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❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❉❖ ❊❙❚❆❉❖ ❉❊ ❙❆◆❚❆ ❈❆❚❆❘■◆❆ ❈❊◆❚❘❖ ❉❊ ❈■✃◆❈■❆❙ ❚❊❈◆❖▲.●■❈❆❙ ✲ ❈❈❚ ❉❊1❆❘❚❆▼❊◆❚❖ ❉❊ ❊◆●❊◆❍❆❘■❆ ❊▲➱❚❘■❈❆

▼❊❙❚❘❆❉❖ ❊▼ ❊◆●❊◆❍❆❘■❆ ❊▲➱❚❘■❈❆

▼❆❘❈❖❙ ❱■◆■❈■❯❙ ❇❘❊❙❙❆◆

■◆❱❊❘❙❖❘ ▼❯▲❚■◆❮❱❊▲ ❍❮❇❘■❉❖ ❇❆❙❊❆❉❖ ◆❆ ❈❆❙❈❆❚❆ ❉❖ ❈❖◆❱❊❘❙❖❘ ✸▲✲◆3❈ ❊ ❈❖◆❱❊❘❙❖❘❊❙

▼❊■❆ 3❖◆❚❊

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❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❉❖ ❊❙❚❆❉❖ ❉❊ ❙❆◆❚❆ ❈❆❚❆❘■◆❆ ❈❊◆❚❘❖ ❉❊ ❈■✃◆❈■❆❙ ❚❊❈◆❖▲.●■❈❆❙ ✲ ❈❈❚ ❉❊1❆❘❚❆▼❊◆❚❖ ❉❊ ❊◆●❊◆❍❆❘■❆ ❊▲➱❚❘■❈❆

▼❊❙❚❘❆❉❖ ❊▼ ❊◆●❊◆❍❆❘■❆ ❊▲➱❚❘■❈❆

▼❆❘❈❖❙ ❱■◆■❈■❯❙ ❇❘❊❙❙❆◆

■◆❱❊❘❙❖❘ ▼❯▲❚■◆❮❱❊▲ ❍❮❇❘■❉❖ ❇❆❙❊❆❉❖ ◆❆ ❈❆❙❈❆❚❆ ❉❖ ❈❖◆❱❊❘❙❖❘ ✸▲✲◆3❈ ❊ ❈❖◆❱❊❘❙❖❘❊❙

▼❊■❆ 3❖◆❚❊

❉✐""❡$%❛'(♦ "✉❜♠❡%✐❞❛ ❛♦ .$♦❣$❛♠❛ ❞❡ .0"✲●$❛❞✉❛'(♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛$✐❛ ❊❧7✲ %$✐❝❛ ❞♦ ❈❡♥%$♦ ❞❡ ❈✐:♥❝✐❛" %❡❝♥♦❧0✲ ❣✐❝❛" ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡$"✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❊"%❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❙❛♥%❛ ❈❛%❛$✐♥❛✱ ♣❛$❛ ❛ ♦❜%❡♥'(♦ ❞♦ ●$❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡"%$❡ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛$✐❛ ❊❧7✲ %$✐❝❛✳

❖5✐❡♥9❛❞♦5✿ .$♦❢✳ ❉$✳ ❆❧❡""❛♥❞$♦ ▲✉✐③ ❇❛%"❝❤❛✉❡$

❈♦♦5✐❡♥9❛❞♦5✿ .$♦❢✳ ❉$✳ ▼❛$❝❡❧❧♦ ▼❡③❛$♦❜❛

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FICHA CATALOGRÁFICA

B482i

Bressan, Marcos Vinicius

Inversor multinível híbrido baseado na cascata do conversor 3L-NPC e conversores meia ponte / Marcos Vinicius Bressan. – 2014.

151 p. : il. ; 21 cm

Orientador: Alessandro Luiz Batschauer Bibliografia: p. 147-151

Dissertação (mestrado) – Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Tecnológicas, Mestrado em Engenharia Elétrica, Joinville, 2014.

1. Engenharia Elétrica 2. Inversores Multiníveis 3. Modulação PWM I. Batschauer, Alessandro Luiz II. Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. Programa de pós-graduação em Engenharia Elétrica. III. Título

CDD: 621.3 – 20.ed.

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❆●❘❆❉❊❈■▼❊◆❚❖❙

➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠'❧✐❛ ♣♦+ ,♦❞♦ ✐♥❝❡♥,✐✈♦ ❡ ❝♦♠♣+❡❡♥12♦✱ ♣❡❧♦1 ♠♦✲ ♠❡♥,♦1 ❞❡ ❛✉16♥❝✐❛✱ ♣+✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥,❡ ❛♦1 ♠❡✉1 ♣❛✐1✱ ❲✐❧1♦♥ ❡ ❈❛+♠❡♠ ❇+❡11❛♥✱ ❡ ❛♦ ♠❡✉ ✐+♠2♦✱ ❊+♥❡1,♦ ❇+❡11❛♥✳

❆♦ ♠❡✉ ♦+✐❡♥,❛❞♦+✱ ❆❧❡11❛♥❞+♦ ▲✉✐③ ❇❛,1❝❤❛✉❡+✱ ♣❡❧❛ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡ ❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥,♦1 ♣❛11❛❞♦1 ❞✉+❛♥,❡ ❡11❡1 ❞♦✐1 ❛♥♦1✳

❆♦1 ♣+♦❢❡11♦+❡1 ❞♦ ♥?❊❊ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥,♦ ❝♦♠♣❛+,✐❧❤❛❞♦✳ ❆♦1 ❜♦❧1✐1,❛1✱ ●❛❜+✐❡❧❛ ?❡+❡✐+❛ ❡ ❋❛❜+✐❝✐♦ ❚+❡♥,✐♥✐✱ ♣❡❧❛1 ❤♦+❛1 ❞❡ ❞❡❞✐❝❛D2♦ ❛♦ ♣+♦❥❡,♦ ❞❡ ♣❡1F✉✐1❛ ❡ ❛♣♦✐♦✳

❆♦1 ❞♦✉,♦+❛♥❞♦1✱ ♠❡1,+❛♥❞♦1 ❡ ❜♦❧1✐1,❛1 ♥♦ ♥?❊❊ ♣❡❧❛ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡ ❞✉+❛♥,❡ ,♦❞♦ ❡11❡ ♣❡+'♦❞♦✳

❆♦1 ♠❡✉1 ,✐♦1✱ ■+✈❛♥❞♦ ▲✉✐③ ❱❛❧❡♥,✐♥✐ ❡ ●✐❧✐❛♥❛ ❚❤♦♠I✱ ♣❡❧❛1 ♣❛❧❛✈+❛1 ❞❡ ✐♥❝❡♥,✐✈♦ ❡ ❛♣♦✐♦✳

➚ ♠✐♥❤❛ ♥❛♠♦+❛❞❛✱ ❆♥❛ ❈❛+♦❧✐♥❛✱ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛❝✐6♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♣+❡❡♥12♦ ❛♦1 ♠♦♠❡♥,♦1 ♥♦1 F✉❛✐1 ♥2♦ ❡1,✐✈❡ ♣+❡1❡♥,❡✳

❆♦1 ❛♠✐❣♦1✱ ❈❤❛+❧❡1 ❑✐♥❛1 ❡ ❲❡♥❞❡❧ ▼❛❧❦♦✇1❦✐✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♣❛✲ ♥❤❡✐+✐1♠♦ ❞✉+❛♥,❡ ❡11❡1 ❞♦✐1 ❛♥♦1✳

❆♦1 ❛♠✐❣♦1 ❡ ❝♦❧❡❣❛1 F✉❡ 1❡♠♣+❡ ♠❡ ✐♥❝❡♥,✐✈❛+❛♠ ❡ F✉❡ ❝♦♠♣+❡✲ ❡♥❞❡+❛♠ ♦1 ♠♦♠❡♥,♦1 ♦1 F✉❛✐1 ❡1,✐✈❡ ❛✉1❡♥,❡✳

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❙❡ ✈♦❝% ✈❛✐ (❡♥(❛*✱ ✈, ❛(- ♦ ✜♠ ❝❛0♦ ❝♦♥✲ (*,*✐♦✱ ♥❡♠ ❝♦♠❡2❡✳

