### UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE ALAGOAS

### INSTITUTO DE MATEMÁTICA

### PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM MATEMÁTICA UFBA-UFAL

### MÁRCIO SILVA SANTOS

### On the Geometry of Weighted Manifolds

### Tese de Doutorado

### MÁRCIO SILVA SANTOS

### On the Geometry of Weighted Manifolds

Tese de Doutorado apresentada ao Programa de Pós-graduação em Matemática UFBA-UFAL do Instituto de Matemática da Universi-dade Federal de Alagoas como requisito par-cial para obtenção do grau de Doutor em Matemática.

Orientador:Prof. Marcos Petrúcio de A. Cavalcante

**Catalogação na fonte **

**Universidade Federal de Alagoas **

**Biblioteca Central **

**Divisão de Tratamento Técnico **

**Bibliotecário Responsável: Valter dos Santos Andrade **

** **

S237o Santos, Márcio Silva.

On the geometry of weighted manifolds / Márcio Silva Santos. – Maceió, 2014. 65 f.

Orientador: Marcos Petrúcio de Almeida Cavalcante.

Tese (Doutorado em Matemática) – Universidade Federal de Alagoas. Instituto de Matemática. Doutorado Interinstitucional UFAL/UFBA. Programa de

Pós-graduação em Matemática. Maceió, 2014.

Bibliografia: f. 60-65.

1. Variedades ponderadas. 2. Tensor Bakry-Émery Ricci. 3. Curvatura ƒ-média.

4. Teoremas tipo Bernstein. 5. Estimativas de altura. I. Título.

## Acknowledgement

Ao meu Deus pela graça e misericórdia.

Ao meu orientador, Professor Marcos Petrúcio de A. Cavalcante, que me deu toda a ajuda necessária ao longo desta jornada. Obrigado pelo incentivo e pelas oportunidades que me proporcionou.

Aos membros da banca de defesa de tese, pelas valiosas sugestões e discussões em prol da melhoria deste trabalho.

Um agradecimento especial ao Professor Feliciano Vitório, meu orientador durante o primeiro ano do curso de doutorado. Obrigado pelo incentivo e confiança no meu trabalho.

Aos Professores Henrique de Lima (UFCG) e Jorge de Lira (UFC), pela colaboração du-rante a fase de pesquisa de tese. Agradeço por esta honra e pela oportunidade singular.

À minha esposa Thatiane, por permancer ao meu lado nos momentos mais difíceis, desde o início da minha vida acadêmica. Obrigado pelo apoio incondicional e, acima de tudo, pelo amor que dedicas a mim.

Aos meus pais, Leônidas e Elenice, que são a fonte de minha maior motivação. Obrigado por tudo o que fizeram por mim.

A todos os amigos dos departamentos de Matemática da UFC e UFCG, pela hospitalidade e pelo incentivo.

A todos os amigos da Pós-graduação em Matemática da UFBA e UFAL, pela amizade e apoio ao longo destes anos.

## Abstract

In this thesis we present contributions to the study of weighted manifolds in the intrinsic and extrinsic setting.

Firstly, we prove generalizations of Myers compactness theorem due to Ambrose and Gal-loway for the Bakry-Émery Ricci tensor. As application we obtain closure theorems for the weighted spacetime.

After that, using maximum principles for f-Laplacian, we obtain results type Bernstein and
height estimates for hypersurfaces immersed in a semi-Riemannian manifold of typeεI_{×}ρPf.

Keywords: Weighted manifolds, Bakry-Émery Ricci tensor, f-mean curvature, Bernstein type

## Resumo

Nesta tese, nós apresentamos contribuições para o estudo das variedades ponderadas no sentido intrínseco e extrínseco.

Primeiramente, nós provamos generalizações do teorema de compacidade de Myers, devido a Ambrose and Galloway, para o tensor Bakry-Émery Ricci. Como aplicação, nós obtemos teoremas do fechamento para o espaço-tempo ponderado.

Depois disso, usando pricípios do máximo para o f-Laplaciano, nós obtemos resultados
tipo Bernstein e estimativas de altura para hipersuperfícies imersas em uma variedade
semi-Riemanniana ponderada do tipoεI_{×}ρPf.

Palavras-chave: Variedades ponderadas, tensor Bakry-Émery Ricci, curvatura f-média,

## Contents

1 Preliminaries 11

1.1 Curvature and Maximum principle 11

1.2 Weighted mean curvature 13

1.3 Hypersurfaces in weighted semi-Riemannian manifolds 14

2 Compactness of weighted manifolds 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Weighted Ambrose’s Theorem 16

2.3 Weighted Galloway’s Theorems 18

2.4 Weighted Riemannian Yun-Sprouse’s Theorem 21

2.5 Weighted Lorentzian Yun-Sprouse’s Theorem 23

2.6 Closure Theorem via Galloway’s Theorem 25

2.7 Closure Theorem via Ambrose’s Theorem 30

3 Bernstein type properties of complete hypersurfaces in weighted semi-Riemannian

manifolds 32

3.1 Introduction 32

3.2 Uniqueness results in weighted warped products 32

3.3 Rigidity results in weighted product spaces 37

3.4 Uniqueness results in weighted GRW spacetimes 45

3.5 Weighted static GRW spacetimes 48

4 Height Estimate for weighted semi-Riemannian manifolds 55

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 The Riemannian setting 55

## Introduction

Many problems lead us to consider Riemannian manifolds endowed with a measure that has a smooth positive density with respect to the Riemannian one. As consequence, the interest in the study of the weighted manifolds have been growing up.

In this thesis, we obtain intrinsic and extrinsic results for weighted manifolds, most of them generalizing well known results in the standard Riemannian and Lorentzian cases. Our results are part of the papers [22], [66], [23], [24] and [25].

In the first chapter, we fix some notations, give some basic definitions, and state results that we will use in the other chapters.

In Chapter 2, based in the papers [22], in collaboration with M. Cavalcante and J. Oliveira, and [66], we prove six generalizations of Myers compactness theorem under different condi-tions on its generalized Ricci curvature tensor. As applicacondi-tions of the our weighted compact-ness theorems, we present new closures theorems, that is, theorems which has as conclusion the finiteness of the spatial part of a spacetime manifold.

In Chapter 3, based in the papers [24] and [25], in collaboration with M. Cavalcante and H.
de Lima, our aim is to investigate Bernstein properties of hypersurfaces immersed in a weighted
semi-Riemannian manifold of the typeεI_{×}ρ P, where ε =±1. In this context, an important
point is to explore the Bakry-Émery-Ricci tensor of such a hypersurface in order to ensure the
existence of Omori-Yau type sequences. The existence of these sequences will constitute an
important tool in the study of the uniqueness of the hypersurfaces.

In Chapter 4, based in the paper [23], in collaboration with M. Cavalcante and H. de Lima, we prove height estimates concerning compact hypersurfaces with nonzero constant weighted mean curvature and whose boundary is contained into a slice of weighted product spaces of nonnegative Bakry-Émery Ricci curvature (cf. Theorems 4.2.1 and 4.3.1). As applications of our estimates, we obtain nonexistence results related to complete noncompact hypersurfaces properly immersed in these weighted product spaces (cf. Theorems 4.2.2 and 4.3.2).

### C

HAPTER### 1

## Preliminaries

Here we establish the notations, some basic definitions and results, concerning weighted man-ifolds, that will be used along this thesis.

### 1.1

### Curvature and Maximum principle

Given a completen-dimensional Riemannian manifold(Mn,g)and a smooth function f:Mn_{→}

R, theweighted manifold Mn_{f} associated toMnand f is the triple_{(}Mn_{,}g_{,}dµ _{=}e−fdM_{)}, where

dM denotes the standard volume element of Mn. Appearing naturally in the study of self-shrinkers, Ricci solitons, harmonic heat flows and many others, weighted manifolds are proved to be important nontrivial generalizations of Riemannian manifolds and, nowadays, there are several geometric investigations concerning them. For a brief overview of results in this scope, we refer the article [70] of Wey and Willie. We point out that a theory of Ricci curvature for weighted manifolds goes back to Lichnerowicz [48, 49] and it was later developed by Bakry and Émery in the work [11].

In this thesis we use three notions of Ricci curvature for weighted manifolds. Firstly, given a constantk>0, thek-Bakry-Émery-Riccitensor is given by

Rick_{f} =Ric+Hessf−1

kd f⊗d f, where Ric stands for the usual Ricci tensor of(M,g)(see [11]).

The second one is the∞-Bakry-Émery-Riccitensor or just Bakry-Émery-Ricci tensor. It is given by

Ricf :=Ric∞f =Ric+Hessf.

We also consider a more general notion to the Ricci curvature as follows. Given a smooth
vector fieldV onMletV∗_{be its metric-dual vector field and let denote by}L_{V}gthe Lie
deriva-tive. Given a constant k>0, themodified Ricci tensor with respect toV and k (see [50]) is
defined as

Rick_{V} =Ric+L_{V}g_{−}1

kV∗⊗V∗.
Of course, in the above notations, Ric4_{f}k=Rick∇f

2 .

