙❚✃◆❈■❆

❉❖▼■❈■▲■❆❘

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r✲ ❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ♣❡❧♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ■♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ❞♦ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❆❧❛❣♦❛s✳

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ▲❡❛♥❞r♦ ❉✐❛s ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❈❧❡✉♠❛r ❞❛ ❙✐❧✈❛ ▼♦r❡✐r❛

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✧◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♣♦rt❛ s❡ ❢❡❝❤❛✱ ♦✉tr❛ s❡ ❛❜r❡✳ ▼❛s ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ♥ós ✜❝❛♠♦s ♦❧❤❛♥❞♦ t❛♥t♦ t❡♠♣♦✱ tr✐st❡s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣♦rt❛ ❢❡❝❤❛❞❛✱ q✉❡ ♥❡♠ ♥♦t❛♠♦s ❛q✉❡❧❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❛❜r✐✉ ♣❛r❛ ♥ós✳✧

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❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙

Pr✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❣♦st❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛ ❉❡✉s ♣♦r t❡r ♠❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r ♦ q✉❡ t❡♥❤♦ ❛té ❤♦❥❡ q✉❡ s❡♠ ❞✉✈✐❞❛s s❡♠ ♦ q✉❛❧ ♥❛❞❛ s❡r✐❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧✳

➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✱ ♣♦r ❡st❛r❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ❝♦♠✐❣♦ ❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ❡♠ ♠✐♠✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦✱ t❛♠❜é♠✱ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥♦✐✈❛✱ ▲②❣✐❛✱ ♣♦r s✉❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦✳

❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ Pr♦❢✳ ❈❧❡✉♠❛r ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♠❡ ♦r✐❡♥t❛r ♥❡st❡ ♥♦✈♦ ❝❛♠✐✲ ♥❤♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♠✱ ♦ ♠❡str❛❞♦❀ ♣♦r s✉❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❞✐s♣❡♥s❛❞❛✳

❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ Pr♦❢✳ ▲❡❛♥❞r♦ ❉✐❛s ♣❡❧❛ s✉❛ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥❡st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❞✐s♣❡♥s❛❞❛✳

❆♦ Pr♦❢✳ P❛✉❧♦ ❈✉♥❤❛✱ ♣♦r t❡r ♠❡ ❛❥✉❞❛❞♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t❛s ♣❛rt❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

❆ Pr♦❢❛✳ ▼ô♥✐❝❛ ❳✐♠❡♥❡s✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ ❡♥s✐♥♦ ♠é❞✐♦ ❡ ♣♦r ♠❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛r ❛ ❞❛r ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❛♦ ♠❡str❛❞♦✳

❆♦ ♠❡✉ ❛♠✐❣♦ Pr♦❢✳ ■✈♦ ❈❛❧❛❞♦✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛r❝❡r✐❛ ♥♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s q✉❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛r❛♠ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❥♦r♥❛❞❛ ♥❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✳

❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦ ❞❡ ❙■ ❞♦ ■❋❆▲ ❝♦♠ q✉❡♠ t✐✈❡ ❛ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈✐✈❡r ❡ ❝r❡s❝❡r ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦✿ ❯③✐❡❧✱ ❋❡❧✐♣❡ ❆❧❡♥❝❛r✱ ❍❛♥❞r✐❦✱ ❚♦♥✐ ❊st❡✈❡s✱ ●❡r❛❧❞♦✱ P❡❞r♦✱ ▼❛✐❧s♦♥✱ ❱❛❧t❡r✳ ❱♦❝ês sã♦ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❝♦♠ ❛s q✉❛✐s ❛♣r❡♥❞✐ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ❡ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r♦ ❡①❝❡❧❡♥t❡s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s✳

❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❞♦ ■❈ ❞❛ ❯❋❆▲✿ ◆❡t♦ ❈❛✈❛❧❝❛♥t❡✱ ❏✉s❝✐❧❛♥✱ ■r❛♥✱ ▼❛r❝❡❧♦✱ ■❣♦r✱ ▼✐❝❤❡❧✱ ❉❛♥✐❡❧✱ ❚❛ss✐♦✱ ❊③❡q✉✐❡❧✱ ❇✐❛ ▼❛r✐❛✱ ❆r♠❛♥❞♦✱ ❉❛✈✐❞ ❏♦♥❡s✱ ❆❧❡③②✳✳✳ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ ❈♦♠ ♦s q✉❛✐s ♣❛ss❛♠♦s ♠✉✐t❛s ❤♦r❛s ❡st✉❞❛♥❞♦ ❡ ❥✉♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❛s ❞✐s❝✐♣❧✐♥❛s ❡ ♣❡❧❛ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡ ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞❛✳

❆♦s P❡ss♦❛❧ q✉❡ ❢❡③ ♦✉ ❢❛③ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ P❘P■✴■❋❆▲✿ ❈❛r❧♦s ❍❡♥r✐q✉❡✱ ❉❛♥✐ ●♦♠❡s✱ ❉❛♥✐ ❈❧❛r❛✱ ▲✉❝❛s✱ ❙t♦é❝✐♦✱ ●✐♥❛❧❞♦ ❏r✱ ❆❞r✐❛♥❛✱ ▲❡♦♥❛r❞♦✱ ❋❡❧✐♣❡✱ ▼✐❧❧❛♥❡✱ ❇✐❛✱ ❆❧t❛♥②s✱ ❋❧á✈✐❛✱ ❊❧❛✐♥❡✱ ❋r❛♥❝❡❛♥❡✱ ▼❛r✐❛ ■✈❡t❡✳✳✳

❆♦s ❛♠✐❣♦s✿ ▼❛r❝♦ ❆♥tô♥✐♦ ❡ ▲✉❝❛s ❚♦rq✉❛t♦ ♣❡❧❛s ❞✐❝❛s ❡ ❛❥✉❞❛✳

◆ã♦ ♣♦ss♦ ❡sq✉❡❝❡r ❞❡ ♠❡♥❝✐♦♥❛r ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉ír❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢♦r♠❛çã♦✳ Pr♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞❛ ❯❋❆▲✱ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ❞♦ ■❋❆▲✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s q✉❡ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ sã♦ ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ q✉❡ ❛❝r❡❞✐t❛r❛♠ ♥♦ ♠❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞♦s ♠❡✉s ❡st✉❞♦s ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✳

