MDG-NoSQL: Modelo de Dados para Bancos NoSQL Baseados em Grafos

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Universidade de Brasília

Instituto de Ciências Exatas

Departamento de Ciência da Computação

  

▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✿ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲

❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s

●✉st❛✈♦ ❈✳ ●❛❧✈ã♦ ❱❛♥ ❊r✈❡♥

  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦ ▼❡str❛❞♦ Pr♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♠ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❆♣❧✐❝❛❞❛

  ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛ Pr♦❢✳➟ ❉r✳➟ ▼❛r✐st❡❧❛ ❚❡rt♦ ❞❡ ❍♦❧❛♥❞❛

  ❈♦♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❘♦♠♠❡❧ ◆♦✈❛❡s ❈❛r✈❛❧❤♦

  

❇r❛sí❧✐❛

✷✵✶✺

  ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❇r❛sí❧✐❛ ✖ ❯♥❇ ■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❊①❛t❛s ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ▼❡str❛❞♦ Pr♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♠ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❆♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❈♦♦r❞❡♥❛❞♦r✿ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ▼❛r❝❡❧♦ ▲❛❞❡✐r❛ ❇❛♥❝❛ ❡①❛♠✐♥❛❞♦r❛ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r✿

  Pr♦❢✳➟ ❉r✳➟ ▼❛r✐st❡❧❛ ❚❡rt♦ ❞❡ ❍♦❧❛♥❞❛ ✭❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❛✮ ✖ ❈■❈✴❯♥❇ Pr♦❢✳➟ ❉r✳➟ ●❡♥❛í♥❛ ◆✉♥❡s ❘♦❞r✐❣✉❡s ✖ ❈■❈✴❯♥❇ Pr♦❢✳ ❉r✳ ❙ér❣✐♦ ▲✐❢s❝❤✐t③ ✖ ❉■✴P❯❈✲❘✐♦

  ❈■P ✖ ❈❛t❛❧♦❣❛çã♦ ■♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥❛ P✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❊r✈❡♥✱ ●✉st❛✈♦ ❈✳ ●❛❧✈ã♦ ❱❛♥✳

  ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✿ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ✴ ●✉st❛✈♦ ❈✳ ●❛❧✈ã♦ ❱❛♥ ❊r✈❡♥✳ ❇r❛sí❧✐❛ ✿ ❯♥❇✱ ✷✵✶✺✳

  ✶✵✺ ♣✳ ✿ ✐❧✳ ❀ ✷✾✱✺ ❝♠✳

  ❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ✭▼❡str❛❞♦✮ ✖ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❇r❛sí❧✐❛✱ ❇r❛sí❧✐❛✱ ✷✵✶✺✳ ✶✳ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s✱ ✷✳ ●r❛❢♦s✱ ✸✳ ●♦✈❡r♥♦ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧✱ ✹✳ ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ✺✳ ❈♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❛ ❈♦rr✉♣çã♦

  ❈❉❯ ✵✵✹✳✹ ❊♥❞❡r❡ç♦✿ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❇r❛sí❧✐❛

  ❈❛♠♣✉s ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐tár✐♦ ❉❛r❝② ❘✐❜❡✐r♦ ✖ ❆s❛ ◆♦rt❡ ❈❊P ✼✵✾✶✵✲✾✵✵ ❇r❛sí❧✐❛✕❉❋ ✖ ❇r❛s✐❧

  ❉❡❞✐❝❛tór✐❛

  ❆♦s q✉❡ ❝✉❧t✐✈❛♠ ♥♦ss❛ ❝r✐❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ t♦r♥❛♠ s♦♥❤♦s ❡♠ r❡❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s✳

  

❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

  ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✱ ❛♠✐❣♦s ❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ♣❡❧♦ ❛♣♦✐♦✱ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❈♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r✐❛✲●❡r❛❧ ❞❛ ❯♥✐ã♦ q✉❡✱ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛ ❉✐r❡t♦r✐❛ ❞❡ ■♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❊str❛té❣✐❝❛s✱ ❛♣♦✐♦✉ ❡ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r♦✉ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

  

❘❡s✉♠♦

  ❖s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ✈ê♠ s❡ t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ♣♦♣✉❧❛r❡s ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ✐♥✐✲ ❝✐❛t✐✈❛s ◆♦❙◗▲✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛❞rã♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛❣r✉♣❛ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♥♦t❛çõ❡s ❡ ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❝♦♥str✉✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ✭▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✮✱ ❝♦♠ r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✳ ❊ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❢♦✐ ✈❛❧✐❞❛❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s s♦❝✐❡tár✐♦s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ss❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ❥✉rí❞✐❝❛s ❝♦♠ ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛s✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✱ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ ●♦✈❡r♥♦ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ✭❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❱í♥❝✉❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s✮✳ ❊ss❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❢♦✐ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛r ♥❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❡s ❡♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❧✐❝✐t❛tór✐♦s q✉❡✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s❡r ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛♣❧✐❝á✈❡❧ ❛ ✈ár✐♦s ór❣ã♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡✱ ♣❡rí❝✐❛ ❡ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ â♠❜✐t♦ ♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❡①tr❛✐r ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡①✲ t❡♥sí✈❡✐s ❛ ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s✳ P❛❧❛✈r❛s✲❝❤❛✈❡✿ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s✱ ●r❛❢♦s✱ ●♦✈❡r♥♦ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧✱ ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❈♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❛ ❈♦rr✉♣çã♦

  

❆❜str❛❝t

  ❈✉rr❡♥t❧②✱ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s ❛r❡ ❜❡❝♦♠✐♥❣ ♣♦♣✉❧❛r ❛❧♦♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ♦t❤❡r ◆♦❙◗▲ ✐♥✐t✐❛✲ t✐✈❡s✳ ❚❤✉s✱ r❡s❡❛r❝❤❡rs ❛♥❞ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❤❛✈❡ ❜❡❡♥ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣✐♥❣ ❞❛t❛ ♠♦❞❡❧s t♦ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛t❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❛s ❣r❛♣❤s ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ♥♦ st❛♥❞❛r❞ ♥♦t❛t✐♦♥ ✐♥✈♦❧✈❡s s❡✈❡r❛❧ ❢❡❛t✉r❡s ❛♥❞ str✉❝t✉r❡s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❣r❛♣❤ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡s✳ ❚❤✐s ♠♦❞❡❧ ✐♥tr♦❞✉❝❡s s❡✈❡r❛❧ ♥♦t❛t✐♦♥s ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥❝❡♣ts ❢♦r ❜✉✐❧❞✐♥❣ ❛ ♥❡✇ ❣r❛♣❤ ❞❛t❛ ♠♦❞❡❧✱ ❝❛❧❧❡❞ ❉❛t❛ ▼♦❞❡❧ ❢♦r ◆♦❙◗▲ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s ✭●❉▼✲◆♦❙◗▲✮✳ ❚❤❡ ●❉▼✲◆♦❙◗▲ ✇❛s ✈❡r✐✜❡❞ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❛ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❢♦r ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛t❡ r❡❧❛✲ t✐♦♥s❤✐♣s ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❛♥❞ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ ♣r♦❝✉r❡♠❡♥ts t❤❛t t❤❡s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛t❡❞ ✐♥ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ●♦✈❡r♥♠❡♥t✳ ❚❤✐s ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ ✇❛s ❞❡✲ s✐❣♥❡❞ t♦ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛t❡ t❤❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss ♦❢ s❡❛r❝❤✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❢r❛✉❞s ❛♥❞ t♦ ❜❡ ✉s❡❞ ♦♥ ♠✉❧t✐♣❧❡ ❝♦♥t❡①ts✱ ✐✳❡✳ s❡✈❡r❛❧ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛❣❡♥❝✐❡s✳ ❋✐♥❛❧❧②✱ t❤❡ ❞❡s✐❣♥❡❞ ♠♦❞❡❧ ✇❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❡❞ ✐♥ ❜♦t❤ ❛ r❡❧❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛♥❞ ❛ ❣r❛♣❤ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡ ✐♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ✈❛❧✐❞❛t❡ t❤❡ ❤②♣♦t❤❡s✐s t❤❛t ✇r✐t✐♥❣ r❡❧❛t✐♦♥s❤✐♣s ✐s s✐♠♣❧❡r ❛♥❞ ♠♦r❡ ❡✣❝✐❡♥t ✐♥ ❣r❛♣❤ ♠♦❞❡❧s t❤❛♥ r❡❧❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡s✳ ❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s✱ ●r❛♣❤s✱ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ●♦✈❡r♥♠❡♥t✱ ❘❡❧❛t✐♦♥s❤✐♣✱ ❈♦rr✉♣t✐♦♥ ❈♦♥tr♦❧

  

❙✉♠ár✐♦

✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

  ✶

  ✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶ ✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ✶✳✸ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ✷ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s

  ✹

  ✷✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ●r❛❢♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✷✳✷ ❊✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞♦s ❇❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✷✳✷✳✶ ❉✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✸ ❇❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸

  ✷✳✹ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✸ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✿ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s

  ✶✼

  ✸✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✸✳✷ ❱ért✐❝❡s ❙✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ❝♦♠ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✸✳✸ ❍✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡s ✭❍✐♣❡r♥ós✮ ❞♦ ●r❛❢♦ ❆♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✸✳✹ ❆r❡st❛s ❙✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ❞❡ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✸✳✺ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ✭❍✐♣❡r❛r❝♦✮ ❞❡ ❍✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✸✳✻ ❘❡❧❛çõ❡s ◆✲ár✐❛s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✸✳✼ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶

✹ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❱í♥❝✉❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ✹✸

✹✳✶ ❆✉❞✐t♦r✐❛ ❡ ♦ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✹✳✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❱í♥❝✉❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛

  ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✹✳✸ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❱í♥❝✉❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜✲ ❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✹✳✸✳✶ ●r❛❢♦ ❙✐♠♣❧❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✹✳✸✳✷ ●r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽

  ✹✳✸✳✸ ❍✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦s ❡ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✹✳✸✳✹ ●r❛❢♦ ❆♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ ❡ ❍✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✹✳✹ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✹✳✹✳✶ ❱ért✐❝❡s✱ ◆ã♦ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼

  ✹✳✹✳✷ ●r❛❢♦s ❊♥❢❛t✐③❛♠ ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ✹✳✹✳✸ ❘❡❧❛çõ❡s ❇✐♥ár✐❛s ❞❡ ▼✿◆ ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s sã♦ ❉✐r❡t❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵ ✹✳✹✳✹ ●r❛❢♦s ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❛❞❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵

✺ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❈❛s♦ ✻✷

  ✺✳✶ ❊s❝♦♣♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ✺✳✷ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛♥❞♦ ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ✺✳✷✳✶ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✶✿ ◗✉❛✐s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡❄ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹ ✺✳✷✳✷ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✷✿ ◗✉❛✐s ✐t❡♥s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♥❝♦rr❡r❛♠ ❥✉♥t❛s❄ ✻✼ ✺✳✷✳✸ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✸✿ ❈♦♠♦ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ s✉❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❛té ♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❄ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✵

  ✺✳✸ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❡s❝r❡✈❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ●r❛❢♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✻ ✺✳✹ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❡♠ ❇❛s❡ ❝♦♠ ❉❛❞♦s ❘❡❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✾ ✻ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦

  ✽✸

  ✼ ❆♥❡①♦s

  ✽✺

  ✼✳✶ ❆♥❡①♦ ■ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✺ ❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s

  ✾✶

  ▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

✷✳✶ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺

✷✳✷ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺

✷✳✸ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❧t✐❣r❛❢♦ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻

✷✳✹ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ❊✶ ❡ ❊✷✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻

✷✳✺ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼

✷✳✻ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ●r❛♠✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬✶❪✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽

✷✳✼ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ●❉▼✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬✶✻❪✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾

✷✳✽ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ●❖❆▲✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬✶✺❪✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵

✷✳✾ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ❙✐♠❛t✐❝✲❳❚✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬✸❪✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶

✷✳✶✵ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ❍②♣❡r♥♦❞❡ ▼♦❞❡❧✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬✷✹❪✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷

✸✳✶ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ♥❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ P❡ss♦❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽

✸✳✷ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽

✸✳✸ ❯s♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾

✸✳✹ ❯s♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾

✸✳✺ ❱ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠ t✐♣♦ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

✸✳✻ ❱ért✐❝❡ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶

✸✳✼ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❧✐❣❛❞❛ ❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶

✸✳✽ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷

✸✳✾ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❍✐♣❡r♥ó✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷

✸✳✶✵ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸

✸✳✶✶ ❍✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛ s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♥❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸

✸✳✶✷ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹

✸✳✶✸ ❯s♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❤✐♣❡r♥ós ❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡♠ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✳ ✷✺

✸✳✶✹ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛r❡st❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺

✸✳✶✺ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻

✸✳✶✻ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻

✸✳✶✼ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼

✸✳✶✽ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽

✸✳✶✾ ❈❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽

  

✸✳✷✵ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ t✐♣♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾

✸✳✷✶ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ♣❡s♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵

✸✳✷✷ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵

✸✳✷✸ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶

✸✳✷✹ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷

✸✳✷✺ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷

✸✳✷✻ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❛r❝♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s ♥♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸

✸✳✷✼ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♥tr❛st❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦

  ❞❡ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺

✸✳✷✽ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛♥❞♦ ✈ár✐❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻

✸✳✷✾ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♥❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼

✸✳✸✵ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽

✸✳✸✶ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽

✸✳✸✷ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛çã♦ ♥✲ár✐❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾

✸✳✸✸ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥✲ár✐♦ ❝♦♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵

✸✳✸✹ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥✲ár✐♦ ❝♦♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵

✸✳✸✺ ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♥❛ ❛r❡st❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶

✸✳✸✻ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶

✹✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❝♦♠ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻

✹✳✷ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼

✹✳✸ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾

✹✳✹ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶

✹✳✺ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❝♦♠ ◗✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷

✹✳✻ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ s❡♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸

✹✳✼ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹

✹✳✽ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ s❡♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺

✹✳✾ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❡♥tr❡ t✉♣❧❛s ❞❡ t❛❜❡❧❛s ❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽

✹✳✶✵ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠ ❛♥♦ ❡ ♠ês ❞❛ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾

✹✳✶✶ ●r❛❢♦s ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾

✹✳✶✷ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✿◆ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✵

✺✳✶ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ♥♦ ▼❘✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺

✺✳✷ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

✺✳✸ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ♥♦ ▼❘✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✽

✺✳✹ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r ✐t❡♥s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✾

✺✳✺ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r só❝✐♦s ❛té ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✳ ✳ ✼✶

  ✺✳✻ ❉❡st❛q✉❡ ❞♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ r❛♠♦ ❞❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r só❝✐♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✷

✺✳✼ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ só❝✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ r❛♠♦ ♥♦ ▼❘✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✹

✺✳✽ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ só❝✐♦s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✺

✺✳✾ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ só❝✐♦s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥ ❝♦♠ ♠❡♥♦r ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦✳ ✼✻

✺✳✶✵ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼✼

✺✳✶✶ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❳▼▲ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✵

✺✳✶✷ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ só❝✐♦s ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽✷

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

  ●r❛❢♦s sã♦ ❡str✉t✉r❛s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✱ s❡❥❛♠ ❡❧❡s ♣❡ss♦❛s✱ ❛t✐✈♦s ❞❡ r❡❞❡ ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❊❧❡s ❡stã♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❞❡ ♠❛♣❛s ❡♠ ❝❡❧✉❧❛r❡s ♦✉ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ r♦t❛s ❡♠ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ♥❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✱ ♠❛s ❛♣❡♥❛s r❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ✈❡♠ ❣❛♥❤❛♥❞♦ ♣♦♣✉❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ♥❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ❛r♠❛✲ ③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊ss❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡♠❡r❣❡♥t❡ tr❛③ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛r s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❥á ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ tí♣✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠ ❢♦r♠❛❧✐s♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❥á é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳ ❊ss❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ tr❛③ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❡ q✉❛✐s ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❞❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♥♦ â♠❜✐t♦ t❛♥t♦ ❞❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çõ❡s✳

  ✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦

  ❖ ❛♣❛r❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ✭◆♦t ❖♥❧② ❙◗▲✮ ❬ ✸✶ ❪ tr♦✉①❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛✲ t✐✈❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛❧é♠ ❞♦ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❉❡♥tr❡ ❡st❡s ♥♦✈♦s s✐st❡♠❛s✱ t❡♠✲s❡ ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛r ❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s✳

  ❖s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ✈❡♠ ❞❡s♣❡rt❛♥❞♦ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡s t❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❞♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♦♥❞❡ ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s é tã♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ q✉❛♥t♦ s❡✉s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝✐t❛r ❝♦♠♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❛s ✐♥t❡r❛çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ át♦♠♦s ❞❡ ♣r♦t❡í♥❛s✱ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❝♦♥❡①ã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦s ❡❧étr✐❝♦s✱ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❬ ✸✺ ❪✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ t❛♠❜é♠ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s sã♦ s✉❣❡r✐❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❜♦❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❬ ✹ ✱

  

✶✽ ✱ ✸✸ ❪✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ❧❛❝✉♥❛ s♦❜r❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s

  ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❡ss❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s✱ ♣♦✐s ❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♠❛t✉r✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ❛s♣❡❝t♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❆ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ é ✉♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♥❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❛r♠❛✲ ③❡♥❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❙✉❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ é ❝❧❛r❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡r❝❡❜✐❞❛ ♥❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ s❡ ✐♥t❡r♣♦♥❞♦ ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❢❛s❡ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♦✉ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ s✐st❡✲ ♠❛s ♠❛✐s r♦❜✉st♦s✳ ❆ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ ❡✈♦❧✉✐r✱ ❡ sã♦ ♠♦✈✐❞❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧❛ ♥❡✲ ❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛♥t❡❝✐♣❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ s❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❡ ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦✳

  ❖ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦ ✭▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✮✱ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ t❡♥t❛r s✉♣r✐r ❡ss❛ ❧❛❝✉♥❛ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s às ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛s✳ P❛r❛ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♣♦❞❡r ❡①❡❝✉t✐✈♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❧✐❝✐t❛tór✐♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❡s ❬ ✶✼ ❪✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s❡r❡♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❜❛♥❝♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❡st❛s sã♦ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛❞❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ♣r❡❞♦♠✐♥❛♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛t✉❛❧ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❝♦♠✉♥s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❡ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♠❛tér✐❛ ♣r✐♠❛✱ tr❛❞✉③✐❞❛s ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s q✉❡ s❡r✈✐r❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦s ✐♠♣❛❝t♦s ♥❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛✳

  ✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s

  ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❡ss❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤❡r ❛ ❧❛❝✉♥❛ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❛t❡♥❞❛ ❛♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛❞❛ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛s ❛t✉❛✐s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s✳

  ❖s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❞❡ss❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✿ ❼ Pr♦♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛r ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦❀ ❼ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s

  ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s❀ ❼ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❡ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ✶✳✸ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦

  ❊st❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ❡stá ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ♥♦s ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✿

  ❼ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷✿ ❆♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ t❡♦r✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ✭▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✮✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡✲ r❛çõ❡s ❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧❀

  ❼ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸✿ ❆ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ é ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦s ❞❡ s❡✉ ✉s♦ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝❛s♦s ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s❀

  ❼ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹✿ ❖ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s é ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❡ sã♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛♥á❧✐s❡s ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠❀ ❼ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺✿ ❆♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❡♥tr❡

  ♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s ❡♠✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ▼②❙◗▲ ❡ ♦ ◆♦❙◗▲ ◆❡♦✹❥✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s

  ❊st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ sí♥t❡s❡ s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✳ ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s é ❢♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❤✐stór✐❝♦s ❝♦♠ ❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s ❞❛s ❞é❝❛❞❛s ❞❡ ✽✵ ❡ ✾✵✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✸ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❛ r❡t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ♥♦s ❞✐❛s ❛t✉❛✐s✱ ✐♥t❡❣r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❣r✉♣♦s ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❬ ✶✸ ❪✳

  ✷✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ●r❛❢♦s

  ❖s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛r s❡✉s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ r❡s✉♠♦ ❞❛s ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥❡ss❡s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ t❛♠❜é♠ s❡r✈✐r❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳

  ❯♠ ❣r❛❢♦ G(V, E) ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ✜♥✐t♦ ♥ã♦ ✈❛③✐♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ♦✉ ♥ós✱ ❱✱ ❡ ✉♠❛ 1 , v 2 , ..., v } n r❡❧❛çã♦ E ⊆ V × V ✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❞❛❞♦ V = {v ✱ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛çõ❡s ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ 1 , v 2 ), (v 1 , v 4 ), (v 2 , v 6 ), ..., (v , v )} n s❡r✐❛ E = {(v n−1 ♦♥❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ s✉❜❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ é ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ♦✉ ❛r❝♦ ❬ ✽ ❪✳

  ❖ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♦r❞❡♠✳ ❖ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ é ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ |V | = ordem ❡ |E| = tamanho✳ ❆ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ é ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛✉ ❞♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❬ ✻ ❪✳

  ❚❛♠❜é♠ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❣rá✜❝❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s sã♦ ♣♦♥t♦s ❡ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❧✐♥❤❛s ❧✐❣❛♥❞♦✲♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♠♦str❛ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶ ✳ ◆♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s r❡♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s sã♦ ❧✐❣❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❛r❡st❛s q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✳ ❖ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ✐❧✉str❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ rót✉❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❛r s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❛ ❡❧❡s ♥♦ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ às ❛r❡st❛s✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛çã♦ ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦ ♣❡s♦ ❞❡ ♣❡r❝♦rrê✲❧❛✳ P❛r❛ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡✱ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s ♥ã♦ ❢❛③❡♠ ❞✐st✐♥çã♦ ♥♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♣♦rt❛♥❞♦ sã♦ s✐♠étr✐❝❛s ✭❜✐❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛✐s✮✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛ (v , v ) = (v , v ) i j j i

  ✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❢❛③❡♠ ❞✐st✐♥çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞❛ r❡❧❛çã♦✱ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡

  ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ♦✉ ❞✐❣r❛❢♦ ❬ ✽ ❪✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝✐t❛r ❝♦♠♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷ ♦♥❞❡ s❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❆ ❡stá s❡❣✉✐♥❞♦ ❛s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❇✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ q✉❡ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ❡♠ sít✐♦s ❞❡ r❡❞❡s s♦❝✐❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❋❛❝❡❜♦♦❦ ❡ ❚✇✐tt❡r✳

  ■ss♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ✉♠❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ s✐♠étr✐❝❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❞❡ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡✱ s❡r✐❛♠ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ❞✉❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❧✐❣❛♥❞♦ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞♦s ✐♥❞✐✈í❞✉♦s ♥♦ q✉❛❧ s❡ q✉❡r r❡♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛r ❛ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡✳ P♦❞❡r✲s❡✲✐❛ ❞❡s❡♥❤❛r ✉♠❛ r❡t❛ ❝♦♠ s❡t❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜♦s ♦s s❡♥t✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ♦ ❞❡s❡♥❤♦✱ ♠❛s ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ ❧❡♠❜r❛r q✉❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ sã♦ ❞✉❛s ❛r❡st❛s✱ ✉♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♣❛r ♦r❞❡♥❛❞♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❊✳ ❖ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✈ért✐❝❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r s❡♣❛r❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✱ ❝♦♠ ❛r❡st❛s q✉❡ ❝❤❡❣❛♠ ♥♦ ✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❡ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛✱ ❝♦♠ ❛r❡st❛s s❛✐♥❞♦ ❞♦ ♥ó✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✳ ❯♠ ❣r❛❢♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✈ár✐❛s ❛r❡st❛s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣❛r ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦

  ❞❡ ♠✉❧t✐❣r❛❢♦ ❬ ✽ ❪✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r ✉♠ ♠✉❧t✐❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ s♦❜r❡♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ♠❛s ❝❛❞❛ q✉❛❧ ❝♦♠ s❡✉ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s✳ ❯♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❞❡ ♠✉❧t✐❣r❛❢♦ s❡r✐❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡str❛❞❛s q✉❡ ❧✐❣❛♠ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❝✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❈✐❞❛❞❡ ❈ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞❛ ♣♦r ❞♦✐s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❈✐❞❛❞❡ ❆✳

  P♦❞❡✲s❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛r ♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❡ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❝❛❞❛ ❛r❝♦✱ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ t❡r✐❛ ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ✈❛r✐❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♥ós ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s✱ ❡ss❡s ❣r❛❢♦s sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦s ❬ ✸ ❪✳ ❆ss✐♠ s❡♥❞♦✱ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣❛ss❛ ❛ s❡r ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ G(V, H)✱ ♦♥❞❡ V é ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ♠✉❧t✐❣r❛❢♦ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✳ V = {v 1 , v 2 , ..., v } n 1 , E 2 , ..., E } m

  ❡ H ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s H = {E ♦♥❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ m m x z = {v , ..., v } ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦ E é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s E ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ✈❛r✐❛r ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ V ❛té ⑤❱⑤✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✉❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠✉♠ ❞❡ s❡r ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ❡♠❜♦r❛ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥❤❛r✳ ❆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s q✉❡ sã♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❊✶✳ ❆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇✱ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❨ s❡♥❞♦ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ❡ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✹✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ❊✶ ❡ ❊✷✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✐♠❛❣✐♥❛r ✉♠ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ♦✉ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦s✱ q✉❡ s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠ ❡♥tr❡ s✐ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❢♦ss❡♠ ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ❯♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛❣r✉✲ ♣❛❞♦ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✱ s❡♥❞♦ tr❛t❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❝♦♠✉♠✱ ❡ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣❛ss❛ ❛ s❡r ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ ❬ ✸ ❪✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ sã♦ ❛❣r✉♣❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❢♦r♠❛r ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❞❡ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ❙♦❝✐❡tár✐♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✹✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✺✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦✳ ❖ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❞❡ss❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛r ❛ ♦✉tr♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦

  ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ só❝✐♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❡ s✉❛ ❉❡❝❧❛r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ■♠♣♦st♦ ❞❡ ❘❡♥❞❛✳ ❖ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ♥♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ♦ q✉❛❞r♦ s♦❝✐❡tár✐♦ ❞♦ ❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛ ✷✵✶✹✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❢♦t♦❣r❛✜❛ ❞❡ q✉❡♠ ❛t✉❛✈❛ ♥❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❝♦♠♦ só❝✐♦ ♥♦ ❛♥♦ ❡♠ q✉❡stã♦✱ ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ❡ss❡ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦ s❡❥❛ ❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❛ ♦✉tr♦ ✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❞❡❝❧❛r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♠♣♦st♦ ❞❡ r❡♥❞❛ ❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣❡rí♦❞♦✳

  ✷✳✷ ❊✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞♦s ❇❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s

  ❖s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ♥ã♦ sã♦ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s r❡❝❡♥t❡s✱ ✈ár✐♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛s ú❧t✐♠❛s ❞é❝❛❞❛s✱ ❡♠❜♦r❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ♣♦✉❝♦ t❡♥❤❛ s✐❞♦ ♣r♦❞✉③✐❞♦ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ❞é❝❛❞❛ ❞♦ sé❝✉❧♦ ❳❳■ ❬ ✷ ✱ ✸ ❪✳ ▲♦❣♦ ❛♣ós ❡ss❡ ♣❡rí♦❞♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛r ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ tí♣✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s r❡❞❡s s♦❝✐❛✐s✱ ❡ ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛r ❣r❛♥❞❡s ✈♦❧✉♠❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♦❝♦rr❡✉ ✉♠❛ r❡✈✐t❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ♥❡ss❛ ár❡❛✱ ❛♠♣❧✐❛♥❞♦ ♦ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s✳ ❊st❛ s❡çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❜r❡✈❡ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❞❛♥❞♦ ê♥❢❛s❡ ♥❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

  ✷✳✷✳✶ ❉✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s

  ❱ár✐♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s tr❛t❛♥❞♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ❞❡s❞❡ ❞❡ ✶✾✼✺✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❛♣ós ♦ á♣✐❝❡ ♥❛ ❞é❝❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✶✾✾✵✱ ❛ ♣r♦❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐✉ ♥❡ss❡ t❡♠❛ ❛té ♦ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❬ ✸ ❪✳ ❊ss❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ♣r♦♣✉♥❤❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛r ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s✱ ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛r ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ ●❖❖❉ ❬ ✶✷ ❪✱ ●r❛♠ ❬ ✶ ❪✱ ❙✐♠❛t✐❝✲❳❚ ❬ ✷✼ ❪✱ ▲❉▼ ❬ ✷✷ ❪✱ ●❖❆▲ ❬ ✶✺ ❪✱ ❍②♣❡r♥♦❞❡ ❬ ✷✹ ❪✱ ●❘❖❖❱❨ ❬ ✷✺ ❪ ❡ ●❉▼ ❬ ✶✻ ❪✳ ❉❡ss❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛♠✲s❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛s ♥♦t❛çõ❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ❞❛s q✉❛✐s s❡r✈✐r❛♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✱ ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♦ ●❖❆▲✱ ●r❛♠✱ ●❉▼✱ ❙✐♠❛t❡❝✲❳❚ ❡ ❍②♣❡r♥♦❞❡✳

  ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✻ ✱ ♦ ●r❛♠ ✲ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛ ▼♦❞❡❧ ❛♥❞ ◗✉❡r② ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡ ❬ ✶ ❪✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s sã♦ rót✉❧♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ q✉❡ sã♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛s ❛r❡st❛s t❛♠❜é♠ r♦t✉❧❛❞❛s✳ ❙✉❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ é s✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ✐❣✉❛✐s ❡♠ ✈ért✐❝❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ◆♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✈ért✐❝❡ r❡❝❡❜❡✉ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ♦✉ ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ tr❛♥s♣♦rt❡ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛♦s ❞❡st✐♥♦s ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦s✳