In order to exemplify these notions of Ricci curvature we recall that aRicci solitonis just a

1.1 CURVATURE AND MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE 12

weighted manifold satisfying the equation bellow

Ricf =λg,

whereλ _{∈}R_{.}Moreover, a Ricci soliton is calledshrinking, steady,orexpanding when_{λ} _{>}0,

λ =0 or λ <0, respectively. Ricci solitons are a generalization of Einstein manifolds and
its importance is due to Perelman’s solution of Poincaré conjecture. They correspond to
self-similar solutions to Hamilton’s Ricci flow and often arise as limits of dilations of singularities
developed along the Ricci flow. Moreover one defines a metricquasi-Einsteinjust by replacing
the Bakry-Émery Ricci tensor by Rick_{f},see [60] and [56]. In the next chapter we deal with a

bigger class of manifolds, because we use inequalities instead equalities.
Now, we define the f -divergenceof a vector fieldX _{∈}X_{(}Mn_{)}as

divf(X) =efdiv(e−fX),

where div is the usual divergence onM.From this, the drift Laplacian it is defined by

∆_{f}u=divf(∇u) =∆u− h∇u,∇fi,

whereuis a smooth function onM. We will also refer such operator as the f -LaplacianofM. From the above definitions we have a Bochner type formula for weighted manifolds. Namely:

1

2∆f|∇u|

2_{=}

|Hessu|2+_{h}∇u,∇(∆_{f}u)_{i}+Ricf(∇u,∇u), (1.1)
whereuis a smooth function onM.See [70] for more details.

An important tool along this work is the Omori-Yau maximum principle for the f-Laplacian. According to [61], we have the following definition

Definition 1.1.1. Let Mf be a weighted manifold. We say that the full Omori-Yau maximum
principle for ∆_{f} holds if for any C2 function u:M_{−→}R satisfying sup_{M}u_{=}u∗_{<}∞ there

exists a sequence_{{}xn} ⊂ M along which

(i)lim

n u(xn) =sup_{M} u, (ii)limn |∇u(xn)|=0 and (iii)lim sup_{n} ∆fu(xn)≤0.

If the condition(ii)don’t hold, then we say just that the weak Omori-Yau maximum principle
for∆_{f} holds onM.

1.2 WEIGHTED MEAN CURVATURE 13

|∇f_{|}is bounded and Ric is bounded from below, then the full Omori-Yau maximum principle
for∆_{f} holds onM.

On the other hand, using volume growth conditions and stochastic process on a weighted manifold, Rimoldi [61], showed that the validity of the weak Omory-Yau maximum principle is guaranteed by a lower bound on the Bakry-Émery Ricci tensor. Namely:

Theorem 1.1.1. LetMf be a weighted manifold. IfRicf ≥λ for someλ ∈R, then the weak

Omori-Yau maximum principle holds onM.

### 1.2

### Weighted mean curvature

Here, we define a notion of mean curvature in the weighted context. Indeed, let Σn be a

hy-persurface immersed in a weighted Riemannian manifoldMn+1

f and denote by∇the gradient
with respect to the metric ofMn+1_{. According to Gromov [41], the}_{weighted mean curvature,}

or simply f -mean curvature,Hf ofΣnis given by

nHf =nH+hN,∇fi, (1.2)

where H denotes the standard mean curvature of Σn with respect to its orientation N.In this

context, it is natural to consider the first variation for theweighted volume

volf(Ω) =

Z

Ωe

−f_{d}_{Ω}_{,}

whereΩis a bounded domain inΣ.According to Bayle [12] the first variation formula is given by

d dt

_{t}_{=}_{0}volf(Ωt) =

Z

ΩHfhN,Vie

−f_{d}_{Ω}_{,}

whereV is the variational vector field.

In the Euclidean space Rn+1, taking f _{=} |x|2

2 , the hypersurfaces with f-mean curvature

Hf =0 are the well knownself-shrinkers, that is, a hypersurface immersed inRn+1satisfying

H=_{h}x,N_{i},

1.3 HYPERSURFACES IN WEIGHTED SEMI-RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS 14

### 1.3

### Hypersurfaces in weighted semi-Riemannian manifolds

In what follows, let us consider an(n+1)-dimensional product space ¯Mn+1_{of the form}_{I}_{×}_{P}n_{,}
whereI_{⊂}Ris an open interval,Pn is ann-dimensional connected Riemannian manifold and

¯

Mn+1_{is endowed with the standard product metric}

h,_{i}=επ_{I}∗(dt2) +πP∗(h,iP),

whereε =_{±}1, πI and πP denote the canonical projections from I×Pn onto each factor, and
h,_{i}P is the Riemannian metric on Pn. For simplicity, we will just write ¯Mn+1=εI×Pn and
h,_{i}=εdt2+_{h},_{i}P. In this setting, for a fixed t0∈I, we say thatPnt0 ={t0} ×P

n _{is a}_{slice} _{of}
¯

Mn+1_{.}

In Chapter 3 and 4, we will consider a connected hypersurface Σn immersed into ¯Mn+1_{.}

In the case where ¯Mn+1 _{is Lorentzian (that is, when} _{ε} _{=}_{−}_{1) we will assume that} _{Σ}n _{is a}
spacelike hypersurface, that is, the metric induced onΣn via the immersion is a Riemannian
metric. Since∂_{t}is a globally defined timelike vector field on_{−}I_{×}Pn, it follows that there exists

an unique unitary timelike normal fieldN globally defined onΣn and, therefore, the function
angleΘ=_{h}N,∂tisatisfies|Θ| ≥1.On the other hand, when ¯Mn+1is Riemannian (that is, when
ε=1),Σnis assumed to be atwo-sided hypersurfacein ¯Mn+1_{. This condition means that there}

is a globally defined unit normal vector fieldN.

Denoting by ∇, ∇ and∇e the gradients with respect to the metrics ofεI_{×}ρ Pn, Σn andP,
respectively, a simple computation shows that the gradient ofπ_{I} on ¯Mn+1_{is given by}

∇πI =εh∇πI,∂ti∂t=ε∂t. (1.3) So, from (1.3) we conclude that the gradient of the (vertical) height functionh= (πI)|Σ ofΣn

is given by

∇h= (∇πI)⊤ =ε∂t⊤=ε∂t−ΘN, (1.4)
where( )⊤ denotes the tangential component of a vector field inX_{(}M¯n+1_{)}alongΣn. Thus, we
get the following relation

|∇h_{|}2=ε(1_{−}Θ2). (1.5)
In this setting, theweighted mean curvature Hf ofΣnis given by

### C

HAPTER### 2

## Compactness of weighted manifolds

The results in this chapter are part of the works [22] and [66].

### 2.1

### Introduction

The Myers Theorem has been generalized and its deepness is shown in its many applications. In the following we recall some important generalizations. In the first one, due to Ambrose [8], the condition on the lower bound for the Ricci tensor is replaced by a condition on its integral along geodesics. Namely:

Theorem A(Ambrose). Suppose there exists a point p in a complete Riemannian manifold M

for which every geodesicγ(t)emanating from p satisfies

Z ∞

0 Ric(γ

′_{(}_{s}_{)}_{,}_{γ}′_{(}_{s}_{))}_{ds}_{=}_{∞}_{.}

Then M is compact.

The second important generalization we want to mention here is due to Galloway [38] where a perturbed version of Myers theorem were considered.

Theorem B(Galloway). Let Mnbe a complete Riemannian manifold, andγ a geodesic joining two points of M. Assume that

Ric(γ′(s),γ′(s))_{≥}a+dφ

dt

holds alongγ, where a is a positive constant andφ is any smooth function satisfying_{|}φ_{| ≤}c.
Then M is compact and its diameter is bounded from above by

diam(M)_{≤}π

a c+

q

c2_{+}_{a}_{(}_{n}_{−}_{1}_{)}_{.}

Finally, we recall an interesting result due to C. Sprouse (see [68]). Namely:

Theorem C (Sprouse). Let(M,g)be a complete Riemannian manifold of dimension n
satis-fyingRic(v,v)_{≥ −}a(n_{−}1)for all unit vectors v and some a>0.Then for any R,δ >0there

2.2 WEIGHTED AMBROSE’S THEOREM 16

existsε=ε(n,a,R,δ)such that if

sup x

1 Vol(B(x,R))

Z

B(x,R)max{(n−1)−Ric−(x),0}dvol<

ε(n,k,R,δ),

then M is compact withdiam(M)_{≤}π+δ.

These theorems above have applications in Relativity Cosmology (see [38], [37] and [73]) and in the theory of Ricci Solitons (see [35] and [58]).

In this chapter we generalize TheoremsA, BandCto the context of weighted manifolds,

actually, we generalize an improved versions of Theorem C due to Yun (see [73]) for complete Riemannian manifolds and for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. Our results have applications for closure theorems of spatial hypersurfaces in mathematical relativity.

### 2.2

### Weighted Ambrose’s Theorem

We denote bymf the weighted Laplacian of the distance function from a fixed point p∈M. From the Bochner equality (1.1) it is easy to see thatmf satisfies the following Riccati inequal-ity (see Appendix A of [70]):

Rick_{f}(∂r,∂r)_{≤ −}m′_{f}_{−} 1

k+n_{−}1m2f, (2.1)
wherek_{∈}(0,∞)andm′

f stands for the derivative ofmf with respect tor. Now we are in position to state and prove our first result.