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❘❊❙❯▼❖

❊!"❡ "$❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣$❡!❡♥"❛ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ✐♥✈❡$!♦$ ♠✉❧"✐♥0✈❡❧ ❤0❜$✐❞♦ "$✐❢3!✐❝♦✱ 6✉❡ 7 ❢♦$♠❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❛!!♦❝✐❛89♦ ❡♠ ❝❛!❝❛"❛ ❞❡ ❞✉❛! "♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛!✳ ◆♦ ❝❛!♦✱ ✉♠ ❝♦♥✈❡$!♦$ ◆=❈ "$✐❢3!✐❝♦ ❝♦♥❡❝"❛❞♦ ❡♠ !7$✐❡ ❛ ♠?❞✉❧♦! ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡$!♦✲ $❡! ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥"❡✳ ❆ ❧✐❣❛89♦ ❡♠ !7$✐❡ ❞❡!!❡! ❝♦♥✈❡$!♦$❡! ♣❡$♠✐"❡ ❛♠♣❧✐❛$ ♦ ♥B♠❡$♦ ❞❡ ♥0✈❡✐! ❞❡ "❡♥!9♦ !✐♥"❡"✐③❛❞♦! ♣❡❧♦ ✐♥✈❡$!♦$✱ ♠❡❧❤♦$❛$ ❛ 6✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❢♦$♠❛ ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❛ "❡♥!9♦ ❞❡ !❛0❞❛ ❡ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥"♦ ❞❛ ❡♥❡$❣✐❛ ♣$♦❝❡!!❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ✐♥✈❡$!♦$✳ ❯♠❛ ❛♥3❧✐!❡ "❡?$✐❝❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$!♦$ 7 ❛♣$❡!❡♥✲ "❛❞❛✱ ❛✈❡$✐❣✉❛♥❞♦ ❛! ❡"❛♣❛! ❞❡ ♦♣❡$❛89♦ ❡ ❞❡"❡$♠✐♥❛♥❞♦ ♦! ✈❛❧♦$❡! ♠7❞✐♦ ❡ ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛ ❝♦$$❡♥"❡ ♥♦! !❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉"♦$❡! ❞❡ ♣♦"F♥❝✐❛✳ ❈♦♠ ❜❛!❡ ♥❛! ❛♥3❧✐!❡! ❞♦! ✈❛❧♦$❡! ♠7❞✐♦ ❡ ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛ ❝♦$$❡♥"❡ ♥♦! !❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉"♦$❡! ❞✐♠❡♥!✐♦♥❛✲!❡ ♦! ❝❛♣❛❝✐"♦$❡! ❞❡ ❜❛$$❛♠❡♥"♦✱ ❛!!✐♠ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡♥❡$❣✐❛ ❞✐!!✐✲ ♣❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦! !❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉"♦$❡! ❡ ❛ ❛♥3❧✐!❡ "❡?$✐❝❛ ❞❛! ❝♦$$❡♥"❡! ❞❡ ❡♥"$❛❞❛! ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$!♦$ ❡♠♣$❡❣❛♥❞♦ ❞❡ $❡"✐✜❝❛❞♦$❡! ♠✉❧"✐♣✉❧!♦!✳ ❚❛♠❜7♠ !9♦ ❛♣$❡✲ !❡♥"❛❞❛! ❞✉❛! "7❝♥✐❝❛! ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛89♦ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡$!♦$ ♣$♦♣♦!"♦✿ ❛ "7❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛89♦ =❲▼ ❤0❜$✐❞❛ ❡ ❛ ❙❱▼✳ ❖! $❡!✉❧"❛❞♦! ❡①♣❡$✐♠❡♥"❛✐!✱ ❡♠ !✉❛ ♣$✐♠❡✐$❛ ♣❛$"❡✱ ❛✈❛❧✐❛♠ ♦ ❝♦♠♣♦$"❛♠❡♥"♦ ❞❛ ❡!"$✉"✉$❛ ♠✉❧"✐♥0✈❡❧ ❞❡!❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ❡♠ ❧❛❜♦$❛"?$✐♦✳ ◆❛ !❡❣✉♥❞❛ ♣❛$"❡ ❞♦! $❡!✉❧"❛❞♦! ❡①♣❡$✐✲ ♠❡♥"❛✐!✱ ❛✈❛❧✐❛✲!❡ 6✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❢♦$♠❛ ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❡ "❡♥!9♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✐❢❡$❡♥"❡! "7❝♥✐❝❛! ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛89♦ ✉"✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❞❛! ❢❡$$❛♠❡♥"❛! ♠❛"❡♠3"✐❝❛! ❚❍❉ ❡ ❲❚❍❉✳

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❆❇❙❚❘❆❈❚

❚❤✐# ✇♦&❦ ♣&❡#❡♥+ ❛ ♥❡✇ +❤&❡❡✲♣❤❛#❡ ❤②❜&✐❞ ♠✉❧+✐❧❡✈❡❧ ✐♥✈❡&+❡&✱ +❤❛+ ✐# ❝♦♠♣♦#❡❞ ♦❢ +✇♦ +♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❡# ✐♥ ❝❛#❝❛❞❡❞ ❛##♦❝✐❛+✐♦♥✳ ❚❤❡ +❤&❡❡✲♣❤❛#❡ ◆;❈ ❛♥❞ +❤❡ ❤❛❧❢✲❜&✐❞❣❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❡# ❛&❡ ❝♦♥♥❡❝+❡❞ ✐♥ #❡&✐❡#✳ ❚❤✐# ❝♦♥✲ ♥❡❝+✐♦♥ ✐♥❝&❡❛#❡# +❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡& ♦❢ +❤❡ ♦✉+♣✉+ ✈♦❧+❛❣❡ ❧❡✈❡❧#✱ ✐♠♣&♦✈❡# +❤❡ ♦✉+♣✉+ ✈♦❧+❛❣❡ =✉❛❧✐+② ❛♥❞ &✐#❡# +❤❡ ♣♦✇❡& ♣&♦❝❡## ❜② ✐♥✈❡&+❡&✳ ❚❤❡ +❤❡♦&❡+✐❝❛❧ ❛♥❛❧②#✐# ✐# ♣&❡#❡♥+❡❞✱ +❤❡ #✇✐+❝❤✐♥❣ #+❛+❡# ❛&❡ ✐♥✈❡#+✐❣❛+❡❞ ❛♥❞ +❤❡ ❛✈❡&❛❣❡ ❛♥❞ +❤❡ ❘▼❙ ❝✉&&❡♥+# ✈❛❧✉❡# ✐♥ +❤❡ #❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉❝+♦&# ❛&❡ ✈❡&✐✜❡❞✳ ❇❛#❡❞ ♦♥ +❤❡ ❝✉&&❡♥+ ✈❛❧✉❡# ❛&❡ ♣&♦❥❡❝+❡❞ +❤❡ ❞❝ ❝❛♣❛❝✐+♦&#✱ ❛♥❞ ❛♥❛❧②③❡❞ +❤❡ #❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉+♦&# ❧♦## ❡♥❡&❣② ❛♥❞ +❤❡ ✐♥♣✉+ ❝✉&&❡♥+# ♦❢ +❤❡ ✐♥✈❡&+❡&✳ ❚✇♦ ♠♦❞✉❧❛+✐♦♥ #❝❤❡♠❡ ❛&❡ ♣&❡#❡♥+❡❞ ❛+ ♣&♦♣♦#❡❞ ✐♥✈❡&✲ +❡&✱ +❤❡ ❤②❜&✐❞ ;❲▼ ❛♥❞ ❙❱▼ ♠♦❞✉❧❛+✐♦♥ #❝❤❡♠❡✳ ❚❤❡ ✜&#+ ♣❛&+ ♦❢ +❤❡ ❡①♣❡&✐♠❡♥+❛❧ &❡#✉❧+# ❛&❡ ✈❡&✐✜❡❞ ❜❡❤❛✈✐♦& ♦❢ +❤❡ ♠✉❧+✐❧❡✈❡❧ ♣♦✇❡& #+&✉❝+✉&❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣❡❞ ✐♥ ❧❛❜♦&❛+♦&②✳ ❚❤❡ #❡❝♦♥❞ ♣❛&+ ♦❢ +❤❡ ❡①♣❡&✐♠❡♥✲ +❛❧ &❡#✉❧+# ❡✈❛❧✉❛+❡# =✉❛❧✐+② ♦❢ ♦✉+♣✉+ ✈♦❧+❛❣❡ ✇✐+❤ ❞✐✛❡&❡♥+ ♠♦❞✉❧❛+✐♦♥ #❝❤❡♠❡ ✉#✐♥❣ ♦❢ +❤❡ ♠❛+❤❡♠❛+✐❝❛❧ +♦♦❧# ❚❍❉ ❛♥❞ ❲❚❍❉✳

(16)
(17)

▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❋■●❯❘❆❙

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❣❡♥1$✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡$5♦$❡5 ❞❡ 6❡♥57♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✷ ❈♦♥✈❡$5♦$ 6$✐❢;5✐❝♦ ❛ ❞♦✐5 ♥<✈❡✐5✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✸ ❈♦♥✈❡$5♦$ 6$✐❢;5✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✐♦❞♦5 ❞❡ ❣$❛♠♣❡❛♠❡♥6♦ ✲ ✸▲✲

◆B❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✹ ❈♦♥✈❡$5♦$ 6$✐❢;5✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✐♦❞♦5 ❞❡ ❣$❛♠♣❡❛♠❡♥6♦ ✲ ✺▲✲

◆B❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✺ ❈♦♥✈❡$5♦$ 6$✐❢;5✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛♣❛❝✐6♦$❡5 ❞❡ ❣$❛♠♣❡❛♠❡♥6♦

✲ ✸▲✲❋❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✻ ❈♦♥✈❡$5♦$ 6$✐❢;5✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛♣❛❝✐6♦$❡5 ❞❡ ❣$❛♠♣❡❛♠❡♥6♦