  

✭❛✮ ❊sq✉❡♠❛✳

✭❜✮ ■♥stâ♥❝✐❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✻✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ●r❛♠✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬ ✶ ❪✳ ❊♠ ♦✉tr♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞❛s ♥♦t❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ❢♦r♠❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s

  ❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛ ▼♦❞❡❧ ❬ ✶✻ ❪ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✼ ✳ ❆s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ sã♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♣♦r ✉♠ q✉❛❞r❛❞♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③á✲❧❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ s❡t❛s ♠❛✐s ❧❛r❣❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡r ❡ ❊♠♣❧♦②❡❡✳ ❏á ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s sã♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❧✐❣❛❞❛s ❛ ❝ír❝✉❧♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥♦ ✐♥t❡r✐♦r ❞♦ ❝ír❝✉❧♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✐♥t ❡ str✳ ◆❛ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♥tr❛❝t q✉❡ ❧✐❣❛ ❊♠♣❧♦②❡❡ ❡ ❉❡♣❛rt♠❡♥t✱ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❝ír❝✉❧♦ ✈❛③✐♦ ❡ ✉♠ rót✉❧♦ s❡♣❛r❛❞♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❛♦ ❞❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❊ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❡✐r♦ ❉✳ ❏♦❤♥s♦♥ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛ ♥♦ ❞❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❘✫❉✳

  

✭❛✮ ❊sq✉❡♠❛✳

✭❜✮ ■♥stâ♥❝✐❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✼✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ●❉▼✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬ ✶✻ ❪✳ ❊ss❡ ✉s♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ t❛♠❜é♠ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❡♠

  ♥♦ ●❖❆▲ ✲ ●r❛♣❤✲❜❛s❡❞ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❛♥❞ ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✽ ✳ ❊st❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❡ ❝ír❝✉❧♦s ❝♦♠ t✐♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ♠❛s ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❈♦♥tr❛❝t✱ sã♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ r❡tâ♥❣✉❧♦s ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ♣♦r ✉♠ ❧♦s❛♥❣♦ ✐♥t❡r♥♦✳ ❆s ❛r❡st❛s ❞✉♣❧❛s ✭♦✉ ❧❛r❣❛s✮ t❛♠❜é♠ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ ❛ ❤❡r❛♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♠❛s ♦ ●❖❆▲ tr❛③ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ s❡t❛ ❞✉♣❧❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♠✉❧✲ t✐✈❛❧♦r❛❞♦s✱ ❞❡r✐✈❛❞❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ♠❛✐s ❛♥t✐❣♦s ❬ ✶✷ ❪✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❉❡♣❛rt♠❡♥t ❡ ❙❡❝t✐♦♥✳

  

✭❛✮ ❊sq✉❡♠❛✳

✭❜✮ ■♥stâ♥❝✐❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✽✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ●❖❆▲✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬ ✶✺ ❪✳ ●❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ♥ós✱ t❡♠✲s❡ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❙✐♠❛t✐❝✲❳❚ ❬ ✷✼ ❪✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✾ ✱ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡ ❛❜str❛çã♦✳ ❊❧❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ▼❛st❡r

  ◆♦❞❡s ❡ ▼❛st❡r ❊❞❣❡s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ✉♠ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ♥♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❛❜str❛çã♦ s✉♣❡r✐♦r✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ✉♠ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❡❧❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ✐❞❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❥á q✉❡

  ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❛❜str❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ●❡♦r❣❡✱ P✶ ❡ ❏♦♥❡s✱ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❣r✉♣❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❢♦r♠❛r ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♥í✈❡❧✱ ❝♦♠♦ P❊❘❙❖◆❴✶ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✾✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ❙✐♠❛t✐❝✲❳❚✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬ ✸ ❪✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✵ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❍②♣❡r♥♦❞❡ ▼♦❞❡❧ ❬ ✷✹ ❪✳ ◆❡st❡✱ ♦s ❤✐♣❡r♥ós sã♦ ❝♦♥s✲ tr✉í❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ rót✉❧♦✱ ♥♦♠❡s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ q✉❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❝♦♠ ✑✩✏✱ ❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❛tô♠✐❝♦s

  ❡♥tr❡ ❛s♣❛s✳ ❖s ❛r❝♦s ❞❡✜♥❡♠ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ♥♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✳ ❖s ♣❛ss❛❣❡✐r♦s✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ sã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ sér✐❡ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❧✐❣❛❞♦s ❛ s❡✉s

  ✈❛❧♦r❡s ✭❛tô♠✐❝♦s ♦✉ ♦✉tr♦s rót✉❧♦s ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r♥ós✮✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♦s ✈♦♦s sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣♦r ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❝♦♠ s❡✉ ❣r❛❢♦ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛♥❞♦ ♦s ♣❛ss❛❣❡✐r♦s ❝♦♠ ❧✐♥❤❛s ❛ér❡❛s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ❤✐♣❡r♥ós ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s✱ q✉❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡rã♦ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r ♦✉tr♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ❡♠ ♦✉tr♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✱ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛♥❞♦✲♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦s✳

  ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s s❡r❡♠ ♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s q✉❡ s❡r✈✐r❛♠ ❞❡ ❜❛s❡ ♣❛r❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦✱ ❞✐✈❡r✲ s♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ❞é❝❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✶✾✾✵ ❬ ✸ ❪✱ ❡ q✉❡ ❥á tr❛③✐❛♠ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s q✉❡ ✈ê♠ s❡♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦s ❬ ✷✺ ❪✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ◆♦❙◗▲✱ ♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦s ✈♦❧t❛✲ r❛♠ ❛ s❡ ❞❡st❛❝❛r ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ tí♣✐❝❛ ❞❡ss❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s sã♦ tã♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s q✉❛♥t♦ ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ❬ ✸✺ ❪✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❞❡ss❛s ♥♦✈❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s s❡ ❞❡st❛❝❛r❛♠ ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r❛♠ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❞♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ❛r❡st❛s ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❡♠ s✐ ❬ ✷ ❪✳

  ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❡ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❛✐♥❞❛ ❢♦❝❛♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡♠ s✉❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❛♦ ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛r❡♠ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♠ ❘♦❜✐♥s♦♥ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❬ ✸✷ ❪✱ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s q✉❡ tr❛③ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠✱ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦s ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✳ ❊st❡s ú❧t✐♠♦s

  

✭❛✮ ❱♦♦s ❝♦♠ ♣❛ss❛❣❡✐r♦s ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛♥❤✐❛s✳

✭❜✮ P❛ss❛❣❡✐r♦s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✵✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✿ ❍②♣❡r♥♦❞❡ ▼♦❞❡❧✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❬ ✷✹ ❪✳ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ✉♠ ♠✐st♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

  ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❧❛❝✉♥❛ ❛t✉❛❧ ♥❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③♦✉✲ s❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ♦s ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s ❡♠ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛❞❛ q✉❡ ❝♦❜r✐ss❡ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❛t✉❛✐s ❞❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦ ◆♦❙◗▲✳

  ✷✳✸ ❇❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s

  ❖ ❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s ❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❣❡r❛r ✐♥❢♦r✲ ♠❛çã♦ r❛♣✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✈❡♠ ❢♦rç❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛❧é♠ ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❛ ❛❝❛❞❡♠✐❛ ❡ ❞♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦✳ ◆♦✈❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛çõ❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❝✐❡♥t✐st❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ✈ê♠ s❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r ♥♦ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ s❡❥❛ ❞❡ ♠❡♥♦r ♣♦rt❡ ❛té ❛s r♦t✉❧❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❇✐❣ ❉❛t❛ ❬ ✶✽ ❪✳

  ◆❡ss❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ ♦s ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲✱ ♠✉✐t♦s ❞❡r✐✈❛❞♦s ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❞❛ ❆♠❛✲ ③♦♥ ❬ ✶✶ ❪ ❡ ●♦♦❣❧❡ ❬ ✼ ❪✱ ✈ê♠ ❣❛♥❤❛♥❞♦ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦✈❛s ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✳ P❡❧❛ s✉❛ ❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡ ✐♠♣♦r✲ tâ♥❝✐❛✱ ❡ss❛s ♥♦✈❛s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❥á ✈ê♠ s❡♥❞♦ t❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❙t♦♥❡❜r❛❦❡r ❬ ✸✻ ❪✱ ▲❡❛✈✐tt ❬ ✷✸ ❪✱ ❍❡❝❤t ❡ ❏❛❜❧♦♥s❦✐ ❬ ✶✸ ❪✱ ❑❛✉r ❡ ❘❛♥✐ ❬ ✷✶ ❪ ❡ ❈❤❡♥ ❡t ❛❧ ❬ ✾ ❪✳

  ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♠❛✐s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ tr❛t❛r ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❖s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❞♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ◆♦❙◗▲✱ ❥á sã♦ t❡♠❛s ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ♠❛✐s ❛♥t✐❣♦s q✉❡ s❡✉s ♣❛r❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✳✶ ✳

  ❚♦❞❛✈✐❛✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s r❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❡st❡s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❝♦♠❡ç❛r❛♠ ❛ s❡ ♣♦♣✉❧❛r✐③❛r✱ ♣r✐♥✲ ❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧❛ ❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ❢♦r♠❛s ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡s✲ tr✉t✉r❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♠ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ q✉í♠✐❝❛✱ ❜✐♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ✇❡❜ s❡♠â♥t✐❝❛ ❡ ♠✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❙r✐♥✐✈❛s❛ ❬ ✸✺ ❪✳ ❊♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ tr❛t❛r r❡❞❡s ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❆ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡ ✉s♦ ❞❡ t❡♦r✐❛s ❡ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s às r❡❞❡s ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛♠ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♠♦♥t❛❣❡♠ ❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❡♥ár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦✱ ♣r❡✈❡♥çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠❜❛t❡ às ❛çõ❡s ❝r✐♠✐♥♦s❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ▼❝■❧❧✇❛✐♥ ❬ ✷✾ ❪✱ ❳✉ ❡ ❈❤❛♥ ❬ ✸✽ ❪ ❡ ❍✉❧st ❬ ✶✼ ❪✳

  ❈♦♠ ❡ss❡ ♥♦✈♦ ✐♠♣✉❧s♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s✱ ♥♦✈♦s ❡ ❛♥t✐❣♦s✱ ✈ê♠ s❡ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❞♦s ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❡ q✉❡ ✈❛r✐❛♠ ❞❡s❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❆P■ ❛té s✐st❡♠❛s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡✴s❡r✈✐❞♦r✳ ❊ss❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s ✈ê♠ s❡♥❞♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♠ ❆♥❣❧❡s ❬ ✷ ❪✱ ❝♦♠ ê♥❢❛s❡ ♥❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❡ ♦ ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❛✉t♦r s♦❜r❡ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❡ ❜❡♥❝❤♠❛r❦ ❬ ✹ ❪✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ tr❛t❛♠ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ♦s ❛rt✐❣♦s ❞❡ ❑❛❧♠❡❣❤ ❬ ✷✵ ❪✱ ❏♦✉✐❧✐ ❬ ✶✾ ❪ ❡ ▼❝❈♦❧❧ ❬ ✷✽ ❪✳

  ❖s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ tr♦✉①❡r❛♠ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞❛s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❆t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡ss❡s ❜❛♥❝♦s s❡ ❞✐✈✐❞❡♠ ❡♠ q✉❛tr♦ ❣r✉♣♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦✿ ❝❤❛✈❡✴✈❛❧♦r✱ ❝♦❧✉♥❛r✱ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❬ ✶✸ ❪✳

  ❖s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❝❤❛✈❡✴✈❛❧♦r r❡❝❡❜❡♠ ❡ss❡ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦s ❞❛❞♦s s❡r❡♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ú♥✐❝❛ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦✱ ❡ ✉♠ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈♦ ✈❛❧♦r✳ ❊ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ◆♦❙◗▲ ❢♦✐ ♠✉✐t♦ ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❉②♥❛♠♦ ❬ ✶✶ ❪✱ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❆♠❛③♦♥ ♣❛r❛ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛✲

  ♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❞❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛✳ ❏á ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❝♦❧✉♥❛r❡s✱ ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❇✐❣❚❛❜❧❡ ❬ ✼ ❪ ❞♦ ●♦♦❣❧❡✱ ❛❧t❡r❛♠ ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦❧✉♥❛s✱ ♠❛♥t❡♥❞♦ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❛❣r✉♣❛❞♦✱ ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ❞❛s ❧✐♥❤❛s ❞❛s q✉❛✐s ❡❧❡ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❞❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s sã♦ ❜❛♥❝♦s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛r ❡s✲ tr✉t✉r❛s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛s❬ ✾ ❪✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ❡♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❏❙❖◆ ✭❏❛✈❛❙❝r✐♣t ❖❜❥❡❝t ◆♦t❛t✐♦♥✮✱ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✐r ❞❡s❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✴✈❛❧♦r ❛té ✈ár✐❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡♥❝❛❞❡❛❞❛s✳

  ❊♥❝❡rr❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ ◆♦❙◗▲✱ t❡♠✲s❡ ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ♦✉ s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❡ ❛r❡st❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛r ❞❛❞♦s ❛❧t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s tí♣✐❝❛s ❞❡ss❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❬ ✸✶ ❪✳ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❞❡s✲

  ✶ ✷

  s❡s ❜❛♥❝♦s sã♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠❛ ❆P■✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❙♣❛r❦s❡❡ ✭♦✉ ❉❊❳✮ ❡ ♦ ❍②♣❡r❣r❛♣❤❉❇ ✳

  ✸ ✹

  ❖✉tr♦s s✐st❡♠❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ◆❡♦✹❥ ❡ ♦ ❖r✐❡♥t❉❇ ✱ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ❝♦♠ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❘❊❙❚ ✭❘❊♣r❡s❡♥t❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙t❛t❡ ❚r❛♥❢❡r✮✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛r❡♠ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ ❆P■✳

  ❆♦ s❡ tr❛③❡r ♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲✱ ❝❛❞❛ s✐st❡♠❛ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❝♦♥str✉✐✉ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r♦✉ ♠❛✐s ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛✱ ♠❛s✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ q✉❡ ♥♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❡❧❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ ✈❛r✐❛r ❜❛st❛♥t❡✱ ❝❡rt❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s s❡ ♠❛♥t✐✈❡r❛♠ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✳ ❖ ◆❡♦✹❥ ❡ ♦ ❖r✐❡♥t❡❉❇✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❡♠❜♦r❛ ♦ ❖r✐❡♥t❉❇ t❛♠❜é♠ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❞❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❈♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❆♥❣❧❡s ❬ ✷ ❪✱ ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦s s❡✉s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❛r❡st❛s ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣❡❧❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦✱ r❡s✉♠✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦s ❞❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❢♦r♠❛✿

  P❡❧❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦✿ ❼ ●r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✿ ❖s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s rót✉❧♦s ♦✉ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s

  ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ sã♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♣♦r ♥ós ❡ ❛r❝♦s❀ ❼ ❍✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦✿ ●r❛❢♦s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ q✉❡ s✉❛s ❛r❡st❛s ♣♦ss✉❛♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ✈ért✐❝❡s❀ ❼ ●r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✿ ❊ss❡s ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ q✉❡ s❡✉s ✈ért✐❝❡s t❡♥❤❛♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❡ss❛ ❝❛✲ r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛ ♦ ❛❝❡ss♦s às ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦ ♥ó ❬ ✹ ❪✱ ❥á q✉❡ ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ❥✉♥t♦s ❝♦♠ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s❀

  ❼ ●r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ ❡ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✿ ❙ã♦ ❣r❛❢♦s q✉❡ s✉♣♦rt❛♠ ♦✉tr♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♥ós✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ t♦❞♦ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❢♦ss❡ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡✳ ◗✉❛♥t♦ ❛♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡✿ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s♣❛rs✐t②✲t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s✳❝♦♠✴ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❤②♣❡r❣r❛♣❤❞❜✳♦r❣✴ ❤tt♣✿✴✴♥❡♦✹❥✳❝♦♠✴ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳♦r✐❡♥t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s✳❝♦♠✴♦r✐❡♥t❞❜✴

  ❼ ◆ó r♦t✉❧❛❞♦✿ ❖ ♥ó ❛❝❡✐t❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ rót✉❧♦✱ q✉❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♦ ■❉ ❞♦ ✈ért✐❝❡❀ ❼ ◆ó ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✿ ❖ ♥ó ♣♦❞❡ t❡r ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❝❤❛✈❡✕✈❛❧♦r✳ ❊ q✉❛♥t♦ ❛♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛✿ ❼ ❆r❡st❛ r♦t✉❧❛❞❛ ✭❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♦✉ ♥ã♦✮✿ ❆ ❛r❡st❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ rót✉❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣r❡ss❛r

  ✉♠❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦❀ ❼ ❆r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ✭❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♦✉ ♥ã♦✮✿ ❆ ❛r❡st❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡r ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s

  ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦✳ ❊♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❡st❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛ t✉❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❡ ❛r❡st❛✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♠❡s♠♦

  ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ s❡r✐❛♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ t❛❜❡❧❛s s❡rã♦ ✈ért✐❝❡s ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊ss❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ❥á q✉❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s sã♦ ❡str✉t✉r❛s s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ r❡str✐t❛s ❛ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝á✲❧♦s ✉♥✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✳

  ❏á ♦s ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦s ❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❛❧✐♥❤❛❞♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛r ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s ❛ ❛✉t♦r❡s✱ ♣♦✐s ❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❡st❛r✐❛♠ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ♦✉ ❛❣r✉♣❛❞❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❬ ✷ ❪✳

  ◗✉❛♥t♦ ❛♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❡ss❡s ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ♠❛✐♦r ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ♦✉ ❛r❡st❛ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛✱ ♠❛s ❛♦ s❡ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠❛ ✐♥❢♦r✲ ♠❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡✱ ♣r❡❥✉❞✐❝❛✲s❡ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦✱ ❥á q✉❡ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ s❡rá r❡♣❡t✐❞♦ ❡♠ ♦✉tr❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡ s✉❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡rá ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❡❝✐❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❆♣❡s❛r ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❡st❛r❡♠ ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❞❡st❛q✉❡✱ ❢❛❧t❛♠ ♣❡s✲ q✉✐s❛s ❛t✉❛✐s ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛té ♦♥❞❡ ❢♦✐ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛❞♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ q✉❡ ❝✉❜r❛ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ss❡s ❜❛♥❝♦s✱ t❡♠❛ q✉❡ ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛❜♦r❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤❡r ❡ss❛ ❧❛❝✉♥❛✳

  ✷✳✹ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦

  ❋♦r❛♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ q✉❡ r❡s✉♠❡♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❡s♣❡r❛❞❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡ ♦✉ s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❡①✐st✐r❡♠ ❞❡s❞❡ ❛ ❞é❝❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✽✵ ❬ ✸ ❪✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡✉ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ s❡ ❡❧❛❜♦r♦✉ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛❞rã♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r ❝♦♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡ss❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s✳

  ▼✉✐t♦ ❞❛s ♥♦t❛çõ❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛té ♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ❛té ♠❡❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✷✵✵✷ ❡ ❡st❛s ❥á ✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛✈❛♠ ❡str✉t✉r❛s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❞❡s♣♦♥t❛♥❞♦ ♥♦s ❛t✉❛✐s ❜❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❜❛✲ s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s❬ ✷ ❪✳ ❆s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❛t✉❛✐s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣r♦♣õ❡♠

  ❛❧❣✉♥s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♠❛s ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ❢♦❝❛♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡♠ ❝♦❜r✐r ♦s ♣ró✲ ♣r✐♦s s✐st❡♠❛s✱ ✐♥❝♦rr❡♥❞♦ ♥♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❛ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❛❞♦✳

  ❆s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❝♦♠✉♥s ♣❛r❛ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐③❛♠ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❛❞♦ ❝♦❜r✐♥❞♦ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✸ ✱ ❛♣❧✐❝á✈❡❧ ❛ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡ s♦♠❛r à ♥♦t❛çã♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛s♣❡❝t♦s ❡①t❡r♥♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①♣❧♦r❛❞♦s ♥♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡s✉♠✐❞♦s ❛q✉✐✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❊♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ss❛s ✐❞❡✐❛s✱ ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s✱ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✱ q✉❡ é ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸ ✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✿ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s

  ❊st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦s q✉❛tr♦ t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✿ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❡ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦✳ ❙ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❡①❡♠♣❧♦s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐❧✉str❛r ❝❛❞❛ ❡❧❡✲ ♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ◆♦ ✜♠ ❞♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉♠ q✉❛❞r♦ r❡s✉♠♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❛❞❛✳

  ✸✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦

  ◆❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ✭▼❉●✲ ◆♦❙◗▲✮ é ♣r♦♣♦st♦✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ❝♦❜r✐r ♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③á✈❡✐s ♥❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ❆ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ♦ ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❢❛❝✐❧✐✲ t❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✳

  ❊♥tr❡ s✉❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝✐t❛r ❛ ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❥á ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❝❛r✲ ❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛❞❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡t❛❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥❛s ❛r❡s✲ t❛s✳

  ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❢♦✐ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉s♦ ❣❡r❛❧✱ s✉♣♦rt❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❡st❡s ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❡ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ ✭❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✮✳ ❊❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡s❡❥❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❡ss❡ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s q✉❛tr♦ ❡str✉t✉r❛s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❝♦♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s✳

  ✸✳✷ ❱ért✐❝❡s ❙✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ❝♦♠ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦s

  ❱ért✐❝❡s sã♦ ❝♦♠✉♥s ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♣♦♥t♦s✱ r❡tâ♥❣✉❧♦s ♦✉ ✜❣✉✲ r❛s ❝✐r❝✉❧❛r❡s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡✜♥✐r ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛r ♦ q✉❡ é ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♦ q✉❡ é ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ♠❛s ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❝♦♠ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✳

  ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ❡①✐st✐rã♦ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ✉♠ r❡tâ♥❣✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❜♦r❞❛s ❛rr❡❞♦♥❞❛❞❛s✱ s✐♠✐❧❛r à ❝❛✐①❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❊❘✱ ♦ q✉❡ r❡♠❡t❡ ❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❏á ♣❛r❛ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✱ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ❝✐r❝✉❧❛r✴❡❧í♣t✐❝♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶ ✱ ✜❝❛ ❝❧❛r♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ ❡stá tr❛t❛♥❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♦✉ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❖ ♥ó ❞♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❡sq✉❡r❞♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✱ ♥♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❡sq✉❡r❞♦ ❞❛ ✜❣✉r❛ t❡♠✲s❡ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❆❧✐❝❡ ❡ ❇♦❜✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✿ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ♥❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ P❡ss♦❛✳ ❆♣ós ❞❡✜♥✐r ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡st❡♥❞❡r ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞♦ q✉❛✲

  ❞r❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❜♦r❞❛s ❛r❡❞♦♥❞❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦ss✉❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♠❛✐s ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠❡♥t❡ s✉❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✳ ❆ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✈ért✐❝❡s é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷ ✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦❜r✐❣❛t♦r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ rót✉❧♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♥♦t❛çõ❡s ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛✐s sã♦ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞❛s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦s sí♠❜♦❧♦s ✏❬✑ ❡ ✏❪✑✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✏❚✐♣♦✑ ❡ ✏✕ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦✿ ❚✐♣♦✑✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♠❡❧❤♦r ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✿ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ❖ rót✉❧♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ❝❛✐①❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❞✉❛s ❢✉♥çõ❡s✳ Pr✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡ ♠❛✐s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧✱ é

  ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ P❡ss♦❛✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛✲ ❢♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❡♠ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ✜❧tr❛r ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s✳ ❆❧✐❝❡✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♣♦❞❡rá t❡r

  ✉♠ rót✉❧♦ ❡♠ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ q✉❡ r❡♠❡t❡rá à ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦✉tr♦s ❡①❡♠♣❧♦s ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦s s❡✉s rót✉❧♦s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♣r❡✈✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦✱ ♥ã♦ s❡ ❡stá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✱ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ ❉❛t❛ ♦✉ ◆♦♠❡✱ ♠❛s ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡♥✲ t✐❞❛❞❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦✳ ❆ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ é ❞❡✜♥✐r ♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ✉♥✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❝❛s♦ ♦ rót✉❧♦ s❡❥❛ ♦ ú♥✐❝♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞♦ ♥♦ ♥ó✳ P❛r❛ ❞❛r s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛ ❡ss❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛✱ ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❢❛③ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❚✐♣♦ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞♦ ✈ért✐❝❡✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✿ ❯s♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❖ ✉s♦ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s t❛♠❜é♠ sã♦ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ ❛♣♦♥t❛r ♣❛r❛ ♦s

  ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♥ós ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ◆♦♠❡✱ s❡♥❞♦ s❡✉s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦s ❡♥tr❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ■ss♦ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❛♣♦♥t❛rã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛❧❣✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ◆♦♠❡ q✉❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛rá s❡✉ ✈❛❧♦r✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❡ P❡ss♦❛ t❡r❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♥♦♠❡✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ q✉❡ ✐♥❝♦♠✉♠✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♥❡ss❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦✱ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛✲s❡ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ s❡rá ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛ ✉♥✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✹✿ ❯s♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❆ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s é ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛

  ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r✳ ❯♠❛ P❡ss♦❛✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ s❡r ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣♦r ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦s s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛✐s ♦✉ ✉♠ ♥♦♠❡ ú♥✐❝♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❧♦❣✐♥✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛r q✉❛❧ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ✈❛❧♦r q✉❡ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❛❝❡✐t❛rá✳ ❋❛③❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ♦r✐❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✱ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛r✐❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❛ ❝❧❛ss❡ ❡ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛r✐❛ q✉❛❧ ♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❝♦♠ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r t❡r✐❛ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ❝❧❛ss❡✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦ ♣❛r❛ P❡ss♦❛✱ ◆♦♠❡ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❆ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ é ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✐♥t❡✐r♦ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✭❧♦♥❣✮✳ ❊ss❡ t✐♣♦ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s s❡rã♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛s ♣♦r ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ ❈❛❞❛str♦ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❋ís✐❝❛ ✭❈P❋✮✳ ❆s ♦✉tr❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❡ ◆♦♠❡✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ t✐♣♦s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ◆♦♠❡ s❡rá ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ str✐♥❣✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ♥♦♠❡✱ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝❤❛r✭✶✹✮✱ q✉❡ é ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❞❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛r ♦ ❈❛❞❛str♦ ◆❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❏✉rí❞✐❝❛ ✭❈◆P❏✮ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♥♦ ●♦✈❡r♥♦ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✺✿ ❱ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠ t✐♣♦ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦✳ ❏á ♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲s❡ ❛ ❝❛✐①❛ ❞♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❝♦♠

  ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♦s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❧✐st❛❞♦s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s t✐♣♦s ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♥t❡s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻ ✳ ◆♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ sã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❡ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s s❡❥❛ ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞♦ ♥ó ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ tr❛tá✲❧♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❛ ♣❛rt❡✳

  ❆ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛❞❛ ♥♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✱ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ❞❡r✐✈❛❞❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❊❧❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ♣♦r ♥ã♦ s❡r ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❞❡s❡♥❤❛r t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛tr✐✲ ❜✉t♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ ❧❡♠❜r❛r q✉❡ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦s ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ é ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛r ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡ ❝♦❧♦❝❛r t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣r❡❥✉❞✐❝❛r ❡ss❛ ❝❛✲ r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛❞♦✳ ❊ss❛ ❞✐s❝✉ssã♦ é r❡t♦♠❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ♥♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ❈❛♣í✲ t✉❧♦ ✹ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞♦ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❱í♥❝✉❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s✳

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❝r❡s❝❡r ❡ ❞✐✜❝✉❧t❛r ❛ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥ã♦ ❢♦✐ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐r ❛ s♦❜r❡♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❢♦✐ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ s❡ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛r ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❥á ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ sí♠❜♦❧♦ ❞❡ ✏✳✳✳✑✱ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞♦ ✈ért✐❝❡✳ ❊❧❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❢❛③❡r ✉♠❛ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❥á ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛✱ s❡♠ ♣r❡❝✐s❛r ♣❛ss❛r ✉♠ ❛r❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞✐st❛♥t❡ ❞♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✼ ✳ ◆♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ Ór❣ã♦ ❡ P❡ss♦❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✻✿ ❱ért✐❝❡ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❡①♣r❡ss❛ s❡♠ t❡r q✉❡ r❡♣❡t✐r ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ♥♦ ❧❛❞♦ ♦♣♦st♦ ❞♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛✳ ❆♦ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡ss❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦✱ ♥ã♦ s❡ ❡stá ❞❡✜♥✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡✈✐t❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❛r❝♦ ❝r✉③❡ t♦❞♦ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✼✿ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❧✐❣❛❞❛ ❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✼ s❡r s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ s❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠❡ç❛r ❛

  ❝r❡s❝❡r ❡ tr❛t❛r ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❝♦♠♦ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❛ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❥á ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ♣♦❞❡ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ s❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ♣♦ss✉ír❡♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❡✈✐t❛r ✉♠❛ ♣♦❧✉✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s ♥♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛✳

  ✸✳✸ ❍✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡s ✭❍✐♣❡r♥ós✮ ❞♦ ●r❛❢♦ ❆♥✐♥❤❛❞♦