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❘❊❙❯▼❖

❖ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♠ s✉❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ q✉❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡♠ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦✱ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ❝❧í♥✐❝♦s ♣ós✲❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ✭❊❈●✮ ❡ ❡♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛❧❡rt❛s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❝rít✐❝❛s ♥❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ três ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s✿ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ q✉❡ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣❡❧❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦rtát❡✐s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧❀ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡st✐♥❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ♣❡rs✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❡ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ q✉❡ é ✉♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❝♦♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♥❛ t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❡ ❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳ ❋♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ t❡st❡s ✉♥✐tár✐♦s✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ❏á ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✱ ♥♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✱ ❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❢♦r❛♠ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏♠❡t❡r✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t♦s ❡♥✈✐♦s ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s s✐♠✉❧tâ♥❡♦s✳ ❖s t❡st❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s✱ r❡✈❡❧❛♠ ❛ ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳

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❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚

❚❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r❡s❡♥ts t❤❡ ❞❡s✐❣♥ ❛♥❞ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♦❢ ❛ s②st❡♠ ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞ t♦ ❛ss✐st ❤❡❛❧t❤✲ ❝❛r❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s ✐♥ t❤❡✐r tr❡❛t♠❡♥t ♦❢ ♣❛t✐❡♥ts ✐♥ ❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ s②st❡♠ t❛s❦s t❤❛t r❡q✉✐r❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s❧② ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧❧② ♣❛t✐❡♥ts ✇❤♦ ❛r❡ ✐♥ ♣♦st✲s✉r❣✐❝❛❧ ❝❧✐♥✐❝❛❧ ❝❛s❡s ♦❢ ❝❛r✲ ❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠s✳ ❚❤✉s✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛t✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ♣r❡s❡♥t✐♥❣ t♦♦❧s ❢♦r ❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ ♦❢ ✈✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥s ❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠ ✭❊❈●✮ ❛♥❞ ✐ss✉✐♥❣ ❛❧❡rts ❛❝❝♦r❞✐♥❣ ❝r✐t✐❝❛❧ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ✐♥ ❤❡❛rt r❛t❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✳ ❚❤❡ s②st❡♠ ✐s ❞✐✈✐❞❡❞ ✐♥t♦ t❤r❡❡ ❞✐st✐♥❝t ♠♦❞✉❧❡s✿ ▲♦❝❛❧ ♠♦❞✉❧❡ t❤❛t ✐s r❡s♣♦♥s✐❜❧❡ ❢♦r ❛❝q✉✐r✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✬s ✈✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥s✱ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ♠♦♥✐✲ t♦r✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐♣♠❡♥t s✉❝❤ ❛s ❛ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤❀ ❚❤❡ ❲❡❜ ♠♦❞✉❧❡ t❤❛t ✐s ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞ t♦ ♣❡r❢♦r♠ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❡❞ ❝♦❧❧❡❝t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ st♦r❛❣❡ ♦❢ ❞❛t❛ ✐♥ ❛ ❝❧♦✉❞ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ▼♦❞✉❧❡ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✐s ❛ ❢♦❝✉s❡❞ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❞❡✈✐❝❡s ✇✐t❤ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ♦♣❡r❛t✐♥❣ s②st❡♠✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛✐♠s t♦ ❛ss✐st ❤❡❛❧t❤ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s ✐♥ ❞❡❝✐s✐♦♥ ❞❡❝✐s✐♦♥s ♦♥ t❤❡ ♣❛t✐❡♥t✬s tr❡❛t♠❡♥t ✐♥ t❤❡ ❡✈❡♥t ♦❢ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ✐♥ ❝❧✐♥✐❝❛❧ st❛t✉s t❤r♦✉❣❤ r❡❛❧✲t✐♠❡ ❞✐s♣❧❛② ♦❢ ✈✐t❛❧ s✐❣♥s ❛♥❞ r❡❝❡✐✈✐♥❣ ❛❧❡rts✳ ❈❤❡❝❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ s②st❡♠ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ❡♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t ✐t ✇❛s t❛❦❡♥ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ✉♥✐t t❡st✐♥❣✱ t❡st✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ✐♥t❡❣r❛t✐♦♥ t❡st✐♥❣ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ❆❧r❡❛❞② t❤❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛t✐♦♥ ✇❛s ♣❡r❢♦r♠❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❛ ♣♦rt❛❜❧❡ ❡❧❡❝tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♣❤ ❝♦✉♣❧❡❞ t♦ ❛ s✐♠✉❧❛t♦r ♦❢ ❊❈● s✐❣♥❛❧s✱ t❤❡ ▲♦❝❛❧ ▼♦❞✉❧❡✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❲❡❜ ♠♦❞✉❧❡✱ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ t❡sts ✇❡r❡ s✉❜♠✐tt❡❞ ❜② ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏♠❡t❡r t♦♦❧✱ ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡② ✇❡r❡ ♠❛❞❡ s✉❜♠✐ss✐♦♥s s✐♠✉❧t❛♥❡♦✉s ❛❧❡rts✳ ❚❤❡ t❡sts ❝❛rr✐❡❞ ♦✉t ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❢❡ss✐♦♥❛❧s✱ s❤♦✇ t❤❡ ❢❡❛s✐❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ✉s✐♥❣ t❤❡ s②st❡♠ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❝❛r❡ ♦❢ ♣❛t✐❡♥ts ✐♥ ❤♦♠❡ ❝❛r❡✳

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▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ■▲❯❙❚❘❆➬Õ❊❙