✲ ✺▲✲❋❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✼ ❈♦♥✈❡$5♦$ ❡♠ ❝❛5❝❛6❛ ❞❡ ♣♦♥6❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡6❛ ✲ ✺▲✲❈❍❇✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✽ ❈♦♥✈❡$5♦$ ❡♠ ❝❛5❝❛6❛ ❞❡ ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥6❡ ✲ ✺▲ ✲ ❈❛5❝❛❞❡❞

❍❛❧❢✲❇$✐❞❣❡✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✾ ❈♦♥✈❡$5♦$ ♠♦❞✉❧❛$ ♠✉❧6✐♥<✈❡❧ 6$✐❢;5✐❝♦ ✲ n▲✲▼▼❈✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✵ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❣❡♥1$✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡$5♦$ ♠✉❧6✐♥<✈❡❧ ❤<❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✐❢❡$❡♥6❡5 ❝1❧✉❧❛5 ♠♦♥♦❢;5✐❝❛5✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✶ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❣❡♥1$✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡$5♦$ ♠✉❧6✐♥<✈❡❧ ❤<❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠

❝1❧✉❧❛ 6$✐❢;5✐❝❛ ❡ ❝1❧✉❧❛5 ♠♦♥♦❢;5✐❝❛5✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✷ ❈♦♥✈❡$5♦$ ♠✉❧6✐♥<✈❡❧ ❤<❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦56♦ ♣♦$ ❇❛65❝❤❛✉❡$✱

▼✉55❛ ❡ ❍❡❧❞✇❡✐♥ ✭✷✵✶✷✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✸ B$✐♥❝✐♣❛✐5 61❝♥✐❝❛5 ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛Q7♦ ♣❛$❛ ❝♦♥✈❡$5♦$❡5 ♠✉❧✲

6✐♥<✈❡✐5 ❡♠ 6❡♥57♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✹ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ 61❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛Q7♦ B❲▼✲B❉ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡$5♦$

❝✐♥❝♦ ♥<✈❡✐5✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✺ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ 61❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛Q7♦ B❲▼✲B❖❉ ❛♦ ✐♥✲

✈❡$5♦$ ❝✐♥❝♦ ♥<✈❡✐5✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✻ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ 61❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛Q7♦ B❲▼✲❆B❖❉ ❛♦ ✐♥✲

✈❡$5♦$ ❝✐♥❝♦ ♥<✈❡✐5✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✼ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ 61❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛Q7♦ B❲▼✲B❙ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡$5♦$

❝✐♥❝♦ ♥<✈❡✐5✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✽ ❉✐❛❣$❛♠❛ ❞♦ ❡5♣❛Q♦ ❞❡ ✈❡6♦$❡5 ♣❛$❛ ❛ ♠♦❞✉❧❛Q7♦ B❲▼✲

❙❱▼ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡$5♦$ ❞♦✐5 ♥<✈❡✐5✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✾ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ 61❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛Q7♦ B❲▼ ❤<❜$✐❞❛ ❡ ❝♦✲

(18)

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✷✳✶✷✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✶ ■♥✈❡$.♦$ ♠✉❧2✐♥3✈❡❧ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦.2♦✱ ❜❛.❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥✲

✈❡$.♦$❡. ♠♦♥♦❢<.✐❝♦. ❞♦✐. ♥3✈❡✐. ❡ ♠=❞✉❧♦ 2$✐❢<.✐❝♦ 2$>. ♥3✈❡✐.✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✷ @$✐♠❡✐$❛ A B✉❛$2❛ ❡2❛♣❛ ❞❡ ♦♣❡$❛CD♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$ ♠✉❧2✐✲

♥3✈❡❧ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦.2♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✸ ◗✉✐♥2❛ A ♦✐2❛✈❛ ❡2❛♣❛ ❞❡ ♦♣❡$❛CD♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$ ♠✉❧2✐♥3✈❡❧

❤3❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦.2♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✹ ◆♦♥❛ A ❞I❝✐♠❛ .❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡2❛♣❛ ❞❡ ♦♣❡$❛CD♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$

♠✉❧2✐♥3✈❡❧ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦.2♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✺ ❚❡♥.L❡. ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛✱ ❞❡ ❢❛.❡ ❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❞❛ 2I❝♥✐❝❛

❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ❤3❜$✐❞❛ ❡♠♣$❡❣❛❞❛ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$ ♠✉❧2✐♥3✈❡❧ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦.2♦✱ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✏❈❛.♦ ✷✑ ❝♦♠ 3♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ✉♥✐2<$✐♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✻ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ 2I❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ @❲▼ ❤3❜$✐❞❛ ❡ ❝♦✲

♠❛♥❞♦ ❞♦. ✐♥2❡$$✉♣2♦$❡. ❡♠♣$❡❣❛❞❛ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$ ♠✉❧2✐♥3✈❡❧ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦.2♦✱ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✏❈❛.♦ ✷✑✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✼ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ♣♦2>♥❝✐❛ ❛2$❛✈I. ❞❛. ❢♦♥2❡. ❞❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥2❛CD♦ ❞♦

✐♥✈❡$.♦$ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✏❈❛.♦ ✷✑✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✽ ❚❡♥.L❡. ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛✱ ❞❡ ❢❛.❡ ❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❞❛ 2I❝♥✐❝❛

❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ❤3❜$✐❞❛ ❡♠♣$❡❣❛❞❛ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$ ♠✉❧2✐♥3✈❡❧ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦.2♦✱ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✏❈❛.♦ ✶✑ ❝♦♠ 3♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ✉♥✐2<$✐♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✾ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ 2I❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ @❲▼ ❤3❜$✐❞❛ ❡ ❝♦✲

♠❛♥❞♦ ❞♦. ✐♥2❡$$✉♣2♦$❡. ❡♠♣$❡❣❛❞❛ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$ ♠✉❧2✐♥3✈❡❧ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦.2♦✱ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✏❈❛.♦ ✶✑✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✶✵ ❋❧✉①♦ ❞❡ ♣♦2>♥❝✐❛ ❛2$❛✈I. ❞❛. ❢♦♥2❡. ❞❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥2❛CD♦ ❞♦

✐♥✈❡$.♦$ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✑❈❛.♦ ✶✏✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✶✶ ●$<✜❝♦ ❞❛ ❞✐.2♦$CD♦ ❤❛$♠Y♥✐❝❛ 2♦2❛❧ ♣❛$❛ ♠♦❞✉❧❛CD♦

❤3❜$✐❞❛ ❞❛ 2❡♥.D♦ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❡ ❞❡ ❢❛.❡✱ ❡♠ ✈❡$♠❡❧❤♦ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✏❵❈❛.♦ ✶✑ ❡ ❛③✉❧ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✏❈❛.♦ ✷✑✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✶✷ ❉✐❛❣$❛♠❛ ❞♦ ❡.♣❛C♦ ✈❡2♦$✐❛❧ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$ 2$✐❢<.✐❝♦ ❞❡

❞♦✐. ♥3✈❡✐. ❞❡ 2❡♥.D♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✶✸ ❉✐❛❣$❛♠❛ ❞♦ ❡.♣❛C♦ ✈❡2♦$✐❛❧ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$ 2$✐❢<.✐❝♦

✸▲✲◆@❈ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✶✹ ❉✐❛❣$❛♠❛ ❞♦ ❡.♣❛C♦ ✈❡2♦$✐❛❧ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✐♥✈❡$.♦$ ♠✉❧2✐♥3✈❡❧

❤3❜$✐❞♦ ♣$♦♣♦.2♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✶✺ ❉✐❛❣$❛♠❛ ❞❡ ❜❧♦❝♦. ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦$✐2♠♦ ❞❛ ♠♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ❙▼❱✳ ✺✾ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✸✳✶✻ ❉✐❛❣$❛♠❛ ❞♦ ❡.♣❛C♦ ✈❡2♦$✐❛❧ ❞♦ ♣$✐♠❡✐$♦ .❡2♦$ ❞♦ ✐♥✲

(19)

♦" ♠✉❧&✐♥)✈❡❧ ❤)❜"✐❞♦ ❡ ♥/♠❡"♦ ❞❡ ❡ &❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉&❛23♦ "❡❞✉♥✲ ❞❛♥&❡ ✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✶✽ ❙❡=✉>♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉&❛2?❡ ♣❛"❛ ♠♦❞✉❧❛23♦ ❙❱▼ ♣"♦✲

♣♦ &❛ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡" ♦" ♠✉❧&✐♥)✈❡❧ ❤)❜"✐❞♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✶✾ ❚❡♥ ?❡ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛✱ ❞❡ ❢❛ ❡ ❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❞❛ &H❝♥✐❝❛

♠♦❞✉❧❛23♦ ❙❱▼ ❝♦♠ ❡&❡ ❡❣♠❡♥&♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡" ♦" ♠✉❧&✐♥)✲ ✈❡❧ ❤)❜"✐❞♦ ♣"♦♣♦ &♦✱ ♣❛"❛ )♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛23♦ M a= 0,9✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✷✵ ❚❡♥ ?❡ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛✱ ❞❡ ❢❛ ❡ ❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❞❛ &H❝✲ ♥✐❝❛ ♠♦❞✉❧❛23♦ ❙❱▼ ❝♦♠ ❝✐♥❝♦ ❡❣♠❡♥&♦ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡" ♦" ♠✉❧&✐♥)✈❡❧ ❤)❜"✐❞♦ ♣"♦♣♦ &♦✱ ♣❛"❛ )♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛23♦ M a= 0,9✳ ✻✼

❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✷✶ ●"M✜❝♦ ❞❛ ❞✐ &♦"23♦ ❤❛"♠O♥✐❝❛ &♦&❛❧ ❞❛ &❡♥ 3♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❡ ❞❡ ❢❛ ❡ ♣❛"❛ ♠♦❞✉❧❛23♦ ❙❱▼✱ ❡♠ ✈❡"♠❡❧❤♦ ♣❛"❛ ✏✺ ❙❡❣♠❡♥&♦ ✑ ❡ ❛③✉❧ ♣❛"❛ ✏✼ ❙❡❣♠❡♥&♦ ✑✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✽ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✷✷ ❈✐"❝✉✐&♦ "❡&✐✜❝❛❞♦" ❞❡ ❡♥&"❛❞❛ ❞♦ ♠U❞✉❧♦ ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥&❡✳ ✻✾ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✷✸ ❈✐"❝✉✐&♦ "❡&✐✜❝❛❞♦" ❞❡ ❡♥&"❛❞❛ ❞♦ ♠U❞✉❧♦ &"✐❢M ✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✷✹ ❚❡♥ 3♦ ❞❡ ❢❛ ❡ ❡ ❝♦""❡♥&❡ ❞❡ ❡♥&"❛❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡" ♦" ♠✉❧&✐✲

♥)✈❡❧ ❤)❜"✐❞♦ &"✐❢M ✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✷ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✷✺ ❆♥M❧✐ ❡ ❞♦ ❡ ♣❡❝&"♦ ❤❛"♠O♥✐♦ ❞❛ ❝♦""❡♥&❡ ❞❡ ❡♥&"❛❞❛

❞♦ ✐♥✈❡" ♦" ♠✉❧&✐♥)✈❡❧ ❤)❜"✐❞♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✸ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✷✻ ❚❡♥ 3♦ ❞♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐&♦"❡ ❞❡ ❜❛""❛♠❡♥&♦ ❞♦ ✉❜♠U❞✉❧♦

♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥&❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✸ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✸✳✷✼ ❚❡♥ 3♦ ❞♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐&♦"❡ ❞❡ ❜❛""❛♠❡♥&♦ ❞♦ ♠U❞✉❧♦ &"✐❢M✲

✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✹ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✹✳✶ ❙✐♥❛❧ ❞❡ "❡❢❡">♥❝✐❛ ❡ ♣♦"&❛❞♦"❛ ❞❡ ❧♦❝❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛♠♣❧✐✲

&✉❞❡ ♣❛"❛ ♠♦❞✉❧❛23♦ ❤)❜"✐❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✾ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✹✳✷ ❊ &"✉&✉"❛ ❞♦ ✉❜♠U❞✉❧♦ ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥&❡ ❡ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡=✉✐✲

✈❛❧❡♥&❡ ❡♠♣"❡❣❛❞♦ ♣❛"❛ ❛♥M❧✐ ❡ ❞♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐&♦" ❞❡ ✉❜♠U❞✉❧♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✵ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✹✳✸ ❈✉"✈❛ =✉❡ "❡♣"❡ ❡♥&❛♠ ❛ =✉❡❞❛ ❞❡ &❡♥ 3♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥23♦

❞❛ ❝♦""❡♥&❡ ♥♦ ✐♥&❡""✉♣&♦"❡ ❞♦ ♠U❞✉❧♦ ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥&❡ ❡ ❞♦ ♠U❞✉❧♦ &"✐❢M ✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✽ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✹✳✹ ❈✉"✈❛ =✉❡ "❡♣"❡ ❡♥&❛♠ ❛ =✉❡❞❛ ❞❡ &❡♥ 3♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥23♦ ❞❛

❝♦""❡♥&❡ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ ❞♦ ♠U❞✉❧♦ ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥&❡ ❡ ❞♦ ♠U❞✉❧♦ &"✐❢M ✐❝♦✳✶✶✵ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✹✳✺ ❈✉"✈❛ ❞❡ ❡♥❡"❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉&❛23♦ ❞♦ ❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉&♦"❡

❢♦"♥❡❝✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛❜"✐❝❛♥&❡✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✸ ❋✐❣✉"❛ ✹✳✻ ❈♦❡✜❝✐❡♥&❡ ❞❛ ❝✉"✈❛ ❞❛ ❡♥❡"❣✐❛ ❞❡ "❡❝✉♣❡"❛23♦ "❡✈❡" ❛

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❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✷ ❚❡♥,-♦ ❞❡ ❢❛,❡ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ 78❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❤3❜$✐❞❛✱ M a= 0,9 (500 V/div)✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✼

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✸ ❚❡♥,-♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ 78❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❤3❜$✐❞❛✱ M a= 0,9 (500 V/div)✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✽

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✹ ❈♦$$❡♥7❡ ❞❡ ❝❛$❣❛ iA✱ iB ❡ iC ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ♠✉❧7✐♥3✈❡❧

❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❤3❜$✐❞❛✱ M a= 0,9 (5 A/div)✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✾

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✺ ❈♦$$❡♥7❡ ❞❡ ❝❛$❣❛iA✭❝❡♥7$❛❧✐③❛❞❛✮ ❡ ❛, ❝♦$$❡♥7❡, ❛7$❛✲

✈8, ❞♦, ,❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉7♦$❡,S1A+D1A✭,✉♣❡$✐♦$✮ ❡S2A+D2A✭✐♥❢❡$✐♦$✮

❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ♠✉❧7✐♥3✈❡❧ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❤3❜$✐❞❛✱ M a= 0,9 (5 A/div)✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✵

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✻ ●$K✜❝♦ ❞♦ ✈❛❧♦$ ❡♠ ♣❡$❝❡♥7✉❛❧ ❞♦, ✈❛❧♦$❡, ♠8❞✐♦ ❡ ❡✜✲ ❝❛③✱ 7❡M$✐❝♦, ❡ ♣$K7✐❝♦,✱ ❞❛ ❝♦$$❡♥7❡ ♥♦, ,❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉7♦$❡,S1A+D1A

❡S2A+D2A ❡♠ ❢✉♥:-♦ ❞♦ 3♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ♠✉❧✲

7✐♥3✈❡❧ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❤3❜$✐❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✵ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✼ ❘❡,✉❧7❛❞♦, 7❡M$✐❝♦, ❡ ❡①♣❡$✐♠❡♥7❛✐, ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ♣♦7Q♥❝✐❛

❛7$❛✈8, ❞❛, ❢♦♥7❡, ❞❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥7❛:-♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ♠✉❧7✐♥3✈❡❧ ♣❛$❛ ♦ ✏❈❛,♦ ✶✑✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✶ ❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✽ ❚❡♥,-♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ 78❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡

♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❤3❜$✐❞❛✱ M a= 0,9 (1000 V/div)✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✸

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✾ ❚❍❉ ❡ ❲❚❍❉ ❞❛ 7❡♥,-♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ 78❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❤3❜$✐❞❛✱ M a= 0,9✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✺

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✶✵ ❚❡♥,-♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ 78❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❙❱▼ ❝♦♠ ,❡7❡ ,❡❣♠❡♥7♦,✱ M a= 0,9 (1000 V/div)✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✻

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✶✶ ❚❍❉ ❡ ❲❚❍❉ ❞❛ 7❡♥,-♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ 78❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❙❱▼ ❝♦♠ ,❡7❡ ,❡❣♠❡♥7♦,✱ M a= 0,9✳✶✸✼

❋✐❣✉$❛ ✺✳✶✷ ❚❡♥,-♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$,♦$ ❤3❜$✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ 78❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛:-♦ ❙❱▼ ❝♦♠ ❝✐♥❝♦ ,❡❣♠❡♥7♦,✱ M a= 0,9 (1000 V/div)✳ ✳ ✶✸✾

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▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❚❆❇❊▲❆❙

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✶ ❚❡♥)*♦ ❞❡ )❛-❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❛)❡ ❡♠ 1❛③*♦ ❞♦) ❡)3❛❞♦) ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉3❛5*♦ ♣❛1❛ ✸▲✲◆;❈ ❡ ✺▲✲◆;❈✱ ♦♥❞❡o=A, B, C✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✷ ❚❡♥)*♦ ❞❡ )❛-❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❛)❡ ❡♠ 1❛③*♦ ❞♦) ❡)3❛❞♦) ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉3❛5*♦ ♣❛1❛ ✸▲✲❋❈ ❡ ✺▲✲❋❈✱ ♦♥❞❡o=A, B, C✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✸ ❚❡♥)*♦ ❞❡ )❛-❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❛)❡ ❡♠ 1❛③*♦ ❞♦) ❡)3❛❞♦) ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉3❛5*♦ ♣❛1❛ ✺▲✲❈❍❇✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✷✳✹ ❚❡♥)*♦ ❞❡ )❛-❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❛)❡ ❡♠ 1❛③*♦ ❞♦) ❡)3❛❞♦) ❞❡