Theorem 2.2.1(Theorem 2.1 [22]). LetMf be a complete weighted manifold. Suppose there

exists a point p_{∈}Mf such that every geodesicγ(t)emanating from psatisfies

Z ∞

0 Ric

k

f(γ′(s),γ′(s))ds=∞,

wherek_{∈}(0,∞).ThenMis compact.

Proof. Suppose by contradiction that M is not compact and let us assume that γ(t) is a unit speed ray issuing from p. Then, the functionmf(t)is smooth for allt>0 alongγ(t).

Integrating the inequality (2.1) we obtain

Z t

1 Ric

k

f(γ′(s),γ′(s))ds≤

Z t

1(−m

′

f(s)−
1
k+n_{−}1m

2

2.2 WEIGHTED AMBROSE’S THEOREM 17

So we conclude that

lim

t→∞(−mf(t)−

1
k+n_{−}1

Z t

1 m 2

f(s)ds) =∞. (2.2) In particular,

lim

t→∞−mf(t) =∞.

In the following we show that there exists a finite numberT >0 such that lim

t→T−−mf(t) =∞

which contradicts the smoothness ofmf(t).

From (2.2), givenc>k+n_{−}1 there existst1>1 such that

−mf(t)−_{k} 1

+n_{−}1

Z t

1 m 2

f(s)ds≥ _{k}_{+}_{n}c

−1 >1, (2.3)

for allt _{≥}t1, wheren=dim(M).

Let denote byα = (k+n_{−}1)and let us consider_{{}tℓ}the sequence defined inductively by

tℓ+1=tℓ+α

_{α}

c

ℓ−1

, forℓ_{≥}1.

Notice that_{{}tℓ}is an increasing sequence converging toT =t1+α_{(}_{c}_{/}c_{α}/α_{)}_{−}_{1}.

Given ℓ_{∈}Nwe claim that_{−}m_{f}_{(}t_{)}_{≥} c

α

ℓ

for allt _{≥}tℓ. In fact, from inequality (2.3) we

have that it is true forℓ=1. Now, assume that claim holds for allt _{≥}tℓand fixt≥tℓ+1. Then

using inequality (2.3) again:

−mf(t) ≥ _{k} c

+n_{−}1+
1
k+n_{−}1

Z tℓ

1 m 2

f(s)ds+
1
k+n_{−}1

Z tℓ+1

tℓ

m2_{f}(s)ds

≥ _{k} 1

+n_{−}1

Z tℓ+1

tℓ

m2_{f}(s)ds

≥ _{(}_{k}_{+}_{n}1
−1)

c2ℓ

(k+n_{−}1)2ℓ

αℓ cℓ−1 =

_{c}

α

ℓ+1 .

In particular, lim

t→T−−mf(t) =∞which is the desired contraction.

Using the same techniques we are able to prove Ambrose’s theorem for the∞-Bakry-Émery

2.3 WEIGHTED GALLOWAY’S THEOREMS 18

Theorem 2.2.2(Theorem 2.2 [22]). LetM_{f} be a complete weighted manifold, where d f_{dt} _{≤}0
alongγ.Suppose there exists a point p_{∈}Mf such that every geodesicγ(t)emanating from p

satisfies _{Z}

∞

0 Ricf(γ

′_{(}_{s}_{)}_{,}_{γ}′_{(}_{s}_{))}_{ds}_{=}_{∞}_{.}

ThenMis compact.

Applying this theorem to the universal cover of M we obtain the finiteness of the funda-mental group.

Corollary 2.2.1. Let (M,g) be a Riemannian manifold in the conditions of either Theorem 2.2.1 or Theorem 2.2.2. Then the first fundamental group ofMis finite.

### 2.3

### Weighted Galloway’s Theorems

Our first result in this section is Galloway’s Theorem for the modified Ricci tensor.

Theorem 2.3.1(Theorem 3.1 [22]). LetMnbe a complete Riemannian manifold and letV be
a smooth vector field on M. Suppose that for every pair of points inMn _{and any normalized}

minimizing geodesicγ joining these points the modified Ricci tensor satisfies

Rick_{V}(γ′,γ′)_{≥}(n_{−}1)c+dφ

dt , (2.4)

where k and c are positive constants and φ is a smooth function such that _{|}φ_{| ≤}b for some
b_{≥}0. SoMis compact and

diam(M)_{≤}_{p} π
(n_{−}1)c

"

b

p

(n_{−}1)c+

s

b2

(n_{−}1)c+n−1+4k

#

.

Proof. Let p,q be distinct points in M and let γ be a normalized geodesic that minimizes distance between p andq. Assume that the length of γ is ℓ. Consider a parallel orthonormal

frame_{{}E1=γ′,E2, ....,En}alongγ.Leth∈C∞([0,l])such thath(0) =h(ℓ) =0 and setVi(t) =
h(t)Ei(t)alongγ.Firstly, the index formula implies

I(Vi,Vi) =

Z ℓ

0 ((h

′_{)}2_{−}_{h}2_{R}_{(}_{γ}′_{,}_{E}

2.3 WEIGHTED GALLOWAY’S THEOREMS 19

So

S:=

n

### ∑

i=2I(Vi,Vi) =

Z ℓ

0

(n_{−}1)(h′)2_{−}h2Ric(γ′,γ′) dt. (2.5)

From the condition (2.4) we have

S_{≤}Z ℓ

0(n−1)

(h′)2_{−}h2cdt+

Z ℓ

0 h 2

−dφ_{dt} +2d

dt

γ′,V_{−}1

k

γ′,V2

dt.

On the other hand, integrating by parts we obtain

2Z ℓ

0 h 2d

dt

γ′,Vdt _{≤}Z ℓ

0 4k(h

′_{)}2_{+}1

kh

2_{γ}′_{,}_{V}2_{dt}_{.}

So,

S_{≤}(n_{−}1+4k)

Z ℓ

0 (h

′_{)}2_{dt}

−(n_{−}1)c

Z ℓ
0 h
2_{dt}
−
Z ℓ
0 h
2dφ

dt dt. (2.6)
Now we chooseh(t) =sin π_{ℓ}t.

Then from (2.6), we have

S_{≤}π2

2ℓ(n−1+4k)−(n−1)c ℓ

2−

Z ℓ

0 h 2dφ

dt dt. Integrating by parts once more we get

Z ℓ

0 h 2dφ

dt dt =− π

ℓ

Z ℓ

0 φsin

_{2πt}

ℓ

dt_{≥ −}bπ.

Thus we have

S_{≤} 1
2ℓ

−(n_{−}1)cℓ2+2bπℓ+π2(n_{−}1+4k) .

Finally, becauseγ is minimizing we haveS_{≥}0 and therefore

ℓ_{≤}p π

(n_{−}1)c

"

b

p

(n_{−}1)c+

s

b2

(n_{−}1)c+n−1+4k

#

.

It finishes the proof.

Following some ideas of [51] we also obtain an extension of Galloway’s Theorem for weighted manifolds using the∞-Bakry-Émery-Ricci tensor.

2.3 WEIGHTED GALLOWAY’S THEOREMS 20

for every pair of points in Mf and normalized minimizing geodesicγ joining these points we

have

Ricf(γ′,γ′)≥(n−1)c+dφ

dt , (2.7)

whereφ is a smooth function satisfying_{|}φ_{| ≤}b.Then M is compact and

diam(M)_{≤} π

c(n_{−}1)

b+

q

b2_{+}_{c}_{(}_{n}_{−}_{1}_{)}_{λ}_{,} _{(2.8)}

whereλ =2√2a+ (n_{−}1).

Proof. From (2.7) and (2.5) we have

S_{≤}Z ℓ

0 (n−1)

(h′_{)}2

−h2c dt+

Z ℓ

0 h
2_{Hess}

f(γ′,γ′)dt−

Z ℓ

0 h 2dφ

dt dt. (2.9) We note that

h2Hessf(γ′,γ′) = h2_{dt}d ∇f,γ′dt

= d

dt(h

2_{∇}_{f}_{,}_{γ}′_{)}_{−}_{2hh}′_{∇}_{f}_{,}_{γ}′

= d

dt(h

2_{∇}_{f}_{,}_{γ}′_{)}_{−}_{2}

_{d}

dt(f hh′)−f d dt(hh′)

.

Integrating the last identity above we have

Z ℓ

0 h
2_{Hess}

f(γ′,γ′)dt=2

Z ℓ

0 f

d

dt(hh′)dt, sinceh(0) =h(ℓ) =0.

Thus

Z ℓ

0 h
2_{Hess}

f(γ′,γ′)dt ≤2a√ℓ

Z ℓ

0

_{d}

dt(hh′)

2

dt

!1 2

.