  ❖s ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ♦✉ ❤✐♣❡r♥ós✱ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦s✱ ❥á q✉❡ sã♦ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦s ❣r❛❢♦s✳ ❊❧❡s ❝♦♥s✐st❡♠ ❡♠ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❣r❛❢♦s ♦✉ s✉❜✲ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢r♦♥t❡✐r❛ r❡t❛♥❣✉❧❛r✳ ❊ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ♥♦t❛çã♦ é s✐♠✐❧❛r ❛ ❥á ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❍②♣❡r♥♦❞❡ ▼♦❞❡❧ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✵ ✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♠✐t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ♦❜❥❡t♦s✱ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❙✐♠❛t✐❝✲❳❚✱ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✾ ✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❡ss❡s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡st❡♥❞✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛r ✉♠ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ rót✉❧♦ ❡ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ♣❛r❛ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❡s♣❡r❛❞❛ ❞❡ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦s q✉❡ ❢♦r♠❛rã♦ ♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♠❛✐s ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥❡st❛ s❡çã♦✳

  ❖ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ é ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡♠♣♦ q✉❡ ✉♠ ♥ó✳ ❈♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦r ♦✉tr♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ❝♦♠ ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ❛❧t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞♦ ❙✐♠❛t✐❝✲ ❳❚✱ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✾ ✳ ❏á ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✐♠❛❣✐♥❛r q✉❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s ❢♦✐ ✏♠❛r❝❛❞♦✑ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❡ sã♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ♠❛✐♦r✱ ♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❡ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ s❡✉s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❆ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❤✐♣❡r♥ós é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✽ ❡ ❢♦✐ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞❛ ❞♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s s✐♠♣❧❡s ♣❡❧❛ ❜♦r❞❛ r❡t❛ ❞♦ r❡tâ♥❣✉❧♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❞♦ ❍②♣❡r♥♦❞❡ ▼♦❞❡❧ ❬ ✷✹ ❪✳ ❉❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ❢❛rá r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛✳

  ❖♣❝✐♦♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛r ♦s ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ✉♠ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦r ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s q✉❡ s❡ ❡s♣❡r❛ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✱ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❞♦ rót✉❧♦✱ ♣❛r❛ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s s✐♠✐❧❛r❡s ❛♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❡ q✉❛✐s s❡✉s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❝❛s♦ ❡①✐st❛♠✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛❞♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ r❡tâ♥❣✉❧♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ sí♠❜♦❧♦ ❯▼▲ ✭❯♥✐✜❡❞ ▼♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✮ ❬ ✸✵ ❪ ❞❡ ♥♦t❛✱ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦ ❞♦s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❞❡s❡♥❤♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✽✿ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✳ P❛r❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✐♠❛❣✐♥❛r ✉♠ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝✐❞❛❞❡

  é s❡❣♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡♠ r❡❣✐õ❡s✳ ❈❛❞❛ r❡❣✐ã♦ ❞❡✜♥❡ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♠ ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s q✉❡ ✈✐✈❡♠ ❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡❧❛✱ s❡❥❛ ❞❡ ♠♦r❛❞♦r ❛té ❧í❞❡r ❞❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠♦r❛❞♦r❡s✳ ❙✉♣♦♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♠♦r❛❞♦r❡s s❡❥❛♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♥❞♦ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❡ss♦❛✱ ❋✉♥çã♦✱ ❊♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ❡ ❘❡❣✐ã♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s r❡❣✐õ❡s ❡♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ós ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✾ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✾✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❍✐♣❡r♥ó✳ ❖s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s sí♠❜♦❧♦s ✏❁❃✑ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡♠ ✈ár✐♦s s✉❜❣r❛❢♦s ❡♠ ✉♠❛

  ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ✐♥t❡r✐♦r ❞♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♦ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦ ❞♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❋✉♥çã♦✱ ❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠ ❊♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ❞❡

  ✉♠❛ ❘❡❣✐ã♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s r❡s✐❞❡♠ ♥❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❘❡❣✐ã♦✱ t❡♠✲s❡ ✈ár✐♦s s✉❜❣r❛❢♦s ❝♦♠ ❡ss❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡ ❡ss❡ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❢♦r♠❛ ♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✵ ❞❡st❛❝❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ ❞♦✐s s✉❜❣r❛❢♦s ❞❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡s❝r✐t❛ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ✉♠ ❡♠ ❛③✉❧ ❡ ♦✉tr♦ ❡♠ ✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❘❡❣✐ã♦ ❳ é ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞♦✐s✱ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ❞❡ ❡st❛r❡♠ ♥♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✵✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❆ ✐♥❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦s ❛❥✉❞❛ ❛ ❞✐st✐♥❣✉✐r q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ tr❛t❛ ❞❡ ❝♦❧❡çõ❡s ♦✉

  ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦✳ ❙✉♣♦♥❞♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ q✉❡ ❛s ❝♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ✐♥t❡r❛❥❛♠ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♣r❡❢❡✐✲ t✉r❛s ❞❡ s✉❛s ❝✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ q✉❡r❡r ♠♦❞❡❧á✲❧❛s t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✳ ❉❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✐♠❛❣✐♥❛r ❛ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ●❛❜✐♥❡t❡✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ Pr❡❢❡✐t♦ ❡ s❡✉s ❆ss❡ss♦r❡s✱ ❡ ✉♠❛ ❝♦❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❊ss❡ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r✐❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❞❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❛ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✶ ✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❞❡ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛ t❡rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ●❛❜✐♥❡t❡ ❞♦ ♣r❡❢❡✐t♦ ❡ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❞❡ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❞✐✲ ❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ❝♦❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦s ❞❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ♥❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✶✿ ❍✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ❈♦♠✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛ s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♥❞♦✳ ❆ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♥❛ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ♦✉tr♦s ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡s ❥✉st✐✜❝❛ ❛

  ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞❛ ❞❡ss❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ t❡r ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡

  ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✷ ✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✱ t❡♠✲s❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ♦❜❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ●❛❜✐♥❡t❡ ❡ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s ♣♦ss✉✐ s❡✉ ♣ró♣r✐♦ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✷✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❡♠ s✐ t❛♠❜é♠ é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ♥♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦✱ ❡st❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡ ❧✐❣❛r ❝♦♠ ✈ért✐❝❡s ♦✉ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦ss✉✐r ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛✳ ◆♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✱ ✉♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❈◆P❏✱ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❛♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♠♦str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✸ ✳ ◆♦t❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❡ss❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ♥ã♦ ❡stá r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✱ ♠❛s ❝♦♠ ♦ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ t♦❞♦ q✉❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❈♦♥✈ê♥✐♦ ❡ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❡ss❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ ✜r♠❛r ❝♦♥✈ê♥✐♦s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ✈♦❧t❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❝♦♠✉♥✐✲ ❞❛❞❡s✱ ❡①❡♠♣❧✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛r ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡✳ ❏á ♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦s ❢♦✐ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐❧✉str❛r s✉❛ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ r❡✲ ❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆❡ss❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠✱ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❢♦✐ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛r q✉❡ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r✈ér✲ t✐❝❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡r t❛♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✳

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠✉♥s✱ ♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ sí♠❜♦❧♦ ✏✳✳✳✑ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❡ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❥á ❢♦✐ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ❡♠ ♦✉tr♦ ❧♦❝❛❧✳ ■ss♦ é ❡①❡♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❡♠ ●❛❜✐♥❡t❡ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✱ s✉♣♦♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❡ss❡ ❥á ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ❡♠ ♦✉tr♦ ❧♦❝❛❧✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✸✿ ❯s♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❤✐♣❡r♥ós ❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡♠ Pr❡❢❡✐t✉r❛✳

  ✸✳✹ ❆r❡st❛s ❙✐♠♣❧❡s ❡ ❞❡ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦s

  ❈♦♥❝❧✉í❞♦ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡s✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❞❡✈❡ t❡r s❡✉ rót✉❧♦✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❛❧ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♥ós✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❞♦✐s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✱ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞♦ rót✉❧♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♥t❡r ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦ t❡①t♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦✉ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♥❞♦ ♦✉tr❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣❡s♦✱ t✐♣♦s ❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❡st❛ s❡çã♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✹✿ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛r❡st❛s✳ ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s ❞❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ s❡r✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛

  ❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ rót✉❧♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♠✐③❛❞❡✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❡ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ é s✐♠étr✐❝♦ ✭♦✉ ❜✐❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❧✮✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s sã♦ ❛♠✐❣❛s ❡♥tr❡ s✐✱ ♥ã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ♥♦ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡t❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ s❡t❛✱ ♦✉✱ s❡ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❢♦r ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✱ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ t❡r ❞✉❛s s❡t❛s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❛ ❜✐❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛✱ ♣♦r ❡ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✱ ❛ ❛r❡st❛ é ❞❡s❡♥❤❛❞❛ ❧✐❣❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❡❧❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ s❛✐ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❝❤❡❣❛ ❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❞❛ q✉❛❧ ❡❧❛ é ❛♠✐❣❛✳ ❊ss❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❥á ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♦✉tr♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ●r❛♠✱ ✐❧✉str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✻ ✳

  P♦❞❡ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡r ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛r❡♠ ♣♦r ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❞✉❛s ❞❛t❛s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ t❡r ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛r❝♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♠❛s ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✻ ✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❞❛t❛ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❤♦♠♦❧♦❣❛çã♦ ❣❡r❛♠ ❞✉❛s ❛r❡st❛s ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ❖ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s t❛♠❜é♠ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✉❛s ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❞❡♠♦♥s✲

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✺✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✳ tr❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠ ❛s ❞❛t❛s✳ ❈♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ♥♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛✱ ❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❝♦♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✏✶✑ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❛r❡st❛s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❉❛t❛✱ ✉♠❛ ❞❡ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❡ ♦✉tr❛ ❞❡ ❤♦♠♦❧♦❣❛çã♦✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ ❢♦✐ ❤♦♠♦❧♦❣❛❞♦ ❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞❛t❛ ❞❡ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛✱ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ ✐❣✉❛❧ à ❞❛t❛ ❞❡ ❤♦♠♦❧♦❣❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ q✉❡✱ ♠❡s♠♦ s❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣✉❞❡ss❡ t❡r ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❞❛t❛ ❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❤♦♠♦❧♦❣❛çã♦✱ s❡r✐❛♠ ❞✉❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❧✐❣❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡ ❉❛t❛✱ ❝❛❞❛ q✉❛❧ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ rót✉❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✻✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✳ ❯t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♦✉tr♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♣♦❞❡r✲s❡✲✐❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r q✉❛❧ ▲✐✈r♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ P❡ss♦❛

  ❧❡✉ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✼ ✱ ❥á q✉❡ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ é ❛ss✐♠étr✐❝♦ ✭✉♠❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❧❡✉ ✉♠ ▲✐✈r♦✱ ♠❛s ✉♠ ▲✐✈r♦ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❧❡r ✉♠❛ P❡ss♦❛✮✳ ❖ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ♠♦❞❡❧❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠✱ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✱ ❡ ❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s ❞♦✐s ❧✐✈r♦s q✉❡ ❆❧✐❝❡ ❥á ❧❡✉✳ ❘❡ss❛❧t❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s sã♦ ❝♦♠✉♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡s❡♥❤❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ s❡t❛s ❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞❡✜♥✐✉ q✉❛❧ ♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ s❡t❛ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦✳

  ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♥ã♦ ✜❝❛ ❝❧❛r♦ q✉❛♥t❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ♦✉ q✉❛♥t♦s ❧✐✈r♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❡s✲ t❛r ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦s ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛r ❛♦ rót✉❧♦ ❡ss❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❥á ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛✲ ❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✼✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✳ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛r ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠ ❛s t✉♣❧❛s ❞❡ ♦✉tr❛s ❬ ✶✹ ❪✳ ❊①✐st❡♠ três ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✿

  ❼ ✶✿✶ ✕ ❈❛❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✉♠ ❞❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ❣❡r❡♥t❡ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣♦r ❡❧❡❀

  ❼ ✶✿◆ ✕ ❈❛❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♠❛✐s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♠❛s ❡st❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞❡ ✉♠❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❞❡♣❛rt❛✲ ♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠ ❞❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r ✈ár✐♦s ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞♦s✱ ♠❛s ✉♠ ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦❀

  ❼ ▼✿◆ ✕ ❈❛❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♦✉ ✈ár✐❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♠❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✶✿◆✱ ❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞❡ ♠✉✐t❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s t❛♠❜é♠✱ ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ❡ ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦✲ ❥❡t♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✈ár✐♦s ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞♦s ❛❧♦❝❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ❡st❡s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♠ ❞❡ ✈ár✐♦s ♣r♦❥❡t♦s✳

  ❯t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♠❛✐s ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❧✐✈r♦s é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✽ ✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ r❡❣✐str❛r ❛ ❧❡✐t✉r❛✱ sã♦ r❡❣✐str❛❞❛s ❛s ❝♦♠♣r❛s ❞♦s ❧✐✈r♦s ♣♦r ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❡ss♦❛✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❛♥t❛s ❝♦♠♣r❛s ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ ❡ q✉❛✐s ❧✐✈r♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦♠♣r❛❞♦s✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲s❡ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦s sí♠❜♦❧♦s ❞❡ ✏✭✑ ❡ ✏✮✑ ♣ró①✐♠♦s ❛♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ ❛s q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡s♣❡r❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❛ r❡❧❛çã♦✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❛♦ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ◆♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✽ ✱ ✉♠❛ P❡ss♦❛ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r ❞❡ ③❡r♦ ✭✵✮ ❛té q✉❛❧q✉❡r q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣❡❞✐❞♦s ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣r❛ ✭♥✮✳ ❏á q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❈♦♠♣r❛ é ✐♥✐❝✐❛❞❛✱ ❡❧❛ ❞❡✈❡ t❡r ♦❜r✐❣❛t♦r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠ ❞♦♥♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s✱ ❡ ♣♦r ✐ss♦ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✭✶✳✳✶✮ ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❘❊❆▲■❩❆✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✳ ❆ ❈♦♠♣r❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞❡✈❡ t❡r ♥♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ✉♠ ✐t❡♠✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ s❡r ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❧✐✈r♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ ♥❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✭✶✳✳♥✮✳ ❈♦♠♦

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✽✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❝♦♠♣r❛r ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ tít✉❧♦✱ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡❧❡s é ❞❡ ✭✵✳✳♥✮✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ t❛♠❜é♠ q✉❡ ✉♠ ▲✐✈r♦ ♣♦❞❡ ♥ã♦ t❡r s✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♣r❛❞♦ ❛✐♥❞❛✳

  ❈❛s♦ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ s❡❥❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❤♦r✐③♦♥t❛❧✱ ❞❡✐①❛r ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛ ♣♦❞❡ ✜❝❛r ❝♦♥❢✉s♦✱ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❧❡✐t✉r❛✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞❡s✈✐♥❝✉❧❛r ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ rót✉❧♦ ❡ ❝♦❧♦❝á✲❧❛s ❥✉♥t♦ à ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ▼❊❘✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✾ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✈❡♥❞❛ ❞❡ ❧✐✈r♦s✳ ❯♠❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ss❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡s✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞❛ ❞♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞♦ ❛r❝♦ é ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧❛ ❝♦♠ ❝❧❛r❡③❛ ♠❡s♠♦ ❡♠ ❛r❡st❛s ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✾✿ ❈❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦✳ ■♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ r❡ss❛❧t❛r q✉❡✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ▼❊❘✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ tr❛t❛r ❛ ❝❛r✲

  ❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s q✉❡ s❡ ❡s♣❡r❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣r❛ ❝♦♠ ▲✐✈r♦ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡rã♦ ❡①✐st✐r ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛té ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❛r❡st❛s s❛✐♥❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣r❛ ❝♦♠ rót✉❧♦ ■◆❈▲❯■✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❞❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❝❤❡❣❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ▲✐✈r♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✶✽ ✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❈❤❛r❧✐❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ r❡❛❧✐③♦✉ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦✱ ♠❛s ❆❧✐❝❡ ❥á ♣♦ss✉✐ ❞✉❛s ❝♦♠♣r❛s ❞❡ ❧✐✈r♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ tít✉❧♦ q✉❡ ❇♦❜ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥♦✉ ❡♠ s✉❛ ú♥✐❝❛ ❝♦♠♣r❛✳

  ❖✉tr❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❛ s❡r ❛❝r❡s❝❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛s ❛r❡st❛s é ✉♠ t✐♣♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ◆♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ♣❛ss❛ ❛ s❡ ❛ss❡♠❡❧❤❛r ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝❧❛ss❡✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♦ t✐♣♦ ♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦r ❞❡ q✉❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s sã♦ ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✵ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ é ❞❛❞❛ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❛ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ só❝✐♦ ✭❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛❞♦r✱ ❝♦t✐st❛✱ ❛❝✐♦♥✐st❛✱ ❡t❝✳✮ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ❝❛❞❡✐❛ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r❡s ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦ ❧♦❣♦ ❛♣ós ♦ sí♠❜♦❧♦ ❞❡ ✏✿✑✳ ❆ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❆❧✐❝❡ s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛ ❝♦♠ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ s❡♥❞♦ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❞✐r❡t♦r❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❡ ❝♦t✐st❛ ❡♠ ♦✉tr❛✳ ❏á ❇♦❜ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❝✐♦♥✐st❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✵✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ t✐♣♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❞♦ rót✉❧♦✱ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛ s✐❣♥✐✜✲

  ❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♣❡s♦✳ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❡①❡♠♣❧♦s sã♦✿ ❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ q✉✐❧ô♠❡tr♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❝✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❛ r❡s✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❞♦✐s t❡r♠✐♥❛✐s ❡❧étr✐❝♦s✱ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❧✐✲ ❣❛çõ❡s t❡❧❡❢ô♥✐❝❛s ❡♥tr❡ ❞✉❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s✱ ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧❛r❡s ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t✐♣♦ ♥❛ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ❞❡ ❧✐✈r♦s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✶ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♣❡s♦ ♥❛ ❛r❡st❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❝❛❞❛ só❝✐♦ ❡♥tr❛ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦t❛ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ✐r ❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ✈❛❧♦r ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❡ ③❡r♦ ❛té ✶✵✵✪✳ ◆❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ❆❧✐❝❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✶✵✪ ❞❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇ ❡ ✸✽✱✹✪ ❞❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❇♦❜ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✷✵✪ ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦✳

  ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ♣❛r❡❝✐❞♦s✱ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣❡s♦ ❡ t✐♣♦ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♠ ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✳ ❖ rót✉❧♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ t✐♣♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✵ ✱ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❡ss❡ ♣♦❞❡ ✈❛r✐❛r ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ t✐♣♦✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ P❡ss♦❛ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ rót✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❉■❘❊❚❖❘ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❞❡ ❈❖❚■❙❚❆ ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❆❧✐❝❡✳

  P❛r❛ ♦ ♣❡s♦✱ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❛té s❡r ♦ ♠❡s♠♦✱ ♠❛s ❝❛❞❛ ❛r❡st❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r✱ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❡ s❡✉ t✐♣♦✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❛r❝♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ♦✉ ❝♦t❛✳ ◆♦ ❡①❡♠✲ ♣❧♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✶ ✱ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❡♥tr❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ é ❛ str✐♥❣ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡ ✏❙❖❈■❖❴❉❊✑✱

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✶✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ♣❡s♦✳ ♥ã♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♥❞♦ ❞❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ t✐♣♦ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦✱ ♠❛s ❝❛❞❛ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❢❧♦❛t✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ à ♣♦r❝❡♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ♥❛ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❞❡ ❆❧✐❝❡ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆✳

  ◆♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✱ ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❞❡✲ ♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞❡s❞❡ q✉❡ s❡❥❛♠ ❝❧❛r♦s ❡ ❛t❡♥❞❛♠ ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ❙❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ sã♦ ✐❣✉❛✐s✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❛♣❡♥❛s ♣❡s♦ ❥á s❡r✐❛ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡✳

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❛r❡st❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✷ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❖ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❞♦✐s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♥❛ ❛r❡st❛ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❛❧ ❛ ❞❛t❛ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦ só❝✐♦ ♥♦ q✉❛❞r♦ ❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❊ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❞♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✱ ♠❛s ❡♠ ❣❡r❛❧ ❝♦♠♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✷✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✷ ✱ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛✲s❡ ❝♦❧♦❝❛r ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞t❴❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ ❞t❴s❛✐❞❛ ♥❛ ❛r❡st❛ ♣♦r s❡r❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❙❖❈■❖❴❉❊✳ ❊ss❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♠✉✐t♦ út✐❧

  ♣❛r❛ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ♥✲ár✐♦s ❡♥tr❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✸✳✻ ✳ ❯♠❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❛ s❡r ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛❞❛ é ♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ♣❡s♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠

  ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛✱ ❝❛s♦ s❡❥❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ♠❛s ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ s✉❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ♥♦s ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ♦ ♣❡s♦ ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❣❛♥❤♦✉ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ♥♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✳

  ✸✳✺ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ✭❍✐♣❡r❛r❝♦✮ ❞❡ ❍✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦s

  ❆té ♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛r❡st❛s q✉❡ ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♠ ❛ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ♥ós✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣❛r ✈ ❡ ✉ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s q✉❛✐sq✉❡r ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ●✭❱✱❊✮✱ ♣♦❞❡ ❡①✐st✐r ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ e ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s E✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ e = {v, u}✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲ s❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ♦✉ ♠❛✐s ✈ért✐❝❡s ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ e = {v, ..., u}

  ✱ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❡♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❬ ✷ ❪✳ ■ss♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛r ✈ár✐❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❛r❡st❛✱ q✉❡ ♣❛ss❛ ❛ s❡r ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♦✉ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❝♦✳ ❉❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠❡♥♦s ❢♦r♠❛❧✱ ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ✈ár✐♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❊ss❡s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❛♣❡♥❛s ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✱ ♦✉ s❡r ❢♦r♠❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❞♦✐s s✉❜❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ✉♠ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ♦✉tr♦ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ❝✐♥❝♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❡ três ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s q✉❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✸✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦✳ ❆ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❊✶✱ ❡♠ ❛③✉❧✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❆ ❡ ❈ ❡♠ s❡✉ q✉❛❞r♦ s♦❝✐❡tár✐♦✳ ❏á ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ✈❡r♠❡❧❤❛ ❊✷ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ s♦❝✐❡tár✐♦ ❡♥tr❡

  ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆ ❡ ♦s só❝✐♦s P❡ss♦❛ ❇ ❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❈✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♣r❡t❛✱ ❊✸✱ ❛❣r✉♣❛ ❛s P❡ss♦❛s ❈ ❡ ❇ ♣♦r ♦✉tr♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♣❛r❡♥t❡s❝♦✳

  ❊♠❜♦r❛ s❡❥❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦s ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❞✐❛✲ ❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✸ ✱ ❡ss❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ❛❜str❛✐ ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦✲ ♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❢♦rç❛♥❞♦ ❛ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♦❜❥❡t♦s ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✜❝❛r ✐❧❡❣í✈❡✐s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛

  ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ♥♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✳ ❊st❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❧✐♥❤❛s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s às ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❛r❡st❛s s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ♠❛s ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❜✐❢✉r❝❛çõ❡s ♥♦ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡t❛✱ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❡ ❝♦♠ sí♠❜♦❧♦s ♥❛s ❡①tr❡♠✐❞❛❞❡s ♦s ❛r❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐á✲❧❛s✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❝♦♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛s ♥♦t❛çõ❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s✳ ❖s rót✉❧♦s ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s✱ ♣♦✐s s❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛♠ ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s r❡❣r❛s ❡ ♥♦t❛çõ❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♥♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s✳ ❘❡ss❛❧t❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ♥ã♦ ❢♦✐ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♦✉tr♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ●❘❖❖❱❨ ❬ ✷✺ ❪✱ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❜✉s❝♦✉✲ s❡ sí♠❜♦❧♦s q✉❡ r❡♠❡t❡♠ ❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❣r❡❣❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❯▼▲ ❬ ✸✵ ❪ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐ss❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛r ♦ q✉❡ é ❛r❡st❛ ❡ ♦ q✉❡ é ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✹✿ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✳ ❆ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ s❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛ tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ❡ ♣❡❧❛ s❡t❛ s❡♠ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆♠❜❛s ❛s ♥♦t❛çõ❡s sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❛ ❤✐✲

  ♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❛❝❡✐t❛ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❡♠ q✉❡ t♦❝❛✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❛ s❡t❛ s❡♠ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤✐♠❡♥t♦ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♣♦ss✉✐r ❞✐r❡çã♦✱ ✐♥❞✐✲ ❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❡①✐st✐r ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ s❡ tr❛t❛r ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ♦✉ ❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ s❡r ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛✱ ❛ ♣♦♥t❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ r❡❝❡❜❡rá ✉♠ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡✳ ■♥✐❝✐❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♠❛✐s ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡ ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✺✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✳

  ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✿◆ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✺ ✱ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ s❡ t❡r ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❛r❝♦s ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ❞❡ ♣❛r❡s ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠✉♥s ❞♦s ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛♦ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❤✐♣❡✲ r❛r❡st❛s✱ ❡st❛s s❡rã♦ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛s ❞❡ ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♥s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❱ ❂ ④❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆✱ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇✱ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❈✱ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❳✱ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❨✱ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❩⑥✱ t❡♠✲s❡ ❞✉❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ❝♦♠ rót✉❧♦ P❆❘❚■❈■P❆◆❚❊❙ ♥♦ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❤❴✶ ❂ ④❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆✱ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇✱ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❳✱ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❨⑥✱ ❝♦❧♦r✐❞❛ ❡♠ ❛③✉❧ ❡ ❤❴✷ ❂ ④❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❈✱ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇✱ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❨✱ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❩⑥✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✈❡r♠❡❧❤♦✳ ❙✉♣♦♥❞♦ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ q✉❛rt❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✈✐❡ss❡ ❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❩✱ ❡st❛ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ ❡♥tr❛r ♥❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❤❴✷✱ ♣♦✐s ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ♥ã♦ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❨✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❡ ❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❩✳

  ❆✐♥❞❛ q✉❡ ❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ♣❡r♠✐t❛♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ✈ár✐❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ♥♦ s❡✉ ❝♦♥✲ ❥✉♥t♦✱ ❡ss❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ t♦r♥❛ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛ ❛ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❝r❡s❝❡✱ ♣♦✐s é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛s ✈ár✐❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r s❡ ❡①✐st❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ♦♥❞❡ s❡ ♣♦ss❛ ❡♥❝❛✐①❛r ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ✈ért✐❝❡✱ ♦✉ s❡ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠❛ ♥♦✈❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❧✐♠✐t❛r ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❢♦rç❛♥❞♦ ❛ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✻ ✱ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ♦ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ♥❛ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♣❛r❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✺ ✱ ♣♦ré♠✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ t❡rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❊ss❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❝♦ ♣♦❞❡rá ✐♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ♦✉ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐st✐rá s❡ ❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ♥✉♥❝❛ t✐✈❡r ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❧✐❝✐t❛✲ tór✐♦✳ ◆♦t❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ✐ss♦ é ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛ ♠❛♥t❡r ✉♠❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♠❛♥t❡r ♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s s✉❜❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♥♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✻✿ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❛r❝♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s ♥♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✻ ✱ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡✲s❡ ✉♠❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡

  ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯▼▲✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ t❡r✲s❡ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ♥♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❛❣r❡❣❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝♦rr❡❧❛çã♦✱ ❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐✲

  ❞❛❞❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❢♦rç♦✉ ✉♠❛ ❞✐ss♦❝✐❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s✳ Pr✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ sí♠❜♦❧♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ♣♦♥t❛s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛✳ ❙❡❣✉♥❞♦✱ ❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❜✐❢✉r❝❛r✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♥❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛çã♦✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ♥ã♦ s❡ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛ ♥❛ ❯▼▲ ❛♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❛❣r❡❣❛❞❛✱ ♠❛s ♥❛ q✉❡ ❝♦♥té♠ ❛ ❛❣r❡❣❛çã♦✳ ■ss♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♥♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ♣❛r❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r q✉❡ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❛ ♦✉tr❛ ♣♦♥t❛✱ s❡♠ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡✱ s❡❥❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡ ♥❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ s❡ ❤♦✉✈❡r❡♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❛♠❜❛s ❢♦r❡♠ r❡s✉♠✐❞❛s ❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦✱ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦❧❛♣s❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛✱ ❝♦♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞♦✐s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳

  ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♥♦t❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣♦❞❡ ❡st❛r ❞❡ ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ✭✵✮ ❛ ✈ár✐♦s ✭◆✮ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❆❘❚■❈■P❆◆❚❊❙✱ ✐ss♦ é ♦ q✉❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛r q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♥t❡r ✈ár✐❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ q✉❛✐sq✉❡r ❞❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s❡r ♥ã♦ ❞✐r❡✲ ❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲s❡ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ♥❛s ❡①tr❡♠✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ t♦❝❛♠ ❝❛❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✳ ◆♦t❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡ ♥❡ss❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ✉♠❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ▼❊❘ ❝♦♠ ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ▼✿◆✱ ❡♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ♦ ❞✐♠❛♥t❡ ♥♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❡♠ q✉❛♥t❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❞❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛ s♦❜r❡ ♦ sí♠❜♦❧♦ ❞❡ ✏✭★✳✳★✮✑✳

  ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛r ♦ ✉s♦ ❡♠ s❡♣❛r❛❞♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ❡ ❞❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛✲ ❧✐❞❛❞❡ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✼ ✳ ❈❛❞❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛té ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ✐t❡♥s✱ ♠❛s ❝❛❞❛ ■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❡stá ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ❊♠ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ t❡r✲s❡✲✐❛ ✉♠❛ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✭✶✳✳✶✮ ❞♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❡ ✭✶✳✳♥✮ ♣❛r❛ ■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ✈ár✐♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝♦❧♦❝❛r t♦❞♦s ♦s ✐t❡♥s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦ ♥♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✼ ♣❡❧❛ ♣♦♥t❛ s✐♠✲ ♣❧❡s ❧✐❣❛❞❛ ❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ ■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❡①✐st✐rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❡st❛rã♦ t♦❞♦s ❛s s✉❛s ✐♥s✲ tâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡st❛✱ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ♣❛r❛ ✭✶✳✳✶✮✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ✉♠❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❡st❛rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ✉♠ ■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳

  ❖✉tr♦ ✉s♦ ♣❛r❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s é ❛❣r✉♣❛r ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐✲ ❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✽❛ ✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ s❡ ❜✐❢✉r❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ❧✐❣❛r ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ s✉♣♦♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ t❡♥❤❛ ✈ár✐♦s ❝♦♥tr❛t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✈❡♥❝❡❞♦r❛✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ❡ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❡ ♦ ❈♦♥tr❛t♦ ❛ss✐♥❛❞♦✳ ◆♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❝❛❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ♦♠✐t❡✲s❡ ♦ sí♠❜♦❧♦ ❞♦ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡st❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❏á s❡✉ ✉s♦ ❡♠

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✼✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♥tr❛st❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡✳ ❈♦♥tr❛t♦ ❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r ✈ár✐♦s ❝♦♥tr❛t♦s ❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✳ ❆ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆ ♠❛♥té♠ ❈♦♥tr❛t♦ ■ ❡ ■■ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❳ ❡ ❨✳ ❊♠❜♦r❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❡ ❈♦♥tr❛t♦ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❛❣r✉♣❛❞❛s✱ ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦✐ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ♥ã♦ s❡ ♣♦❞❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❛❧ ❝♦♥tr❛t♦ s❡ ❧✐❣❛ ❛ q✉❛❧ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ♥ã♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❛❞❡q✉❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛✉❞✐t♦r✐❛✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✳

  ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♣❛r❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛r ❛ q✉❛❧ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❝♦♥tr❛t♦s ❡stã♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✲ ❞♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❧✐♠✐t❛r t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✳ ■ss♦ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❡ ♦ ♣❛r ❊♠♣r❡s❛✴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr❛t♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❡❧❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✽❜ ✳

  ◆♦t❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ♣❡r♠❛♥❡❝❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ▼❊❘✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛✲ ❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ é ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥tr❛t♦ s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛rá ❛♣❡✲

  

✭❛✮ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❈♦♥tr❛t♦ ❡

▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳

✭❜✮ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ ♣❛r ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✐♥stâ♥✲

❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❈♦♥tr❛t♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✽✿ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛♥❞♦ ✈ár✐❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ♥❛s ❛ ✉♠ ♣❛r ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✴❈♦♥tr❛t♦✳ ❏á ♣❛r❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❞✉❛s ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ✉♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✽❜ ✱ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ s❡rá ❞❡ ✭✵✳✳✶✮✱ ♣♦✐s ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ t♦❞♦s ❛s ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❝♦♥tr❛t♦s ❛ss✐♥❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✈❡♥❝❡❞♦r❛✱ ❝❛s♦ ❡❧❛ ❝♦♥s✐❣❛ ✈❡♥❝❡r ❛❧❣✉♠✳ ◆♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✽❜ ✱ ❛ ❧✐♠✐t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ✐♠♣õ❡♠ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝r✐❛r ✈ár✐❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ♣♦r ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❛❧t❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ✭✵✳✳♥✮✱ ♣♦✐s ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣♦❞❡rá ❡st❛r ❡♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✴❈♦♥tr❛t♦✳

  ❆ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ s❡rá ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ❞♦✐s s✉❜❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s✱ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s ❛❣✐rá ❝♦♠♦ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ♦s ♦✉tr♦ s❡rá ♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦s✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❛♥❞♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❝❛s♦ ♦♥❞❡ s❡ t❡♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦ ♥❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠✴❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ t❡r ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✾ ✱ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ é só❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♦✉tr❛✱ ♣♦ss✉✐♥❞♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ✉♠❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦✳

  ◆❡ss❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦✱ ❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ❛❥✉❞❛♠ ❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❛❧ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ é ❛ só❝✐❛✳ ❈❛s♦ ❝♦♥trár✐♦✱ ❤❛✈❡r✐❛ ❞✉❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♥❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❡ ♥ã♦ s❡r✐❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡ss❛ ❞✐st✐♥çã♦✳ ❇❛st❛ ✐♠❛❣✐♥❛r ❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♥♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ s❡♠ ❛s s❡t❛s ❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✾✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♥❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ ♥♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✷✾ q✉❡ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛

  ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ✭❊♠♣r❡s❛✮ ❡ ❞♦✐s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ s❡t❛✱ ✉♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦✱ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤✐❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♥❛s ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❡ ♦✉tr❛ ✈♦❧t❛♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ s❡t❛ s❡♠ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ■ss♦ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦✱ q✉❡ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ t❡rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♥❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠✱ ♠❛s✱ ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ❡①✐st✐rã♦ ✈ár✐❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❞❛s q✉❛✐s ❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛ ❝♦♠♦ só❝✐♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s✳ ■ss♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ ♥❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ t❡r ✈ár✐❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❧✐st❛ ❞❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♠✉♥s ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✳

  P♦❞❡r✲s❡✲✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ú♥✐❝♦ t❛♠❜é♠✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✵ ✱ ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r q✉❛❧ ❈❧✐❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣r♦✉ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦s ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s tít✉❧♦s ❞❡ ▲✐✈r♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐✲ ♥❛❞❛ ▲♦❥❛✱ ❛❣r✉♣❛♥❞♦ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡s ❝♦♠✉♥s ❡ ♣r♦✈á✈❡❧ ♣r♦①✐♠✐❞❛❞❡ ❣❡♦❣rá✜❝❛✳ P❡❧❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ s❡ t❡♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❧♦❥❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦✱ ♠❛s ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❧✐✈r♦s ❡ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s✱ ♥ã♦ ♥❡❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ s❡♣❛r❛♥❞♦ q✉❛❧ ❧✐✈r♦ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♠♣r❛❞♦ ♣♦r q✉❛❧ ❝❧✐✲ ❡♥t❡✳ ◆♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ♥❛s ♣♦♥t❛s ❞❛s ♦r✐❣❡♥s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥ç❛ ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ ♠❛s ✉♠❛ s❡t❛ ❝♦♠ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤✐♠❡♥t♦✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❡①✐st✐rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ▲♦❥❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✳ ◆❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s ❧✐✈r♦s q✉❡ ❆❧✐❝❡ ❡ ❇♦❜ ❝♦♠♣r❛r❛♠ ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ♥❛ ▲♦❥❛ ✶✳ P❡❧❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠✱ ❆❧✐❝❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❛❣r✉♣❛♥❞♦ ♦s ❧✐✈r♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ t❡♥❤❛ tít✉❧♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ❇♦❜✱ ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♠♣r❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❧♦❥❛✳ ❖ ♠♦t✐✈♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉s❛r ❛ s❡t❛ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r q✉❡ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❧✐♠✐t❛❞❛s ❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ t❛♥t♦ ❡♠ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ s❡ ✐❣✉❛❧❡ à ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✵✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡st❡♥❞❡r ❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛✱

  ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✉❜❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ♦✉tr♦ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ t❡r✲s❡✲✐❛ ✉♠ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❛♣♦♥t❛♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦✉tr♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✶ ✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♥❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♥ã♦ ❤á ❧✐♠✐t❛çã♦ ♥♦s ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ t❡r ✈ár✐♦s só❝✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ✈ár✐❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✶✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ q✉❡ sã♦ só❝✐❛s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♥s

  ❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♥♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦ sã♦ ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞❛s ❥✉♥t❛s ♥❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❝❛❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲s❡ ♦s sí♠❜♦❧♦s ❞❡ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡ ♥❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✱ ❡ ❛ s❡t❛ ♥ã♦ ♣r❡❡♥❝❤✐❞❛ ♥❛s ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✳ ❆ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❆❧✐❝❡✱ ❇♦❜ ❡ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❳ sã♦ só❝✐♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❞❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇✳ ❈♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ só❝✐♦ ✐♥❣r❡ss❛r ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❞❡ss❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ ❞❡✈❡rá ❢❛③❡r ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ss❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s t❛♠❜é♠✳

  ✸✳✻ ❘❡❧❛çõ❡s ◆✲ár✐❛s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s

  ❊♠ ❝❡rt❛s ♦❝❛s✐õ❡s✱ ♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ♥ó ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♥✲ár✐♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦✲ ♥❛♠❡♥t♦ é ú♥✐❝♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s q✉❛♥❞♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲s❡ ✉♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❥á ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❣r❛❢♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐✲ ♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❬ ✸✷ ❪✳ ❈❛❞❛ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛rá ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✷ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣♦ss❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝❛r❣♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠❛ P❡ss♦❛ ♣♦❞❡ ❛ss✉♠✐r ✉♠ ❈❛r❣♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ Ór❣ã♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✷✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛çã♦ ♥✲ár✐❛✳ ❊♥❢❛t✐③❛♥❞♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛ ❉❛t❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ❡❧❛ s✉r❣❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♠❛✐s ✉♠❛ ❞✐♠❡♥sã♦

  ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥✲ár✐♦✳ P❛r❛ ❡ss❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦✱ ♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❝❡♥tr❛❧ ❝✉♠♣r❡ ♦ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❞❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ♦ ❛t♦ ❞❛ P♦ss❡✱ ❛❣r✉♣❛♥❞♦ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ ❡✈❡♥t♦✱ q✉❡ ❧✐❣❛❞❛s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ s❡r✐❛♠ ✐♥s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡s✳

  ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦s✱ ♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ♣♦❞❡r ❛♣♦♥t❛r ♣❛r❛ ✈ár✐♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❥✉♥t❛r ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡✈✐t❛❞♦✳ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❡①❡♠♣❧♦s ❞❡ r❡❧❛çã♦ ♥✲ár✐❛ ❥á ❢♦r❛♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✸✳✺ ❡ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❛ ♣♦ss❡ ❡♠ ❝❛r❣♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ t♦❞♦s ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ Ór❣ã♦ q✉❡ t♦♠❛r❛♠ ♣♦ss❡ ♥♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❈❛r❣♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❉❛t❛✳ ❆ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♦♥❞❡ ❆❧✐❝❡✱ ❇♦❜ ❡ ❈❤❛r❧✐❡ ❝♦♠❡ç❛r❛♠ ❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r ❝♦♠♦ ❛♥❛❧✐st❛s ♥♦ ▼✐♥✐stér✐♦ ❞♦ P❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❖rç❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ●❡stã♦ ✭▼P❖●✮✳

  ❊ss❡s ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦s✱ ❝r✐❛♥❞♦✲ s❡ ❤✐♣❡r♥ós ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ♣♦r ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❡♠ ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ P♦ss❡✱ ♠❛s ❛❣♦r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ós✳ ❋♦r❛♠ ❥✉♥✲ t❛❞♦s ❈❛r❣♦✱ Ór❣ã♦ ❡ ❉❛t❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ♣❛r❛ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛r ♦ tr✐♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ P❡ss♦❛✳ ◆♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛✱ ❝❛❞❛ tr✐♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ P♦ss❡✱ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ Ór❣ã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❈❛r❣♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❉❛t❛ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛✳ ❆s ♣♦ss❡s s❡ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛♠ ❝♦♠ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✱ q✉❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡ ❡st❛r ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♦✉tr❛s ♣♦ss❡s✱ ❝❛s♦ t❡♥❤❛ ❛ss✉♠✐❞♦ ♦✉tr♦s ❝❛r❣♦s✳ ❆ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✸✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥✲ár✐♦ ❝♦♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦✳ ♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r✱ ♠❛s ❛❣♦r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó ❝♦♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ✶ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣♦ss❡ ❞❡ ❆❧✐❝❡✱ ❇♦❜ ❡ ❈❤❛r❧✐❡✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✹✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥✲ár✐♦ ❝♦♠ ❤✐♣❡r♥ó✳ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡♠ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❛ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ s❡ ❡✈✐t❛r ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡

  ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❉❛t❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❛♠❜❛s ❡stã♦ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛✲ ❞❛s ❛♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ sã♦ ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛✳

  ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♥ã♦ s❡ ❞á ê♥❢❛s❡ ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❝♦♠ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❉❛t❛ ❛♦ ❝♦❧♦❝á✲❧♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ♠❛s s❡ ❡✈✐t❛ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❡❧❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✈❡r✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❳ ❡ ❨ ♣❡r♠❛♥❡❝❡ ❞✐r❡t❛ ✭s❡♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦✮ ♣❡❧♦ ✉s♦ ❞♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✺✿ ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♥❛ ❛r❡st❛✳

  ✸✳✼ ◗✉❛❞r♦ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲

  ❆ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ é r❡s✉♠✐❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✻ ✳ ❖s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❛r❡st❛ ❡ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s sí♠❜♦❧♦s ❞❡ ✏❬✑ ❡ ✏❪✑✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✸✳✸✻✿ ◆♦t❛çã♦ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❥á ❝♦♠❡♥t❛❞♦✱ ❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❢♦✐ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❛s ❞✐✲

  ✈❡rs❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡s❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s s✐♠♣❧❡s ❛té ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❱í♥❝✉❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛rá ♦ ▼❉●✲ ◆♦❙◗▲ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♦✉tr❛s três ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ♥♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷ ✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❧❡✈á✲❧♦

  ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s ❛ ✉♠❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r ❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡✉s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ s✉❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ✉♠ ❜♦♠ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❱í♥❝✉❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s

  ❊st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❡ss❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛r ♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ▼❉●✲ ◆♦❙◗▲✳ ❆s s❡çõ❡s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦✱ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❧❛❝✐✲ ♦♥❛❧✱ ❡ ♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ s✉❛s ✈ár✐❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛♥á❧✐s❡s ❞❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ♣❡rt✐♥❡♥t❡s ❛♦ t❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛✉❞✐t♦r✐❛✳

  ✹✳✶ ❆✉❞✐t♦r✐❛ ❡ ♦ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s

  ❆ ❈●❯✱ ór❣ã♦ ❞♦ ●♦✈❡r♥♦ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❡ s✉❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❤✐❡rárq✉✐❝❛✱ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ❞✐r❡t♦r✐❛ ❧✐❣❛❞❛ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ à ❙❡❝r❡t❛r✐❛ ❊①❡❝✉t✐✈❛ q✉❡ ❛✉①✐❧✐❛ ♥❛ ♣r❡✈❡♥çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠❜❛t❡ à ❝♦rr✉♣çã♦✳ ❆ ❉✐r❡t♦r✐❛ ❞❡ P❡sq✉✐s❛s ❡ ■♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❊str❛té❣✐❝❛s ✭❉■❊✮ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❝♦♠♣❡tê♥❝✐❛ s✉❜s✐❞✐❛r ❝♦♠ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ár❡❛s ❞❛ ❈●❯✱ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r t♦♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ♣♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ s❡✉s s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❯♠❛ ❞❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❛ ❞✐r❡t♦r✐❛ é t❡♥t❛r ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ✐♥❞í❝✐♦s ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❡ ❡♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦ ❛ ❉■❊ r❡ú♥❡ ❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❣❡r❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡ ❝♦♥str✉✐r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❛♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❝♦♠♦ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ❞❡ss❡s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠✳ ❊ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❡st❛r ♥❛s ❜❛s❡s ✐♥t❡r♥❛s ❞♦ ❣♦✈❡r♥♦ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ s❡❥❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐❞♦ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❛♦s ❛✉❞✐t♦r❡s ❞♦ ór❣ã♦✱ ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝❛s✱ ♥♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s sít✐♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✳

  P❡ss♦❛s ♦✉ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥tr❡♣♦st♦s ♣❛r❛ ♠❛s❝❛r❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✲ ♠❡♥t♦s ❞✐r❡t♦s q✉❡ s❡r✐❛♠✱ ♥♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦✱ ❝♦♥✢✐t❛♥t❡s✱ ♣r❡❥✉❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❧✐❝✐t✉❞❡ ❞♦s ❝♦♥tr❛t♦s ✜r♠❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛çã♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝❛✳ P♦r ✐ss♦ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❡r♠✐✲ t❡♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ✐♥❞í❝✐♦s ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❡s ❡♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✳ ❯♠ ❝❛s♦ ❤✐♣♦tét✐❝♦ s❡r✐❛ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♠ ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣r❛ ❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ só❝✐♦s ❝♦♠ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♣❛r❡♥t❡s❝♦ ♦✉ r❡❧❛çã♦ ✐♥❞✐r❡t❛✳ ❊ss❛ s❡r✐❛✱ ♥♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦✱ ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ❞❡ r✐s❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❧✐s✉r❛ ❞❛s ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ♥♦ ór❣ã♦✱ ♣♦✐s ❡ss❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r✐❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♣r❡ç♦ ❢♦ss❡ ❛❝❡rt❛❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣❛r❛ t❡♥t❛r ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r ♥♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦✳

  ❆t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ❞❛r s✉♣♦rt❡ ❛ ❡ss❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❛ ❞✐r❡t♦r✐❛ ❛❣r✉♣❛ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜❛♥❝♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ❇✉s✐♥❡ss ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡ ✭❇■✮ ❬ ✷✻ ❪ ♦✉ ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❞✐r❡t❛s às ❜❛s❡s✳ ❆s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♠ à ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s✱ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çõ❡s ❝♦♥❥✉♥t❛s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ♦✉ ♣♦ss❡ ❡♠ ❝❛r❣♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝♦✳ ❆❧❣✉♠❛s ❞❡ss❛s sã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛s ❡ ❡①♣❧♦r❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺ ✳

  P❛r❛ ♦ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡✱ sã♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s ♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♠ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à r❡❧❡✈â♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ t❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ●♦✈❡r♥♦ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❞♦s ór❣ã♦s ❞❡ ❈♦♥tr♦❧❡✳ ❖ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ●♦✈❡r♥♦ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛s ❛q✉✐s✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❜❡♥s ❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s✳ ❖ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❧❡❣❛❧ é ❛ ▲❡✐ ➏ ✽✳✻✻✻✴✾✸ q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ♠❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ♣❡q✉❡♥❛ ♣❛rt❡ s❡rá ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛✱ ♣♦✐s ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♥ã♦ é ❡❧❛❜♦r❛r ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ♠❛s ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡r✐✈❛❞♦s ♥❡ss❡ ❝❡♥ár✐♦✳

  ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❛❧❣✉♠ ór❣ã♦ ❞♦ ❣♦✈❡r♥♦ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦✱ ❡st❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛ ✉♠ ♣r♦✲ ❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♥❞♦ ♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ❛❞q✉✐r✐r ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❧❡❣❛✐s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ❛ ❧✐s✉r❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ é ✉♠ t❛♥t♦ ♦♥❡r♦s♦✱ ✈ár✐♦s ✐t❡♥s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❧✐❝✐t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦✱ ❢♦r♠❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ú♥✐❝♦ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❛♠♣❧❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❡ ✈ár✐♦s ✐t❡♥s✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ s❡rá ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❡rt❛ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s s❡ ✐♥s❝r❡✈❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥❝♦rr❡r ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s✳

  ❯♠❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ❛t✐✈♦s ❞❡ r❡❞❡✱ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞❛ ❡♠ ❞♦✐s ✐t❡♥s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥t❡♠♣❧❛r ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❆ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ♣♦❞❡ s❡ ✐♥s❝r❡✈❡r ♣♦r ✉♠ ✐t❡♠ ♦✉ ❛♠❜♦s✱ s❡ t✐✈❡r ♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦❢❡rt❛r ♦ q✉❡ é ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦✳ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ❛ ❝♦♥❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❝♦♠♣r❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣♦❞❡r ♣ú❜❧✐❝♦✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦ ✐ss♦ ♥❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡✱ às ✈❡③❡s ♣♦r q✉❡stõ❡s té❝♥✐❝❛s ♦✉ ❞❡ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦✱ ♠❛s ❝❡rt❛s ✈❡③❡s ♣♦r ✉s♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❢r❛✉❞✉❧❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡♠ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❧✐❝✐t❛tór✐♦✳

  P♦r ❡ss❛ r❛③ã♦ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ só❝✐♦s ❡ ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡✳ ❊❧❛ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐r ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s s✉s♣❡✐t♦s q✉❡ ❝♦❧♦q✉❡♠ ❡♠ r✐s❝♦ ✉♠❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦✳ ❆ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ss❡s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛♣r♦❢✉♥❞❛r ✉♠❛ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦ ❜✉s❝❛♥❞♦ ✐♥❞í❝✐♦s ❡ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣r♦✈❛s ❞❡ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❢♦✐ ❢r❛✉❞❛❞♦ ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ❞❡t❡❝t❛r q✉❛❞r✐❧❤❛s q✉❡ ❛t✉❡♠ ♥❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❝r✐♠❡✳

  ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ❥á é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦

  ❝♦♠❜❛t❡ ❛♦ ❝r✐♠❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦ ❬ ✷✾ ✱ ✸✹ ❪✳ ◆❡ss❛s r❡❞❡s sã♦ ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s s✉s♣❡✐✲ t❛s ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r❡♠ ❞❡ ❡sq✉❡♠❛s ❝r✐♠✐♥♦s♦s ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ ❝♦rr❡❧❛❝✐♦♥á✲ ❧❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s✱ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ ❝♦♥t❛s ❜❛♥❝ár✐❛s✱ ❝❛r❣♦s ♣ú❜❧✐❝♦s✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s ❬ ✸✽ ❪✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛ r❡❞❡✱ ❛♥❛❧✐st❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❛♥❛❧✐sá✲❧❛ ❜✉s❝❛♥❞♦ ✐♥❞í❝✐♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ♥❛s ✐♥t❡r❛✲ çõ❡s✱ ♦✉ ♣♦♥t♦s ❢♦rt❡s ❡ ❢r❛❝♦s ❞❛ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♣r♦♣ós✐t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❛rt✐❝✉❧á✲❧❛ ❬ ✶✼ ❪✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❡stã♦ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ❡♠ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r r❡♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡✳

  

✹✳✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❱í♥✲

❝✉❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s

  ❆ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥✲ t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶ ✳ ❈♦♠❡ç❛r ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ só❧✐❞❛ ❡ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥tã♦ ♣r♦♣♦r ❡ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛✈❛❧✐❛♥❞♦ s✉❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✳

  ❖ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♥♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✱ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛♥❞♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✳ ◆♦ ❇r❛s✐❧✱ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r ✈ár✐❛s P❡ss♦❛s ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ♦✉tr❛s ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♠♦ só❝✐♦s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s sã♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣♦r ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ▼✿◆ ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐✈❛ P❡ss♦❛s❙♦❝✐♦s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❛s ❊♠♣r❡s❛s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r só❝✐❛s✱ ♦ ❛✉t♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✿◆ ❞❡ss❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ é ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s❙♦❝✐♦s✳

  ❏✉♥t♦ ❛♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ só❝✐♦s ❡stã♦ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ só❝✐♦ ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çõ❡s❙♦❝✐♦✳ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ é ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r q✉❛❧ ♦ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❞♦ só❝✐♦ ♥❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛❞♦r✱ ❝♦t✐st❛✱ ❛❝✐♦♥✐st❛ ♦✉ ❞✐r❡t♦r✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✳

  ❆ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠ ♣❛♣❡❧ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡✱ ♣♦✐s ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✲ ✜❝❛r ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ P❡ss♦❛s ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞❛s✱ ❡ ♣♦r ✐ss♦ ❢♦✐ ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ s❡♣❛r❛❞❛✱ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦r ♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❡ss❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♣♦❞❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ✈ár✐♦s ♥ú♠❡r♦s ❡ ❡ss❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦s✱ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ❝♦♠ P❡ss♦❛s ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦ss✉✐ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ▼✿◆ ♣❛r❛ ❛♠❜♦s✱ ❢❡❝❤❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❜❧♦❝♦ ❞❡ r❡✲ ❧❛çõ❡s s♦❝✐❡tár✐❛s✳

  ❆ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♠ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s é ❢❡✐t❛ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ❞❛s ♠❡s♠❛s ♥♦s ■t❡♥s❴▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✳ P❛r❛ ♣r♦♠♦✈❡r ❛ ❝♦♥❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛✱ ✈ár✐❛s ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞❡ ✈ár✐♦s ✐t❡♥s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ s❡❥❛ ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♦✉ ♥ã♦✱ ❡♠ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✿◆✳ ❏á ■t❡♥s❴▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡ ❡stã♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❤✐❡r❛rq✉✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ú♥✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ♦ q✉❛❧ ♣♦❞❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ✈ár✐♦s ✐t❡♥s ❡♠ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✶✿◆✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✿ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❝♦♠ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✳ ❈❛❞❛ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ❛q✉✐s✐çã♦✱ ❡ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❡stá ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ▼✐♥✐stér✐♦s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♦s ❞♦✐s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ✶✿◆✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛✳

  ❉❡♣♦✐s ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ♣r♦♣♦st❛ é ❤♦♠♦❧♦❣❛❞❛ ❡ ❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❣❛♥❤❛❞♦r❛ ❛ss✐♥❛ ♦ ❝♦♥tr❛t♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛çã♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝❛✳ ❊ss❛ ❤♦♠♦❧♦❣❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛ss✐♥❛❞❛ ♣♦r ✉♠ s❡r✈✐❞♦r ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞♦ r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡❧ ♣❡❧❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ❊ss❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s s❡rã♦ ✐♥❝❧✉í❞❛s ♣♦st❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥t❛❞♦r❡s ❡ s❡✉ ❤✐stór✐❝♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳

  

✹✳✸ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❇❛♥❝♦

❞❡ ❱í♥❝✉❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛✲ ❞❡s

  ◆❡st❛ s❡çã♦ é ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ♥❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✱ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❡ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦✱ ♠❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦rq✉❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♥ã♦ é tã♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦ q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❡ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦✱ ♠❛s t❛♠❜é♠ ♥ã♦ tã♦ rí❣✐❞♦ q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ s❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❜♦♠ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❞♦ q✉❛❧ ❡❧❡ s❡ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛✱ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s sã♦ tr❛t❛❞♦s✳

  ✹✳✸✳✶ ●r❛❢♦ ❙✐♠♣❧❡s

  ❖s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s s✐♠♣❧❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s ❝❛❜❡♥❞♦ ❛♦s rót✉❧♦s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛r ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r❡s ❞❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s s❡ tr❛♥s✲ ❢♦r♠❛♠ t❛♠❜é♠ ❡♠ ♥ós✱ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❢♦ss❡♠ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❖ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❣r❛❢♦s s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ s❡✉ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r✱ ❡ ♦s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✷ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✷✿ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✳

  ◆♦t❛✲s❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ◆♦♠❡ ❡ ❉❛t❛✳ ❖s r❡❧❛❝✐♦✲ ♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❝♦♠ ◆♦♠❡ t❡♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❡ ♣♦r ✐ss♦ ✉s❛♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ rót✉❧♦✳ ❏á ❛ ❉❛t❛ s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐st✐♥t❛✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♥❛s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ P❡ss♦❛✱ ♦✉ ❛s ❞❛t❛s ❞❡ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❡ ❡♥❝❡rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳

  ❏á ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ só❝✐♦s ❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ ♣♦r ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡r t❛♠❜é♠ ❛s q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çõ❡s✱ é r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♥✲ár✐❛ ♣❡❧♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ q✉❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛ ❝❛❞❛ só❝✐♦✱ ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ s✉❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r só❝✐♦s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❡ss♦❛ ♦✉ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❡ss❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r ❧✐❣❛❞❛s ❛ ✈ár✐❛s ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s✱ ♠❛s ❝❛❞❛ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ t❡rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ só❝✐♦✱ s❡❥❛ P❡ss♦❛ ♦✉ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳

  ❆s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ▼✿◆ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡♠ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ❝♦♠ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❧✐❣❛r ✈ár✐♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡♥tr❡ s✐✱ ♥ã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s ♣❛r❛ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝❡r ❡ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♥tr❛st❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♦♥❞❡ s❡r✐❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐✈❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶ ✳

  ❆❧❣✉♠❛s ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ s❡ t❡r t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡s é q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ♠❛✐s ♥♦r♠❛❧✐③❛❞♦✱ ♣♦✐s q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ s❡r ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ é ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♠❛♥t❡♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✳ ❊ss❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❡①õ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s ♣♦r ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛r ♦s r❡✲ ❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✳ ❊♠ ❝♦♥tr❛ ♣❛rt✐❞❛✱ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s ♥♦ ♠♦✲ ❞❡❧♦✱ ❞❡✐①❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ♠❛✐s ♦♥❡r♦s❛s✱ ♣♦✐s ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ ❜✉s❝❛r ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❧✐❣❛❞♦s ❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❢♦r ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛❧❣✉♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✳

  ✹✳✸✳✷ ●r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦s

  ❖s ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ q✉❡ t❛♥t♦ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❡♠ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♣❛r ❞❡ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❡ ✈❛❧♦r✳ ❊ss❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ❝❡rt❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ♣ró①✐♠❛s ❛♦s ♥ós✱ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♥❞♦ ❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❞❛❞♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♣♦✐s sã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♠❡♥♦s ✈ér✲ t✐❝❡s✱ ❝❛s♦ ❛❧❣✉♥s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣r❡ss❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ P❡r❝❡❜❡✲s❡ ✉♠❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ♥♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳ ❈❛❞❛ ♥ó ✐♥t❡r♥❛❧✐③❛ s❡✉s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ s❡✉s t✐♣♦s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠♦ ◆♦♠❡ ❡ ❉❛t❛ ♣❛ss❛♠ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛r ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ s❡ t♦r♥❛r❡♠ ♦✉tr♦ ♥ó✳