❝♦♠✉3❛5*♦ ♣❛1❛ ♦ ✺▲ ✲ ❈❛)❝❛❞❡❞ ❍❛❧❢✲❇1✐❞❣❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✳✶ ❚❡♥)*♦ ❞❡ )❛-❞❛ ✭vo✱ ♦♥❞❡o=A, B, C✮ ❡♠ ❢✉♥5*♦ ❞♦)

❡)3❛❞♦) ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉3❛5*♦ ❡ ❞♦ ♥-✈❡❧ ❞❛) ❢♦♥3❡) ❞❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥3❛5*♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♠J❞✉❧♦✱ ♣❛1❛ Vx ❡Vy✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✳✷ ;❛1K♠❡31♦) ❞❡ )✐♠✉❧❛5*♦ ❞❛) ❢♦1♠❛) ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❡ 3❡♥)*♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡1)♦1 ♠✉❧3✐♥-✈❡❧ ❤-❜1✐❞♦ ♣❛1❛ 3M❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛5*♦ ❤-❜1✐❞❛✱ ♣❛1❛ ♦ ✏❈❛)♦ ✷✑✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✳✸ ;❛1K♠❡31♦) ❞❡ )✐♠✉❧❛5*♦ ❞❛) ❢♦1♠❛) ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❡ 3❡♥)*♦

❞♦ ✐♥✈❡1)♦1 ♠✉❧3✐♥-✈❡❧ ❤-❜1✐❞♦ ♣❛1❛ 3M❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛5*♦ ❤-❜1✐❞❛✱ ♣❛1❛ ♦ ✏❈❛)♦ ✶✑✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✳✹ ❈♦♠♣♦♥❡♥3❡) ❞♦ ✈❡3♦1 ❡Q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥3❡ ❛♦ ♣1✐♠❡✐1♦ )❡①3❛♥3❡ ✻✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✳✺ ;❡1♠✉3❛5*♦ ❞❛) ❢❛)❡)ABC ♣❛1❛ )-♥3❡)❡ ❞♦ ✈❡3♦1 ♦1✐❣✐✲

♥❛❧ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ )❡①3❛♥3❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✳✻ ;❛1K♠❡31♦) ❞❡ )✐♠✉❧❛5*♦ ❞❛) ❢♦1♠❛) ❞❡ ♦♥❞❛ ❞❡ 3❡♥✲

)*♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡1)♦1 ♠✉❧3✐♥-✈❡❧ ❤-❜1✐❞♦ ♣❛1❛ 3M❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛5*♦ ♣♦1 ✈❡3♦1❡) ❡)♣❛❝✐❛✐) ❝♦♠ )❡3❡ ❡ ❝✐♥❝♦ )❡❣♠❡♥3♦)✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✳✼ ;❛1K♠❡31♦) ❞❡ )✐♠✉❧❛5*♦ ❞♦) 1❡3✐✜❝❛❞♦1❡) ❞❡ ❡♥31❛❞❛✳ ✼✷ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✸✳✽ ❱❛❧♦1❡) ❞❛ ❝♦11❡♥3❡ ♠M❞✐❛ ❡ ❡✜❝❛③ ♣❛1❛ ♦) ❞✐♦❞♦) 1❡✲

3✐✜❝❛❞♦1❡) ❡ ♣❛1❛ ♦) ❝❛♣❛❝✐3♦1❡) ❞♦) ❜❛11❛♠❡♥3♦) ❝❝ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡1)♦1 ♠✉❧3✐♥-✈❡❧ ❤-❜1✐❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✹ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✶ ❈♦♥)3❛♥3❡) ❞❛ Q✉❡❞❛ ❞❡ 3❡♥)*♦ ❡ ❞❡ ♦♣♦)✐5*♦ W ♣❛))❛✲

❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❝♦11❡♥3❡ ❞♦) ✐♥3❡11✉♣3♦1❡)✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✷ ;❛1K♠❡31♦) ❞❡ ♦♣❡1❛5*♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡1)♦1 ♣1♦♣♦)3♦ ♣❛1❛ ❞✐✲

♠❡♥)✐♦♥❛♠❡♥3♦ ❞❛) ♣❡1❞❛) ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉5*♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✼ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✸ ;❡1❞❛) ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉5*♦ ♥♦) ✐♥3❡11✉♣3♦1❡) ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡1)♦1 ♠✉❧✲

3✐♥-✈❡❧ ❤-❜1✐❞♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥5*♦ ❞♦ -♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛5*♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✾ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✹ ❈♦♥)3❛♥3❡) ❞❛ Q✉❡❞❛ ❞❡ 3❡♥)*♦ ❡ ❞❡ ♦♣♦)✐5*♦ W ♣❛))❛✲

(22)

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✺ (❡)❞❛+ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉01♦ ♥♦+ ❞✐♦❞♦+ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡)+♦) ♠✉❧5✐♥6✈❡❧ ❤6❜)✐❞♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥01♦ ❞♦ 6♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛01♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✶ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✻ ❈♦❡✜❝✐❡♥5❡+ ❞❛ ❝✉)✈❛ ❞❛ ❡♥❡)❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❡♥5)❛❞❛ ❡ +❛6❞❛ ❞❡

❝♦♥❞✉01♦ ❞♦+ ✐♥5❡))✉♣5♦)❡+ ❞♦ ♠?❞✉❧♦ ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥5❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✹ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✼ (❡)❞❛+ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉5❛01♦ ♥♦+ ✐♥5❡))✉♣5♦)❡+ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡)+♦) ♠✉❧✲

5✐♥6✈❡❧ ❤6❜)✐❞♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥01♦ ❞♦ 6♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛01♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✹ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✽ ❱❛❧♦)❡+ ❢♦)♥❡❝✐❞♦+ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛❜)✐❝❛♥5❡ ❞♦+ ♠?❞✉❧♦+ ❙❑▼

✼✺❇●✵✻✸❉ ♣❛)❛ ♦♣❡)❛01♦ ❛ 25o C✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✻

❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✾ ❈♦❡✜❝✐❡♥5❡+ ❞❛ ❝✉)✈❛ ❞❛ ❡♥❡)❣✐❛ ❞❡ )❡❝✉♣❡)❛01♦ )❡✈❡)+❛ ❞♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥01♦ ❞❛ ❝♦))❡♥5❡ ♥♦ ❞✐♦❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✻ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✶✵ (❡)❞❛+ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉5❛01♦ ♥♦+ ❞✐♦❞♦+ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡)+♦) ♠✉❧5✐♥6✈❡❧

❤6❜)✐❞♦ ❡♠ ❢✉♥01♦ ❞♦ 6♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛01♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✼ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✶✶ ❋❛5♦) ❞❡ ❝♦))❡01♦ KRG ♣❛)❛ ♦+ +❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉5♦)❡+ ❞♦ ✐♥✲

✈❡)+♦) ♠✉❧5✐♥6✈❡❧ ❤6❜)✐❞♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✹✳✶✷ ❋❛5♦) ❞❡ ❝♦))❡01♦Kc ♣❛)❛ ♦+ +❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉5♦)❡+ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡)✲

+♦) ♠✉❧5✐♥6✈❡❧ ❤6❜)✐❞♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✵ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✶ ❈♦♠♣♦♥❡♥5❡+ ❡♠♣)❡❣❛❞♦+ ♣❛)❛ ♦ ♣)♦5?5✐♣♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡)+♦)

❤6❜)✐❞♦ ♠✉❧5✐♥6✈❡❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✺ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✷ ❊+♣❡❝✐✜❝❛0P❡+ ❞❡ ♣)♦❥❡5♦ ♣❛)❛ ❛♥R❧✐+❡ ❞❛ ❡+5)✉5✉)❛ ❞❡

♣♦5S♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡)+♦) ♣)♦♣♦+5♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷✻ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✸ ❊+♣❡❝✐✜❝❛0P❡+ ❞❡ ♣)♦❥❡5♦ ♣❛)❛ ❛♥R❧✐+❡ ❞❛+ 5T❝♥✐❝❛+ ❞❡

♠♦❞✉❧❛0P❡+ ❡♠♣)❡❣❛❞❛+ ❛♦ ✐♥✈❡)+♦) ♠✉❧5✐♥6✈❡❧ ❤6❜)✐❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸✷ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ✺✳✹ ❈♦♠♣❛)❛01♦ ❡♥5)❡ ❛+ 5T❝♥✐❝❛+ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛01♦ ❡♠♣)❡❣❛✲

(23)

▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❆❇❘❊❱■❆❚❯❘❆❙ ❊ ❙■●▲❆❙

■●❇❚ ■♥%✉❧❛)❡❞ ●❛)❡ ❇✐♣♦❧❛/ ❚/❛♥%✐%)♦/ ✭❚/❛♥%✐%)♦/ ❇✐♣♦❧❛/ ❞❡ 1♦/)❛ ■%♦❧❛❞❛✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ■●❈❚ ■♥)❡❣/❛)❡❞ ●❛)❡ ❈♦♠♠✉)❛)❡❞ ❚❤②/✐%)♦/ ✭❚✐/✐%)♦/ ❈♦♥✲