Choosingh(t) =sin(π_{ℓ}t)we have

Z ℓ

0 h
2_{Hess}

f(γ′,γ′)dt ≤ a √

2π2

ℓ . (2.10)

2.4 WEIGHTED RIEMANNIAN YUN-SPROUSE’S THEOREM 21

Z ℓ

0 (n−1)(h

′2_{−}_{ch}2_{)}_{dt}_{= (}_{n}

−1)

_{π}2

2ℓ −

cℓ

2

. (2.11)

Therefore, from (2.9), (2.10) and (2.11) we have

S_{≤ −} 1
2ℓ

h

−2aπ2√2+c(n_{−}1)ℓ2_{−}π2(n_{−}1)i+πb (2.12)
SinceS_{≥}0 we get

ℓ_{≤} π

c(n_{−}1)

b+

q

b2_{+}_{c}_{(}_{n}_{−}_{1}_{)}_{λ}

,

whereλ =2√2a+ (n_{−}1)and soMis compact and satisfies (2.8).

### 2.4

### Weighted Riemannian Yun-Sprouse’s Theorem

In this section, following the ideas of [73], we provide a weighted version of Theorem Cas

follows.

Theorem 2.4.1 (Theorem 1.1 [66]). Let Mn_{f} be a weighted complete Riemannian manifold.
Then for anyδ >0,anda>0,there exists anε=ε(n,a,δ)satisfying the following:

If there is a point psuch that along each geodesicγ emanating from p,theRick_{f} curvature

satisfies _{Z}

∞

0 max

n

(n_{−}1)a_{−}Rick_{f}(γ′,γ′),0odt <ε(n,a,δ) (2.13)

thenM is compact withdiam(M)_{≤} q_{(n}π

−1)a n+k−1

+δ.

Proof. For any small positiveε <a2to be determined later, consider the following sets

E1=

n

t_{∈}[0,∞); Rick_{f}(γ′(t),γ′(t))_{≥}(n_{−}1)(a_{−}√ε)o

and

E2=

n

t_{∈}[0,∞); Rick_{f}(γ′(t),γ′(t))<(n_{−}1)(a_{−}√ε)o.

From the inequality (2.1) we have onE1

m′

f

n+k−1

(_{n}_{+}m_{k}f_{−}_{1})2+(n−1)(a−

√

ε)

n+k−1

≤ −1. (2.14)

2.4 WEIGHTED RIEMANNIAN YUN-SPROUSE’S THEOREM 22

m′

f

n+k−1

(_{n}_{+}m_{k}f_{−}_{1})2+(n−1)(a−

√

ε)

n+k−1

≤ a−

√

ε_{−}Rick_{f}(γ′,γ′)/(n_{−}1)

a_{−}√ε . (2.15)

Now, using the assumption (2.13) on the Bakry-Émery Ricci tensor we get

ε >

Z ∞

0 max

n

(n_{−}1)a_{−}Rick_{f}(γ′(t),γ′(t)),0o
>

Z

E2

n

(n_{−}1)a_{−}Rick_{f}(γ′(t),γ′(t))odt

>

Z

E2

(n_{−}1)a_{−}(n_{−}1)(a_{−}√ε) dt

= µ(E2)(n−1)√ε.

That is,

µ(E2)<

√ ε

n_{−}1, (2.16)

whereµ is the Lebesgue measure onR_{.}

Using inequalities (2.14)_{−}(2.16) we obtain

Z r

0

m′

f

n+k−1

(_{n}_{+}m_{k}f_{−}_{1})2+(n−_{n}1_{+})(_{k}a_{−}−_{1}√ε)dt ≤

Z

[0,r]∩E1

m′

f

n+k−1

(_{n}_{+}m_{k}f_{−}_{1})2+(n−_{n}1_{+})(_{k}a_{−}−_{1}√ε)dt

+

Z

[0,r]∩E2

m′

f

n+k−1

(_{n}_{+}m_{k}f_{−}_{1})2+(n−_{n}1_{+})(_{k}a_{−}−_{1}√ε)dt

≤ −µ_{{}[0,r]_{∩}E1}+ ε

(n_{−}1)(a_{−}√ε)

≤ −r+µ_{{}[0,r]_{∩}E2}+ ε

(n_{−}1)(a_{−}√ε)

≤ −r+

√
ε
n_{−}1+

ε

(n_{−}1)(a_{−}√ε).

Define τ(ε) = _{n}√_{−}ε_{1}+_{(}_{n} ε

−1)(a−√ε). The integral of the left hand side can be computed

ex-plicitly and therefore we get

arctan

_{m}

f(r)

(n+k_{−}1)a(ε)

≤a(ε)(_{−}r+τ(ε)) +π

2.5 WEIGHTED LORENTZIAN YUN-SPROUSE’S THEOREM 23

wherea(ε) =

q

(n−1)(a−√ε)

n+k−1 .

So

mf(r)≤ −(n+k−1)a(ε)cot(a(ε)(−r+τ(ε))),
for anyrsuch thatτ(ε)<r< _{a}_{(}π_{ε}_{)}+τ(ε).

In particular, mf(γ(r)) goes to −∞ as r →(_{a}_{(}π_{ε}_{)}+τ(ε))+. It implies that γ can not be
minimal beyond π

a(ε) +τ(ε). Otherwise mf would be a smooth function at r=

π

a(ε)+τ(ε).

Takingεexplicitly so that π

a(ε)+τ(ε) =q(nπ_{−}1)a
n+k−1

+δ and using the completeness ofMwe have the desired result.

### 2.5

### Weighted Lorentzian Yun-Sprouse’s Theorem

Now let us discuss the Lorentzian version of Theorem 2.4.1. LetMbe a time-oriented Lorentzian
manifold. Given p_{∈}Mwe set

J+_{(}_{p}_{) =}

{q_{∈}M: there exist a future pointing causal curve from ptoq_{}},

called the causal future of p. The causal past J−_{(}_{p}_{)} _{is defined similarly. We say that} _{M} _{is}

globally hyperbolicif the set J(p,q):=J+_{(}_{p}_{)}_{∩}_{J}−_{(}_{q}_{)} _{is compact for all} _{p}_{and}_{q} _{joined by a}

causal curve (see [13]). Mathematically, global hyperbolicity often plays a role analogous to geodesic completeness in Riemannian geometry.

Letγ:[a,b]_{−→}Mbe a future-directed timelike unit-speed geodesic. Given{E1,E2, . . . ,En}
an orthonormal frame field alongγ,and for each i_{∈ {}1, . . . ,n_{}}we let Ji be the unique Jacobi
field alongcsuch thatJi(a) =0 andJi′(0) =Ei. Denote byAthe matrixA= [J1J2. . .Jn], where
each column is just the vector forJiin the basis defined by{Ei}.In this situation, we have that
A(t)is invertible if and only ifγ(t)is not conjugate toγ(a).

Now we defineBf =A′A−1−_{n}_{−}1_{1}(f◦γ)′EwhereverAis invertible, whereE(t)is the
iden-tity map on(γ′(t))⊥.The f-expansion functionis a smooth function defined byθf =trBf (see
[21, Definition 2.6]) Note that, if_{|}θf| →∞ast→t0, wheret0∈[a,b], thenγ(t0)is conjugate

toγ(a).

2.5 WEIGHTED LORENTZIAN YUN-SPROUSE’S THEOREM 24

Lemma 2.5.1. Under the above notations,

θ′_{f} _{≤ −}Rick_{f}(γ′,γ′)_{−} θ

2

f

k+n_{−}1. (2.17)

The inequality (2.17) is called(k,f)-Raychaudhuri inequality. This inequality is a general-ization of the well known Raychaudhuri inequality (see for instance [36]).

The distance between two timelike related points is the supremum of lengths of causal curves joining the points. It follows that the distance between any two timelike related points in a globally hyperbolic spacetime is the length of such a maximal timelike geodesic. Thetimelike diameter, diam(M), of a Lorentzian manifold is defined to be the supremum of distancesd(p,q)

between points ofM.

Theorem 2.5.1 (Theorem [66]). LetMn_{f} be a weighted globally hyperbolic spacetime. Then
for anyδ >0,a>0,there exists anε=ε(n,a,δ)satisfying the following:

If there is a point psuch that along each future directed timelike geodesicγemanating from
p,withl(γ) =sup_{{}t_{≥}0,d(p,γ(t)) =t_{}}theRick_{f} curvature satisfies

Z l(γ)

0 max

n

(n_{−}1)a_{−}Rick_{f}(γ′,γ′),0odt <ε(n,a,δ),

then the timelike diameter satisfiesdiam(M)_{≤}q_{(n}π

−1)a n+k−1

+δ.

Proof. Letε(n,a,δ)be the explicit constant in the previous theorem. Assume by contradiction

that there are two points p and q with d(p,q)> q_{(n}π

−1)a n+k−1

+δ. On the other hand, since M

is globally hyperbolic, there exists a maximal timelike geodesic γ joining p and q such that

ℓ(γ) =d(p,q).Following the steps of the proof of Theorem 2.4.1 using the(k,f)-Raychaudhuri inequality (2.17) we get

lim t→t+

0

θ_{f}(t) =_{−}∞,

wheret0= _{a}_{(}π_{ε}_{)}+τ(ε). So, we conclude thatγ cannot be maximal beyond q_{(n}π_{−}_{1}_{)a}
n+k−1

+δ which is a contradiction.

2.6 CLOSURE THEOREM VIA GALLOWAY’S THEOREM 25

Corollary 2.5.1. Let Mn_{f} be a weighted globally hyperbolic spacetime. Let a be a positive
constant and assume thatRick

f(v,v)≥(n−1)a,for all unit timelike vector fieldv∈T M.Then,

the timelike diameter satisfiesdiam(M)_{≤} q π

(n−1)a n+k−1

.