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶ ✕ ❈❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷ ✕ ❈â♠❛r❛s ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸ ✕ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦ ❡ ✢✉①♦ ❞♦ s❛♥❣✉❡ ♣❡❧❛s ❝â♠❛r❛s ❡ ✈á❧✈✉❧❛s ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛s✳ ✳ ✷✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹ ✕ ❉✐✈❡rs♦s ❡✈❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♦❝♦rr❡♠ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝✐❝❧♦ ❝❛r❞í❛❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺ ✕ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ◆♦r♠❛❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✻ ✕ ❉✐s♣♦s✐çã♦ ❝♦♥✈❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s ❡❧❡tr♦❞♦s ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❚r✐❛♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❊✐♥t❤♦✈❡♥

❡stá s♦❜r❡♣♦st♦ ❛♦ t♦rá①✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✼ ✕ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣♦r ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✽ ✕ P❧❛❝❛ ❝♦♥❢❡❝❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❡ ♦ ❞❡t❡❝t♦r ❞❡ ❊❈● ♠♦♥t❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✾ ✕ ■♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❚❡❧❛ ❞❡ ▼♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✷ ✕ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ P❧♦t❛♥❞♦ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✸ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✹ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞♦ ❡❧tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦

♣♦rtát✐❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✺ ✕ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦✜s✐s♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✻ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✼ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✽ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡♥✉ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✾ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó✲

❜✐❧❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✵ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛❧❡rt❛ s❡♥❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐✲

t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✶ ✕ ❙❝r❡❡♥s❤♦ts ❞❛ t❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♣❧♦t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ✳ ✺✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✷ ✕ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼ó❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✸ ✕ ❙✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✳ ✺✺ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✹ ✕ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ♣❧♦t❛♥❞♦ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❙✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦

(10)
(11)

▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❚❆❇❊▲❆❙

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶ ✕ ❉❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ❜✐♣♦❧❛r❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷ ✕ ❉❡r✐✈❛çõ❡s ✉♥✐♣♦❧❛r❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸ ✕ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹ ✕ ❊s❝❛❧❛ ▲✐❦❡rt✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✶✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✻ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✷✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✼ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✸✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✽ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✹✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✾ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✺✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✵ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✻✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✶ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✼✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✷ ✕ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●✽✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✶✸ ✕ P❧❛♥♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏▼❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱

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▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❙❮▼❇❖▲❖❙

❊❈● ✲ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛

❖▼❙ ✲ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ▼✉♥❞✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❙❛ú❞❡ ●◗▼ ✲ ●♦❛❧ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ ▼❡tr✐❝

◆❆❙❆ ✲ ◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❆❡r♦♥❛✉t✐❝s ❛♥❞ ❙♣❛❝❡ ❆❞♠✐♥✐str❛t✐♦♥✳ ❋P●❆ ✲ ❋✐❡❧❞ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠❛❜❧❡ ●❛t❡ ❆rr❛②

❉❙P ✲ ❉✐❣✐t❛❧ ❙✐❣♥❛❧ Pr♦❝❡ss♦r

❍■❱ ✲ ❍✉♠❛♥ ■♠♠✉♥♦❞❡✜❝✐❡♥❝② ❱✐r✉s ❲❊❇ ✲ ❲♦r❧❞ ❲✐❞❡ ❲❡❜

●P❙ ✲ ●❧♦❜❛❧ P♦s✐t✐♦♥✐♥❣ ❙②st❡♠ ❲■❋■ ✲ ❲✐r❡❧❡ss ❋✐❞❡❧✐t②

❯❙❇ ✲ ❯♥✐✈❡rs❛❧ ❙❡r✐❛❧ ❇✉s P❈ ✲ P❡rs♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r

■❙❖ ✲ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞✐③❛t✐♦♥ ■❊❈ ✲ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❊❧❡❝tr♦t❡❝❤♥✐❝❛❧ ❈♦♠♠✐ss✐♦♥ ❆◆❱■❙❆ ✲ ❆❣ê♥❝✐❛ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❱✐❣✐❧â♥❝✐❛ ❙❛♥✐tár✐❛ ❙❉❑ ✲ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ❑✐t

❏❱▼ ✲ ❏❛✈❛ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡ ❉❱▼ ✲ ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡

❆P■ ✲ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠✐♥❣ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❏❙❖◆ ✲ ❏❛✈❛❙❝r✐♣t ❖❜❥❡❝t ◆♦t❛t✐♦♥

❊❈▼❆ ✲ ❊✉r♦♣❡❛♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ▼❛♥✉❢❛❝t✉r❡rs ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ❆◆❙■ ✲ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞s ■♥st✐t✉t❡

❇P▼ ✲ ❇❡❛ts P❡r ▼✐♥✉t❡

❍❚❚P ✲ ❍②♣❡r❚❡①t ❚r❛♥s❢❡r Pr♦t♦❝♦❧ ❍❉ ✲ ❍❛r❞ ❉✐s❦

(13)

❙❯▼➪❘■❖

✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷ ✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✶✳✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●❡r❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✶✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❊s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✶✳✷ ❏✉st✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✶✳✸ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❉♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺

✷ ❋❯◆❉❆▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❚❊Ó❘■❈❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✶ ❍♦♠❡❈❛r❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✷ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✷✳✶ ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽

✷✳✷✳✶✳✶ ❑❡r♥❡❧ ▲✐♥✉① ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✷ ▲✐❜r❛r✐❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✸ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❘✉♥t✐♠❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✹ ❆♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✺ ❆♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶

✷✳✸ ❖ ❈♦r❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛✜❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✷✳✸✳✶ ◆♦çõ❡s ❞❡ ❆♥❛t♦♠✐❛ ❡ ❋✐s✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❈❛r❞í❛❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✷✳✸✳✷ ❊❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛✜❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹

✸ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❈❖❘❘❊▲❆❚❖❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✸✳✶ ▼❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❛s ❜✉s❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✸✳✷ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸

✹ ❊▲❊❚❘❖❈❆❘❉■Ó●❘❆❋❖ P❖❘❚➪❚■▲ ❉❊ ❇❆■❳❖ ❈❖◆❙❯▼❖ ✳ ✸✹ ✹✳✶ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✹✳✷ ❚❡st❡s ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛❢♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✹✳✸ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ r❡❝❡♣çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❊❈● ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺

✺ ■▼P▲❊▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❉❖ ❙■❙❚❊▼❆ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ✺✳✶ ❱✐sã♦ ●❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ✺✳✷ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✺✳✸ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✺✳✹ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻

(14)

✻✳✷ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✻✳✷✳✶ ❊s❝❛❧❛ ❞❡ ▲✐❦❡rt ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✻✳✷✳✷ ❆❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ●◗▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✻✳✷✳✸ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽

✻✳✷✳✸✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✴♠❡t❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ●◗▼✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ✻✳✷✳✸✳✷ ❈♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶

✻✳✷✳✹ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷

✻✳✷✳✹✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s✴♠❡t❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ●◗▼✱ q✉❡stõ❡s ❡ ♠étr✐❝❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ✻✳✷✳✹✳✷ ❈♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹

✻✳✷✳✺ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ ❡ ❞♦s ❆❧❡rt❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ✻✳✷✳✻ ❉✐s❝✉ssã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✾

✼ ❈❖◆❈▲❯❙Õ❊❙ ❊ ❚❘❆❇❆▲❍❖❙ ❋❯❚❯❘❖❙ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✷

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✶✷

✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖

❆ t❡❧❡❢♦♥✐❛ ♠ó✈❡❧ t❡♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s ✭◗■❆◆● ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ♦❝♦rr❡✉ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ✭s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s✱ t❛❜❧❡ts✱ ♣❛❧♠t♦♣s✮ ❡✱ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ❞♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ t❛✐s ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠✱ ❡♠ ✈✐rt✉❞❡ ❞✐st♦✱ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ár❡❛s ❞♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ à ♣r♦♠♦çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳

◆❛ t❡❧❡♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❛ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛❞❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛ ❥✉♥çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❥á ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✳ ❖ q✉❡ ❞❡✉ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❛♦ t❡r♠♦ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ♦✉ ♠❍❡❛❧t❤✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❝♦♠✉♥s ❞♦ ❞✐❛✲❛✲❞✐❛ ❞❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s✱ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ♠❡❞✐❝♦ ❛ ❞✐st❛♥❝✐❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❢♦❝♦✱ ❡st❛r ❡♠ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡r ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ♥❛ r♦t✐♥❛ ❞♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳

❖s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ❡♠ s❛ú❞❡✱ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ ❛♣r✐♠♦r❛r❛♠ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞❛s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣r♦✈✐❞♦s ♣❡❧❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ♠♦❜✐❧❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤✱ ♣♦✐s ✉♠ ❞❡ s❡✉s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ♣✉❞❡ss❡♠ t❡r ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦ ❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛❞♦s✱ ❡♠ s✉❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛✳

❆ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♥♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ tr❛③❡♠ ❣❛♥❤♦s s✐❣✲ ♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ár❡❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s s❡♥❞♦ ❛t❡♥❞✐❞♦s✱ r❛♣✐❞❡③ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♠❡❞✐❝❛s✱ ❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ✐♥t❡r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜s✲ s✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ❞✐ss❡♠✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡ ♦ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❡ ❛❣✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ♣❡❧♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ✭❈❖❘❘❊■❆✱ ✷✵✶✶✮ ✭❊❱❆◆●❊▲■❙❚❆✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳

P♦ré♠✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡s ✐♥✈❡st✐♠❡♥t♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❞❡ ❣♦✈❡r♥♦s ❞❡ ♣❛ís❡s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐✲ ❞♦s✱ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ s❛ú❞❡ ❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❛ ❡st❛ ár❡❛✳ P❡r♠❛♥❡❝❡ ❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♦✿ ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛✲ çõ❡s ♠é❞✐❝❛s✱ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ s❛ú❞❡ ❡ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭❆◆❆◆❉❀ ❙❘■❱❆❚❙❆✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳

❆✐♥❞❛ ♥❡ss❡ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❡st✉❞♦s ❛♣♦♥t❛♠ q✉❡ ♥♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❡♠ ♠❍❡❛❧t❤✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s ❞❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ♠é❞✐❝♦ ❡ ♠❡s♠♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♥♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦✱ ♣♦✉❝❛s sã♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦s ❝✉st♦s ❛❧t♦s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ✭■❲❆❨❆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳

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✶✸

♥ã♦ tr❛♥s♠✐ssí✈❡✐s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ s❡r tr❛t❛❞♦s ❡♠ s✉❛s r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳

❆s ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r❡s ❡stã♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❛s ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❝rô♥✐❝❛s ♥ã♦ tr❛♥s✲ ♠✐ssí✈❡✐s ❡✱ ❛✐♥❞❛✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❛ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ▼✉♥❞✐❛❧ ❞❡ ❙❛ú❞❡ ✭❖▼❙✮✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❝❛✉s❛ ❞❡ ♠♦rt❡s ❡♠ t♦❞♦ ♦ ♣❧❛♥❡t❛ ♥❛ ✉❧t✐♠❛ ❞é❝❛❞❛✳ P♦r ❡ss❛s ❡st❛tíst✐❝❛s✱ ✶✼ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ❞❡ ♠♦rt❡s ❡♠ ♠é❞✐❛ ♣♦r ❛♥♦✱ ❛t✐♥❣✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✶✸✱✷ ❞♦ ♣❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❞❛s ❝❛✉s❛s ❞❡ ♠♦rt❡ ♥♦ ♠✉♥❞♦ ✭❖▼❙✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳

P❛r❛ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛♠ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ♣ós✲❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦✲ ♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r✱ ❤á ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛✉①í❧✐♦ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦✲ r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ sã♦ ♦s ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦s✳ ❊❧❡s ❡stã♦ s❡♠♣r❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥♦s ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦s ❛ ❡ss❡s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ✭P❆❙❚❖❘❊❀ ❙❆▼❊❙■▼❆❀ ▼❯◆❊❘❆❚❖✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ❝♦♠ ❞♦s ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ✭❝♦♠♦ ♠✐❝r♦❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❋P●❆s✱ ❉❙Ps ❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❡♠❜❛r❝❛❞♦s✮✱ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦s ❛ s✐st❡♠❛s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❡♠ ❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ r❡♠♦t❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛❧ té❝♥✐❝♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♥❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳

◆♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❝✐❡♥t✐✜❝♦✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❞❡ss❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s✳ ◆♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✭❘❆▼❆◆❆❚❍❆◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♠ó✈❡❧ q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ♦ ❞✐❛ ❛ ❞✐❛ ❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s ♣♦rt❛❞♦r❛s ❞♦ ✈ír✉s ❍■❱✱ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s✳ ◆❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ❖❞❡❤ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✺✮ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛r ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❝♦♠ ❝â♥❝❡r✱ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♥❞♦ ♥♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞✐❛ ❛ ❞✐❛ ❞❛ ❞♦❡♥ç❛ ❡ ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐❝❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❡①✐❜✐r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛❝❡r❝❛ ❞❛ ❞♦❡♥ç❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✳ ❏á ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❡ ❊str✐♥ ❡ ❙✐♠ ✭✷✵✶✵✮ ❡ ▲✐♥ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✺✮✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♠ ❛ t❡❧❡♠❡❞✐❝✐♥❛✱ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡♥❞♦ ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♠é❞✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ❞❡ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s q✉❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛♠ ❝r✐❛r ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦✳ ❖s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❡ ▲♦♣❡s✱ ❱❛✐❞②❛ ❡ ❘♦❞r✐❣✉❡s ✭✷✵✶✸✮ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛✱ q✉❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦s s❡♥s♦r❡s ❞❡ ●P❙ ❡ ❛❝❡❧❡rô♠❡tr♦✱ ❞❡t❡❝t❛♠ q✉❡❞❛s ❡ ❡♥✈✐❛♠ ❛❧❡rt❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦r❡s✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ é ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♣❡ss♦❛s ✐❞♦s❛s✱ ♣r♦♣✐❝✐❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐❞❛✳

◆♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❡①✐st❡♠ ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❡ ✭❈❍❆◆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛r s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❛❞✈✐♥❞♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s é ✐♠✲ ♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡ q✉❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛ ❛♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ♠❛✐♦r ♠♦❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣♦✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡ q✉❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✸●✴❲✐✜ ❡♥✈✐❛ ♦s s✐♥❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ♥❛ ♥✉✈❡♠✳

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✶✹

❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐✲ ❧✐❛r ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♠ s✉❛s t❛r❡❢❛s ❞❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ q✉❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❡♠ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦✱ ❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥✲ t❡s q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ❝❧í♥✐❝♦s ♣ós✲❝✐rúr❣✐❝♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ✐ss♦✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐✲ t❛✐s ❞❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛♠❛ ✭❊❈●✮ ❡ ❡♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛❧❡rt❛s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ❝rít✐❝❛s ♥❛ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✳

❖ s✐st❡♠❛ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ três ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s✿ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ q✉❡ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣❡❧❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦rtát❡✐s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮❀ ❖ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡st✐♥❛ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❡ ♣❡rs✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❡ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ q✉❡ é ✉♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❝♦♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱ q✉❡ ✈✐s❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♥❛ t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ♥♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ✈✐t❛✐s ❡ ❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s✳

❋♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ t❡st❡s ✉♥✐tár✐♦s✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❡ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡✳ ❏á ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮ ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦r ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈● ❝♦♠❡r❝✐❛❧ ♥♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧ ❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✱ t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❢♦r❛♠ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❆♣❛❝❤❡ ❏♠❡t❡r ✭❆P❆❈❍❊✱ ✷✵✶✺✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t♦s ❡♥✈✐♦s ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s s✐♠✉❧tâ♥❡♦s✳

❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ q✉❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛♠ ♦✉ ❥á tr❛❜❛✲ ❧❤❛r❛♠ ❝♦♠ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ q✉❡st✐♦♥ár✐♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧ó❣✐❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ●♦❛❧ ◗✉❡st✐♦♥ ▼❡❝tr✐❝s ✭●◗▼ ✮ ❡ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ▲✐❦❡rt✱ ❛✜♠ ❞❡ r❡❧❛t❛r ♦♣✐♥✐õ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛✲ ❞♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳

✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s

✶✳✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ●❡r❛❧

❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛✲ ♠❡♥t❛ q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❡ ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡✱ q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♠ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✱ ❝♦♠ ♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❡♠ ❡♠ q✉❛❞r♦s ❝❧í♥✐❝♦s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♥tí♥✉❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✳

✶✳✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❊s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s

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✶✺

• ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡st✉❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❛ s❛ú❞❡ ❡♠ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐♦ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡❀ • ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡st✉❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s

♠ó✈❡✐s❀

• ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡st✉❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ✜s✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❝❛r❞í❛❝❛ ❡ ❛ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛✜❛❀

• ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡st✉❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s

♠ó✈❡✐s❀

• ❆♥❛❧✐s❛r ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s ♠❛✐s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s❀

• ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡st✉❞♦s s♦❜r❡ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧✱ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛

♣r♦♣♦st♦❀

• ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ✉♠ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ q✉❡ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❡ ❛ ❝♦❧❡t❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✜s✐✲

♦❧ó❣✐❝♦s ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡❀

• ❉❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ✉♠ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❝♦♠ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✱ q✉❡ s✐r✈❛

♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♥♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s❀

• ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛❧❡rt❛s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡❀

• ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♠ó❞✉❧♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s

❞❛ ár❡❛❀

✶✳✷ ❏✉st✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛

◆♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s♦♠❛r ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❣❛♥❤♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ♥❛ ár❡❛✱ ❜✉s❝❛ ❛✐♥❞❛✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r✲s❡ ❛ ♦✉tr❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ✭❤❛r❞✇❛r❡✱ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✮ ❥á ❝r✐❛❞♦s ♥♦ ♠❡✐♦ ❝✐❡♥t✐✜❝♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ é ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ❡❧❡✲ tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ r❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦r ✭❈❯◆❍❆✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✱ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ❛❝♦♣❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s ✭▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✮ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦s s✐♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❊❈●✳ ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛✲s❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛✱ ♥♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞❡ ❛❜♦r❞❛r ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❛t❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ❡ s❡✉s ❡♥t❡s ❡♠ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ ❛té ♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❡♠ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐r ❞❡ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r♦♣❡r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr❛s ❢♦♥t❡s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦✳

✶✳✸ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❉♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦

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✶✻

• ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷✿ ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❚❡ór✐❝❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♠❜❛s❛r ♦

tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❙ã♦ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛❞♦s ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s s♦❜r❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❛ s❛ú❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳ ❍á ❛✐♥❞❛ ✉♠❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❡ s✉❛ ❛r✲ q✉✐t❡t✉r❛✳ ❊ ♣❛r❛ ✜♥❛❧✐③❛r é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ✜s✐♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞♦ ❝♦r❛çã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❜ás✐❝❛s ❞♦ ❊❈● ❡ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐♦❣r❛✜❛❀

• ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸✿ ❙ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥❛

❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s❀

• ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹✿ ➱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❡❧❡tr♦❝❛r❞✐ó❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦rtát✐❧ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ r❡❝❡♥t❡✲

♠❡♥t❡ q✉❡ s❡r✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ▼ó❞✉❧♦s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦❀

• ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺✿ ❙ã♦ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛❞♦s ♦s ♠ó❞✉❧♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡s ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡st❡

tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ é ❞✐✈✐❞✐♥❞♦ ❡♠ três ♠ó❞✉❧♦s✿ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✱ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❏❛✈❛ ♣❛r❛ ❉❡s❦t♦♣❀ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❲❡❜✱ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ r❡❝❡❜❡r ❡ ♣❡rs✐st✐r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❡ ✉♠ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ▼♦❜✐❧❡✱ q✉❡ é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s ♥❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞❀

• ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✻✿ ❙ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ✈❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛

❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦❀

• ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✼✿ ❙ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ s✉❛s ❧✐♠✐✲

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✶✼

✷ ❋❯◆❉❆▼❊◆❚❆➬➹❖ ❚❊Ó❘■❈❆

❊st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❡①♣õ❡ ♦ ❡♠❜❛s❛♠❡♥t♦ t❡ór✐❝♦ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦s t❡♠❛s ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦s ♥❡st❡ ❞♦✲ ❝✉♠❡♥t♦✳

✷✳✶ ❍♦♠❡❈❛r❡

◆♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❍♦♠❡❝❛r❡ sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r✳ ❙❡✉ ♣r✐♥✲ ❝✐♣❛❧ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ❛t✐♥❣✐r ✉♠❛ ❡st❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❝❧í♥✐❝♦ ✐♥t❡r❛❣✐♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r ❡ ✉♠❛ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛✳

➱ r❡❣✉❧❛♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❘❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❆♥✈✐s❛✴❘❉❈ ♥♦ ✶✶✱ ❞❡ ✷✻ ❞❡ ❥❛♥❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✵✻ ✭❆◆✲

❱■❙❆✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳ ❊ss❛ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦ é ❛♣❧✐❝á✈❡❧ ❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❙❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❆t❡♥çã♦ ❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r✱ ♣ú✲ ❜❧✐❝♦s ♦✉ ♣r✐✈❛❞♦s✱ q✉❡ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡♠ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❡✴♦✉ ✐♥t❡r♥❛çã♦ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r✳

❆t❡♥çã♦ ❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r é ✉♠ t❡r♠♦ q✉❡ r❡❢❡r❡✲s❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦ à s❛ú❞❡✱ s✉❜s✲ t✐t✉t✐✈❛ ♦✉ ❝♦♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r às ❥á ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s✱ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛❞❛ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦♠♦çã♦ à s❛ú❞❡✱ ♣r❡✈❡♥çã♦ ❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞♦❡♥ç❛s ❡ r❡❛❜✐❧✐t❛çã♦ ♣r❡st❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❞♦♠✐✲ ❝í❧✐♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❣❛r❛♥t✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛ às r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❛t❡♥çã♦ à s❛ú❞❡ ✭❇❘❆❙■▲✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳

❆ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r é ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝❛rát❡r ❛♠❜✉❧❛t♦r✐❛❧✱ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞❛s ❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛❞❛s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ❡♠ ❞♦♠✐❝í❧✐♦ ✭❆◆❱■❙❆✱ ✷✵✵✻✮✳

❆ ❆t❡♥çã♦ ❉♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛ r❡♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❛s ❡q✉✐♣❡s q✉❡ ♣r❡st❛♠ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ♥❛ ❛t❡♥çã♦ ❜ás✐❝❛✱ ❛♠❜✉❧❛t♦r✐❛❧✱ ♥♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ✉r❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❡♠❡r❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r✱ ❝♦♠ ✈✐st❛s à r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ❛t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r ❡✴♦✉ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦ ❞❡ ♣❡r♠❛♥ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ✐♥t❡r♥❛❞♦s✱ ❛ ❤✉♠❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛t❡♥çã♦✱ ❛ ❞❡s✐♥st✐t✉❝✐♦♥❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ ❛♠♣❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛✉t♦♥♦♠✐❛ ❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ✭❇❘❆❙■▲✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳

❘❡❣✐str♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ❤á ♥♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ♣♦r ✈♦❧t❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠✐❧❤ã♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s q✉❡ sã♦ tr❛t❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✷✵✵ ♠✐❧ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛t✉❛r❡♠ ♥❛s r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❞♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ✭P❆❊❙✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳

❆t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ❛ ✐♥st❛❧❛çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦✱ ♥❛ r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ❞❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ♣♦rtát❡✐s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✈❛r✐❛r ❞❡s❞❡ ♦s ❞❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ♣❡ss♦❛ ✐♥str✉í❞❛ ♥❛ ❤♦r❛ ✭✉♠ ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r ❞♦ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✮ ❛té ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛♠ ❞❡ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛✐s ♣♦r ✉♠ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❝❛♣❛❝✐t❛❞♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❛♥✉s❡✐♦ ❡ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ✭❚❯❘◆❊❘ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✾✮✳