  ❊♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ às ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ♦❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ ♦ ❡♥❝❛❞❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❤✐❡✲ r❛rq✉✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❡♠ ▼✐♥✐stér✐♦ ❡ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❯♠ ▼✐♥✐stér✐♦ ❝♦♠ ✈ár✐❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛r ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ♦✉ ♠❛✐s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ❏á ♥❡ss❛ ú❧t✐♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♠❡r❡❝❡ ✉♠ ❞❡st❛q✉❡✱ ❝♦♠✲ ♣❛r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ◆♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✿◆ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❝♦♠ ■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ é ♠♦✲ ❞❡❧❛❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐✈❛ ♦♥❞❡ sã♦ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çõ❡s ❞❡ss❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❏á ♥♦ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ❡ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❜✐♥ár✐♦ é ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡❧♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛s ❛r❡st❛s✱ s❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡ ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦✳ ❊ss❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✳

  ❏á ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s P❡ss♦❛✱ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛♠ ♣❛r❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ❛❣♦r❛ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♥ós ❡st❛r❡♠ ♠❛✐s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s ❝♦♠ t✉♣❧❛s ❞❡ t❛❜❡❧❛s✳ ❉❡ ❢❛t♦✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♣♦❞❡ tr❛③❡r ♦ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ♠❛✐s ♣ró①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✸✿ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❊ss❛ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥ç❛ ❣❡r❛ ✉♠❛ ❛r♠❛❞✐❧❤❛ ❛♦ s❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳

  ■ss♦ ♣♦rq✉❡✱ s❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❢♦r❡♠ ♠❛♥t✐❞♦s ❥✉♥t♦s ❛♦s ♥ós ♦✉ ❛r❡st❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡

  ♣❡r❞❡r ♦ ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦ ❞❡ ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛r ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❖ ◆♦♠❡✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ q✉❡ ❝♦st✉✲ ♠❛♠ s❡r ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❝❛♠♣♦s ♥❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s✱ ❡♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ s❡r✈✐r ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♣❡ss♦❛s ❤♦♠ô♥✐♠❛s ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣❛r❡♥t❡s❝♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦s ♥♦♠❡s ❞❡ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♠❛♥tê✲❧♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡s s❡r✐❛ ♠❛✐s ✈❛♥t❛❥♦s♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✱ ♣♦✐s ♥ã♦ s❡r✐❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✈❛rr❡r t♦❞♦s ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡♠ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞♦s ♥♦♠❡s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡s✱ ♠❛s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♥ó ✐♥❞❡①❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦ ❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛♥❞♦ s❡✉s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❛❞❥❛❝❡♥t❡s✳ ❚r❛tá✲❧♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛ ❝r✐❛r ♥♦✈♦s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♥♦♠❡s ❞❡ ❢❛♠í❧✐❛✱ ♣♦✐s s❡r✐❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❞♦✐s ♥♦♠❡s s✐♠✐❧❛r❡s✳

  ❊♠ ♦✉tr♦ ❝❡♥ár✐♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡ t✐✈❡ss❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ♣♦❞❡r✲ s❡✲✐❛ ♠❛♥tê✲❧♦s ❥✉♥t♦s ❛♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ♠❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❛✉❞✐t♦r✐❛✱ ❛♦ s❡ ♣❡r❣✉♥t❛r q✉❛✐s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❞❡❝❧❛r❛r❛♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ s❡r✐❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✈❛rr❡r ♦s ♥ós ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❢♦ss❡♠ t✉♣❧❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆ ❝♦♠♣r❡❡♥sã♦ ❞❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♥❡❣ó❝✐♦ ♥♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐❞✐r q✉❛✐s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♠❛♥t✐❞♦s ♥♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ♦✉ ❡①♣❧✐❝✐t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✈ért✐❝❡s é ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r ♣r♦✈❡✐t♦ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✳

  P❛r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦s ❝❛s♦s ❞❡ ◆♦♠❡ ❡ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♠❛♥t❡r ♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ é ♠❡❧❤♦r q✉❡ t♦r♥á✲❧❛ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❜❛st❛ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ❛✉❞✐t♦r✐❛✳ ❊❧❛ é ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ♦♥❞❡ tr❛③❡r ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ♦✉ ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡ ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛r ❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s✳

  ❖ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♥✲ár✐❛ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❛❧ ❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ só❝✐♦ ♥❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❡s✱ ❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐ ♠✉✐t♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❡st❛♥❞♦ s❡♣❛r❛❞❛ ♠❛✐s ♣♦r ✉♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐③❛çã♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✹ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❞✉❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦✳ P❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ s❡rá ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❜✐❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛✐s✳

  ❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✹ q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❆ ❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❇ ❛tr❛✲ ✈és ❞❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❈♦t✐st❛✳ ❖ ♠❡s♠♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❳ ❡ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❨ ❡ ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❆ ❝♦♠ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❨ ❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❇ ❝♦♠ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❳✳ ❊ss❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❡stá ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ q✉❡ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ só❝✐♦s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛ ✉♠❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣❡❧❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❈♦t✐st❛✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦✐ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦s ❡ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ tr❛③ ✉♠❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✈❛❧✐♦s❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❡s✳

  ❆♦ ✐♥✈és ❞✐ss♦✱ ❡ss❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ♣♦❞❡ ✐♥✉♥❞❛r ❝♦♠ ❞❛❞♦s ✐rr❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s q✉❡♠ ♣r♦❝✉r❛r ♣♦r ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s s❡r❡♠ só❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❝♦t✐st❛s é ❛❧❣♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❝♦♠✉♠✳ ❉✐✜❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✹✿ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ s❡rã♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛s ✉♠❛ ❞❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❞✐✜❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡st❛rã♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥❧✉✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❢r❛✉❞❛r ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ❉❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❡stá ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ s❡♣❛r❛r ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛r s❡✉s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ s❡ ❢♦r❡♠ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❡♥tr❡ P❡ss♦❛ ♦✉ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s✱ ♠✉✐t♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s s❡rã♦ r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❝❛s♦s ❡♠ q✉❡ ♦s ♣❛r❡s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛❞♦s t❡rã♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✱ ❡ ❡st❡ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣♦❞❡rá s❡r ♦ ♠❡♥♦r ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s✳ ■ss♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❢♦r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♣❡❧♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ♠❛✐s ❝✉rt♦s✱ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s s♦♠❡♥t❡ ♦s q✉❡ ♣❛ss❛♠ ♣♦r ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦✱ ❞❡✐①❛♥❞♦ ❞❡ ❢♦r❛ ♦✉tr♦s ♠❛✐s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❙ó❝✐♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♣r♦✈❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥ã♦ s❡rã♦ ❝♦♠✉♥s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❝♦♠♦ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r t♦❞❛s ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♠ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ♠❛s s✐♠ ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛s q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ❞♦s só❝✐♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ é ♠❛✐s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ✜❧tr❛r ✉♠❛ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ q✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦ ❡♥tr❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ♦✉ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳

  ❊ss❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❞❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ s✉❣❡r❡ q✉❡ s❡rá ♠❛✐s ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡✱ ✈✐s❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❝♦♥✲ s✉❧t❛s ♣♦r ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ♥❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❡s✱ ♠♦✈❡r ❡ss❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ♠❛♥t❡r ♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦ ❡♥tr❡ só❝✐♦ ❡ ❡♠✲ ♣r❡s❛✳ ❊ss❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✺ ✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✸ ❢♦✐ ❛❧t❡r❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡♠♦✈❡r ♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥✲ár✐♦ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛ ✐♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❙❖❈■❖❴❉❊✳

  ❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡✱ ♥♦ ♥♦✈♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ q✉❡ ❛❣♦r❛ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ r❡♣❡t✐çã♦ ❞❛s q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❙❖❈■❖❴❉❊✱ ♠❛s ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s só❝✐♦s ❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s t♦r♥♦✉✲s❡ ❞✐r❡t♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ♠❡♥♦s s❛❧t♦s ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❞❡ ✉♠ só❝✐♦ ❛ ♦✉tr♦ ♣❡❧♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s✳ ❚❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦✐ r❡♠♦✈✐❞♦ ♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❡♥tr❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♣♦r ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦✱ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ tr❛③✐❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦ út✐❧✱ ❞❡✐①❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦s

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✺✿ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❝♦♠ ◗✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✳ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s q✉❡ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❧❡✈❛r ❛ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ s✉s♣❡✐t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡ss❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♥✲ t✐❞❛❞❡s✳

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♥ã♦ s❡ ♣♦❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡ss❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✲ ♠❡♥t♦ ▼✿◆ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ✐♠♣õ❡ ❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐❛r✐❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r ❛♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ♥✲ár✐♦ ❞❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ ♠❛s ♥♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡✈✐t❛❞♦ ❝❛s♦ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐st❛ ✉♠❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❖✉tr♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❛ r❡ss❛❧t❛r é q✉❡ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❛ ♠❛✐s ♥♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❣❡r❛r ♥♦✈♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s✱ ❥á ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çõ❡s❙♦❝✐♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❡❧❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♥♦r♠❛❧✐③♦✉ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ ♠❛♥t❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s P❡ss♦❛s❙♦❝✐♦s ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s❙♦❝✐♦s✳

  ✹✳✸✳✸ ❍✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦s ❡ ❍✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s

  ❯♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ s✉❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❧✐❣✉❡♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ❞♦✐s ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ s❡✉s ✈ért✐❝❡s ♥ã♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛ s❡r ❜✐♥ár✐❛✳ ■ss♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ❡♠ ❝❡rt❛s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♦❝♦rr❡ ❡♥tr❡ ✈ár✐❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s s❡❥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ❛r❝♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ s❡♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳

  P❡r❝❡❜❡✲s❡ ❞❡ ✐♠❡❞✐❛t♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ q✉❡ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ♥♦ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❢♦✐ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❙❖❈■❖❴❉❊✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦rq✉❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦✐ ✈✐st♦ ♥♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸ ✱ ❛❧❣✉♥s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❞❡ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ♥✲ár✐❛ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ ❝♦♠♦

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✻✿ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ s❡♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐st✐♥❣✉✐r ♦ só❝✐♦ ♥❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ s❡ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣♦ss✉✐r s❡✐s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❞✐st✐♥t❛s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❡♠ q✉❛tr♦ ❞❡❧❛s ❡❧❛ é q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛❞♦r ❡ ♥❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❞✉❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❝♦t✐st❛✱ ❡①✐st✐rã♦ ❞✉❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✳ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ t❡rá ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ só❝✐❛ ♥❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛❞♦r ❡ ❛s q✉❛tr♦ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ❏á ♥❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ ❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❝♦♥t❡rá ❛ só❝✐❛ ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♠❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦t✐st❛✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ❘❡ss❛❧t❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♥ã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ♣❛r❛ só❝✐♦s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❡ss♦❛✱ ❥á q✉❡ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ s❡♣❛r❛r q✉❡♠ é ♦ só❝✐♦ ❡ q✉❛✐s sã♦ ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳

  ❖✉tr♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣❛r❡❝❡r ✐♥❝♦♠✉♠ é ♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ é r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛r ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡ss❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❢♦✐ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛❝❡✐t❛r ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ❡ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❝❛❞❛ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❝♦♥t❡rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ ♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❡♠✳

  ❏á ♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ◆♦♠❡✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡ ❡♠ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s s❡♣❛r❛❞❛s✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦ ♣♦r P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ■ss♦ é ♠♦t✐✈❛❞♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♦s ♥♦♠❡s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❞✐✜❝✐❧♠❡♥t❡ sã♦ ✐❣✉❛✐s ❛♦s ❞❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s✱ ❡ ♣♦r ✐ss♦ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ✐♥t❡rs❡çõ❡s s❡r✐❛♠ ✈❛③✐❛s✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❝❛❞❛ ◆♦♠❡ ♠❛♥té♠ ❡♠ s✉❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❛ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❤♦♠ô♥✐♠♦s✱ ❡ ✉♠❛ P❡ss♦❛ ♦✉ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❡st❛rá ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s

  ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ◆♦♠❡✳ ❊ss❡ ❝❛s♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ♠♦str❛ ❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❞✐❛♠❛♥t❡✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♦✉ P❡ss♦❛ ♥❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛✱ ❡ ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✭✶✳✳✶✮ ❥✉♥t♦ às ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ♣♦✐s ❝❛❞❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡❧❛s só ♣♦❞❡♠ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞❡ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  P❛r❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r ♦s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❞❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ t❡♠✲s❡ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❉❛t❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ q✉❡ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ s❡♠ ❞✐r❡çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❊❧❛ é ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♥❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ s❡♠ ♣r❡❝✐s❛r ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s❡♣❛r❛r ❛s ❞❛t❛s ❞❡ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❡ ❡♥❝❡rr❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♣♦rq✉❡ ❛♠❜❛s tr❛t❛♠ ❞❡ ❡✈❡♥t♦s s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛✐s✳ ◆ã♦ s❡ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r ✉♠❛ ❞❛t❛ ❞❡ ❡♥❝❡rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛♥t❡s ❞❛ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❞❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ♥❛ ❤✐♣❡✲ r❛r❡st❛ ❝♦♠ t♦❞❛s ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❞❛t❛s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✱ ❡ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ s❡♣❛r❛❞❛s✱ s❛❜❡♥❞♦✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛ ♠❡♥♦r ❞❛t❛ s❡ r❡❢❡r❡ à ❛❜❡rt✉r❛✳

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ❡①✐st✐r❡♠ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s ♥ã♦ ❡①❝❧✉✐ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ t❛♠✲ ❜é♠ ♣♦ss✉✐r ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✼ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡♠♣❧✐✲ ✜❝❛r ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❛ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ P❛r❛ ✐❧✉str❛r ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ✐♥❝❧✉✐✉ ❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❙❖❈■❖❴❉❊✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❥á ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✼✿ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ◆♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛ ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♠❛s ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r

  ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ q✉❛✐s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛❞♦s ♦✉ ♥ã♦✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♣❛r❡❝✐❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ s❡rã♦ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦s ♦s s✉❜❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦s ❞❛s ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛s✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✼ ✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❛❧t❡r❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❤✐♣❡r❛r❡st❛ ❙❖❈■❖❴❉❊ ❝♦♥t❡♥❤❛ ✉♠❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❝♦♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s só❝✐♦s✱ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♦✉ P❡ss♦❛✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❢✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳

  ✹✳✸✳✹ ●r❛❢♦ ❆♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ ❡ ❍✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡

  ▼❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦ q✉❡ ♦s ❞❡♠❛✐s✱ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛r ✈ár✐♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐✲ ❝❡s✱ ❞❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❡❧❡s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛❞♦s ♠❛✐s ❛♠♣❧♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ P❡ss♦❛✱ ◗✉❛❞r♦❙♦❝✐❡t❛r✐♦ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✽ ✳

  P❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ sã♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❡ ◆♦♠❡ ❡ ❉❛t❛✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ♥❛s❝✐♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊ss❡ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠♣♦rá s✉❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛✱ ❡ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❡✜♥❡ q✉❡ ♦ t✐♣♦ q✉❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛rá ♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ s❡rá ✉♠ ✐♥t❡✐r♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ s❡rá ✉♠ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✱ ❝♦♠ ◆♦♠❡ ❡ ❉❛t❛✱ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ✐♥t❡✐r♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✽✿ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ s❡♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ P❛r❛ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ é ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❈◆P❏✱

  ❧✐❣❛❞♦s ❛♦ ◆♦♠❡ ❡ ❉❛t❛✱ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❛s ❞❛t❛s ❞❡ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❡ ❡♥❝❡rr❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ s✉❜❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠ ❡ss❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ✐♥t❡✐r♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r✳

  ❈♦♠ ❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ♣❛r❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❧✐❣á✲ ❧❛s ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❢♦ss❡♠ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠✉♥s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❢♦✲ r❛♠ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞❛s ❛♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ s❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜q✉❡ ♣❡s✲ s♦❛s ❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦✳ ❖ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❡ss❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♠♦str❛ ❛ t♦♣♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞♦ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ◗✉❛❞r♦❙♦❝✐❡t❛r✐♦✳

  ❆ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞♦ ◗✉❛❞r♦❙♦❝✐❡t❛r✐♦ é ❛❣r✉♣❛r t♦❞♦s ♦s s✉❜❣r❛❢♦s q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♠ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐✲ ♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛❞♦s ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ✈❛❧♦r ❞♦ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ◗✉❛❞r♦❙♦❝✐❡t❛r✐♦ t❡rá ✉♠ ✐❞❡♥✲ t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ú♥✐❝♦ ❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s só❝✐♦s✱ s❡❥❛♠ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ♦✉ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦ q✉❛❞r♦ s♦❝✐❡tár✐♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣❛♥❤✐❛ ❞❡s❝r✐t❛✳

  

✹✳✹ ❆♥á❧✐s❡ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲

❇❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s

  ❖ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❢♦✐ ✐❞❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦❜r✐r ✉♠❛ ❧❛❝✉♥❛ ♥❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ q✉❡ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♣r♦♣♦st❛s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✱ ♥❡♥❤✉♠❛ ❜✉s❝♦✉ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ♠❛s ❢♦❝♦✉ ❡♠ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❞❡ s✉❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❢♦✐ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ s❡r s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐st❛✱ ❛❜r❛♥❣❡♥t❡ ❡ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ sí♠❜♦❧♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s ❡♠ s♦❢t✇❛r❡s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡♠

  ✶

  ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❉■❆ ✱ ❡st❡✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡✱ s❡♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❧✐✈r❡ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❡♥❤❛r ♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❘❡s✉♠✐❞❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ♣❡❧♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s✿

  ❼ P♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉s♦ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦ ❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦ ✭❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡✮❀

  ❼ ❊♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛s ♣♦r rót✉❧♦s ♥♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s❀ ❼ ❙✉♣♦rt❡ à t✐♣❛❣❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡ rót✉❧♦s ♥♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♥♦t❛çã♦

  ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ♣❡s♦❀ ❼ ❙✉♣♦rt❡ à ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❆ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s

  ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ✐♥✐❝✐❛r ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱ ❞❛♥❞♦ ê♥❢❛s❡ ❛♦s ❡sq✉❡♠❛s ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✳ ❆♦ s❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r ✉♠ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ q✉❡st✐♦♥❛r q✉❛✐s ❛s ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛r ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞❛ ❡ ❜✉s❝❛r ❛❥✉st❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ✜♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛✳

  ❊♠❜♦r❛ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ s❡❥❛ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡sq✉❡♠❛s✱ ✐ss♦ ♥ã♦ ❡①❝❧✉✐ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦s ❝♦♠ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ✈❡③❡s ♥♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛✲ ♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸ ✳ ▼❛s ❛ ê♥❢❛s❡ ♥♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ é ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛❜str❛✐r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ♠❛✐s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✱ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛✳

  ❤tt♣✿✴✴❞✐❛✲✐♥st❛❧❧❡r✳❞❡✴

  ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞♦s ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s s❡r❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ✉♠ ✏♠❡t❛❣r❛❢♦✑✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ q✉❡ ❢❛❧❛ s♦❜r❡ ♦✉tr♦ ❣r❛❢♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✱ ❡ ♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ s✉❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ■ss♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s ❞❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❞❡✜♥✐rã♦ ❛s r❡❣r❛s ❞♦ q✉❡ s❡rá ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❢ís✐❝♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ t✐♣❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ t❛♥t♦ ❞♦s rót✉❧♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s✳ ❊❧❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ♥♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦❞❡rã♦ s❡ ❢♦r♠❛r✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛ q✉❛✐s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❡stã♦ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞❛s ❡ ❡♠ q✉❛❧ ❞✐r❡çã♦✳

  ❖✉tr❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ é ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❥á ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ▼❊❘✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♥♦s ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❡❧❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❛❧ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s s❡ ❡s♣❡r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥✲ ❝✐❛ t❡♥❤❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦✳ ❖✉✱ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛♥❞♦ ❞❡ ♦✉tr❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✐♠❛❣✐♥❛r ❛ ❝❛r❞✐♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s ❞❡ ❝❡rt♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ✭♦✉ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛✮ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡✳

  ❆ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐✉ ❛ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝✐❛r ❞❡❝✐sõ❡s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

  ✹✳✹✳✶ ❱ért✐❝❡s✱ ◆ã♦ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s

  ◆♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s sã♦ ♠❛♣❡❛❞❛s ❡♠ t❛❜❡❧❛s q✉❡ ❛❣r✉♣❛♠ s❡✉s ❛tr✐✲ ❜✉t♦s✳ ❯♠ ❞❡ss❡s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛ ✭♣r✐♠❛r② ❦❡② ✲ P❑ ✮✱ é ✉♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ú♥✐❝♦ ❡ ♥ã♦ ♥✉❧♦ q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛✱ ❝❛❞❛ t✉♣❧❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ s✉❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ ❢❛❧❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ P❡ss♦❛✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ t❡♠✲s❡ ❛ ✐❞❡✐❛✱ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ q✉❡ ❝♦♥t❡rá ✉♠❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ú♥✐❝❛✱ ✉♠ ♥♦♠❡ ❡ ❡♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✳ ❆♦ ❞❡✜♥✐r ✉♠❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❡ss❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡rá ♠❛t❡r✐❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❝♦♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥✲ t❡s✳ ▼❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❛s ❝❤❛✈❡s s❡❥❛ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦✱ ♥ã♦ ♦❝♦rr❡rá ❝♦❧✐sõ❡s✱ ♣♦✐s ❝❛❞❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡ ❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✳

  ❊♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ♦s t✐♣♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❞❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s sã♦ ♥ós ♦✉ ❛r❡st❛s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛♥t❡s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s s❡r P❡ss♦❛ ♦✉ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ s❡rá ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ♦✉ ❛r❡st❛✳ ■ss♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ t❡r ✉♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r ú♥✐❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ✐♥❞❡✲ ♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❛♦ q✉❛❧ ❡❧❛ ♣❡rt❡♥ç❛✱ ♦✉ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ✉♥✐❝✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦s ♥ós ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛ s❡r ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✾ ❡①❡♠♣❧✐✜❝❛ ❡ss❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞♦✐s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦r✱ ♠❛s ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣♦r t❛❜❡❧❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❞✐st✐♥❣✉✐✲❧❛s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✾✿ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❡♥tr❡ t✉♣❧❛s ❞❡ t❛❜❡❧❛s ❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s✳ ◆❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✾ ✱ ❝❛❞❛ ✈ért✐❝❡ é ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ ■❉ ❡ ♥ã♦ s❡ ♣♦❞❡ tr❛③❡r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ❛♣r♦✈❡✐t❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❝❤❛✈❡s ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ❝❛♠♣♦✱ ♣♦✐s ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s ❡♥tr❛r✐❛♠ ❡♠ ❝♦♥✲

  ✢✐t♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ ■❉ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝r✐❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛❧✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❡ ❝♦❧♦❝❛r ♦s ❝❛♠♣♦s q✉❡ ❡r❛♠ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ✐♥❞❡①❛❞♦s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✳

  ❆❧❣✉♥s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦s rót✉❧♦s ♣❛r❛ s❡♣❛r❛r ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❢♦ss❡♠ t❛❜❡❧❛s✱ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ✉♠ rót✉❧♦ P❡ss♦❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ✐♥❞✐q✉❡ q✉❡ ❡st❡ ❡stá ♥♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞♦s ♥ós ❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s✳ ❖✉tr♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❝❧❛ss❡s ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ♦❜❥❡t♦s✳ ❉❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛♦ s❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❞❡✈❡✲s❡ ❧❡✈❛r ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s s❡rã♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞❛s ✉♥✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✳

  ✹✳✹✳✷ ●r❛❢♦s ❊♥❢❛t✐③❛♠ ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s

  ●r❛❢♦s ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♦ r✉❛s ❡♠ ❝✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❢r♦♥t❡✐r❛s ❞❡ ♣❛ís❡s ♦✉ ♣❛r❡♥t❡s❝♦s ❡♥tr❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s✳ ▲✐❣❛r ❞♦✐s ✈ért✐❝❡s ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❡ss❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ✈❡③❡s✱ ❡ss❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ ♥ã♦ ✜❝❛r ❡①♣❧í❝✐t♦s ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✵ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❡ ❞✉❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ P❡ss♦❛❏✉r✐❞✐❝❛✱ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❛♥♦ ❡ ♦ ♠ês ❞❡ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❞❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❛♣❛r❡❝❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✳ ❊str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✱ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ q✉❡ ♦✉tr❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♦✉ rót✉❧♦ s❡❥❛♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ♠❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♠❛✐s út❡✐s s❡ ❢♦r❡♠ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛❞❛s✳

  P♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ sã♦ ❛❜❡rt❛s ♥♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ❛♥♦ ❡ ♠ês✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✈❛rr❡r ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r ❛♦ q✉❡ é ❢❡✐t♦ ♥❛s ❧✐♥❤❛s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛✱ ♠❛s ❝♦♠ ✐ss♦ s❡ ❞❡s♣❡r❞✐ç❛ ✉♠❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛r ❡ss❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳

  ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡♠♦✈❡r ♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❛♥♦ ❡ ♠ês✱ ❝r✐❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❆♥♦▼❡s✱ q✉❡ s❡rá ❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❛ P❡ss♦❛❏✉r✐❞✐❝❛ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✶ ✳ ■ss♦ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ❛

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✵✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠ ❛♥♦ ❡ ♠ês ❞❛ ❛❜❡rt✉r❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦✳ ❧✐❣❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❞✉❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ♣❡❧❛ ❞❛t❛ s❡❥❛ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛❞♦✱ ❢♦r♠❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✶✿ ●r❛❢♦s ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✳ P♦❞❡ ♣❛r❡❝❡r ❡str❛♥❤♦ t❡r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛✲

  çõ❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❉❛t❛✱ ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ◆♦♠❡✱ ❥á q✉❡ ♦ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠✉♠ é q✉❡ ❡ss❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞♦s ❣r❛❢♦s é ❡♥❢❛t✐③❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛r ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♥s ❡♥tr❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐r ❛ r❡❞✉♥❞â♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

  ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❛♦ s❡ ♣r♦❝✉r❛r ♣♦r ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛❜❡rt❛s ♥❡ss❡ ♣❡rí♦❞♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲ s❡ ❜✉s❝❛r ♦ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ❛♥♦ ❡ ♠ês ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❛r❡st❛s ❛♣♦♥t❛♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❞❡ ❆♥♦▼❡s✳ ❙❡ ❢♦r ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛ ❞❛t❛✱ t❛♠❜é♠ s❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❛r ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s ♣♦r ❡ss❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ✭tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♥t❡✮✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ♦♥❞❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛♥t❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ✐♥✈❡rs❛✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ r❡♠♦✈❡r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s t✐r❛♥❞♦ ❛ ê♥❢❛s❡ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙✉❜s❡çã♦ ✹✳✸✳✷ ✳

  ✹✳✹✳✸ ❘❡❧❛çõ❡s ❇✐♥ár✐❛s ❞❡ ▼✿◆ ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s sã♦ ❉✐r❡t❛s

  ❯♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛r ❛ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♦✉tr♦s ♥ós✱ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❜✐♥ár✐♦ ❞❡ ▼✿◆ ❡♥tr❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✷ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✿◆ ❡♥tr❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❡ P❡ss♦❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✶✷✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❝♦♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✿◆ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ♣❛r❛ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✱ ✈ár✐❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ ♣♦ss✉✐r ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s

  ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ ❡st❛s t❛♠❜é♠ ♣♦❞❡♠ t❡r ❞✐✈❡rs♦s só❝✐♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❆ q✉❡ é só❝✐❛ ❞❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❆✱ ❇ ❡ ❈✳ ❏á ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❈ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♠❛✐s ❞♦✐s só❝✐♦s✱ ❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❇ ❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❈✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ só❝✐♦ ❛ P❡ss♦❛ ❆ ❡ ❈✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❥á ❡stã♦ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✳

  ❊ss❛ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛ ✢❡①✐❜✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠❛ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ♥❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❡sq✉❡♠❛ ❞♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❝❛s♦ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛ss❡ ❞❡ ✶✿◆ ♣❛r❛ ▼✿◆✱ ♣♦✐s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛rá ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ ♣❡r♠✐ssã♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛r❡st❛ ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ s❡ ❝♦♥❡❝t❡ ❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♦♥❞❡ s❡r✐❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝r✐❛r ♠❛✐s ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ▼✿◆✳

  ✹✳✹✳✹ ●r❛❢♦s ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❛❞❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ♣❡r❝♦rr❡r ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ✐♥t❡r❧✐❣❛çõ❡s ❞❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s é ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s✳ ▼✉✐t♦ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ✐♥tr♦❞✉③ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ✏❡ss❛ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❛❞❛✑ ❬ ✶✵ ❪✳ ❈♦♠♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺ ✱ é ❜❡♠ ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s ♣❡r❝♦rr❡r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞♦ q✉❡ ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆♦ s❡ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠❛

  ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♣❡r❝♦rr✐❞♦s ❞❡✈❡ s❡♠♣r❡ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❊st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❈❛s♦

  ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ✉♠❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧✲ t❛s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s ♥❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✹ ✱ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✺ ✭❙✉❜s❡çã♦ ✹✳✸✳✷ ✮✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s ❞✉❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s✱ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐✲ ❜✉t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ t❛❜❡❧❛s✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛r ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ♦✉tr❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♠❛♥t❡r ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❊ss❡ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❡r♠✐t✐✉ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ♦ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ s♦❜r❡ ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡ss❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦✳

  ✺✳✶ ❊s❝♦♣♦

  ❊♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ à ❡s❝♦❧❤❛ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐✲ ❞♦s ♣♦r✿ ❛t❡♥❞❡r❡♠ às ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡s❝r✐t❛s ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s❀ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ❞✐r❡t❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧❀ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❥á ❡①✐st✐r ✉♠ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✱ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛ ♦ ❈②♣❤❡r✱ ✉♠❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡❝❧❛r❛t✐✈❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝♦♠♣❛r❛❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❙◗▲✳

  ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ ♣r❡♣❛r❛❞♦ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ❞❡ ✻✹●❇ ❞❡ ❘❆▼✱ ✶✷ ♥ú❝❧❡♦s ❞❡ ✷✹ t❤r❡❛❞s ❡ ✺❚❇ ❞❡ ❞✐s❝♦✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ▲✐♥✉① ❈❡♥t❖❙ ✻ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦s ❞♦✐s ❙●❉❇s✱ ❛❧t❡r♥❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✳ P❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ▼②❙◗▲ ❡ ❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❙◗▲✳ P❛r❛ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❢♦✐

  ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✱ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞❡❝❧❛r❛t✐✈❛ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❈②♣❤❡r ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✳

  ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ é ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❡♠ ❢r❛✉❞❡s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s três ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❛s ❢r❛✉❞❡s ♥❡ss❡s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♠ ❞❡ ❝♦❧✉✐♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞♦s s❡✉s só❝✐♦s✱ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ t❡♥t❛r ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❡ss❡s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❞❡st❛❝❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✳

  ❼ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✶✿ ◗✉❛✐s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡❄ ❼ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✷✿ ◗✉❛✐s ✐t❡♥s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♥❝♦rr❡r❛♠ ❥✉♥t❛s❄ ❼ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✸✿ ❈♦♠♦ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ s✉❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❛té ♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❄ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ q✉❡stã♦ ♣r♦❝✉r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ♦ ❝♦♥tr❛t♦ ❞❡ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ♥ã♦ ❡stá s❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠✲

  ♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦ ♣♦r ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❈❛s♦ s❡❥❛✱ ♣r♦✈❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦s só❝✐♦s ❞❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s s❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝❡♠✱ ♦✉ sã♦ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s✱ ❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣❛r❛ ❢♦r❥❛r ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳

  ❆ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✷ ♣r♦❝✉r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r s❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♥❝♦rr❡r❛♠ ❥✉♥t❛s ❡♠ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✳ ❊ss❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ é ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛çã♦ ❞❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛çã♦✱ ♣♦✐s s❡ ❢♦✲ r❛♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦s só❝✐♦s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ r❡❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡stã♦ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥❞♦ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦✳

  ❆ ú❧t✐♠❛ q✉❡stã♦ ♣r♦❝✉r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s só❝✐♦s✳ ❈❛s♦ ♥ã♦ s❡❥❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦ ✉♠ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦ ♣♦r t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ♦s só❝✐♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❡st❛r r❡❧❛❝✐✲ ♦♥❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐❛s ❡♥tr❡ ❞✉❛s ❝♦♥❝♦rr❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ❊ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✐✜❝✉❧t❛r ❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❛ ♣rát✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❧❛♥❝❡s ❡ ♣r❡ç♦s ❛♥t❡s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛♣ós ❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ♥♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❝♦♠ ❛s ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♥s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✱ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥✲ t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ t❛❜❡❧❛s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛ ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❝♦♠♦ ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛✱ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛✱ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛r✐❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉✲ t♦s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ s♦❜r❡ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❛✐s✳

  ✺✳✷ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛♥❞♦ ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s

  ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ é ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❙◗▲ ✭❙tr✉❝t✉r❡❞ ◗✉❡r② ▲❛♥✲ ❣✉❛❣❡✮✳ P♦ré♠✱ t❛♥t♦ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❙◗▲ ❢♦r❛♠ ✐❞❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛✲ ❧❤❛r s♦❜r❡ t❛❜❡❧❛s✳ ❆ q✉❡stã♦ q✉❡ s✉r❣❡ ❛♦ t❡♥t❛r r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s tí♣✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s é s❡

  ❛♠❜♦s s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛❝❡✐tá✈❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡ tr❛t❛r ❛s ❞✉❛s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❞♦ ❡s❝♦♣♦ ❝♦♠♦ tr❛✈❡ss✐❛s ❝♦♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞♦✐s s❛❧t♦s ❞❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠✳ ❯♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠ ♥ó✱ ❝♦♠♦ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✳ ❆ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❥á é ✉♠❛ tr❛✈❡ss✐❛ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♥ós ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❛t✐♥❣✐r✱ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ❝❡rt❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✱ ♦✉tr❛ ♣❡❧❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❞❡ só❝✐♦s✳

  P❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❣❡r❛❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✜❝tí❝✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛❧✐♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠❛ sér✐❡ ❞❡ s❝r✐♣ts ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❙◗▲✳ ❋♦r❛♠ ❝r✐❛❞❛s ✶✵ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ ✶✵ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝❡♥t❡♥❛s ❞❡ ✐t❡♥s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ❆s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❡♠ s✉❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ r❛♥❞♦♠✐③❛❞❛s ❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞❡❧❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ✐♥s❡r✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❧✐❣❛❞❛s ❛té ♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ♣♦r ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳

  P❛r❛ ♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❢♦✐ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✳ ❊❧❡ é ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛ ❈②♣❤❡r ❬ ✸✷ ❪✳ P♦r ♣♦ss✉✐r ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❢♦✐ ❞❡❝✐❞✐❞♦ ♣♦r ✉t✐❧✐③á✲❧♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ♣♦❞❡ ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛r ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳

  ✺✳✷✳✶ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✶✿ ◗✉❛✐s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡❄

  P❛r❛ ♦❜t❡r ❡ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦✐ ❢❡✐t❛ ❛ ❥✉♥çã♦ ✭❏❖■◆ ✮ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐✈❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ❡ ❛s ❞✉❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s ❞❡ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡ ♦❜✲ s❡r✈❛r q✉❡ ♥❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✶ ❢♦r❛♠ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ❛❧✐❛s ♥❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s✱ ❞❡✜♥✐♥❞♦ q✉❛❧ ❡stá ❛ ❞✐r❡✐t❛ ❞❛ ♣r♦❥❡çã♦ ♥❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛✱ ❡ q✉❛❧ ❡stá ❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛✱ ❧✐❣❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s✳

  ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✶✿ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✳

  ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈▲ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛❆ ✱ ✸ ❚ ✳ ♥✉♠❡r♦❴t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ✱ ✹ ❈❘ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛❇ ✺ ❋❘❖▼ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ❆❙ ❈❚✵✶ ✻ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❆❙ ❈▲ ✼ ❖◆ ❈▲ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ❈❚✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✽ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ❆❙ ❚ ✾ ❖◆ ❚ ✳ ♣❦❴t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ❂ ❈❚✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ✶✵ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ❆❙ ❈❚✵✷ ✶✶ ❖◆ ❈❚✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ❂ ❈❚✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ✶✷ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❆❙ ❈❘ ✶✸ ❖◆ ❈❘ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ❈❚✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✹ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❈❚✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❁❃ ❈❚✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❀

  ❚❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✉♠ ❛❧✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ❥✉♥t❛r ♦s ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠ ♥❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ✶✵✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ❛ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❥á ❡st❛✈❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❡♠✲ ♣r❡s❛ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛✱ ❧✐❣❛♥❞♦ ❊♠♣r❡s❛❆✕❊♠♣r❡s❛❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s❈❚✵✶✕❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✳ ❊ss❡ ❛❧✐❛s ❧✐❣❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s✕❈❚✵✶ ❝♦♠ ❊♠♣r❡s❛❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s✕❈❚✵✷ ♣❡❧♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ t❡❧❡❢ô♥✐❝♦ ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❧✐❣❛r ❊♠♣r❡s❛❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s✕❈❚✵✷ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛❇✱ ♣♦ré♠ ❝♦♠♦ é ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛✱ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡✲ rã♦ ❧✐♥❤❛s ♦♥❞❡ ❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❞❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛ s❡rá ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ ❞❛ ❞✐r❡✐t❛✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡✈✐t❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❝❧á✉s✉❧❛ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ✶✹✳ ❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶ ✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ♥♦ ▼❘✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❡stã♦ ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ♣r♦❞✉t♦ ❝❛rt❡s✐❛♥♦ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s

  ❳ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❥✉♥çã♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ❧❛❞♦ ❡sq✉❡r❞♦ ❡❧❛ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛ ♦ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❆ ❝♦♠ ●✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✳ ❆ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ✈ã♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛s ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ● ❝♦♠ ❆ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡✱ ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦✳ ❊s✲ s❛s ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡s❛♣❛r❡❝❡♠ s❡ ❢♦r❡♠ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦s ❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙✉❜s❡❝çã♦ ✺✳✷✳✷ ✳

  ❏á ♥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✷ ✳ ❯t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❈②♣❤❡r✱ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✱ ❜❛st❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛r ❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠✱ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❡♠♣r❡s❛❖✱ ❡ ♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❉✱ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❚❊▼❴◆❯▼❊❘❖✳

  ◆♦ ❈②♣❤❡r✱ s❡ ❢♦r ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛r ♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞♦ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦✱ ❜❛st❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦s sí♠❜♦❧♦s ❁ ❡ ❃ ❝♦♠♦ s❡t❛s ❥✉♥t♦ ❛♦ ❤í❢❡♥ ♥♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❖✉ s❡❥❛✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞♦s t❡❧❡❢♦✲ ♥❡s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ t❡♠✲s❡ ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣❛r❛ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ❡ ♣♦r ✐ss♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛✲s❡ ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❖✿ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ✲❬r✿❚❊▼❴◆❯▼❊❘❖✯✶✳✳✷❪✲ ❃ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡❉✿ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✳ ■ss♦ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛ ❡♠ ❜✉s❝❛r ❡ss❡ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ✭❊♠♣r❡s❛✲❃❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✮ ❡ r❡t♦r♥❛r ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♥t❡s✳ ❈❛s♦ ❢♦ss❡ ❡s❝r✐t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ♦♣♦st♦ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❖✿ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❁✲❬r✿❚❊▼❴◆❯▼❊❘❖✯✶✳✳✷❪✲ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡❉✿ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ♥ã♦ s❡r✐❛ r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ♣♦✐s ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✹✳✸ ✱ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❛r❡st❛s ♥♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✲❃❊♠♣r❡s❛✳

  P♦ré♠✱ ♦ ❈②♣❤❡r ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ s❡ ♦♠✐t❛ ♦s sí♠❜♦❧♦s ❞❡ ❞✐r❡çã♦ ❞❛ ❛r❡st❛✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛♠❜♦s ♦s s❡♥t✐❞♦s ❞♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ■ss♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ s✐♠♣❧❡s ♦ ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ♣♦♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❡✱ tr❛♥s❢♦r♠❛♥❞♦ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❜✐❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✷✿ ❇✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ♣♦r t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❈②♣❤❡r✳

  ▼❆❚❈❍ ✭ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❖ ✿ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ✮ ✲❬ r ✿ ❚❊▼❴◆❯▼❊❘❖ ✯✶✳✳✷❪ ✲ ✭ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❉ ✿ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ✮ ❘❊❚❯❘◆ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❖ ✱ r ✱ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❉

  ◆♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦✐ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ s❛❧t♦s ✭❤♦♣s✮ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ s❡r ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛ ✉♠❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❈♦♠♦ t❡♠♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦✱ s❡rã♦ ❞♦✐s s❛❧t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❡ ♦✉tr❛✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣♦r ✯✶✳✳✷✳

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ é r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ❝❧á✉s✉❧❛ ❘❊❚❯❘◆✱ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❞❡✲ ✈❡♠ s❡r ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✳ ❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ✜♥❛❧ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✷ ✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✷✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❢♦✐ r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠ ♣♦r t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s✱ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡

  ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ t❛♥t♦ ♦s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s q✉❡ ❡①✐st❡♠ ❡♥tr❡

  ❡ss❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ r❡t♦r♥♦✉ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛✱ ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡s ❝♦rr❡s♣♦♥❞❡♥t❡s ❛♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦ ✭❊♠♣r❡s❛✲❃❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡❁✲❊♠♣r❡s❛✮✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❞❡♠❛✐s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ❡ss❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❡♥tr❡ s✐✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✳ ■ss♦ ♥ã♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ ❡①✐st❛♠ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡ss❡s só❝✐♦s✱ ♠❛s q✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s r❡t♦r♥❛❞❛s✱ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s sã♦ só❝✐❛s ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠ ♦ t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ t❛♠❜é♠✳

  ❈♦♠♦ ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❥á tr❛❜❛❧❤❛♠ ❝♦♠ ❡ss❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s ♣♦r ♣❛❞rã♦✱ ❜✉s❝❛s ✈♦❧t❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ♥♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s s❡ t♦r♥❛♠ ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s✳ ❊ss❡ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❥á ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ♣♦❞❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳

  

✺✳✷✳✷ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✷✿ ◗✉❛✐s ✐t❡♥s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♥❝♦r✲

r❡r❛♠ ❥✉♥t❛s❄

  ❆ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✸ é ♣❛r❡❝✐❞❛ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✷ ✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❞❡s❡❥❛✲s❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✐t❡♥s ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ❞✉❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r❛♠ ♥❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ❊ss❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ é út✐❧ ♣♦rq✉❡ s❡ ❡❧❛s t✐✈❡r❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦r t❡❧❡❢♦♥❡ ♦✉ só❝✐♦s✱ ❛ ♣❛rt✐✲ ❝✐♣❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ♣♦❞❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ✉♠❛ t❡♥t❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ❢r❛✉❞❛r ❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♣r❡ç♦s ♣r❡✈✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛❝❡rt❛❞♦s✱ ♣r❡❥✉❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝♦♥❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❛ ❧✐s✉r❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳

  ▲✐♠✐t❛♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s✱ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝❡✲s❡ ✉♠❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ❊ss❛ r❡str✐çã♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ✶✽ ✈✐♥❞♦ ❛♣ós ❛ ❝❧❛✉s✉❧❛ ❲❍❊❘❊✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❢♦✐ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞❛ r❡❧❛çã♦✱ ❛s ❧✐♥❤❛s ❞❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ♥ã♦ s❡rã♦ ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ✐♥✈❡rs♦✳

  ◆❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✸ s❡r✐❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❛♣❡♥❛s r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❥✉♥çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐✈❛✱ ♦r❞❡♥❛♥❞♦✲❛ ♣♦r ▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❡ ■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r q✉❛✐s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❛♣❛r❡❝❡♠ ❥✉♥t❛s✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ♠❛✐♦r q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ s❡r✐❛ ♦♥❡r♦s♦ ❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ s❡r✐❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡♥tr❡❣❛r ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ✜♥❛❧✳

  ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♥❡ss❛ ❡t❛♣❛ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ♦s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❞❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s✱ ❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ♥❛ t❡♥t❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❡❣❛r ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♦ ♠❛✐s ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❞♦ ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠❡♥♦r ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s✳

  ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✸✿ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♥❝♦rr❡r❛♠ ❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✳

  ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈▲ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛❇ ✱ ✸ ♣❦❴✐t❡♠❴❧✐❝✐t❛❝❛♦ ✱ ✹ ❢❦❴❧✐❝✐t❛❝❛♦ ✱ ✺ ♥✉♠❡r♦❴✐t❡♠ ✱ ✻ ❞❡s❝r✐❝❛♦❴✐t❡♠ ✱ ✼ ❈❘ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛❈

  ✽ ❋❘❖▼ P❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ❆❙ ❆✵✶ ✾ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❆❙ ❈▲ ✶✵ ❖◆ ❈▲ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ❆✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✶✶ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ■t❡♥s❴❧✐❝✐t❛❝♦❡s ❆❙ P■ ✶✷ ❖◆ P■ ✳ ♣❦❴✐t❡♠❴❧✐❝✐t❛❝❛♦ ❂ ❆✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴✐t❡♠❴❧✐❝✐t❛❝❛♦ ✶✸ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ P❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ❆❙ ❆✵✷ ✶✹ ❖◆ ❆✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴✐t❡♠❴❧✐❝✐t❛❝❛♦ ❂ ❆✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴✐t❡♠❴❧✐❝✐t❛❝❛♦ ✶✺ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❆❙ ❈❘ ✶✻ ❖◆ ❈❘ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ❆✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✶✼ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❆✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❁❃ ❆✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛

✶✽ ❆◆❉ ❈▲ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈❘ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✬❀

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✸ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇ ❡ ❈✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❞❡✜♥✐♠♦s ❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ é ❢❡✐t♦ ❞❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❈ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ q✉❛✐s ✐t❡♥s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❛♠❜❛s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r❛♠✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✸✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ♥♦ ▼❘✳ P❛rt✐♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ s✐♠✐❧❛r♠❡♥t❡ ❛♦ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ✈✐st♦ ♥❛ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✶ ♣❛r❛

  ❚❡❧❡❢♦♥❡✱ t❡♠♦s ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ✈✐♥❝✉❧❛r ❞✉❛s ♦✉tr❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❯t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇ ❡ ❈✱ ❞❡s❡❥❛✲s❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r q✉❛✐s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❡①✐st❡♠ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✱ ♣❛ss❛♥❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ✐t❡♠ ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦✳ ◆♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❞✐r❡çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐❛✱ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✲❃■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦❁✲❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❡ ♣♦r ❡ss❛ r❛③ã♦ ♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❢♦✐ ❜✐❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✹

  ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✹✿ ❇✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ♣♦r ✐t❡♥s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❈②♣❤❡r✳

  ▼❆❚❈❍ ✭ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❇ ④ ♥♦♠❡ ✿ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❇✬⑥✮ ✲❬ r ✿ ❈❖◆❈❖❘❘❊❴P❖❘ ✯✶✳✳✷❪ ✲ ✭ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❈ ④ ♥♦♠❡ ✿ ✬ ❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✬⑥✮

  ❘❊❚❯❘◆ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❇ ✱ r ✱ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❈

  ❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ é ✉♠❛ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❞❡ ✐t❡♥s ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✹ ✳ ❆♠❜❛s ❛s ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛♥t❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞❛s ♥❛s ❡①tr❡♠✐❞❛✲ ❞❡s ♦♣♦st❛s ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣❛r❛ r❡ss❛❧tá✲❧❛s✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ♦s ✐t❡♥s q✉❡ ❡❧❛s ❞✐s♣✉t❛r❛♠✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❝♦♥❝♦rr❡r❛♠ ♣♦r ✷✼ ✐t❡♥s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✉♠ ✐♥❞í❝✐♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❞❡ ♣r❡ç♦✱ ❝❛s♦ s❡❥❛ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛❞♦ ♦s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s s♦❝✐❡tár✐♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✳ ❉❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✷ ✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝♦✉ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦❜t❡r ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❡♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✹✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r ✐t❡♥s ❞❡ ❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✳ ◆❛ r❡❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♦ ❈②♣❤❡r ♣r♦❝✉r❛ ✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦ ♥♦ ❣r❛❢♦ q✉❡ ❛t❡♥❞❛ ❛ ❞❡❝❧❛r❛çã♦ ❞❛❞❛✱

  ❡ ♣♦r ✐ss♦ r❡t♦r♥❛ ✈ár✐♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s q✉❡ ❛t❡♥❞❛♠ ♦ ♣❛❞rã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ❞❡♠❛✐s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s✳ ❖✉tr❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛r ♦s ❝❛s♦s ♦♥❞❡ s❡ t❡♠ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡

  ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ é ❞✐③❡r ❛♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❝✉r❛r ♣❡❧♦s ♠❡♥♦r❡s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ❞♦✐s ♥ós ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ♣r♦❝✉r❛r ✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛✱ ❥á q✉❡ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛rá ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛ ❜✉s❝❛✱ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛r ♣♦r ✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✳ ❆ r❡s♣♦st❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s rá♣✐❞❛ s❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❢♦r ❞❡ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛r ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♠❡♥♦r❡s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s✳

  ❆ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✺ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣❡❧♦s ♠❡♥♦r❡s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❡ ♦❜té♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✹ ✱ ❥á q✉❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s t❡♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❡ ✷ s❛❧t♦s✳

  ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✺✿ ❇✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ♣♦r ✐t❡♥s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♠❡♥♦r ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦✳

  ▼❆❚❈❍ ♣ ❂ ❛❧❧❙❤♦rt❡stP❛t❤s ✭✭ ♦ ✿ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ④ ♥♦♠❡ ✿✧ ❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❇✧⑥✮ ✲❬ r ✿ ❈❖◆❈❖❘❘❊❴P❖❘ ✯✳✳✷❪ ✲✭ ❞ ✿ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ④ ♥♦♠❡ ✿✧ ❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✧⑥✮✮ ❘❊❚❯❘◆ ◆❖❉❊❙ ✭ ♣ ✮

  P❛r❛ q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ s❛❧t♦✱ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡✲s❡ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐st❡♠ ♠✉✐t❛s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ♥♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♣♦ré♠✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ❛ ♣r♦❢✉♥❞✐✲ ❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ♥♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❣r❛❢♦s ✜❝❛ ♠❛✐s ❡✈✐❞❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✸✳

  

✺✳✷✳✸ ◗✉❡stã♦ ✸✿ ❈♦♠♦ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡

s✉❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❛té ♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❄

  ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ é ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r s❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡stã♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s ❛té ✉♠ ❝❡rt♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ♣r♦❢✉♥❞✐❞❛❞❡ ♥♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✳ ❊①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❡rt❛ s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ss❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❡ ♦✉tr❛s ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❞❡ ❛♠✐❣♦s ❞❡ ❛♠✐❣♦s❬ ✸✷ ❪✱ ♣♦ré♠ ❡ss❛ ❧❡✈❛ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭P❡ss♦❛✲ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✲❊♠♣r❡s❛✮✳

  ❈♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r só❝✐♦s t❛♥t♦ ❞❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❛♠❜❛s ❛s s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❜✉s❝❛♠♦s✱ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ s❡✉s só❝✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡♥tã♦ ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛r ❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ❡❧❡s t❛♠❜é♠ sã♦ só❝✐♦s✳ ❙❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❡❧❛s ❢♦r ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❛❧✈♦✱ ❡ss❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦✳

  ❋♦✐ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ ♣r♦❝✉r❛ s❡r✐❛ ❢❡✐t❛ ❛té ♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣❛r❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ✉♠❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛✱ ♠❛s s❡♠ s❡ t♦r♥❛r ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦ ❞❡♠❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r✳ ❘❡❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❛té ♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ s❡ ♣❛rt✐rá ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❛❧✈♦✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛ ♥í✈❡❧ r❛✐③✱ ❜✉s❝❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❞❛ r❛✐③ ❛ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❛❧✈♦ ❛té q✉❡ s❡❥❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛ ♦✉ ❛t✐♥❣✐❞♦ ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♥❛ ❝❛❞❡✐❛ ❞❡ só❝✐♦s✴❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳

  ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✺ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❝♦♠ ❛s ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❞❡s❞♦❜r❛♠❡♥t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛ q✉❡stã♦✳ ❯♠❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❛❧✈♦ é ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞❛ ♥♦ t♦♣♦ ❝♦♠♦ r❛✐③✳ ❊ss❛ ♣♦❞❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ✉♠ só❝✐♦ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❡ss♦❛✱ ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❡sq✉❡r❞♦✱ ♦✉ ✉♠❛ ♦✉tr❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ♥♦ r❛♠♦ ❞✐r❡✐t♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ P❡ss♦❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❝♦♠ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ ♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞♦ r❛♠♦ ❡sq✉❡r❞♦ s❡rá ♦❜r✐❣❛t♦r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❏á ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❛♠♦ ❞✐r❡✐t♦✱ ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❝♦♠ P❡ss♦❛ ♦✉ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❜✐❢✉r❝❛♥❞♦ ♥♦✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦✳ ❆ ár✈♦r❡ ❡♥tã♦ s❡❣✉❡ ❛té q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❛t✐♥❥❛ três ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❞❛ r❛✐③✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✺✿ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r só❝✐♦s ❛té ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✳ ❆ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ss❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡✈❡rá s❡r ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛ q✉❡ ❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❞✉❛s✱ ♣♦✐s s❡rá ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝♦❜r✐r ✈ár✐♦s ♥í✈❡✐s ❝♦♠ ❛❧t❡r♥â♥❝✐❛s ❡ ❥✉♥çõ❡s

  ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ s✉❛s ♣r♦❥❡çõ❡s✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✻ ✱ ❛ ♣❛rt❡ ♠❛✐s ❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛ ❞❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❢♦✐ ❞❡st❛❝❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ✐❧✉str❛r ❛ ♠❛✐♦r ♣r♦❢✉♥❞✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣♦❞❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s três ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❛♣ós ❛ r❛✐③✱ ❡ss❡ ♠❛✐♦r r❛♠♦ ❞❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐r ❛ ✉♠❛ ♣r♦❢✉♥❞✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡✐s ♥ós ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ ❛❧t❡r♥â♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s só❝✐♦s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳

  ❊ss❡ r❛♠♦ ♠❛✐s ♣r♦❢✉♥❞♦ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛ t♦❞♦s ♦s só❝✐♦s ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❊♠♣r❡✲ s❛s ♥❛s q✉❛✐s ❡❧❡s sã♦ só❝✐♦s✳ ❙❡❣✉❡✲s❡ ❞❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛té ❛t✐♥❣✐r ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ ♦✉ ♦s s❡✐s ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡ ♣r♦❢✉♥❞✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❆♣❡♥❛s ❡ss❡s r❛♠♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♦❜t✐❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✻ ✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✻✿ ❉❡st❛q✉❡ ❞♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ r❛♠♦ ❞❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r só❝✐♦s✳ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✻✿ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♥❝♦rr❡r❛♠ ❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✳

  ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ❇❘❆◆❈❍ ✵✶★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ★ ❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ✲ P❊❙❙❖❆ ✲ ❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ✲ P❊❙❙❖❆ ✲ ❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ✲ P❊❙❙❖❆ ✲ ❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✱ ✸ P✵✶ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴♣❡ss♦❛ ✱ ✹ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✱ ✺ P✵✷ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴♣❡ss♦❛ ✱ ✻ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✱ ✼ P✵✸ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴♣❡ss♦❛ ✱ ✽ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✾ ❋❘❖▼ P❡ss♦❛s❙♦❝✐♦s ❆❙ PP✵✶ ✶✵ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❆❙ ❈✵✶ ✲✲ ■♥✐❝✐♦ ❞❛s ✶✷ ❥✉♥❝♦❡s ✳ ✶✶ ❖◆ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ PP✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✶✷ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ P❡ss♦❛s ❆❙ P✵✶ ✶✸ ❖◆ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛s ❂ PP✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡ss♦❛❴s♦❝✐♦ ✶✹ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ P❡ss♦❛s❙♦❝✐♦s ❆❙ PP✵✷ ✶✺ ❖◆ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡ss♦❛❴s♦❝✐♦ ❂ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ✶✻ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❆❙ ❈✵✷ ✶✼ ❖◆ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✶✽ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ P❡ss♦❛s❙♦❝✐♦s ❆❙ PP✵✸ ✶✾ ❖◆ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✷✵ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ P❡ss♦❛s ❆❙ P✵✷ ✷✶ ❖◆ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ❂ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡ss♦❛❴s♦❝✐♦ ✷✷ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ P❡ss♦❛s❙♦❝✐♦s ❆❙ PP✵✹ ✷✸ ❖◆ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡ss♦❛❴s♦❝✐♦ ❂ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ✷✹ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❆❙ ❈✵✸

  ✷✺ ❖◆ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✷✻ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ P❡ss♦❛s❙♦❝✐♦s ❆❙ PP✵✺ ✷✼ ❖◆ PP✵✺ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✷✽ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ P❡ss♦❛s ❆❙ P✵✸ ✷✾ ❖◆ P✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛s ❂ PP✵✺ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡ss♦❛❴s♦❝✐♦ ✸✵ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ P❡ss♦❛s❙♦❝✐♦s ❆❙ PP✵✻ ✸✶ ❖◆ PP✵✻ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡ss♦❛❴s♦❝✐♦ ❂ P✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ✸✷ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❆❙ ❈✵✹ ✸✸ ❖◆ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ PP✵✻ ✳ ❢❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✲✲❋✐♠ ❞❛s ✶✷ ❥✉♥❝♦❡s ✸✹ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✸✺ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✸✻ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✸✼ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✸✽ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❁❃ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✸✾ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ✹✵ ❆◆❉ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ❁❃ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ✹✶ ❆◆❉ P✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ❁❃ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ✹✷ ❆◆❉ P✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ❁❃ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡ss♦❛ ✹✸ ❆◆❉ ✭✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✬✮

✹✹ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✬✮

✹✺ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♥♦♠❡❴❡♠♣r❡s❛ ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✬✮✮❀

  ❊ss❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛ ❡♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❛r ♥♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✲ ♠❡♥t♦s r❡❝✉rs✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ■♥❞♦ ❛té s❡✐s ♥í✈❡✐s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ✶✷ ❥✉♥çõ❡s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ ♣❡ss♦❛s ❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s✳ ❖ r❡s✉❧✲ t❛❞♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✼ ✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇ ❝♦♠♦ r❛✐③ ♥♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞❛ ♣r♦❥❡çã♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛✱ ❡ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❈ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ❛♣❛r❡❝❡r ❡♠ q✉❛✐sq✉❡r ❞♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❝❛♠♣♦s r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦s✳ ❘❡ss❛❧t❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ❡st❡ é ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ❞♦s r❛♠♦s ♣❛r❛ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳ P❛r❛ s❡ ♦❜t❡r ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛s✱ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ♦✉tr❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❝♦❜r✐♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❡♠❛✐s r❛♠♦s ❡ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞á✲❧❛s✳ ❆ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡t❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ♦✉tr♦s r❛♠♦s sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜❧♦❝♦s ♥♦ ❆♥❡①♦ ■✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ♦s r❛♠♦s ❞❛ ❡sq✉❡r❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞✐r❡✐t❛✳

  ❚r❛③❡♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✼ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛r ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣❡❧♦s s❡✉s só❝✐♦s✱ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ♣❡ss♦❛s ♦✉ ♦✉tr❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳ ❉❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ❛s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s✱ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛ s❡❣✉❡♠ ✉♠ s❡♥t✐❞♦✱ ❡ ♣♦r ✐ss♦ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r ♦s ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❜✐❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✳