### 2.6

### Closure Theorem via Galloway’s Theorem

Let ¯Mn+1_{be an}_{(}_{n}_{+}_{1}_{)}_{-dimensional}_{spacetime manifold, that is, a smooth manifold endowed}

with a pseudo-Riemannian metric ds2 of signature one. Assume that ¯Mn+1 _{is complete and}

time orientable.

An interesting problem in mathematical relativity is to determine whether space-like slices of spacetime manifolds are compact. In this section we present some theorems in this direction, although our results are purely geometric. For the sake of simplicity we will omit the dimension super index and we always use abarfor geometric objects related to ¯M.

Let us denote by ua unit time-like vector field on ¯M. Let us assume thatuisirrotational,

that is the bracket of two vectors orthogonal to u is still orthogonal to u. In this case, from

Frobenius theorem, at any point of ¯M there exists a complete connectedn-dimensional hyper-surfaceMorthogonal tou. Physically, we may interpret the manifoldMas the spatial universe

at some moment in time. Moreover, in each point ofMn_{there exist a local coordinate }
neighbor-hoodUnand a local coordinatet with values in the interval(_{−}ε,ε)such thatW = (_{−}ε,ε)_{×}U
is an open neighborhood of a point inMandUt={t} ×U is orthogonal tou.

InW, the spacetime metric is given by

ds2=_{−}ϕ2dt2+

n

### ∑

α,β=1gαβ(x,t)dxαdxβ,

wherexα _{are local coordinates introduced in}_{U}n_{and}_{u}_{=} 1

ϕ∂t∂ .

Let ¯X be a vector field tangent to ¯M.X¯ is calledinvariant under the flowif

[X¯,u] =∇_{u}X¯_{−}∇_{X}¯u=0.

Denote ¯XT by the projection of the vector field ¯X onM.So,

¯

XT =X+_{h}X¯,u_{i}u.

2.6 CLOSURE THEOREM VIA GALLOWAY’S THEOREM 26

vector fields given respectively by

v(X) =∇_{u}XT and a(X) =∇_{u}∇_{u}XT.

The shape operator of M as a hypersurface of ¯M is defined byb(X) =_{−}∇_{X}u. Let denote

byB the second fundamental form of band by H its mean curvature function. We point out
thatH=_{−}divu, that is, the averagedHubble expansion parameterat points ofMin relativistic

cosmology (see [62] §3.3.1 or [36], page 161.).

The following lemma is an application of Gauss equation for space-like submanifolds.

Lemma 2.6.1. Letγ(s)be a geodesic in a weighted manifoldMf with unit tangentX.Then Ricf(X,X) = Ricf(X,X)− ha(X),Xi+hv(X),XiHf+hv(X),Xi2+h∇uu,Xi2

+ d

dshX,∇uui+ n

### ∑

j=2hv(X),eji2+

_{1}
ϕ
∂ ϕ
∂s
2
,

where_{{}e1=X,e2, . . . ,en}is an orthonormal basis ofTpM andHf =H+hu,∇fidenotes the
f-mean curvature ofMf.

Proof. Let _{{}e¯1(t) =X¯(t),e¯2(t), . . . ,en¯ (t)} be a set invariant under the flow generated by u,

whereα =1, . . . ,n.Since[eα¯ ,u] =0 we get that

∇_{e}T

αu=∇ue

T

α− h∇uu,eTαiu. Therefore, a straightforward calculation shows that

hv(eα),eα_{i}=_{−}B(eα,eα) and Be(X,eα) =_{h}v(X),eα_{i}2.

From the above identities and the Gauss equation we get

Ric(X,X) =

n

### ∑

j=2n

K(X,ej)−B(X,X)B(ej,ej)+Be(X,ej)

o

=

n

### ∑

j=2K(X,ej)−B(X,X)(H−B(X,X))+ n

### ∑

j=2e

B(X,ej)

= Ric(X,X)_{−}K(X,u)_{−}B(X,X)(H_{−}B(X,X))+

n

### ∑

j=2e

B(X,ej)

= Ric(X,X)_{−}K(X,u)+_{h}v(X),X_{i}H+_{h}v(X),X_{i}2+

n

### ∑

j=2h2.6 CLOSURE THEOREM VIA GALLOWAY’S THEOREM 27

On the other hand, note that

K(X,u) = _{−h}R(XT,u)u,XT_{i}

= _{h}∇u∇_{X}Tu,Xi − h∇_{X}T∇uu,XTi+h∇_{[}_{X}T
,u]u,X

T i

= _{h}a(X),X_{i − h}∇_{u}u,X_{i}2_{−} d

dshX,∇uui −

_{1}

ϕ ∂ ϕ

∂s

2 .

Note that we may write

∇f =∇f+D∇f,uEu,

and, therefore, we have

Hessf(X,X) =Hessf(X,X)−u(f)hv(X),Xi.

Thus, using the above equations we obtain the desired result.

Now inspired by the ideas of Galloway [38] we can find a diameter estimateM,under some restrictions.

Theorem 2.6.1(Theorem 4.5 [22]). LetM¯n_{f}+1be a weighted space time with_{|}f_{| ≤}a,wherea

is a positive constant. Letu be an irrotational unit time-like vector field onM¯n_{f}+1 and let Mn
be a complete spatial hypersurface orthogonal tou. Suppose that the following conditions hold
onMn.

(i) At each point p_{∈}Mn, the flow generated byuis expanding in all directions, i.e,

hv(X),X_{i ≥}0,

whereX is a vector field tangent toM.

(ii) At each point p_{∈}Mn, the rate of expansion is decreasing in all directions, i.e,

ha(X),X_{i ≤}0,
whereX is a vector field tangent toM.

(iii) Ricf ofM¯n+1satisfies

2.6 CLOSURE THEOREM VIA GALLOWAY’S THEOREM 28

whereζ _{∈}TpM,_{|}ζ_{|}=1,_{h}ζ,u_{i}=0andH =_{−}div u.

(iv) The flow lines are of bounded geodesic curvature onMn, i.e,

sup_{|}∇_{u}u_{|}=µ <∞.

(v) OnMn_{, we have that}

D

∇f,uE=u(f)_{≥}0.
ThenMn_{is compact and}

diam(Mn)_{≤} π

c

µ+

q

µ2+cλ

, (2.18)

whereλ =2(√2a+1).

Proof. Let us assume that _{{}X =e1,e2. . . ,en}is an orthonormal basis of M.Consider the

no-tationvα =_{h}v(eα),eα_{i}. From item(i), vα _{≥}0. Note thatH =∑n_{i}_{=}_{1}vi.Then by Schwartz

in-equality

−(_{h}v(X),X_{i}2+_{h}v(X),X_{i}H) _{≤} 1

2

_{∑}

n
i=1

vi

!2

− n

### ∑

i=1v2_{i}

≤ n_{2n}−1
n

### ∑

i=1vi

!2

= n−1

2n H2. (2.19)

From (2.19), Lemma 2.6.1 and item(ii)we get

Ric(X,X)_{≥}Ric(X,X)_{−}n−1

2n H2+ dφ

ds, (2.20)

whereφ =DX,∇_{u}uE.

Then

Ricf(X,X)≥

Ricf(X,X)−n_{2n}−1H2

+dφ

2.6 CLOSURE THEOREM VIA GALLOWAY’S THEOREM 29

Item(i)gives_{h}B(X,X),u_{i ≤}0. From (2.21),(iii)and(v)we get

Ricf(ζ,ζ)≥c+dφ dt .

Therefore by Theorem 2.3.2 we have thatMis compact and satisfies (2.18).

Analogously to the previous theorem, we give a closure theorem for the k-Bakry-Émery-Ricci tensor as follows.

Theorem 2.6.2(Theorem 4.6 [22]). LetM¯n_{f}+1be a weighted space time. Letube an irrotational
unit time-like vector field onM¯n+1

f andMn be a complete space-like hypersurface orthogonal

tou. Suppose the following conditions hold onMn_{.}

(i) At each point p_{∈}Mn, the flow generated byuis expanding in all directions, i.e,

hv(X),X_{i ≥}0,
whereX is avector field tangent toM.

(ii) At each point p_{∈}Mn_{, the rate of expansion is decreasing in all directions, i.e,}

ha(X),X_{i ≤}0,

whereX is a vector field tangent toM.

(iii) Rick_{f} ofM¯n+1_{satisfies}

inf(Rick_{f}(ζ,ζ)_{−}n−1

2n H

2_{) =}_{c}_{>}_{0}_{,}

wherek_{∈}(0,∞),ζ _{∈}TpV,|ζ|=1,hζ,ui=0andh=−divu.

(iv) The flow lines are of bounded geodesic curvature onMn_{, i.e,}

sup_{|}∇_{u}u_{|}=µ <∞.

(v) OnMn_{, we have that}

D

2.7 CLOSURE THEOREM VIA AMBROSE’S THEOREM 30

ThenMnis compact and

diam(Mn)_{≤} π

c

µ+

q

µ2+cλ

,

whereλ =2(√2a+1).