)/♦❧❛❞♦ ❞❡ 1♦/)❛ ■%♦❧❛❞❛✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ◆1❈ ◆❡✉)/❛❧ 1♦✐♥) ❈❧❛♠♣❡❞ ✭❈♦♥✈❡/%♦/ ❞❡ 1♦♥)♦ ❈♦♠✉♠✮ ✳ ✳ ✼ ❋❈ ❋❧②✐♥❣ ❈❛♣❛❝✐)♦/ ✭❈❛♣❛❝✐)♦/ ❋❧✉)✉❛♥)❡✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ▼▼❈ ▼♦❞✉❧❛/ ▼✉❧)✐❧❡✈❡❧ ❈♦♥✈❡/)❡/ ✭❈♦♥✈❡/%♦/ ▼♦❞✉❧❛/ ▼✉❧✲

)✐♥B✈❡✐%✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ❈❍❇ ❈❛%❝❛❞❡❞ ❍✲❇/✐❞❣❡ ✭❈❛%❝❛)❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✈❡/%♦/❡% ❞❡ 1♦♥)❡ ❍✮ ✶✺ ❈❇✲1❲▼❈❛//✐❡/✲❇❛%❡❞ 1✉❧%❡ ❲✐❞)❤ ▼♦❞✉❧❛)✐♦♥ ✭▼♦❞✉❧❛FG♦ ♣♦/

▲❛/❣✉/❛ ❞❡ 1✉❧%♦% ❝♦♠ 1♦/)❛❞♦/❛%✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ❙❱▼ ❙♣❛❝❡ ❱❡❝)♦/ ▼♦❞✉❧❛)✐♦♥ ✭▼♦❞✉❧❛FG♦ ♣♦/ ❱❡)♦/❡% ❊%♣❛✲

❝✐❛✐%✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ❙❍❊ ❙❡❧❡❝)✐✈❡ ❍❛/♠♦♥✐❝ ❊❧✐♠✐♥❛)✐♦♥ ✭❊❧✐♠✐♥❛FG♦ %❡❧❡)✐✈❛ ❞❡

❍❛/♠M♥✐❝❛%✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ 1❉ 1❤❛%❡ ❉✐%♣♦%✐)✐♦♥ ✭❉✐%♣♦%)❛ ❡♠ ❋❛%❡✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ 1❖❉ 1❤❛%❡ ❖♣♣♦%✐)✐♦♥ ❉✐%♣♦%✐)✐♦♥ ✭❉✐%♣♦%)❛ ❡♠ ❖♣♦%✐FG♦ ❞❡

❋❛%❡✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ❆1❖❉ ❆❧)❡/♥❛)✐✈❡ 1❤❛%❡ ❖♣♣♦%✐)✐♦♥ ❉✐%♣♦%✐)✐♦♥ ✭❉✐%♣♦%)❛ ❡♠

❖♣♦%✐FG♦ ❆❧)❡/♥❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❋❛%❡✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ 1❙ 1❤❛%❡ ❙❤✐✜)❡❞ ✭❉❡%❧♦❝❛♠❡♥)♦ ❞❡ ❋❛%❡✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ❚❍❉ ❚♦)❛❧ ❍❛/♠♦♥✐❝ ❉✐%)♦/)✐♦♥ ✭❉✐%)♦/FG♦ ❍❛/♠M♥✐❝❛ ❚♦)❛❧✮ ✺✹ ❉❙1 ❉✐❣✐)❛❧ ❙✐❣♥❛❧ 1/♦❝❡%%♦/ ✭1/♦❝❡%%❛❞♦/ ❉✐❣✐)❛❧ ❞❡ ❙✐♥❛✐%✮ ✺✺

(24)
(25)

▲■❙❚❆ ❉❊ ❙❮▼❇❖▲❖❙

n ◆!♠❡$♦ ❞❡ ♥(✈❡✐+ +✐♥,❡,✐③❛❞♦+ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♥✈❡$+♦$ ♥❛ ,❡♥+2♦ ❞❡

❢❛+❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶

ncap ◆!♠❡$♦ ❞❡ ❝❛♣❛❝✐,♦$❡+ ♣$❡+❡♥,❡+ ♥❛ ❡+,$✉,✉$❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷

nmod ◆!♠❡$♦ ❞❡ ♠8❞✉❧♦+ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❛+❡ ❞♦ ❝♦♥✈❡$+♦$✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻

nsub ◆!♠❡$♦ ❞❡ +✉❜♠8❞✉❧♦+ ❡♠♣$❡❣❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♥✈❡$+♦$ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽

nport ◆!♠❡$♦ ❞❡ ♣♦$,❛❞♦$❛+✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼

θdes ➶♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❡+❝♦❧❛♠❡♥,♦ ❡♥,$❡ ❛+ ♣♦$,❛❞♦$❛+ ❡♠ ❣$❛✉+ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾

Ts @❡$(♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉,❛A2♦ ❞❛ ,B❝♥✐❝❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛A2♦ ❙❱▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵

Vref ❱❡,♦$ $❡❢❡$H♥❝✐❛ ♣❛$❛ ❙❱▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵

P ❊+,❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉,❛A2♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$+♦$ ❞❡ ❞♦✐+ ♥(✈❡✐+ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ O ❊+,❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉,❛A2♦ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$+♦$ ❞❡ ❞♦✐+ ♥(✈❡✐+ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ vo ❚❡♥+2♦ ❞❡ ❢❛+❡ ♥❛ +❛(❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$+♦$ ♥♦ +✐+,❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♦$❞❡♥❛✲

❞❛+abc✱ ♦♥❞❡o=A, B, C✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ M a ❮♥❞✐❝❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛A2♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ vcom ❚❡♥+2♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽

VrefA ❙✐♥❛❧ ❞❡ $❡❢❡$H♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❢❛+❡A✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ Port ❙✐♥❛❧ ,$✐❛♥❣✉❧❛$ ✭♣♦$,❛❞♦$❛✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵

Vrefm ❱❛❧♦$ ❞❡ ♣✐❝♦ ❞♦ +✐♥❛❧ ❞❡ $❡❢❡$H♥❝✐❛ (M a= 1)✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ Px @♦,H♥❝✐❛ ❛,✐✈❛ ❛,$❛✈B+ ❞♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐,♦$ ❞♦ +✉❜♠8❞✉❧♦ ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥,❡✳ ✺✵

Py @♦,H♥❝✐❛ ❛,✐✈❛ ❛,$❛✈B+ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝❛♣❛❝✐,♦$ ❞♦ ♠8❞✉❧♦ ,$✐❢R+✐❝♦✳ ✺✵

Ts ❚❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❛♠♦+,$❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ✈❡,♦$ $❡❢❡$H♥❝✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺

Vα ❚❡♥+2♦ ❞❡ +❛(❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$+♦$ ♥♦ ❡✐①♦ α✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺

Vβ ❚❡♥+2♦ ❞❡ +❛(❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$+♦$ ♥♦ ❡✐①♦ β✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺

ntest ◆!♠❡$♦ ❞❡ ❡+,❛❞♦+ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉,❛A2♦ ♣♦++(✈❡✐+ ♣❡❧♦ ✐♥✈❡$+♦$ ♠✉❧✲

,✐♥(✈❡❧ ,$✐❢R+✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻

nestf ◆!♠❡$♦ ❞♦+ ❡+,❛❞♦+ ❞❡ ♣♦++(✈❡✐+ ❝♦♠✉,❛A2♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❢❛+❡ ❞♦

✐♥✈❡$+♦$ ♠✉❧,✐♥(✈❡❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻

Vg ❚❡♥+2♦ ❞❡ +❛(❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$+♦$ ♥♦ ❡✐①♦ g✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾

Vh ❚❡♥+2♦ ❞❡ +❛(❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡$+♦$ ♥♦ ❡✐①♦ h✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾

Vref,αβ❱❡,♦$ $❡❢❡$H♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ +✐+,❡♠❛+ ❞❡ ❝♦♦$❞❡♥❛+ αβ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵

fsw ❋$❡U✉H♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉,❛A2♦ ❞♦+ +❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉,♦$❡+ ❞❡ ♣♦,H♥❝✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✻✺

Ts @❡$(♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉,❛A2♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺

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♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥'❡( ❛ ❝❛*❣❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✾

Pcarga /♦'0♥❝✐❛ '♦'❛❧ ❢♦*♥❡❝✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ✐♥✈❡*(♦* ♠✉❧'✐♥6✈❡❧ ♣*♦♣♦('♦ ❛

❝❛*❣❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✾

αesp ❘❡❧❛89♦ ❞❡ ❡(♣✐*❛( ❡♥'*❡ ♣*✐♠:*✐♦ ❡ (❡❝✉♥❞:*✐♦ ❞♦( '*❛♥(❢♦*✲

♠❛❞♦*❡(✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

Vpri ❚❡♥(9♦ ❞❡ ❢❛(❡ ♥♦ ♣*✐♠:*✐♦ ❞♦( '*❛♥(❢♦*♠❛❞♦*❡( ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