  ❈♦♠♦ ❢♦✐ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❛s ❋✐❣✉r❛s ✺✳✺ ❡ ✺✳✻ ✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❞❡s❝❡r ❛té ♦ s❡①t♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❛ ár✈♦r❡✱ ❡ ♣♦r ✐ss♦ ❢♦✐ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❡ss❡ ♥í✈❡❧ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛ r❡str✐çã♦ ❊❴❙❖❈■❖✯✶✳✳✻ ♥❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✼ ✳ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ♣❛ss❛r ♣♦r t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❞❡s❡❥❛❞♦s✱ r❡t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ s❡q✉❡♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ só❝✐♦s ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡ ❞♦ t✐♣♦✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✼✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ só❝✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ r❛♠♦ ♥♦ ▼❘✳ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✼✿ ❇✉s❝❛ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r só❝✐♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❈②♣❤❡r✳

  

▼❆❚❈❍ ✭ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❇ ④ ♥♦♠❡ ✿✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❇✬ ⑥✮ ✲❬ r ✿ ❊❴❙❖❈■❖ ✯✶✳✳✻❪ ✲ ✭ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❈ ④ ♥♦♠❡ ✿✬

❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✬ ⑥✮

  ❘❊❚❯❘◆ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❇ ✱ r ✱ ❡♠♣r❡s❛❈ ❀

  ❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✽ ✳ ❆s ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ✈❡r✐✜❝❛❞❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ♣♦st❛s ❡♠ ❧❛❞♦s ♦♣♦st♦s ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❧❡✐t✉r❛✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡ ✈❡r ♥♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ♦s ❝❛✲ ♠✐♥❤♦s q✉❡ ♣❛ss❛♠ ♣♦r ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡♥❝❛❞❡❛❞❛s✱ ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛❞♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❛s s✉❛s ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s✳

  ❊ss❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ é ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ❜✉s❝❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡♠ ❛té s❡✐s s❛❧t♦s ❞❡ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✱ ❝❛♣t✉r❛♥❞♦ t♦❞♦s ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✳ ❊♠❜♦r❛ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ tr❛❣❛ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ q✉❡♠ ❡stá r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✱ ❛♦ s❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r tã♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s tr❛③❡r ❡ss❡ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❝♦♠ t♦❞♦s s❡✉s ✈ért✐❝❡s q✉❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ r❡❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❥✉♥çõ❡s✳

  P♦ré♠✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ t✐r❛r ♣r♦✈❡✐t♦ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❈♦♥✲ s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✺ ✳ ❆♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ s❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛r ♣❡❧♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❜✉s❝❛r ♣❡❧♦s ♠❡♥♦r❡s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ❇ ❡ ❈✱ ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❝♦♠♦ ❡❧❛s s❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠ s❡♠ ♥❡✲ ❝❡ss❛r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ tr❛③❡r t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ✭❛❧❧❙❤♦rt❡stP❛t❤s✮✳ ❆ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✽ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠❡♥♦r ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✽✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ só❝✐♦s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✳ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✽✿ ❇✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣♦r só❝✐♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♠❡♥♦r❡s ❝❛♠✐✲ ♥❤♦s✳

  ▼❆❚❈❍ ♣ ❂ ❛❧❧❙❤♦rt❡stP❛t❤s ✭✭ ♦ ✿ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ④ ♥♦♠❡ ✿✧ ❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❇✧⑥✮ ✲❬ r ✿ ❊❴❙❖❈■❖ ✯✳✳✻❪ ✲✭ ❞ ✿ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s ④ ♥♦♠❡ ✿✧ ❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✧⑥✮✮ ❘❊❚❯❘◆ ◆❖❉❊❙ ✭ ♣ ✮

  ❖ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✺ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✾ ✳ ❉❡st❛ ✈❡③✱ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✱ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦ ❢♦✐ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ❛ ❞♦✐s ♥ós✳ ■ss♦ ♣♦rq✉❡ ❡①✐st❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ♠❡♥♦r ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛ ❇ ❡ ❈✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ sã♦ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦✐s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✳ ❈♦♠♦ só ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❝♦♠ ❡ss❛ ❞✐stâ♥❝✐❛✱ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❡❧❡ ❢♦✐ r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦✱ ❞❡st❛❝❛♥❞♦ ❛ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❞✐r❡t❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ q✉❡ ❥✉♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ♣♦r ■t❡♠❴▲✐❝✐t❛çã♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠ ❢♦rt❡ ✐♥❞í❝✐♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❡ss❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❢♦r❛♠ ❢r❛✉❞❛❞♦s✳

  ❈♦♠♦ ❝♦♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❢✉♥çã♦ é ✉♠❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✳ ◆ã♦ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ♥❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠ ❙◗▲ ❡ ❞❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛ s❡r✐❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ♦✉ ♣r♦❝❡❞✐♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛ss❡ ❡ss❛ ♣r♦❝✉r❛ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s✳ ❏á ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ♣♦❞❡ tr❛t❛r ❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧❣♦ ♥❛t✉r❛❧ ❞❡ s✉❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛✳

  ❉❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s✱ ❛ ♣♦r s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ é ❛ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ✈✐s✉❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♠❛✐♦r ❝♦♥✲ tr❛st❡ ❡♥tr❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❝♦♠ ❙◗▲ ❡ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♠

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✾✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ só❝✐♦s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥ ❝♦♠ ♠❡♥♦r ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦✳ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛✳ ❊ss❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐✲ ③❛❞❛ ♣♦❞❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐r ❝♦♠ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ♠❛✐s ✢❡①í✈❡❧ q✉❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛✲ ♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ✐♥❞❡①❛çã♦✱ ♥❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❧ó❣✐❝❛s ❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛✱ ❛s ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♥s ✜❝❛♠ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛❞❛s✳

  ✺✳✸ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❡s❝r❡✈❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ●r❛❢♦

  ◆❡ss❡ ❝❡♥ár✐♦✱ ❢♦✐ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛❜str❛✐r ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ t❛❜❡❧❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛r ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s✱ s✉♣♦♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ♣♦ss❛ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛✳ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❞❡ ❱✐❝❦♥❛✐r ❬ ✸✼ ❪✱ ❘✉✢✐♥ ❡t ❛❧ ❬ ✸✸ ❪ ❡ ❇❛tr❛ ❬ ✺ ❪ ✜③❡r❛♠ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♠❛s ❡ss❡s ♥ã♦ t❡♥t❛r❛♠ ❛❜str❛✐r ❡♠ t❛❜❡❧❛s ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✳

  ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ q✉❡stã♦ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛s s❡çõ❡s ❛♥✲ t❡r✐♦r❡s✱ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❣r❛❢♦s ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞❡ ❝r✐❛r ❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ❜❛s❡✲ ❛❞❛s ♥❛s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦ ❞❡ P❡ss♦❛s ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛s✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ t❡rá ❛♣❡♥❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❛s r❡❧❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❡st❡s✳

  ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r s❡ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛r ❛s ❜✉s❝❛s ♣♦r r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ t❡r❝❡✐r❛ q✉❡stã♦✱ ♣♦✐s

  ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r♦✉✲s❡ q✉❡ ❡st❛✱ ♣♦r s❡r ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛✱ ❥á s❡r✐❛ s✉✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ❛ ❛❞❛♣t❛çã♦✳ ❆ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✵ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣r♦♣♦st♦✳ ❊❧❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ♣❛r❛ ✈ér✲ t✐❝❡s ❡ ♦✉tr❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s✳ ❆♠❜❛s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝❛♠♣♦ ♣❛r❛ rót✉❧♦✳

  ❆ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛ ♠❛♥té♠ ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡ ♣❡❧❛s ❝❤❛✈❡s ❡str❛♥❣❡✐r❛s✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ❞✉❛s ❝♦♥❡①õ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣❛r✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❞❡ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✳ ❖s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s sã♦ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞♦s ❡♠ t❛❜❡❧❛s s❡♣❛r❛❞❛s✱ t❛♥t♦ ❞♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❞❛s ❛r❡st❛s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞♦ ✈ár✐♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♠❜♦s✱ ❞❡s❞❡ q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛♠ ❝❤❛✈❡s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✵✿ ▼♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ P❛r❛ ❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ ❞❡s❡❥❛r ✐♥❝❧✉✐r ✉♠❛ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❡ss❛ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✐♥s❡r✐❞❛ ♥❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦ ❞❡ ♥♦♠❡ ♥❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❧✐❣❛♥❞♦✲❛s ♣❡❧❛ ❝❤❛✈❡

  ❡str❛♥❣❡✐r❛✳ ❏á ♥❛ ❛r❡st❛✱ ❝❛s♦ s❡❥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛r ♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ✈✐♥❝✉❧♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞♦ rót✉❧♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ só❝✐♦ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛❞♦✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s s❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❞❡ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ♣♦❞❡r❡♠ ✜❝❛r ❡♠ ✉♠❛ t❛❜❡❧❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞❡ t✐♣♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡♣❛r❛r q✉❛✐s sã♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ q✉❛✐s sã♦ ❞❡ ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❢♦✐ ♣r❡❢❡r✐❞♦ ♠❛♥t❡r ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s s❡♣❛r❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ♠❛✐♦r ❝❧❛r❡③❛ ❡ s✐♠♣❧✐❝✐❞❛❞❡✳

  ❆♣ós ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❢♦✐ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥♦ ▼②❙◗▲ ❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✾ ✳ ❖❜s❡r✈❛✲s❡ q✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ♦ ❛r✲ t✐❢í❝✐♦ ❞❛s ❧✐♥❤❛s ✶✾ ❡ ✷✸ ♥❛ ❥✉♥çã♦ ♣♦r ❝♦♥t❛ ❞❛ ❜✐❧❛t❡r❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡✳ ❙❡ ♦ só❝✐♦ ❡stá s❡♠♣r❡ ♥♦ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❢❦❴✈❡rt❡①❆✱ ♥ã♦ t❡r❡♠♦s ♣❡ss♦❛s ❡♠ ❢❦❴✈❡rt❡①❇✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♥❛ ♣❛ss❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ❥✉♥çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ♦❝♦rr❡rá ✉♠❛ ❡①❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦ ❡♥✲ ❝❛❞❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ P❡ss♦❛✲❊♠♣r❡s❛✲P❡ss♦❛✱ r❡st❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦s só❝✐♦s ❊♠♣r❡s❛✳

  ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✾✿ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ só❝✐♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ❉■❙❚■◆❈❚ ✷ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❙t❛rt ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❆❙ ❡♠♣r❡s❛■♥✐❝✐❛❧P❦ ✱ ✸ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❙t❛rt ✳ r♦t✉❧♦ ❆❙ r♦t✉❧♦❊♠♣r❡s❛■♥✐❝✐❛❧ ✱ ✹ ✬❊❴❙❖❈■❖ ✬ ❆❙ ❡❞❣❡▲❛❜❡❧✵✶ ✱ ✺ ❱❚✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❆❙ ❛❧✈♦✵✶ ✱ ✻ ❱❚✵✶ ✳ r♦t✉❧♦ ❆❙ r♦t✉❧♦✵✶ ✱ ✼ ❊✵✶ ✳ r♦t✉❧♦ ❆❙ ❛r❡st❛❘♦t✉❧♦✵✶ ✱ ✽ ❱❚✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❆❙ ❛❧✈♦✵✷ ✱ ✾ ❱❚✵✷ ✳ r♦t✉❧♦ ❆❙ r♦t✉❧♦✵✷ ✱ ✶✵ ❊✵✷ ✳ r♦t✉❧♦ ❆❙ ❛r❡st❛❘♦t✉❧♦✵✷ ✱ ✶✶ ❱❚✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❆❙ ❛❧✈♦✵✸ ✱ ✶✷ ❱❚✵✸ ✳ r♦t✉❧♦ ❆❙ r♦t✉❧♦✵✷ ✶✸ ❋❘❖▼ ✈❡rt✐❝❡s ❆❙ ❡♠♣r❡s❛■♥✐❝✐❛❧ ✶✹ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❛r❡st❛s ❆❙ ❊✵✵ ❖◆ ❡♠♣r❡s❛■♥✐❝✐❛❧ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✵ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❇ ✶✺ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ✈❡rt✐❝❡s❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❆❙ ❡♠♣r❡s❛■♥✐❝✐❛❧❆tr ✶✻ ❖◆ ❡♠♣r❡s❛■♥✐❝✐❛❧❆tr ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❡♠♣r❡s❛■♥✐❝✐❛❧ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ✶✼ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ✈❡rt✐❝❡s ❆❙ ❱❚✵✶ ✶✽ ❖◆ ❱❚✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✵ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❆ ✶✾ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ✈❡rt✐❝❡s❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❆❙ ❱❆❚❚❚✵✶ ✷✵ ❖◆ ❱❆❚❚❚✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❱❚✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ✷✶ ✷✷ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❛r❡st❛s ❆❙ ❊✵✶ ✷✸ ❖◆ ✭ ❱❚✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❆ ❖❘ ❱❚✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❇ ✮ ✷✹ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ✈❡rt✐❝❡s ❆❙ ❱❚✵✷ ✷✺ ❖◆ ✭ ❱❚✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❆ ❖❘ ❱❚✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❇ ✮ ✷✻ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ✈❡rt✐❝❡s❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❆❙ ❱❆❚❚❚✵✷ ✷✼ ❖◆ ❱❆❚❚❚✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❱❚✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ✷✽ ✷✾ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❛r❡st❛s ❆❙ ❊✵✷ ✸✵ ❖◆ ✭ ❱❚✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❆ ❖❘ ❱❚✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❇ ✮ ✸✶ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ✈❡rt✐❝❡s ❆❙ ❱❚✵✸ ✸✷ ❖◆ ✭ ❱❚✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❆ ❖❘ ❱❚✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❊✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡❇ ✮ ✸✸ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ✈❡rt✐❝❡s❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❆❙ ❱❆❚❚❚✵✸ ✸✹ ❖◆ ❱❆❚❚❚✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❂ ❱❚✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ✸✺ ✸✻ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❡♠♣r❡s❛■♥✐❝✐❛❧ ✳ r♦t✉❧♦ ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆❙ ✬ ✸✼ ❆◆❉ ❡♠♣r❡s❛■♥✐❝✐❛❧❆tr ✳ ✈❛❧♦r ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❇✬ ✸✽ ❆◆❉ ✭ ❱❆❚❚❚✵✶ ✳ ✈❛❧♦r ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✬ ✸✾ ❖❘ ❱❆❚❚❚✵✷ ✳ ✈❛❧♦r ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✬ ❖❘ ❱❆❚❚❚✵✸ ✳ ✈❛❧♦r ❂ ✬❊▼P❘❊❙❆ ❈✬✮ ✹✵ ❆◆❉ ❱❚✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❁❃ ❱❚✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ✹✶ ❆◆❉ ❱❚✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❁❃ ❱❚✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ✹✷ ❆◆❉ ❱❚✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❁❃ ❱❚✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴✈❡rt✐❝❡ ❀

  ❙❡ ❢♦r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❥✉♥çã♦ ❛♣ós ♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣❡ss♦❛s✱ ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❡r❞❡rá s✉❛ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛r ❞❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✻ ✱ ♦♥❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ s❡ ❡✈✐t❛r ❡ss❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ é ❞✉♣❧✐❝❛r ❛s ❧✐♥❤❛s ✐♥✈❡rt❡♥❞♦✲s❡ ♦ s❡♥t✐❞♦ ❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s

  ❜✐❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ♦ q✉❡ s❡r✐❛ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛ ♠❛♥t❡r ❞✉❛s ❛r❡st❛s ♣❛r❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❛ ❜✐❞✐r❡❝✐✲ ♦♥❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ❛ss✐♠✱ s❡r✐❛♠ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ❛s ❥✉♥çõ❡s✱ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ♥❡ss❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ s❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❡ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ r❛♠♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✺ ✳

  P♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡♥tã♦ ❝♦♥❝❧✉✐r q✉❡ ❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ é ✐♠♣❛❝t❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♥ú♠❡r❛s ❥✉♥çõ❡s r❡❝✉rs✐✈❛s✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ❛❜str❛✐♥❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛r♠❛③❡♥á✲❧♦ ❝♦♠♦ t❛❜❡❧❛s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠❛♥t❡r ❞♦✐s r❡❣✐str♦s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❛ ❜✐❧❛t❡r❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❊ss❛ ❧❛❝✉♥❛ ❞❡✐①❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛ ❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛ ♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ✉♠❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ❛❞❡q✉❛❞❛ ❡ ✈❛♥t❛❥♦s❛ ♣❛r❛ ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛♠ s❡r ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♥❛t✉r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✳

  ✺✳✹ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❡♠ ❇❛s❡ ❝♦♠ ❉❛❞♦s ❘❡❛✐s

  ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ r❡❛❧ ❞❡st❡ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❈●❯✱ ❢♦✐ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛❞❛ ❛ ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ só❝✐♦s ❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❞❛ ❙✉❜s❡çã♦ ✺✳✷✳✸ ✱ ♠❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✻ ✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦ r❛♠♦ ♠❛✐s ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞❛ ár✈♦r❡ ✐❧✉str❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✻ ✳

  ❋♦r❛♠ ✐♥st❛❧❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ♣r♦✈✐sór✐❛ ❝♦♠ ✶✷ ❝♦r❡s ❡ ✻✹ ●❇ ❞❡ ❘❆▼✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✭❙●❉❇✮ ▼②❙◗▲ ❡ ♦ ❙●❉❇ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ◆❡♦✹❥✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ❛❧t❡r♥❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡✈✐t❛r ❝♦♥❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s✳ ❊♠ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ❝❛rr❡❣❛❞♦s ✼✳✼✺✹✳✾✽✾ r❡❣✐str♦s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ ✶✹✳✶✾✵✳✶✺✶ ❞❡ ❙ó❝✐♦s ❝♦♠ ✷✵✳✾✵✸✳✹✽✵ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s s♦❝✐❡tár✐♦s✳

  P❛r❛ ❛♠❜♦s ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡①tr❛í❞❛s ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❝♦❧♦❝❛❞❛s ❡♠ t❛❜❡❧❛s t❡♠♣♦rár✐❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❜❛♥❝♦ ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦✳ ❆ ❝❛r❣❛ ♥♦ ▼②❙◗▲ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣r♦♣r✐❡tár✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ❊❚▲ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❊❧❛ ❢♦✐ ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞❛ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s t❛❜❡❧❛s t❡♠♣♦rár✐❛s ❡ ♦ ▼②❙◗▲ s❡♠ ♠❛✐♦r❡s ❞✐✜❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s✳ ❏á ♣❛r❛ ♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✱ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❡①♣♦rt❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❡ q✉❡❜rá✲ ❧♦ ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♦✉tr♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ♦ ❝❛rr❡❣❛♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❖ ◆❡♦✹❥ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t♦✉ ❞♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥s❡rçã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❥á q✉❡ ❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s q✉❡ ♦ ❛❝♦♠♣❛♥❤❛♠ ♥ã♦ s✉♣♦rt❛r❛♠ ❜❡♠ ❛ ✐♥s❡rçã♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡s

  ✶

  ✈♦❧✉♠❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❧❡r ✉♠ ❳▼▲ ❡ ❝❛rr❡❣❛r ♦ ♠❛♣❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❈❙❱ ♦✉ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❙◗▲✳ ◆♦ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ❧❡r ✉♠❛ ❝♦❧❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛ ♠❡♠ór✐❛✳ ❆tr❛✈és ❞❡ss❡ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❝❛rr❡❣❛r ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈♦✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞♦ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❳▼▲ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✶ ✳ ❊❧❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ q✉❡ s❡rá ❝❛rr❡❣❛❞❛✱ ❞❡✜♥✐♥❞♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❛

  ❉✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠✿ ❤tt♣s✿✴✴❣✐t❤✉❜✳❝♦♠✴❣✈❛♥❡r✈❡♥✴❣r❛♣❤r❡♣♦

  ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ q✉❡ ❝❛♠♣♦s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rã♦ ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s✳ ❖s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s sã♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦s ♥❛s ❛r❡st❛s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦s rót✉❧♦s ❞♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❝❛❞❛ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❝❛rr❡❣❛❞❛ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈ért✐❝❡ ♦✉ ❛r❡st❛✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✶✿ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦ ❞❡ ❳▼▲ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❡♥tr❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✳ ❖ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ t❛r❡❢❛✳

  ❈❛❞❛ t❛r❡❢❛ é ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❳▼▲✳ ❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ é ♠❛♣❡❛r ♦s ❝❛♠♣♦s ❞♦ ❈❙❱ ♦✉ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❝♦♠ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ❛r❡st❛s ❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❉❡♥tr♦ ❞♦ ❳▼▲ s❡ ❞❡st❛❝❛♠ q✉❛tr♦ t❛❣s✿ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ✭❞❡st✐♥❛t✐♦♥✮✱ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭s♦✉r❝❡✮✱ ✈ért✐❝❡ ✭✈❡rt❡①✮ ❡ ❛r❡st❛ ✭❡❞❣❡✮✳ ❆ t❛❣ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ q✉❛❧ ❜❛♥❝♦ s❡rã♦ tr❛♥s❢❡r✐❞❛s ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ ❛ ✐❞❡✐❛ é ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦✳ P❛r❛ ♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✱ ❞❡✈❡✲ s❡ ❝♦❧♦❝❛r ♦ ❞✐r❡tór✐♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛ ♦s ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❞♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❏á ♣❛r❛ ❛ t❛❣ ❞❡ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭s♦✉r❝❡✮✱ sã♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞♦s ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ❧✐❞❛ ♦✉ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛❞❛ ❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ♠✉✐t♦s r❡❣✐str♦s ❡ ♥ã♦ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r ❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ ♣♦r q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❢ís✐❝❛ ❞❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛✱ ♦ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❝r✐❛❞♦ s❡♠ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❡ ❞❡s♠❡♠❜r❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♦✉tr♦s ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛✳ ■ss♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛s ♦♣çõ❡s ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧♦s ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ✭♠✉❧t✐❋✐❧❡s✮ ❡ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ✭❤❡❛❞❡r✮ ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ q✉❡ ❞❡✈❡rã♦ s❡r ❧✐❞♦s t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❞♦ ❞✐r❡tór✐♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦♠❡ ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♦ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦ ❡♠ t♦❞♦s ❡❧❡s✳

  P❛r❛ ♦ ♠❛♣❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦s ♥ós✱ ❛ t❛❣ ✈ért✐❝❡ ✭✈❡rt❡①✮ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛✱ ❥á ✐♥❞✐❝❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ rót✉❧♦ ❡ q✉❛✐s s❡rã♦ ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳ ❈❛s♦ s❡ t❡♥❤❛ q✉❡ ❞❡✜♥✐r ❞♦✐s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✶ ✱ ♦ rót✉❧♦ ❞❡✈❡rá ❛ss✉♠✐r ♦✉tr♦ ✈❛❧♦r✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦ ♣♦s✲ t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ❛❧✐❛s❋♦r ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ♦ rót✉❧♦ r❡❛❧ ❞❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❏á ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛r❝♦s✱ ❛ t❛❣ ❛r❡st❛s ✭❡❞❣❡✮ ♠❛♣❡✐❛ q✉❛✐s sã♦ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s

  ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♦♣çã♦ ❧❛❜❡❧ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ✈❡rt❡①❙r❝ ✈❡rt❡①❉st ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✳ ❚❛♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❛r❡st❛s✱ ❛ t❛❣ ♠❛♣❛ ✭♠❛♣✮ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛r ♦s ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉♠ ✐♥t❡✐r♦✱ ♣♦♥t♦ ✢✉t✉❛♥t❡ ♦✉ ❝❛❞❡✐❛ ❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r❡s✱ ❛té ❛ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✳

  ❉❡♣♦✐s ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❝❛rr❡❣❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❛♠❜♦s ♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ✏❢r✐♦✑✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❧♦❣♦ ❛♣ós ❛ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❙●❉❇ ♣❛r❛ ❡✈✐t❛r ✐♥✢✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❝❛❝❤❡✳ ❋♦r❛♠ ❡s❝♦❧❤✐❞❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❛♠ ✉♠❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✹✵✵ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s s♦❝✐❡tár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲❛s ❝♦♠♦ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳

  ❆ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ▼②❙◗▲ ❞✉r♦✉ ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✷✵ ❤♦r❛s ✭✼✷✳✻✵✽✱✾✹✾ s✮ ❡ r❡t♦r✲ ♥♦✉ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ s❡✐s s❛❧t♦s ❞❡ ♣r♦❢✉♥❞✐❞❛❞❡✳ ❊❧❡ ❢♦✐ ♦ ú♥✐❝♦ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦ ❛❧t❡r♥❛♥❞♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s só❝✐♦s P❡ss♦❛ ❡ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❛té s❡✐s s❛❧t♦s✳ ❙❡♥❞♦ ❛ss✐♠✱ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❞❡✈❡ r❡t♦r♥❛r ❛♦ ♠❡♥♦s ❡ss❡ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ q✉❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛❞♦✳

  ◗✉❛♥❞♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ s♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛❢♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♥❛ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✺✳✼ ✱ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐✉ r❡❛❧✐③á✲❧❛ r❡t♦r♥❛♥❞♦ ❡rr♦ ♥❛ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❡s♣❛ç♦ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❛♣ós ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ✶✺ ❤♦r❛s ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✳ Pr♦✈❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ◆❡♦✹❥ ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐✉ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛r t♦❞♦s ♦s ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s ❛♦ t❡♥t❛r ❧♦❝❛❧✐③❛r t♦❞❛s ❛s ❧✐❣❛çõ❡s ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❡st❛r ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ✭❊♠♣r❡s❛✲✯✲ ❊♠♣r❡s❛✮✳ ❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ r❡ss❛❧t❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ é ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r s❡ ❡①✐st❡ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡♠ ❛té s❡✐s s❛❧t♦s✱ ♥ã♦ s❡♥❞♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ tr❛③❡r t♦❞♦ ♦ ❣r❛❢♦ q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❊♠♣r❡s❛s✳ P♦❞❡✲s❡✱ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❜✉s❝❛r ❛♣❡♥❛s ♦s ♠❡♥♦r❡s ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❢♦✐ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ♣♦r ♠❡♥♦r ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ♦❜t❡♥❞♦✲s❡ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✷ ✱ r❡❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦ r❡t♦r♥❛❞♦ ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♠❛s ❝♦♠ ✉♠ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ✸✻✾ ♠s✱ s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♦♥❧✐♥❡ ❞❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s✳

  P❡r❝❡❜❡✲s❡✱ ❡♥tã♦✱ q✉❡ ❛♦ s❡ ♠✉❞❛r ❛ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ ❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ♣♦❞❡ ✐♠♣❛❝t❛r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛✈❡❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❜✉s❝❛✳ ◆♦t❛✲s❡ t❛♠❜é♠ q✉❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s q✉❡ s❡r✐❛♠ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛s ❞❡ s❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♠✉✐t♦ ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛❞❛s ❛♦ ❛❧t❡r❛r ❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ ❞♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✳

  ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✺✳✶✷✿ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ só❝✐♦s ♥♦ ◆❡♦✹❥✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✻ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦

  ❊st❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t♦✉ ♦ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❇❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❇❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s ✭▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✮✱ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❡ ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ ❇❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❡♠ ●r❛❢♦s✳ ❖ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛ ❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❛t❡♥❞❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❣r❛❢♦s s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✱ ❤✐♣❡r❣r❛❢♦s ❡ ❛♥✐♥❤❛❞♦s✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦✱ ❡❧❡ ❞❡✜♥❡ ✉♠❛ ♥♦t❛çã♦ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ✈ért✐❝❡ ❡ ❛r❡st❛✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s✉❛s ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐③❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❤✐♣❡r✈ért✐❝❡ ❡ ❤✐♣❡❛r❡st❛✱ ❡ ❝♦♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛ ❝♦♠ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ t✐♣❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ rót✉❧♦ ❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s✳

  ❖ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❢♦✐ ❞❡s❡♥❤❛❞♦ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ♥♦t❛çõ❡s s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛s ❡♠ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛çã♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ q✉❡✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞♦s ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ❧✐✈r❡ ❉■❆✳ ❆ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❢♦r❛♠ s❡♥❞♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s✱ ❞✐❛❣r❛♠❛s ✐❧✉str❛♥❞♦ s❡✉ ✉s♦ ❡♠ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝❛s ❛❥✉❞❛r❛♠ ✉♠ ♠❡❧❤♦r ❡♥t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦✳

  ❆♣ós s✉❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦✱ ♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲ ❢♦✐ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛r ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❱í♥❝✉✲ ❧♦s ❙✐♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ▲✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ❙♦❝✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❆ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❞✉❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s ♣❡r♠✐t✐✉ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❝♦♠♦ ❝❛❞❛ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛ ❛ ❛❧✲ ❣✉♥s ❝❡♥ár✐♦s ❞❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s✱ ❣❡r❛r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❡ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝✐❛r t❛♠❜é♠ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡♥tr❡ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳

  ❯t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❞❛❞♦s s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦s ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ s❝r✐♣ts ❙◗▲✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡ ❝❛rr❡❣❛❞♦s ❞♦✐s s✐st❡♠❛s ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✭❙●❉❇✮✱ ✉♠ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡ ♦✉tr♦ ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✳ ❊ss❡s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❡r♠✐t✐r❛♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r✱ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛s ❧✐♥❣✉❛❣❡♥s ♥❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ss❡s ❞♦✐s s✐st❡♠❛s✳ ❆s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❢♦r❛♠ ❧✐♠✐t❛❞❛s ❛ três s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠✉♥s ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞♦ ❡st✉❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❛s♦✳ ❆♣ós ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ss❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s✱ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡r ❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ ❞♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s ♣❛r❛ ❜✉s❝❛s q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ ❛ ♥❛✈❡❣❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❜✉s❝❛r ✈ár✐♦s só❝✐♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❞✉❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s✱ ✜❝❛r❛♠ ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s ♥♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s❡ ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛r❡♠ ❞♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡ss❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