### 2.7

### Closure Theorem via Ambrose’s Theorem

LetMn_{be a spatial hypersurface in a weighted spacetime}_{M}n+1

f .The unit tangent vectors to the future directed geodesics orthogonal toMndefine a smooth unit timelike vector fielduat least

in a neighborhood ofMn

LetXbe a vector tangent toM.ExtendedX along the normal geodesic by making it invari-ant under the flow generated byu.Following the ideas of Frankel and Galloway [37] we obtain

the following closure theorem.

Theorem 2.7.1(Theorem 4.2 [22]). LetMnbe a spatial hypersurface in a weighted spacetime

(M¯n+1_{,}_{f}_{)}_{.} _{Let}_{u}_{be a unit normal vector field time-like to} _{M}_{.}_{If there is a point} _{q}_{∈}_{M}n _{such}

that along each geodesicγ ofMn_{emanating from}_{q}_{, we have} d f

dt ≤0and

Z ∞

0

Ricf(X,X) +Hfhv(X),Xi − ha(X),Xi dt =∞, (2.22)

wheret is arc length alongγ andX is the unit tangent toγ, thenMnis compact.

Proof. From Lemma (2.6.1) and identity (2.22) we get

Z ∞

0 Ricf(X,X)dt=∞.

From Theorem 2.2.2 we conclude thatMnis compact.

Analogously, we get the following closure theorem.

Theorem 2.7.2(Theorem 4.3 [22]). LetMnbe a spatial hypersurface in a weighted space time

¯ Mn

f.Letube a unit normal vector field time-like toM.If there is a pointq∈Mnsuch that along

each geodesicγ ofMnemanating fromq, we have

Z ∞

0

n

Rick_{f}(X,X) +Hfhv(X),Xi − ha(X),Xi

o

dt=∞, (2.23)

2.7 CLOSURE THEOREM VIA AMBROSE’S THEOREM 31

Remark 2.7.1. Conditions (2.22) and (2.23) may be interpreted as the mass-energy density on

Mn (see [37]). So, roughly speaking Theorems 2.7.1 and 2.7.2 say that spatial hypersurfaces with mass-energy density sufficiently large are compact.

Now, using the same steps of the above theorem and Theorem 2.4.1 we get the following closure theorem.

Theorem 2.7.3(Theorem 1.3 [66]). LetMnbe a space-like hypersurface inM¯n_{f}+1 and assume
that M is complete in the induced metric. Then for any δ >0, a> 0, there exists an ε =

ε(n,a,δ)satisfying the following:

If there is a point p_{∈}M such that along each geodesic γ in M emanating from p, the
condition

Z ∞

0 max

n

(n_{−}1)a_{−}Rick_{f}(X,X)_{−h}v(X),X_{i}Hf+ha(X),Xi,0

o

dt<ε(n,a,δ),

is satisfied, whereX =γ′, thenMis compact anddiam(M)_{≤} q π

(n−1)a
n+k_{−}1

### C

HAPTER### 3

## Bernstein type properties of complete

## hypersurfaces in weighted semi-Riemannian

## manifolds

The results of this chapter are part of [24] and [25].

### 3.1

### Introduction

The last years have seen a steadily growing interest in the study of the Bernstein-type
prop-erties concerning complete hypersurfaces immersed in a warped product of the typeI_{×}ρPn,
wherePn is a connectedn-dimensional oriented Riemannian manifold,I_{⊂}Ris an open

inter-val andρ is a positive smooth function defined onI. In this context, an important question to
pay attention is the uniqueness of complete hypersurfaces inI_{×}ρPn, under reasonable
restric-tions on their mean curvatures. Along this branch, we may cite, for instance, the papers [5]
to [10], [17], [20], [28] and [55]. A Lorentzian version of the problems discussed above,
that was pursued by several authors more recently, was to treat the problem of uniqueness for
complete constant mean curvature spacelike hypersurfaces of generalized Robertson-Walker
(GRW) spacetimes, that is, Lorentzian warped products with 1-dimensional negative definite
base and Riemannian fiber of type _{−}I_{×}ρ Pn. In this setting, we may cite, for instance, the
works [1, 4, 6, 7, 15, 16, 18, 32, 63, 64].

The goal of the Chapter 3 is to study the unicity of hypersurfaces Σ immersed in a

semi-Riemannian manifold of typeεI_{×}ρPn.

### 3.2

### Uniqueness results in weighted warped products

It follows from a splitting theorem due to Fang, Li and Zhang (see [34], Theorem 1.1) that if a
product manifoldI_{×}P with bounded weighted function f is such that Ric_{f} _{≥}0, then f must

be constant alongR. So, motivated by this result, along this section, we will consider weighted

products Pn_{×}R whose weighted function f does not depend on the parameter t _{∈}I, that is

h∇f,∂ti=0 and, for sake of simplicity, we will denote them byPn_{f}×R.

In order to prove our Bernstein type theorems in weighted warped products of the type

3.2 UNIQUENESS RESULTS IN WEIGHTED WARPED PRODUCTS 33

I_{×}ρPf, we will need some auxiliary lemmas. The first one is an extension of Proposition 4.1
of [6].

Lemma 3.2.1. LetΣnbe a hypersurface immersed in a weighted warped productI_{×}ρPn_{f}, with

height function h. Then,

(i) ∆_{f}h= (logρ)′(h)(n_{− |}∇h_{|}2_{) +}_{n}_{Θ}_{H}

f;

(ii) ∆_{f}σ(h) =n(ρ′(h) +ρ(h)ΘHf);

whereσ(t) =R_{t}t_{0}ρ(s)dt.

Proof. Let us prove item (i). Taking into account that f is constant alongR, from (1.3) we get

that

h∇f,∇h_{i}=_{−}Θ_{h}∇f,N_{i}. (3.1)

On the other hand, from Proposition 4.1 of [6] (see also Proposition 3.2 of [20]) we have

∆h= (logρ′(h)(n_{− |}∇h_{|}2) +nHΘ. (3.2)

Hence, from (1.6), (3.1) and (3.2) we obtain

∆_{f}h = (logρ)′(h)(n_{− |}∇h_{|}2) +nHΘ_{− h}∇f,∇h_{i}

= (logρ)′(h)(n+_{|}∇h_{|}2) +nHΘ+Θ_{h}∇f,N_{i}

= (logρ)′(h)(n+_{|}∇h_{|}2) +nΘHf.

Moreover, since Proposition 4.1 of [6] also gives that

∆σ(h) =n(ρ′(h) +ρ(h)ΘH),

in a similar way we also prove item (ii).

Let us denote byL1

f(Σ)the space of the integrable functions onΣn, in relation to weighted
volume elementdµ=e−fdΣ. Since div_{f}(X) =efdiv(e−fX), it is not difficult to see that from

Proposition 2.1 of [19] we get the following extension of a result due to Yau in [72].

Lemma 3.2.2. Letu be a smooth function on a complete weighted Riemannian manifold Σn

with weighted function f, such that∆_{f}u does not change sign on Σn. If _{|}∇u_{| ∈}L_{f}1_{(}Σ), then

3.2 UNIQUENESS RESULTS IN WEIGHTED WARPED PRODUCTS 34

We recall that aslabof a warped productI_{×}ρPnis a region of the type

[t1,t2]×Pn={(t,q)∈I×ρPn:t1≤t≤t2}.

Now, we are in position to state and prove our first result.

Theorem 3.2.1(Theorem 1 [24]). LetΣn be a complete two-sided hypersurface which lies in
a slab of a weighted warped productI_{×}ρPn_{f}. Suppose thatΘ≤0and thatHf satisfies

0<Hf ≤inf

Σ (logρ)

′_{(}_{h}_{)}_{.} _{(3.3)}

If_{|}∇h_{| ∈}L_{f}1_{(}Σ), thenΣnis a slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

Proof. From Lemma 3.2.1, since we are assuming that_{−}1_{≤}Θ_{≤}0, we get

∆_{f}σ(h) = nρ(h) (logρ)′(h) +ΘHf

≥ nρ(h) (logρ)′(h)_{−}Hf (3.4)
≥ nρ(h)

inf

Σ (logρ)

′_{(}_{h}_{)}_{−}_{Hf}_{.}

Thus, taking into account our hypothesis (3.3), from (3.4) we have that∆_{f}σ(h)_{≥}0.

On the other hand, sinceΣnlies in a slab ofI_{×}ρPn, we have that exists a positive constant
Csuch that

|∇σ(h)_{|}=ρ(h)_{|}∇h_{| ≤}C_{|}∇h_{|}.

Consequently, our hypothesis_{|}∇h_{| ∈}L1

f(Σ)implies that|∇σ(h)| ∈Lf1(Σ).

So, we can apply Lemma 3.2.2 to assure that∆_{f}σ(h) =0 onΣn. Hence, returning to (3.4)

we get

(logρ)′(h) =_{−}ΘHf. (3.5)
Consequently, using once more hypothesis (3.3), from (3.5) we have that

Hf ≤inf

Σ (logρ)

′_{(}_{h}_{)}_{≤}_{(}_{log}_{ρ}_{)}′_{(}_{h}_{) =}_{−}_{Θ}_{H}

f. (3.6)

Therefore, from (3.6) we conclude thatΘ=_{−}1 and, hence,Σnmust be a slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

Remark 3.2.1. Concerning Theorem 3.2.1, we note that ifΣnis locally a graph overPn, then

3.2 UNIQUENESS RESULTS IN WEIGHTED WARPED PRODUCTS 35

already observed by Espinar and Rosenberg [33] when they made allusion to immersions into the Euclidean space, the condition that Θ does not change sign can also be regarded as the

image of the Gauss map of the hypersurface lying in a closed hemisphere of the Euclidean sphere.