F Pmp ❋❛'♦* ❞❡ ♣♦'0♥❝✐❛ ♣❛*❛ ♦( *❡'✐✜❝❛❞♦*❡( ❞❡ (❡✐( ♣✉❧(♦( ❞♦(

♠A❞✉❧♦( ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥'❡(✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

Iintmp❈♦**❡♥'❡ ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❡ ❢❛(❡ ♥❛ ❡♥'*❛❞❛ ❞♦( ♠A❞✉❧♦( ♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥'❡✳ ✼✵

Idmp ❈♦**❡♥'❡ ♠D❞✐❛ ♥♦( ❞✐♦❞♦( ❞♦( *❡'✐✜❝❛❞♦*❡( ❞♦( ♠A❞✉❧♦(

♠❡✐❛ ♣♦♥'❡(✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

avg ❱❛❧♦* ♠D❞✐♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥'❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵ rms ❱❛❧♦* ❡✜❝❛③ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥'❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵ Pmt /♦'0♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❢♦*♥❡❝✐❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❛❧✐♠❡♥'❛89♦ ❞♦ ♠A❞✉❧♦ '*✐❢:(✐❝♦

❛ ❝❛*❣❛✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

F Pmt ❋❛'♦* ❞❡ ♣♦'0♥❝✐❛ ♣❛*❛ ♦ *❡'✐✜❝❛❞♦* ❞❡ ❞♦③❡ ♣✉❧(♦( ❞♦ ♠A❞✉❧♦

'*✐❢:(✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✶

Iintmt❈♦**❡♥'❡ ❞❡ ❢❛(❡ ❞❛ ❡♥'*❛❞❛ ❞❛ ❛❧✐♠❡♥'❛89♦ ❞♦ *❡'✐✜❝❛❞♦*❡(

❞❡ ❞♦③❡ ♣✉❧(♦(✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✶

Idmt ❈♦**❡♥'❡ ♠D❞✐❛ ♥♦( ❞✐♦❞♦( ❞♦ *❡'✐✜❝❛❞♦* ❞❡ ❞♦③❡ ♣✉❧(♦ ❞♦

♠A❞✉❧♦ '*✐❢:(✐❝♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✶

Ip ❈♦**❡♥'❡ ❞❡ ♣✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❝❛*❣❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡*(♦*✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✽

Φ ❉❡❢❛(❛❣❡♠ ❡♥'*❡ ❛ ❝♦**❡♥'❡ ❞❡ ❝❛*❣❛ ❡ ❛ '❡♥(9♦ ❞❡ *❡❢❡*0♥❝✐❛✳ ✼✽ ISjA ❈♦**❡♥'❡ ♥♦ (❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉'♦*✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✽

dSjA ❘❛③9♦ ❝6❝❧✐❝❛ ❞♦ (❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉'♦*✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✽

θm ➶♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❛ ♣❛((❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ (✐♥❛❧ ❞❡ *❡❢❡*0♥❝✐❛ ❡♥'*❡ ♣♦*'❛❞♦*❛(✳ ✼✾

ifdc ❈♦**❡♥'❡ ❢♦*♥❡❝✐❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❢♦♥'❡ ❞❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥'❛89♦ ❞♦ (✉❜♠A❞✉❧♦✳✶✵✶

iC2(ϕ)❈♦**❡♥'❡ ✐♥('❛♥'K♥❡❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐'♦* ❞❡ (✉❜♠A❞✉❧♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶

iinv(ϕ)❈♦**❡♥'❡ *❡L✉❡*✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ✐♥✈❡*(♦* ❞❡ (✉❜♠A❞✉❧♦✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✶

C2 ❱❛❧♦* ❞♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐'♦* ❞❡ (✉❜♠A❞✉❧♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷ vC2 ❚❡♥(9♦ (♦❜*❡ ♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐'♦* ❞❡ (✉❜♠A❞✉❧♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷ ωo ❋*❡L✉0♥❝✐❛ ❛♥❣✉❧❛* ❞❛ '❡♥(9♦ ❞❡ (❛6❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡*(♦*✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷

fo ❋*❡L✉0♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ '❡♥(9♦ ❞❡ (❛6❞❛ ❞♦ ✐♥✈❡*(♦*✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✷

IC2 ❈♦**❡♥'❡ ♥♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐'♦* ❞❡ (✉❜♠A❞✉❧♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✸ fr ❋*❡L✉0♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ *❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧✐♠❡♥'❛89♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺

(27)

Thold ❚❡♠♣♦ %✉❛❧ ♦ ❝❛♣❛❝✐+♦, ❛❧✐♠❡♥+❛ ❞✐,❡+❛♠❡♥+❡ ❛ ❝❛,❣❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺

V cc ❚❡♥45♦ ❞♦ ❜❛,,❛♠❡♥+♦ ❝❝✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✺ Pcond 7❡,❞❛4 ❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✉85♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ 4❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉+♦, ❞❡ ♣♦+9♥❝✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✻

VT O ◗✉❡❞❛ ❞❡ +❡♥45♦ ♥♦ 4❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉+♦,✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✻

rT ❈♦♥4+❛♥+❡ %✉❡ ❝❛,❛❝+❡,✐③❛ ✉♠ ❛✉♠❡♥+♦ ❧✐♥❡❛, ❞❛4 ♣❡,❞❛4 ♥♦

4❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉+♦, > ♣❛44❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❝♦,,❡♥+❡✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵✻

kl ❈♦❡✜❝✐❡♥+❡4 ❞❛ ❡%✉❛85♦ ❞❡ 4❡❣✉♥❞❛ ♦,❞❡♠ %✉❛❧ ❞❡4❝,❡✈❡ ❛

❡♥❡,❣✐❛ ❞✐44✐♣❛❞❛ ♣♦, ✉♠ 4❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉+♦, ❞❡✈✐❞❛ ❛ ❝♦♠✉+❛85♦ l= 1,2,3✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷ E ❊♥❡,❣✐❛ ❞✐44✐♣❛❞❛ ♣♦, ✉♠ 4❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉+♦, ❞❡✈✐❞❛ ❛ 4✉❛ ❝♦♠✉✲

+❛85♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷

kl ❈♦❡✜❝✐❡♥+❡ ❞❛ ❡%✉❛85♦ ♣♦❧✐♥♦♠✐❛❧ ❞❛4 ❝✉,✈❛4 ❞❡ ❡♥+,❛❞❛ ❡

4❛D❞❛ ❡♠ ❝♦♥❞✉85♦ ❞❡ ✐♥+❡,,✉♣+♦,❡4 ♦✉ ❞❛ ,❡❝✉♣❡,❛85♦ ,❡✈❡,4❛ ❞❡ ❞✐♦❞♦4✱ ♦♥❞❡l= 0, 1, 2✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷ Kc ❋❛+♦, ❞❡ ❝♦,,❡85♦ ❞♦4 ♣❛,G♠❡+,♦4 ❞❛4 ❝✉,✈❛4 ❞❡ ❡♥❡,❣✐❛ ♣❛,❛

♦4 ♣❛,G♠❡+,♦4 ❞❡ +,❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷

Pcom 7❡,❞❛4 ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉+❛85♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ 4❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉+♦, ❞❡ ♣♦+9♥❝✐❛✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✷

Vcc ❚❡♥45♦ ❞❡ ❜❛,,❛♠❡♥+♦ ❝❝ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✺

Inom ❈♦,,❡♥+❡ ♥♦♠✐♥❛❧ ❞♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✺

trr ❚❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ,❡❝✉♣❡,❛85♦ ,❡✈❡,4❛ ❞♦ ❞✐♦❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✺

Irr ❈♦,,❡♥+❡ ❞❡ ,❡❝✉♣❡,❛85♦ ,❡✈❡,4❛ ❞♦ ❞✐♦❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✺

KRG ❋❛+♦, ❞❡ ❝♦,,❡85♦ ❞♦ ,❡4✐4+♦, ❞❡ ❣❛+❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✽

Vgra ❚❡♥45♦ ✐♠♣♦4+❛ 4♦❜,❡ ♦ 4❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉+♦, ♣❛,❛ ♦❜+❡♥85♦ ❞❛ ❝✉,✈❛

❞❡ ❡♥❡,❣✐❛✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✽

Kv ❊①♣♦❡♥+❡ ❞❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞9♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ +❡♥45♦ ♣❛,❛ ❛4 ♣❡,❞❛4 ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉✲

+❛85♦ ✭❡♥+,❡1,3 ❛1,4 4❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❢❛❜,✐❝❛♥+❡✮✳✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✽ T Cesw❈♦❡✜❝✐❡♥+❡ ❞❛ +❡♠♣❡,❛+✉,❛ ♣❛,❛ ❛4 ♣❡,❞❛4 ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉+❛85♦ ✭

0,0031/K4❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❢❛❜,✐❝❛♥+❡✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶✽ Tgra ❚❡♠♣❡,❛+✉,❛ ❞❡ ❥✉♥85♦ ❞♦ 4❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉+♦, ❞❛ ❝✉,✈❛ %✉❛❧ ❢♦✐

(28)
(29)