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✶✽

♠✉❧t✐♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✳ ❊ss❛ ❡q✉✐♣❡ é ❢♦r♠❛❞❛ ♣♦r ♠é❞✐❝♦s✱ ❡♥❢❡r♠❡✐r♦s✱ té❝♥✐❝♦s ❡♠ ❡♥❢❡r♠❛❣❡♠✱ ✜s✐♦t❡r❛♣❡✉t❛s✱ ❛ss✐st❡♥t❡s s♦❝✐❛❧✱ ❢♦♥♦❛✉❞✐ó❧♦❣♦s✱ ♥✉tr✐❝✐♦♥✐st❛s✱ t❡r❛♣❡✉t❛s ♦❝✉♣❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♦❞♦♥tó❧♦❣♦s✱ ♣s✐❝ó❧♦❣♦s ❡ ❢❛r♠❛❝ê✉t✐❝♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛✐s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❛♥✉s❡✐♦ ❞❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❛✉✲ ①✐❧✐❡♠ ♥♦s ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ ✭❇❘❆❙■▲✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳

❖ ❛✈❛♥ç♦ ❞❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ♠ó✈❡✐s ❡ ❞♦s ♠❡✐♦s ❞❡ t❡❧❡❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❛✉✲ ♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s ♣❡❧♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛ss✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦♠✐❝✐❧✐❛r ✭❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡✮✱ ♣r♦♣♦r✲ ❝✐♦♥❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ s❛ú❞❡ ✈ár✐❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♠♦ ❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞♦s r✐s❝♦s ❞❡ ✐♥❢❡❝çã♦ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r ❡ ❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❝✉st♦s ❝♦♠ ❣❛st♦s ♦r✐✉♥❞♦s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r♥❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝❧í✲ ♥✐❝♦ ❤♦s♣✐t❛❧❛r✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ ❛♠♣❧✐❛r ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❣❛s ♥♦s ❧❡✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❡♠ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ❛❧t❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r tr❛t❛❞♦s ❡♠ s✉❛s r❡s✐❞ê♥❝✐❛s✳

❖✉tr♦ss✐♠✱ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❤♦♠❡❝❛r❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛♠ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♣❛❝✐❡♥t❡s✱ ❡ s❡✉s ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r❡s✱ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♥❛ q✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐❞❛ ❡ ❤✉♠❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✳

✷✳✷ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞

❆ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ é ❛ ❞♦♠✐♥❛♥t❡ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s ❡ t❛❜❧❡ts ✭●❆❘❚◆❊❘✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ◆♦ ❇r❛s✐❧ ❝❤❡❣❛ ❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ✾✵✪ ❞♦s ❛♣❛r❡❧❤♦s ♥♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦ ✭❱❊◆❚❯❘❆✱ ✷✵✶✸✮✳

❆♥❞r♦✐❞ é ✉♠❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛ q✉❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❑❡r♥❡❧ ▲✐♥✉①✱ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡✱ ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛ ✉♠ ❑✐t ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ✭❙❉❑ ✕ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❉❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ❑✐t✮ q✉❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❜ás✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❏❛✈❛ ✭❆◆❉❘❖■❉✱ ✷✵✶✹✮✳

✷✳✷✳✶ ❆ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛

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✶✾

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶ ✕ ❈❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞✳

❋♦♥t❡✿ ✭❆◆❉❘❖■❉✱ ✷✵✶✹✮

✷✳✷✳✶✳✶ ❑❡r♥❡❧ ▲✐♥✉①

➱ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❛ ♣✐❧❤❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❞❛ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❡ ❢♦✐ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥❛ ✈❡rsã♦ ✷✳✻ ❞♦ ▲✐♥✉①✳ ❊st❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ♣r♦✈❡r ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛✱ ❛s ❝♦♥✜❣✉r❛çõ❡s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✱ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡♥❡r❣✐❛ ❡ ❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✈ár✐♦s ✈ár✐♦s ❞r✐✈❡rs ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞❡ s❡r ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❡ ♦ r❡st♦ ❞❛ ♣✐❧❤❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✳

✷✳✷✳✶✳✷ ▲✐❜r❛r✐❡s

❆ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❧✐❜r❛r✐❡s✱ é r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛r ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s ❛ ❛❝❡ss❛r ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳

❊ss❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠❛ s❡r✐❡ ❞❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❈✴❈✰✰ q✉❡ sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r ✈ár✐♦s ❝♦♠✲ ♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❡ ❡①♣♦st❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r❡s ♣❡❧❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦✳ ❆❧❣✉♠❛s ❞❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s sã♦ ❧✐st❛❞❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦✿

• ❙②st❡♠ ❈ ▲✐❜r❛r② ✕ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ✈✐♥❞❛ ❞❛ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠

❈ ✭❧✐❜❝✮✱ ❞❡r✐✈❛❞❛ ❞♦ ❇❙❉ ✶ ❡ ♦t✐♠✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❡♠❜❛r❝❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠❇❙❉ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ ✏❉✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❇❡r❦❡❧❡②✑✳ ➱ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❝ó❞✐❣♦s ❢♦♥t❡

♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❈❛❧✐❢ór♥✐❛✱ ❇❡r❦❡❧❡②✱ ❛s q✉❛✐s ❢♦r❛♠ ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡①t❡♥sõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❯◆■❳❘ ❞♦ ❞❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ P❡sq✉✐s❛s ❞❛ ❆❚✫❚✳ ❱ár✐♦s ♣r♦❥❡t♦s ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s