On the other hand, from Proposition1of [55] and relation (1.6), if we consider on the slice

{t} ×PofI_{×}_{ρ}P_{f} the orientation given byN_{=}_{−}_{∂}_{t}, then its f-mean curvature is given by

Hf(t) =H(t) = (logρ)′(t).

Consequently, the differential inequality (3.3) means that, at each point (t,x)of the

hypersur-face Σn, the weighted mean curvature ofΣn can be any value less than or equal to the value

of the weighted mean curvature of the slice _{{}t_{} ×}Pn, with respect to the orientation given by

−∂_{t}. Hence, we only suppose here a natural comparison inequality between weighted mean
curvature quantities, without to require that the weighted mean curvature ofΣnbe constant. In
this sense, (3.3) is a mild hypothesis.

According to the classical terminology in linear potential theory, a weighted manifold Σ

with weighted function f is said to be f -parabolicif every bounded solution of∆_{f}u_{≥}0 must
be identically constant. So, from Theorem 3.2.1 we obtain

Corollary 3.2.1. LetΣnbe a complete two-sided hypersurface which lies in a slab of a weighted

warped productI_{×}ρPn_{f}. Suppose thatΘ≤0and thatHf satisfies

0<Hf ≤inf

Σ (logρ)

′_{(}_{h}_{)}_{.}

IfΣnis f-parabolic, thenΣnis a slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

Remark 3.2.2. As it was observed by Impera and Rimoldi in Remark 3.8 of [46], the f -parabolicity of Σn holds if it has finite f-volume. On the other hand, in the case that Σn is complete noncompact withRicf nonnegative, from Theorem1.1of [69] a sufficient condition

forΣnto have finite f-volume is that the space ofL2_{f} harmonic one-forms be nontrivial.

From the proof of Theorem 3.2.1 we also get the following

Corollary 3.2.2. LetΣnbe a complete two-sided hypersurface which lies in a slab of a weighted

warped productI_{×}ρPn_{f}. Suppose thatΘ≤0and thatHf is constant and satisfies

0_{≤}Hf ≤inf

Σ (logρ)

3.2 UNIQUENESS RESULTS IN WEIGHTED WARPED PRODUCTS 36

If either_{|}∇h_{| ∈}L_{f}1_{(}Σ) or Σn is f-parabolic, then Σn is either a f-minimal hypersurface or a
slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

Extending ideas of [6], [9], [10] and [55], in our next result we will assume that the ambient
space is a weighted warped productI_{×}ρPn_{f} which obeys the following convergence condition

KP_{≥}sup
I ((ρ

′_{)}2

−ρρ′′), (3.7)

whereKPstands for the sectional curvature of the fiberPn.

Theorem 3.2.2(Theorem 2 [24]). Let I_{×}ρPn_{f} be a weighted warped product which satisfies

the convergence condition (3.7). LetΣnbe a complete two-sided hypersurface which lies in a
slab ofI_{×}ρPn_{f}. Suppose that∇f and the Weingarten operatorAofΣnare bounded. IfΘdoes

not change sign onΣnand

|∇h_{| ≤}inf

Σ

(logρ)′(h)_{− |}Hf| , (3.8)

thenΣnis a slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

Proof. From Lemma 3.2.1 we get

∆_{f}h = (logρ)′(h)(n_{− |}∇h_{|}2) +nHfΘ

≥ (logρ)′(h)(n_{− |}∇h_{|}2)_{−}n_{|}Hf| (3.9)
≥ n((logρ)′(h)_{− |}Hf|)−(logρ)′(h)|∇h|2.

On the other hand, since from the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality we getnH2_{≤ |}A_{|}2, we have
thatH is also bounded. Thus, since we are also assuming thatΣn lies in a slice ofI_{×}_{ρ}Pn

f, we can apply Proposition 3.1 of [9] to assure that the Ricci curvature ofΣnis bounded from below.

Hence, since_{|}∇f_{|}is bounded onΣn, from maximum principle of Omori-Yau, there exists a
sequence_{{}p_{k}}inΣnsuch that

lim

k h(pk) =sup_{Σ} h, limk |∇h(pk)|=0 and lim sup_{k} ∆fh(pk)≤0.
Thus, from inequality (3.9) we get

0_{≥}lim

k sup∆fh(pk)≥limk ((logρ)

3.3 RIGIDITY RESULTS IN WEIGHTED PRODUCT SPACES 37

Therefore, we have that limk((logρ)′(h)− |Hf|)(pk) =0 and, taking into account our
hypoth-esis (3.8), we conclude thatΣnis a slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

### 3.3

### Rigidity results in weighted product spaces

In this section, we will treat the special case when the ambient space is a weighted product
I_{×}Pn

f. We start with the following uniqueness result.

Theorem 3.3.1(Theorem 3 [24]). LetΣn be a complete two-sided hypersurface which lies in
a slab of the weighted product I_{×}Pn_{f}. Suppose that Θ andHf do not change sign on Σn. If
|∇h_{| ∈}L_{f}1_{(}Σ), thenΣnis a slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

Proof. From Lemma 3.2.1 we have that

∆_{f}h=nHfΘ. (3.10)

Since we are supposing thatΘandHf do not change sign onΣn, we get that∆fhalso does not
change sign onΣn. Thus, since_{|}∇h_{| ∈}L_{f}1_{(}Σ), we can apply Lemma 3.2.2 to get that∆_{f}h=0

onΣn.

Consequently, we obtain

∆_{f}h2=2h∆_{f}h+2_{|}∇h_{|}2=2_{|}∇h_{|}2_{≥}0. (3.11)

But, since h is bounded and using once more that _{|}∇h_{| ∈}L_{f}1_{(}Σ), Lemma 3.2.2 guarantees
also that ∆_{f}h2=0 on Σn. Therefore, returning to (3.11) we conclude thatΣn must be a slice

{t_{} ×}P.

From the proof of Theorem 3.3.1 we get

Corollary 3.3.1. Let Σn be a complete two-sided hypersurface which lies in a slab of the
weighted productI_{×}Pn_{f}. Suppose thatΘandHf do not change sign onΣn. IfΣnis f-parabolic,

thenΣnis a slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

Consider the weighted product spaceR_{×}Gn_{.}Recall thatGncorresponds to the Euclidean

space Rn endowed with the Gaussian measure dµ _{=}e−|x|

2

3.3 RIGIDITY RESULTS IN WEIGHTED PRODUCT SPACES 38

constant (cf. [43], Theorem 4). In this setting, with a straightforward computation we can verify that

N= _{p} 1

1+_{|}Du_{|}(Du−∂t) (3.12)
gives an orientation onΣn(u) such that _{−}1_{≤}Θ<0, whereDustands for the gradient of the

functionuonGn. Thus, since_{|}N∗_{|}_{=}_{|}_{∇}h_{|}, from (3.12) we deduce that

|∇h_{|}2= |Du|

2

1+_{|}Du_{|}2. (3.13)

So, taking into account relation (3.13), from the proof of Theorem 3.3.1 jointly with Theo-rem 4 of [43] we obtain

Corollary 3.3.2. Let Σn(u) be a complete graph of a function u(x2, . . . ,xn+1) =x1 over the Gaussian spaceGn. Suppose that the weighted mean curvature of Σn(u)does change sign. If

|Du| ∈L1_{(}G_{)}, thenΣn(u)is a hyperplanex1=constant.

To prove our next result, we will need of the following auxiliary lemma.

Lemma 3.3.1. LetΣnbe a hypersurface with constant f-mean curvature in a weighted product
manifoldPn_{f}_{×}R_{.}Then

∆_{f}Θ=_{−}(_{|}A_{|}2+Ricf f(N∗,N∗))Θ, (3.14)

whereAdenotes the Weingarten operator ofΣ,Ricf f stands for the Bakry-Émery-Ricci tensor

of the fiberPandN∗_{=}N_{−}Θ∂t is the orthonormal projection ofNontoP.
Proof. It is well known that

∇Θ=_{−}A∂_{t}T _{−}(∇_{N}∂t)T (3.15)
and

∆Θ_{=}_{−}n∂_{t}T(H)_{−}Θ_{(}Ricf(N∗,N∗) +_{|}A_{|}2), (3.16)

see for instance [20]. Taking into account that_{h}∂_{t},∇f_{i}=0 we get that

n∂_{t}T(H) = ∂_{t}T(nHf− h∇f,Ni)

= _{−}∂_{t}T_{h}∇f,N_{i}

3.3 RIGIDITY RESULTS IN WEIGHTED PRODUCT SPACES 39

On the other hand, from (3.15) we get that

h∇Θ,∇f_{i} = _{−h}A∂_{t}T+ (∇_{N}∂_{t})T,∇f_{i}

= _{−h}A∂_{t}T,∇f_{i − h}∇_{N}∂t− h∇N∂t,NiN,∇fi

= _{−h}A∂_{t}T,∇f_{i}+_{h}∂t,∇N∇fi (3.18)

= _{−h}A∂_{t}T,∇f_{i}+_{h}∂_{t},Hessf(N)i.
From (3.17) and (3.18) we have

n∂_{t}T(H) =ΘHess_{f}(N,N)_{− h}∇Θ,∇f_{i}. (3.19)

Now, taking into account once more that_{h}∂t,∇fi=0, it is not difficult to verify that

Hessf(N,N) =Hessg f(N∗,N∗). (3.20)

Putting (3.16) and (3.20) into (3.19) we have the desired result.