❙❯▼➪❘■❖

✶ ■◆❚❘❖❉❯➬➹❖ ✶

✷ ❈❖◆❱❊❘❙❖❘❊❙ ▼❯▲❚■◆❮❱❊■❙ ✼

✷✳✶ ❚♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛* ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✶✳✶ ❈♦♥✈❡0*♦0 ❝♦♠ ❉✐♦❞♦* ❞❡ ●0❛♠♣❡❛♠❡♥6♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✶✳✷ ❈♦♥✈❡0*♦0 ❝♦♠ ❈❛♣❛❝✐6♦0❡* ❞❡ ●0❛♠♣❡❛♠❡♥6♦ ✳ ✶✶ ✷✳✶✳✸ ❈♦♥✈❡0*♦0❡* ❡♠ ❈❛*❝❛6❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✷✳✶✳✸✳✶ ❈♦♥✈❡0*♦0 ❡♠ ❈❛*❝❛6❛ ❞❡ 9♦♥6❡ ❈♦♠♣❧❡6❛ ✶✺ ✷✳✶✳✸✳✷ ❈♦♥✈❡0*♦0 ❡♠ ❈❛*❝❛6❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥✈❡0*♦0❡*

▼❡✐❛ 9♦♥6❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✶✳✹ ❈♦♥✈❡0*♦0 ▼♦❞✉❧❛0 ▼✉❧6✐♥>✈❡✐* ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✶✳✺ ❈♦♥✈❡0*♦0❡* ▼✉❧6✐♥>✈❡✐* ❍>❜0✐❞♦* ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✷✳✷ ❚B❝♥✐❝❛* ❞❡ ▼♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✷✳✷✳✶ ▼♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ♣♦0 ▲❛0❣✉0❛ ❞❡ 9✉❧*♦* ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹

✷✳✷✳✶✳✶ ▼♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ♣♦0 ▲❛0❣✉0❛ ❞❡ 9✉❧*♦ ❝♦♠ 9♦06❛❞♦0❛* ❉✐*♣♦*6❛* ❡♠ ❋❛*❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✷ ▼♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ♣♦0 ▲❛0❣✉0❛ ❞❡ 9✉❧*♦ ❝♦♠

9♦06❛❞♦0❛* ❉✐*♣♦*6❛* ❡♠ ❖♣♦*✐CD♦ ❞❡ ❋❛*❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✸ ▼♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ♣♦0 ▲❛0❣✉0❛ ❞❡ 9✉❧*♦ ❝♦♠

9♦06❛❞♦0❛* ❉✐*♣♦*6❛* ❡♠ ❖♣♦*✐CD♦ ❆❧✲ 6❡0♥❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❋❛*❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✹ ▼♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ♣♦0 ▲❛0❣✉0❛ ❞❡ 9✉❧*♦ ❝♦♠

9♦06❛❞♦0❛* ❝♦♠ ❉❡*❧♦❝❛♠❡♥6♦ ❞❡ ❋❛*❡ ✳ ✷✽ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✺ ▼♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ♣♦0 ▲❛0❣✉0❛ ❞❡ 9✉❧*♦ ♣♦0

❱❡6♦0❡* ❊*♣❛❝✐❛✐* ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✷✳✷✳✶✳✻ ▼♦❞✉❧❛CD♦ ♣♦0 ▲❛0❣✉0❛ ❞❡ 9✉❧*♦ ❍>❜0✐❞❛ ✸✵ ✷✳✸ ❈♦♥❝❧✉*D♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶

✸ ❆◆➪▲■❙❊ ❉❖ ■◆❱❊❘❙❖❘ ▼❯▲❚■◆❮❱❊▲ ❍❮❇❘■❉❖

8❘❖8❖❙❚❖ ✸✺

(30)

✸✳✶✳✻ ❙❡①'❛ ❊'❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❖♣❡-❛./♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✸✳✶✳✼ ❙4'✐♠❛ ❊'❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❖♣❡-❛./♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✸✳✶✳✽ ❖✐'❛✈❛ ❊'❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❖♣❡-❛./♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✸✳✶✳✾ ◆♦♥❛ ❊'❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❖♣❡-❛./♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✸✳✶✳✶✵ ❉4❝✐♠❛ ❊'❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❖♣❡-❛./♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✸✳✶✳✶✶ ❉4❝✐♠❛ ?-✐♠❡✐-❛ ❊'❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❖♣❡-❛./♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✸✳✶✳✶✷ ❉4❝✐♠❛ ❙❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❊'❛♣❛ ❞❡ ❖♣❡-❛./♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✸✳✷ ❆♥C❧✐E❡ ❞❛ ❚❡♥E/♦ ❞❡ ❙❛G❞❛ ❞♦ ■♥✈❡-E♦- ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✸✳✸ ❚4❝♥✐❝❛E ❞❡ ▼♦❞✉❧❛./♦ ♣❛-❛ ♦ ■♥✈❡-E♦- ▼✉❧'✐♥G✈❡❧ ❍G❜-✐❞♦ ✹✻

✸✳✸✳✶ ▼♦❞✉❧❛./♦ ❍G❜-✐❞❛ ♣❛-❛ ♦ ■♥✈❡-E♦- ▼✉❧'✐♥G✈❡❧ ❍G❜-✐❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✸✳✸✳✷ ▼♦❞✉❧❛./♦ ♣♦- ❱❡'♦-❡E ❊E♣❛❝✐❛✐E ♣❛-❛ ♦

■♥✈❡-E♦-▼✉❧'✐♥G✈❡❧ ❍G❜-✐❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✸✳✸✳✷✳✶ ▼♦❞✉❧❛./♦ ♣♦- ❱❡'♦-❡E ❊E♣❛❝✐❛✐E ✲ ?-✐✲

♠❡✐-♦ ❊E'C❣✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ✸✳✸✳✷✳✷ ▼♦❞✉❧❛./♦ ♣♦- ❱❡'♦-❡E ❊E♣❛❝✐❛✐E ✲ ❙❡✲

❣✉♥❞♦ ❊E'C❣✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾ ✸✳✸✳✷✳✸ ▼♦❞✉❧❛./♦ ♣♦- ❱❡'♦-❡E ❊E♣❛❝✐❛✐E ✲ ❚❡-✲

❝❡✐-♦ ❊E'C❣✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵ ✸✳✸✳✷✳✹ ▼♦❞✉❧❛./♦ ♣♦- ❱❡'♦-❡E ❊E♣❛❝✐❛✐E ✲ ◗✉❛-'♦

❊E'C❣✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ✸✳✸✳✷✳✺ ▼♦❞✉❧❛./♦ ♣♦- ❱❡'♦-❡E ❊E♣❛❝✐❛✐E ✲ ◗✉✐♥'♦

❊E'C❣✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ✸✳✹ ❆♥C❧✐E❡ ❞❛E ❈♦--❡♥'❡E ❡ ❞♦E ❘❡'✐✜❝❛❞♦-❡E ❞❡ ❊♥'-❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✻✼ ✸✳✹✳✶ ❘❡'✐✜❝❛❞♦-❡E ❞♦E ▼S❞✉❧♦E ▼❡✐❛ ?♦♥'❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✾ ✸✳✹✳✷ ❘❡'✐✜❝❛❞♦- ❞♦ ▼S❞✉❧♦ ❚-✐❢CE✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵ ✸✳✹✳✸ ❙✐♠✉❧❛./♦ ❞♦E ❘❡'✐✜❝❛❞♦-❡E ❞❡ ❊♥'-❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✶ ✸✳✺ ❈♦♥❝❧✉E/♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺

✹ ❆◆➪▲■❙❊ ❉❖❙ ❊❙❋❖❘➬❖❙ ❉❊ ❈❖❘❘❊◆❚❊ ❉❖ ■◆✲

❱❊❘❙❖❘ ▼❯▲❚■◆❮❱❊▲ ❍❮❇❘■❉❖ 6❘❖6❖❙❚❖ ✼✼

✹✳✶ ❈C❧❝✉❧♦ ❞♦E ❱❛❧♦-❡E ▼4❞✐♦ ❡ ❊✜❝❛③ ❞❡ ❈♦--❡♥'❡ ♥♦E ❙❡✲ ♠✐❝♦♥❞✉'♦-❡E ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼ ✹✳✶✳✶ ❉❡'❡-♠✐♥❛./♦ ❞♦E ❱❛❧♦-❡E ▼4❞✐♦ ❡ ❊✜❝❛③ ❞❛ ❈♦-✲

-❡♥'❡ ♥♦ ❙❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉'♦- S1A ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✾

✹✳✶✳✷ ❉❡'❡-♠✐♥❛./♦ ❞♦E ❱❛❧♦-❡E ▼4❞✐♦ ❡ ❊✜❝❛③ ❞❛ ❈♦-✲ -❡♥'❡ ♥♦ ❙❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉'♦- S2A ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✷

✹✳✶✳✸ ❉❡'❡-♠✐♥❛./♦ ❞♦E ❱❛❧♦-❡E ▼4❞✐♦ ❡ ❊✜❝❛③ ❞❛ ❈♦-✲ -❡♥'❡ ♥♦ ❙❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉'♦- S3A ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✻

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