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✷✵

▲✐♥✉①✳

• ▼❡❞✐❛ ▲✐❜r❛r✐❡s ✕ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥♦ P❛❝❦❡t❱✐❞❡♦✬s ❖♣❡♥❈❖❘❊✳ ❊ss❛s ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s s✉♣♦r✲

t❛♠ ♦s ♠❛✐s ♣♦♣✉❧❛r❡s ❢♦r♠❛t♦s ❞❡ á✉❞✐♦ ❡ ✈í❞❡♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❞❡ ✐♠❛❣❡♥s ❡stát✐❝❛s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ♦s ❢♦r♠❛t♦s ▼P❊●✹✱ ❍✳✷✻✹✱ ▼P✸✱ ❆❆❈✱ ❆▼❘✱ ❏P●✱ ❡ P◆●✳

• ❙✉r❢❛❝❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r ✕ ♣r♦✈ê ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦ s✉❜s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❡①✐❜✐çã♦✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ às ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s

❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ✷❉ ❡ ✸❉✳

• ▲✐❜❲❡❜❈♦r❡ ✕ ♠♦t♦r ❞❡ ♥❛✈❡❣❛❞♦r ✇❡❜ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ t❛♥t♦ ♥♦ ♥❛✈❡❣❛❞♦r ❆♥❞r♦✐❞

q✉❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡①✐❜✐çõ❡s ✇❡❜ ❡♠❜✉t✐❞❛s✳

• ❙●▲ ✕ ♠♦t♦r ❞❡ ❣rá✜❝♦s ✷❉✳

• ✸❉ ▲✐❜r❛r✐❡s ✕ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❖♣❡♥●▲ ❊❙ ✶✳✵ ❆P■s✱ ❡ss❛s ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡✲

❝❛s ❢♦r♥❡❝❡♠ ❛❝❡❧❡r❛çã♦ ✸❉ ✈✐❛ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ✭q✉❛♥❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧✮ ♦✉ ✈✐❛ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❞❡ r❡♥❞❡r✐③❛çã♦ ✸❉ ❛❧t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦t✐♠✐③❛❞♦✳

• ❋r❡❡❚②♣❡ ✕ r❡♥❞❡r✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢♦♥t❡s✱ ✈❡t♦r❡s ❡ ❜✐t♠❛♣s

• ❙◗▲✐t❡ ✕ ♣♦❞❡r♦s♦ ❡ ❧❡✈❡ ❡♥❣✐♥❡ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ t♦❞❛s

❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s

✷✳✷✳✶✳✸ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ❘✉♥t✐♠❡

❊ss❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❜✐❜❧✐♦t❡❝❛s ❞♦ ❈♦r❡ ❏❛✈❛✳ ➱ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❏❆❱❆✳ P♦ss✉✐ ❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❉❛❧✈✐❦✱ ♦♥❞❡ sã♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✳

❆ ▼áq✉✐♥❛ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ✉s❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐✲ t✐✈♦s ♠ó✈❡✐s✳ ❖s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ❏❛✈❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦s sã♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣✐❧❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜②t❡❝♦❞❡s ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❡✱ ❛♣ós ✐ss♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦s ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦✳

▼❡s♠♦ ❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❆♥❞r♦✐❞ s❡♥❞♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❏❛✈❛✱ ❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ s✉♣r❛❝✐t❛❞❛ ♥ã♦ é ✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❏❛✈❛✱ ♣♦✐s ♥ã♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛ ❜②t❡❝♦❞❡ ❏❱▼ ❡ s✐♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ♦t✐♠✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ♠ó✈❡❧✱ ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❊①❡❝✉t❛❜❧❡ ✭✳❞❡①✮✳ ❆ ❉❛❧✈✐❦ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡ ✭❉❱▼✮ é ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❦❡r♥❡❧ ❞♦ ▲✐♥✉① ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s s✉❜❥❛❝❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠♦ t❤r❡❛❞✐♥❣ ❡ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛✳

✷✳✷✳✶✳✹ ❆♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦

Figure

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References

  1. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴❞❡✈❡❧♦♣❡r✳❛♥❞r♦✐❞✳❝♦♠❃✳
  2. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴❥♠❡t❡r✳❛♣❛❝❤❡✳♦r❣✴❃✳
  3. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❝✐❡♥❝❡❞✐r❡❝t✳❝♦♠✴s❝✐❡♥❝❡✴❛rt✐❝❧❡✴♣✐✐✴❙✵✶✹✵✸✻✻✹✵✻✵✵✹✼✹✾❃✳
  4. ❁❤tt♣s✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❢r❡❡❜s❞✳♦r❣❃✳
  5. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❣❛rt♥❡r✳❝♦♠✴♥❡✇sr♦♦♠✴✐❞✴✷✻✼✹✷✶✺❃✳
  6. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳st❛rs❛♥❞s❡❛s✳❝♦♠✴❙❆❙✪✷✵P❤②s✐♦❧♦❣②✴❈❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r✴❈❛r❞✐♦✈❛s❝✉❧❛r✳❤t♠❃✳
  7. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❥s♦♥✳♦r❣✴❃✳
  8. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳✇❤♦✳✐♥t✴♠❡❞✐❛❝❡♥tr❡✴❢❛❝ts❤❡❡ts✴❢s✸✶✵✴❡♥✴❃✳
  9. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴s❛✉❞❡✳✐❣✳❝♦♠✳❜r✴♠✐♥❤❛s❛✉❞❡✴✷✵✶✹✲✵✻✲✷✼✴♥♦✲❜r❛s✐❧✲❤♦♠❡✲❝❛r❡✲❡✲❝♦♥❢✉♥❞✐❞♦✲❝♦♠✲s❡r✈✐❝♦✲❞❡✲❝✉✐❞❛❞♦r✲❡♥t❡♥❞❛✲❛✲❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝❛✳❤t♠❧❃✳
  10. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴❧❛♣❡s✳❞❝✳✉❢s❝❛r✳❜r✴t♦♦❧s✴st❛rt❴t♦♦❧❃✳
  11. ❁❤tt♣✿✴✴❣✐③♠♦❞♦✳✉♦❧✳❝♦♠✳❜r✴s♠❛rt♣❤♦♥❡s✲❜r❛s✐❧✲✷q✷✵✶✸✴❃✳
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