Theorem 3.3.2(Theorem 4 [24]). Let Σn be a complete two-sided hypersurface immersed in

a weighted product I_{×}Pn_{f}. Suppose that Ricf_{f} _{≥}0, A is bounded, Θ has strict signH_{f} does

change sign onΣn. If_{|}∇h_{| ∈}L1

f(Σ), thenΣnis totally geodesic. Moreover, ifRicff >0, then

Σnis a slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

Proof. Since we are supposing thatΘ has strict sign, Hf does not change sign onΣn and that
|∇h_{| ∈}L_{f}1_{(}Σ), from and applying Lemma 3.2.2 we get thatΣis f-minimal, that is,Hf =0 on

Σn.

Note that

|∇Θ_{| ≤ |}A_{||}∇h_{| ∈}L_{f}1_{(}_{Σ}_{)}_{.} (3.21)

So, since we are also supposing thatRicff ≥0, from (3.14) and (3.21) we have that∆fΘ=0 on

Σn.

Hence, returning to equation (3.14) we conclude thatΣnis totally geodesic. Furthermore, ifRicff is strictly positive, thenN∗=0 onΣnand, therefore,Σnis a slice{t} ×P.

When the fiber of the weighted product space is compact, we have

Theorem 3.3.3(Theorem 5 [24]). LetΣnbe a complete two-sided hypersurface immersed in a
weighted productI_{×}Pn_{f}, whose fiberPnis compact with positive sectional curvature, and such

that the weighted function f is convex. Suppose that Ais bounded andHf is constant. IfΘis

such that either0_{≤}arccosΘ_{≤} π

4 or 3π

3.3 RIGIDITY RESULTS IN WEIGHTED PRODUCT SPACES 40

Proof. Firstly, we claim that the Bakry-Émery Ricci tensor ofΣn, Ricf, is bounded from below. Indeed, since we are assuming thatPnis compact with positive sectional curvature, from Gauss

equation it follows that

Ric(X,X)_{≥}(n_{−}1)κ 1_{− |}∇h_{|}2_{|}X_{|}2+nH_{h}AX,X_{i − h}AX,AX_{i}, (3.22)

for allX_{∈}X_{(}Σ)and some positive constantκ=κ(X).

On the other hand, taking into account that f is convex and constant alongR, we have

Hessf(X,X) = Hessf(X,X) +_{h}∇f,N_{ih}AX,X_{i} (3.23)

= Hessg f(X∗,X∗) +_{h}∇f,N_{ih}AX,X_{i}

≥ h∇f,N_{ih}AX,X_{i},

for allX_{∈}X_{(}Σ).

Thus, from (3.22) and (3.23) we get

Ricf(X,X)≥(n−1)κ 1− |∇h|2|X|2+nHfhAX,Xi − hAX,AXi. (3.24)

Consequently, from (3.24) we obtain

Ricf(X,X)≥((n−1)κ 1− |∇h|2−(n|Hf||A|+|A|2))|X|2, (3.25)

for allX_{∈}X_{(}Σ).

We also note that our restriction onΘamounts to_{|}∇h_{|}2_{≤}1

2. Hence, sinceAis also bounded andHf is constant, from (3.25) we conclude that Ricf is bounded from below.

On the other hand, using once more thatHf is constant, from Lemma 3.2.1 we have

∇∆_{f}h=nHf∇Θ. (3.26)

Recall that

∇Θ=_{−}A(∇h). (3.27)

Consequently, from (3.26) and (3.27) we get

3.3 RIGIDITY RESULTS IN WEIGHTED PRODUCT SPACES 41

From (1.4) we have that

∇_{X}∇h=∇_{X}(∂_{t}⊤) =AXΘ. (3.29)

Thus, from (3.29) we obtain

|Hessh_{|}2=_{|}A_{|}2Θ2. (3.30)

Consequently, from (1.5) and (3.30) we get

|Hessh_{|}2=_{|}A_{|}2_{− |}∇h_{|}2_{|}A_{|}2. (3.31)

Now, from Bochner’s formula (1.1) we also have that

1

2∆f|∇h|

2_{=}

|Hessh_{|}2+Ricf(∇h,∇h) +h∇∆fh,∇hi. (3.32)
But, from (3.24) it follows that

Ricf(∇h,∇h) ≥ (n−1)κ(1− |∇h|2)|∇h|2+nHfhA∇h,∇hi−hA∇h,A∇hi

≥ (n_{−}1)κ(1_{− |}∇h_{|}2)_{|}∇h_{|}2+nHf_{h}A∇h,∇h_{i − |}A_{|}2_{|}∇h_{|}2. (3.33)

Hence, considering (3.28)), (3.31) and (3.33) into (3.32) we get

1

2∆f|∇h|

2

≥(n_{−}1)κ(1_{− |}∇h_{|}2)_{|}∇h_{|}2+_{|}A_{|}2(1_{−}2_{|}∇h_{|}2). (3.34)

Consequently, from (1.5) and (3.34) jointly with our hypothesis onΘwe obtain

1

2∆f|∇h|2≥(n−1)κ(1− |∇h|2)|∇h|2. (3.35) Since Ricf is bounded from below onΣn, from Theorem 1.1.1 we have that there exists a sequence of points(pk)k≥1inΣnsuch that

lim k |∇h|

2_{(}_{p}

k) =sup

Σ |

∇h_{|}2 and lim

k sup∆f|∇h|

2_{(}_{p}

k)≤0. Thus, from (3.35) we have

0_{≥}lim

k sup∆f|∇h|

2_{(}_{p}

k)≥(n−1)κ(1−sup

Σ |

∇h_{|}2)sup

Σ |

∇h_{|}2_{≥}0. (3.36)

3.3 RIGIDITY RESULTS IN WEIGHTED PRODUCT SPACES 42

Corollary 3.3.3. Let Σn be a f-parabolic complete two-sided hypersurface immersed in a
weighted product I_{×}Pn_{f}, whose fiber Pn is complete with nonnegative sectional curvature,

and such that the weighted function f is convex. Suppose thatAis bounded andHf is constant. It holds the following:

(a) If either0_{≤}arccosΘ<π

4 or 3π

4 <arccosΘ≤π, thenΣnis totally geodesic.

(b) IfKP is positive and either 0_{≤}arccosΘ_{≤} π

4 or 3π

4 ≤arccosΘ≤π, then Σn is a slice {t} ×Pn.

Proof. In a very similar way of that was made in order to prove inequality (3.34), taking a local
orthonormal frame_{{}E1, . . . ,En}onΣ, we obtain that

1

2∆f|∇h|

2

≥(n_{−}1)min

i KP((∇h)

∗_{,}_{E}∗

i)(1− |∇h|2)|∇h|2+|A|2(1−2|∇h|2). (3.37)
If we assume the hypothesis of item (a), since we are also supposing thatKPis nonnegative,
from (3.37) we get that∆_{f}_{|}∇h_{|}2_{≥}0. Hence, since we are also assuming thatΣnis f-parabolic,
we have that_{|}∇h_{|}is constant onΣ. Therefore, returning to (3.37) we conclude that_{|}A_{|}=0 on

Σ, that is,Σis totally geodesic.

Now, we assume the hypothesis of item (b). Sinceκ:=miniKP((∇h)∗,Ei∗)>0, from (3.37) we also get that

1

2∆f|∇h|

2

≥(n_{−}1)κ(1_{− |}∇h_{|}2)_{|}∇h_{|}2_{≥}0. (3.38)
Hence, using once more thatΣn is f-parabolic and noting that _{|}∇h_{|}<1, from (3.38) we
con-clude that_{|}∇h_{|}=0 onΣn, that is,Σnmust be a slice_{{}t_{} ×}Pn.

Proceeding, we obtain an extension of Theorem 3.1 of [31].

Theorem 3.3.4(Theorem 6 [24]). Let Σn be a complete two-sided hypersurface immersed in

a weighted productI_{×}Pn

f, whose fiberPnhas sectional curvatureKP satisfyingKP≥ −κ and

such thatHessg f _{≥ −}γ, for some positive constants κ and γ. Suppose that Ais bounded, Θ is
bounded away from zero andHf is constant. If the height functionhofΣnsatisfies

|∇h_{|}2_{≤} α

(n_{−}1)κ+γ|A|

2_{,} _{(3.39)}

for some constant0<α <1, thenΣnis a slice_{{}t_{} ×}P.

Proof. Since we are assuming thatΘis bounded away from zero, we can suppose thatΘ>0