  ❚❛♠❜é♠ ❢♦r❛♠ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞❛s ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ ❡ ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛ s♦❜r❡ ❛s ✐♠♣❧❡✲ ♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦ ❡ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ♠❛ss❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❛✐s✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝❛r❣❛ t❡r s✐❞♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s ♥♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦ ❢♦✐ ♥❡❝❡s✲ sár✐♦ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ♣❛r❛ ❢❛❝✐❧✐t❛r ❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ♣❛r❛ ✐♥s❡rçã♦ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥❛ ♦r❞❡♠ ❞❡ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ❞❡ r❡❣✐str♦s✳ ❖ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ t❛r❡❢❛✱ ❞❡s❝r✐t❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ❳▼▲✱ q✉❡ ♠❛♣❡✐❛ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✳

  ❋✐♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛ ❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❢♦✐ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ✈❡r✐✜❝❛r ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❞✉❛s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❛s ❝♦♥s✉❧t❛s ♣❛r❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ✈í♥❝✉❧♦s ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ tí♣✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❡♥tr❡ só❝✐♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡ t✐r❛r ♣r♦✈❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞❛✳

  P♦r ✜♠✱ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡✲s❡ q✉❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦ tér♠✐♥♦ ❞❡ss❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ◆♦ ▼❉●✲◆♦❙◗▲✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦✉tr♦s ❞♦♠í♥✐♦s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s tí♣✐❝♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❆❧✉♥♦s ❡♠ ❈✉rs♦s ♦✉ ❈♦♠♣r❛s ❖♥❧✐♥❡✱ ❜✉s❝❛♥❞♦ ❧❛❝✉♥❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣❛♥❞✐r ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♦✉ ♠❡s♠♦ ❛♣❡r❢❡✐ç♦❛r té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ q✉❡ t✐r❡♠ ♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r ♣r♦✈❡✐t♦ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s ❡♠ s✐t✉❛çõ❡s r❡❝♦rr❡♥t❡s✱ ❣❡r❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞rõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠✳ ❙❛✐♥❞♦ ❞♦ ❡s❝♦♣♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❛❧t❡r♥❛♥❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❞♦s ❜❛♥❝♦s ◆♦❙◗▲ ❞❡ tr❛t❛r q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r❡s✱ ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛r ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣❛♥❞✐r ❡ ♦t✐♠✐③❛r ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛r ✈♦❧✉♠❡s ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r❡s ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s✱ q✉❡ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❡ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ s❡ r❡✢❡t❡ ❡♠ ✈ért✐❝❡s ❡ ❛r❡st❛s✳ ❉♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❞❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦✱ ❡①✐t❡♠ ✈ár✐❛s ✐♥✐❝✐❛t✐✈❛s q✉❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡♠ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❣r❛❢♦s✱ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛♥❞♦ s✉❛s ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çõ❡s✱ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çõ❡s ❡ ❡st✉❞♦s ❞❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ✐♥t❡r♥❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ❡❧❛s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ❛ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦♣♦st❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❡✈♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s ❡ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s✳

  ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✼ ❆♥❡①♦s ✼✳✶ ❆♥❡①♦ ■

  ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ✼✳✶✿ ❈♦♥s✉❧t❛ ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♥❝♦rr❡r❛♠ ❛ ❧✐❝✐t❛çõ❡s✳

  ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ❇❘❆◆❈❍ ✵✷★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ★ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ P❊❘❙❖◆ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ P❊❘❙❖◆ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✸ P✵✶ ✳ ♥❛♠❡❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✱ ✹ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✺ P✵✷ ✳ ♥❛♠❡❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✱ ✻ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✼ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✽ ❋❘❖▼ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✶ ✾ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✶ ✶✵ ❖◆ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✶ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❆❙ P✵✶ ✶✷ ❖◆ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❂ PP✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✶✸ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✷ ✶✹ ❖◆ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✶✺ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✷ ✶✻ ❖◆ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✼ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✸ ✶✽ ❖◆ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✾ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❆❙ P✵✷ ✷✵ ❖◆ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❂ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✷✶ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✹ ✷✷ ❖◆ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✷✸ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✸ ✷✹ ❖◆ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✺ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✺ ✷✻ ❖◆ ❈P✵✺ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✼ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✹ ✷✽ ❖◆ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✺ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✾ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✵ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②

  ✸✶ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✷ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✸ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✹ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✺ ❆◆❉ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❁❃ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥

✸✻ ❆◆❉ ✭✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✼ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✽ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮✮❀

★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★

★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ❇❘❆◆❈❍ ✵✸★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★

★ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ P❊❘❙❖◆ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ P❊❘❙❖◆ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✸ P✵✶ ✳ ♥❛♠❡❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✱ ✹ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✺ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✻ P✵✷ ✳ ♥❛♠❡❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✱ ✼ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✽ ❋❘❖▼ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✶ ✾ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✶ ✶✵ ❖◆ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✶ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❆❙ P✵✶ ✶✷ ❖◆ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❂ PP✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✶✸ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✷ ✶✹ ❖◆ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✶✺ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✷ ✶✻ ❖◆ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✼ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✸ ✶✽ ❖◆ ❈P✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✾ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✸ ✷✵ ❖◆ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✶ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✹ ✷✷ ❖◆ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✸ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❆❙ P✵✷ ✷✹ ❖◆ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❂ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✷✺ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✺ ✷✻ ❖◆ PP✵✺ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✷✼ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✹ ✷✽ ❖◆ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✺ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✾ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✵ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✶ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✷ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✸ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✹ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✺ ❆◆❉ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❁❃ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥

✸✻ ❆◆❉ ✭✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✼ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✽ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮✮❀

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★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ❇❘❆◆❈❍ ✵✹★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★

★ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ P❊❘❙❖◆ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨

  ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✸ P✵✶ ✳ ♥❛♠❡❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✱ ✹ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✺ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✻ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✼ ❋❘❖▼ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✶ ✽ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✶ ✾ ❖◆ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✵ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❆❙ P✵✶ ✶✶ ❖◆ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❂ PP✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✶✷ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✷ ✶✸ ❖◆ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✶✹ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✷ ✶✺ ❖◆ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✻ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✸ ✶✼ ❖◆ ❈P✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✽ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✸ ✶✾ ❖◆ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✵ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✹ ✷✶ ❖◆ ❈P✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✷ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✹ ✷✸ ❖◆ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✹ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✺ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✻ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✼ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✽ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✾ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②

✸✵ ❆◆❉ ✭✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✶ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✷ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮✮❀

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★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ❇❘❆◆❈❍ ✵✺★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★

★ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ P❊❘❙❖◆ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ P❊❘❙❖◆ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✸ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✹ P✵✶ ✳ ♥❛♠❡❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✱ ✺ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✻ P✵✷ ✳ ♥❛♠❡❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✱ ✼ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✽ ❋❘❖▼ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✶ ✾ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✶ ✶✵ ❖◆ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✶✶ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✷ ✶✷ ❖◆ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✸ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✷ ✶✹ ❖◆ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✺ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❆❙ P✵✶ ✶✻ ❖◆ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❂ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✶✼ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✸ ✶✽ ❖◆ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥

  ✶✾ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✸ ✷✵ ❖◆ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✶ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✹ ✷✷ ❖◆ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✸ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❆❙ P✵✷ ✷✹ ❖◆ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❂ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✷✺ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✺ ✷✻ ❖◆ PP✵✺ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✷✼ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✹ ✷✽ ❖◆ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✺ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✾ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✵ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✶ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✷ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✸ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✹ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✸✺ ❆◆❉ P✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❁❃ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥

✸✻ ❆◆❉ ✭✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✼ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✽ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮✮❀

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★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ❇❘❆◆❈❍ ✵✻★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★

★ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ P❊❘❙❖◆ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✸ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✹ P✵✶ ✳ ♥❛♠❡❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✱ ✺ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✻ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✼ ❋❘❖▼ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✶ ✽ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✶ ✾ ❖◆ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✶✵ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✷ ✶✶ ❖◆ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✷ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✷ ✶✸ ❖◆ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✹ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❆❙ P✵✶ ✶✺ ❖◆ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❂ PP✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✶✻ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✸ ✶✼ ❖◆ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✶✽ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✸ ✶✾ ❖◆ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✵ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✹ ✷✶ ❖◆ ❈P✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✷ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✹ ✷✸ ❖◆ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✹ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✺ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✻ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✼ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✽ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✾ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②

✸✵ ❆◆❉ ✭✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✶ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

  

✸✷ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮✮❀

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★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ❇❘❆◆❈❍ ✵✼★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★

★ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ P❊❘❙❖◆ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✸ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✹ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✺ P✵✶ ✳ ♥❛♠❡❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✱ ✻ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✼ ❋❘❖▼ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✶ ✽ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✶ ✾ ❖◆ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✶✵ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✷ ✶✶ ❖◆ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✷ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✷ ✶✸ ❖◆ ❈P✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✹ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✸ ✶✺ ❖◆ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✻ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✸ ✶✼ ❖◆ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✽ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡ ❆❙ P✵✶ ✶✾ ❖◆ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ❂ PP✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✷✵ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ♣❡♦♣❧❡❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ PP✵✹ ✷✶ ❖◆ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴♣❡rs♦♥❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ P✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴♣❡rs♦♥ ✷✷ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✹ ✷✸ ❖◆ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ PP✵✹ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✹ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✺ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✻ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✼ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✽ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✾ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②

✸✵ ❆◆❉ ✭✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✶ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✸✷ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮✮❀

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★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ❇❘❆◆❈❍ ✵✽★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★

★ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✲ ❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ✶ ❙❊▲❊❈❚ ✷ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✸ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✹ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✱ ✺ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ✻ ❋❘❖▼ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✶ ✼ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✶ ✽ ❖◆ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ✾ ■◆◆❊❘ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✷ ✶✵ ❖◆ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✶ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✶ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✷ ✶✷ ❖◆ ❈P✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②

  ✶✸ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✸ ✶✹ ❖◆ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✷ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✺ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s❴♣❛rt♥❡rs ❆❙ ❈P✵✸ ✶✻ ❖◆ ❈P✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♣❛rt♥❡r ❂ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✼ ▲❊❋❚ ❏❖■◆ ❝♦♠♣❛♥✐❡s ❆❙ ❈✵✹ ✶✽ ❖◆ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❂ ❈P✵✸ ✳ ❢❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✶✾ ❲❍❊❘❊ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✵ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✶ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✷ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✶ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✸ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✷ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ✷✹ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥② ❁❃ ❈✵✸ ✳ ♣❦❴❝♦♠♣❛♥②

✷✺ ❆◆❉ ✭✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✷ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✷✻ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✸ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮

✷✼ ❖❘ ✭ ❈✵✶ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❇✬ ❆◆❉ ❈✵✹ ✳ ❝♦♠♣❛♥②❴♥❛♠❡ ❂ ✬❈❖▼P❆◆❨ ❈✬✮✮❀

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❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s

  ❬✶❪ ❇❡r♥❞ ❆♠❛♥♥ ❛♥❞ ▼✐❝❤❡❧ ❙❝❤♦❧❧✳ ●r❛♠✿ ❛ ❣r❛♣❤ ❞❛t❛ ♠♦❞❡❧ ❛♥❞ q✉❡r② ❧❛♥❣✉❛❣❡s✳ ■♥ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❆❈▼ ❝♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❍②♣❡rt❡①t✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✷✵✶✕✷✶✶✳ ❆❈▼✱ ✶✾✾✷✳ ①✐ ✱

  ✽

  ❬✷❪ ❘✳ ❆♥❣❧❡s✳ ❆ ❈♦♠♣❛r✐s♦♥ ♦❢ ❈✉rr❡♥t ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ▼♦❞❡❧s✳ ■♥ ✷✵✶✷ ■❊❊❊ ✷✽t❤ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❉❛t❛ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣ ❲♦r❦s❤♦♣s ✭■❈❉❊❲✮✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✶✼✶✕✶✼✼✱ ❆♣r✐❧ ✷✵✶✷✳ ✼ ✱ ✶✶ ✱ ✶✸ ✱ ✶✹ ✱ ✶✺ ✱ ✸✶

  ❬✸❪ ❘❡♥③♦ ❆♥❣❧❡s ❛♥❞ ❈❧❛✉❞✐♦ ●✉t✐❡rr❡③✳ ❙✉r✈❡② ♦❢ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ▼♦❞❡❧s✳ ❆❈▼ ❈♦♠♣✉t✳ ❙✉r✈✳✱ ✹✵✭✶✮✿✶✿✶✕✶✿✸✾✱ ✷✵✵✽✳ ①✐ ✱ ✺ ✱ ✼ ✱ ✽ ✱ ✶✶ ✱ ✶✺

  ❬✹❪ ❘❡♥③♦ ❆♥❣❧❡s✱ ❆r♥❛✉ Pr❛t✲Pér❡③✱ ❉❛✈✐❞ ❉♦♠✐♥❣✉❡③✲❙❛❧✱ ❛♥❞ ❏♦s❡♣✲▲❧✉✐s ▲❛rr✐❜❛✲ P❡②✳ ❇❡♥❝❤♠❛r❦✐♥❣ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❙②st❡♠s ❢♦r ❙♦❝✐❛❧ ◆❡t✇♦r❦ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✳ ■♥ ❋✐rst ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❲♦r❦s❤♦♣ ♦♥ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛ ▼❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t ❊①♣❡r✐❡♥❝❡s ❛♥❞ ❙②st❡♠s✱ ✬✶✸✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✶✺✿✶✕✶✺✿✼✱ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ◆❨✱ ❯❙❆✱ ✷✵✶✸✳ ❆❈▼✳ ✶ ✱ ✶✸ ✱ ✶✹

  ❬✺❪ ❙❤❛❧✐♥✐ ❇❛tr❛ ❛♥❞ ❈❤❛r✉ ❚②❛❣✐✳ ❈♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❡ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ♦❢ r❡❧❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❛♥❞ ❣r❛♣❤ ❞❛✲ t❛❜❛s❡s✳ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❏♦✉r♥❛❧ ♦❢ ❙♦❢t ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣ ✭■❏❙❈❊✮✱ ✷✭✷✮✱ ✷✵✶✷✳ ✼✻

  ❬✻❪ ❉❡❡♣❛②❛♥ ❈❤❛❦r❛❜❛rt✐ ❛♥❞ ❈❤r✐st♦s ❋❛❧♦✉ts♦s✳ ●r❛♣❤ ▼✐♥✐♥❣✿ ▲❛✇s✱ ❚♦♦❧s✱ ❛♥❞ ❈❛s❡ ❙t✉❞✐❡s✳ ▼♦r❣❛♥ ✫ ❈❧❛②♣♦♦❧ P✉❜❧✐s❤❡rs✱ ❖❝t♦❜❡r ✷✵✶✷✳ ✹

  ❬✼❪ ❋❛② ❈❤❛♥❣✱ ❏❡✛r❡② ❉❡❛♥✱ ❙❛♥❥❛② ●❤❡♠❛✇❛t✱ ❲✐❧s♦♥ ❈✳ ❍s✐❡❤✱ ❉❡❜♦r❛❤ ❆✳ ❲❛❧❧❛❝❤✱ ▼✐❦❡ ❇✉rr♦✇s✱ ❚✉s❤❛r ❈❤❛♥❞r❛✱ ❆♥❞r❡✇ ❋✐❦❡s✱ ❛♥❞ ❘♦❜❡rt ❊✳ ●r✉❜❡r✳ ❇✐❣t❛❜❧❡✿ ❆ ❉✐str✐❜✉t❡❞ ❙t♦r❛❣❡ ❙②st❡♠ ❢♦r ❙tr✉❝t✉r❡❞ ❉❛t❛✳ ❆❈▼ ❚r❛♥s✳ ❈♦♠♣✉t✳ ❙②st✳✱ ✷✻✭✷✮✿✹✿✶✕✹✿✷✻✱ ❏✉♥❡ ✷✵✵✽✳ ✶✸ ✱ ✶✹

  ❬✽❪ ●❛r② ❈❤❛rtr❛♥❞✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉❝t♦r② ●r❛♣❤ ❚❤❡♦r②✳ ❉♦✈❡r P✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✱ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ✉♥❛✲ ❜r✐❞❣❡❞ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥✱ ❉❡❝❡♠❜❡r ✶✾✽✹✳ ✹ ✱ ✺

  ❬✾❪ ▼✐♥ ❈❤❡♥✱ ❙❤✐✇❡♥ ▼❛♦✱ ❛♥❞ ❨✉♥❤❛♦ ▲✐✉✳ ❇✐❣ ❉❛t❛✿ ❆ ❙✉r✈❡②✳ ▼♦❜✐❧❡ ◆❡t✇♦r❦s ❛♥❞ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✱ ✶✾✭✷✮✿✶✼✶✕✷✵✾✱ ❆♣r✐❧ ✷✵✶✹✳ ✶✸ ✱ ✶✹

  ❬✶✵❪ ❚❤♦♠❛s ❍✳ ❈♦r♠❡♥✱ ❈❤❛r❧❡s ❊✳ ▲❡✐s❡rs♦♥✱ ❘♦♥❛❧❞ ▲✳ ❘✐✈❡st✱ ❛♥❞ ❈❧✐✛♦r❞ ❙t❡✐♥✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥ t♦ ❆❧❣♦r✐t❤♠s✳ ❚❤❡ ▼■❚ Pr❡ss✱ ❈❛♠❜r✐❞❣❡✱ ▼❛ss✱ t❤✐r❞ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥✱ ❏✉❧② ✷✵✵✾✳ ✻✵

  ❬✶✶❪ ●✐✉s❡♣♣❡ ❉❡❈❛♥❞✐❛✱ ❉❡♥✐③ ❍❛st♦r✉♥✱ ▼❛❞❛♥ ❏❛♠♣❛♥✐✱ ●✉♥❛✈❛r❞❤❛♥ ❑❛❦✉❧❛♣❛t✐✱ ❆✈✐♥❛s❤ ▲❛❦s❤♠❛♥✱ ❆❧❡① P✐❧❝❤✐♥✱ ❙✇❛♠✐♥❛t❤❛♥ ❙✐✈❛s✉❜r❛♠❛♥✐❛♥✱ P❡t❡r ❱♦ss❤❛❧❧✱

  ❛♥❞ ❲❡r♥❡r ❱♦❣❡❧s✳ ❉②♥❛♠♦✿ ❆♠❛③♦♥✬s ❍✐❣❤❧② ❆✈❛✐❧❛❜❧❡ ❑❡②✲✈❛❧✉❡ ❙t♦r❡✳ ■♥ Pr♦❝❡✲ ❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ ❚✇❡♥t②✲✜rst ❆❈▼ ❙■●❖P❙ ❙②♠♣♦s✐✉♠ ♦♥ ❖♣❡r❛t✐♥❣ ❙②st❡♠s Pr✐♥❝✐♣❧❡s✱ ✬✵✼✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✷✵✺✕✷✷✵✱ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ◆❨✱ ❯❙❆✱ ✷✵✵✼✳ ❆❈▼✳ ✶✸

  ❬✶✷❪ ▼❛r❝ ●②ss❡♥s✱ ❏❛♥ P❛r❡❞❛❡♥s✱ ❛♥❞ ❉✐r❦ ✈❛♥ ●✉❝❤t✳ ❆ ●r❛♣❤✲♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❉❛t❛✲ ❜❛s❡ ▼♦❞❡❧✳ ■♥ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ◆✐♥t❤ ❆❈▼ ❙■●❆❈❚✲❙■●▼❖❉✲❙■●❆❘❚ ❙②♠♣♦✲ s✐✉♠ ♦♥ Pr✐♥❝✐♣❧❡s ♦❢ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❙②st❡♠s✱ ✬✾✵✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✹✶✼✕✹✷✹✱ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ◆❨✱ ❯❙❆✱ ✶✾✾✵✳ ❆❈▼✳ ✽ ✱ ✶✵

  ❬✶✸❪ ❘♦❜✐♥ ❍❡❝❤t ❛♥❞ ❙t❡❢❛♥ ❏❛❜❧♦♥s❦✐✳ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥✿ ❆ ✉s❡ ❝❛s❡ ♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ s✉r✈❡②✳ ■♥ ✷✵✶✶ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥ ❈❧♦✉❞ ❛♥❞ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ✭❈❙❈✮✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✸✸✻✕✸✹✶✱ ✷✵✶✶✳ ✹ ✱ ✶✸

  ❬✶✹❪ ❈❛r❧♦s ❆❧❜❡rt♦ ❍❡✉s❡r✳ Pr♦❥❡t♦ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❙❛❣r❛ ▲✉③③❛tt♦✱ ✶✾✾✽✳ ✷✼ ❬✶✺❪ ❏✳ ❍✐❞❞❡rs ❛♥❞ ❏✳ P❛r❡❞❛❡♥s✳ ●♦❛❧✱ ❛ ●r❛♣❤✲❇❛s❡❞ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❛♥❞ ❆ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ▲❛♥❣✉❛❣❡✳

  ■♥ ❏✳ P❛r❡❞❛❡♥s ❛♥❞ ▲✳ ❚❡♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ❡❞✐t♦rs✱ ❆❞✈❛♥❝❡s ✐♥ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❙②st❡♠s✱ ♥✉♠❜❡r ✸✹✼ ✐♥ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈❡♥tr❡ ❢♦r ▼❡❝❤❛♥✐❝❛❧ ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡s✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✷✹✼✕✷✻✺✳ ❙♣r✐♥❣❡r ❱✐❡♥♥❛✱ ❏❛♥✉❛r② ✶✾✾✹✳ ①✐ ✱ ✽ ✱ ✶✵

  ❬✶✻❪ ❏❛♥ ❍✐❞❞❡rs✳ ❚②♣✐♥❣ ●r❛♣❤✲▼❛♥✐♣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ❖♣❡r❛t✐♦♥s✳ ■♥ ❉✐❡❣♦ ❈❛❧✈❛♥❡s❡✱ ▼❛✉r✐③✐♦ ▲❡♥③❡r✐♥✐✱ ❛♥❞ ❘❛❥❡❡✈ ▼♦t✇❛♥✐✱ ❡❞✐t♦rs✱ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❚❤❡♦r② ✖ ■❈❉❚ ✷✵✵✸✱ ♥✉♠❜❡r ✷✺✼✷ ✐♥ ▲❡❝t✉r❡ ◆♦t❡s ✐♥ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r ❙❝✐❡♥❝❡✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✸✾✹✕✹✵✾✳ ❙♣r✐♥❣❡r ❇❡r❧✐♥ ❍❡✐❞❡❧✲ ❜❡r❣✱ ✷✵✵✸✳ ①✐ ✱ ✽ ✱ ✾

  ❬✶✼❪ ❘❡♥é❡ ❈✳ ✈❛♥ ❞❡r ❍✉❧st✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥ t♦ ❙♦❝✐❛❧ ◆❡t✇♦r❦ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s ✭❙◆❆✮ ❛s ❛♥ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛t✐✈❡ t♦♦❧✳ ❚r❡♥❞s ✐♥ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❡❞ ❈r✐♠❡✱ ✶✷✭✷✮✿✶✵✶✕✶✷✶✱ ❏✉♥❡ ✷✵✵✾✳ ✷ ✱ ✶✸ ✱

  ✹✺

  ❬✶✽❪ ❖✬❘❡✐❧❧② ▼❡❞✐❛ ■♥❝✳ ❇✐❣ ❉❛t❛ ◆♦✇✿ ✷✵✶✷ ❊❞✐t✐♦♥✳ ❖✬❘❡✐❧❧② ▼❡❞✐❛✱ ✷ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥✱ ❖❝t♦❜❡r ✷✵✶✷✳ ✶ ✱ ✶✸

  ❬✶✾❪ ❙❛❧✐♠ ❏♦✉✐❧✐ ❛♥❞ ❱❛❧❡♥t✐♥ ❱❛♥st❡❡♥❜❡r❣❤❡✳ ❆♥ ❡♠♣✐r✐❝❛❧ ❝♦♠♣❛r✐s♦♥ ♦❢ ❣r❛♣❤ ❞❛t❛✲ ❜❛s❡s✳ ■♥ ❙♦❝✐❛❧ ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ✭❙♦❝✐❛❧❈♦♠✮✱ ✷✵✶✸ ■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦♥✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✼✵✽✕✼✶✺✳ ■❊❊❊✱ ✷✵✶✸✳ ✶✸

  ❬✷✵❪ P✳ ❑❛❧♠❡❣❤ ❛♥❞ ❙✳❇✳ ◆❛✈❛t❤❡✳ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❉❡s✐❣♥ ❈❤❛❧❧❡♥❣❡s ❯s✐♥❣ ❍P❈ P❧❛t✲ ❢♦r♠s✳ ■♥ ❍✐❣❤ P❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣✱ ◆❡t✇♦r❦✐♥❣✱ ❙t♦r❛❣❡ ❛♥❞ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s ✭❙❈❈✮✱ ✷✵✶✷ ❙❈ ❈♦♠♣❛♥✐♦♥✿✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✶✸✵✻✕✶✸✵✾✱ ◆♦✈❡♠❜❡r ✷✵✶✷✳ ✶✸

  ❬✷✶❪ ❑❛r❛♠❥✐t ❑❛✉r ❛♥❞ ❘✐♥❦❧❡ ❘❛♥✐✳ ▼♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ q✉❡r②✐♥❣ ❞❛t❛ ✐♥ ◆♦❙◗▲ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡s✳ ♣❛❣❡s ✶✕✼✳ ■❊❊❊✱ ❖❝t♦❜❡r ✷✵✶✸✳ ✶✸

  ❬✷✷❪ ●❛❜r✐❡❧ ▼✳ ❑✉♣❡r ❛♥❞ ▼♦s❤❡ ❨✳ ❱❛r❞✐✳ ❚❤❡ ❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ ❞❛t❛ ♠♦❞❡❧✳ ❆❈▼ ❚r❛♥s❛❝t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❙②st❡♠s ✭❚❖❉❙✮✱ ✶✽✭✸✮✿✸✼✾✕✹✶✸✱ ✶✾✾✸✳ ✽

  ❬✷✸❪ ◆❡❛❧ ▲❡❛✈✐tt✳ ❲✐❧❧ ◆♦❙◗▲ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s ▲✐✈❡ ❯♣ t♦ ❚❤❡✐r Pr♦♠✐s❡❄ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡r✱ ✹✸✭✷✮✿✶✷✕ ✶✹✱ ❋❡❜r✉❛r② ✷✵✶✵✳ ✶✸

  ❬✷✹❪ ▼✳ ▲❡✈❡♥❡ ❛♥❞ ●✳ ▲♦✐③♦✉✳ ❆ ❣r❛♣❤✲❜❛s❡❞ ❞❛t❛ ♠♦❞❡❧ ❛♥❞ ✐ts r❛♠✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥s✳ ■❊❊❊ ❚r❛♥s❛❝t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❛♥❞ ❉❛t❛ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣✱ ✼✭✺✮✿✽✵✾✕✽✷✸✱ ❖❝t♦❜❡r ✶✾✾✺✳ ①✐ ✱

  ✽ ✱ ✶✶ ✱ ✶✷ ✱ ✷✷

  ❬✷✺❪ ▼✳ ▲❡✈❡♥❡ ❛♥❞ ❆✳ P♦✉❧♦✈❛ss✐❧✐s✳ ❆♥ ♦❜❥❡❝t✲♦r✐❡♥t❡❞ ❞❛t❛ ♠♦❞❡❧ ❢♦r♠❛❧✐s❡❞ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ❤②♣❡r❣r❛♣❤s✳ ❉❛t❛ ✫ ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❊♥❣✐♥❡❡r✐♥❣✱ ✻✭✸✮✿✷✵✺✕✷✷✹✱ ▼❛② ✶✾✾✶✳ ✽ ✱ ✶✶ ✱ ✸✷

  ❬✷✻❪ ❉❛✈✐❞ ▲♦s❤✐♥✳ ❇✉s✐♥❡ss ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡✿ ❚❤❡ ❙❛✈✈② ▼❛♥❛❣❡r✬s ●✉✐❞❡✳ ▼♦r❣❛♥ ❑❛✉❢✲ ♠❛♥♥✱ ❆♠st❡r❞❛♠ ❀ ❇♦st♦♥✱ ✶ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥✱ ❏✉❧② ✷✵✵✸✳ ✹✹

  ❬✷✼❪ ▼✳ ▼❛✐♥❣✉❡♥❛✉❞ ❛♥❞ ❳✳ ❚✳ ❙✐♠❛t✐❝✳ ❆ ❞❛t❛ ♠♦❞❡❧ t♦ ❞❡❛❧ ✇✐t❤ ♠✉❧t✐✲s❝❛❧❡❞ ♥❡t✇♦r❦s✳ ❈♦♠♣✉t❡rs✱ ❊♥✈✐r♦♥♠❡♥t ❛♥❞ ❯r❜❛♥ ❙②st❡♠s✱ ✶✻✭✹✮✿✷✽✶✕✷✽✽✱ ❏✉❧② ✶✾✾✷✳ ✽ ✱ ✶✵

  ❬✷✽❪ ❘♦❜❡rt ❈❛♠♣❜❡❧❧ ▼❝❈♦❧❧✱ ❉❛✈✐❞ ❊❞✐❣❡r✱ ❏❛s♦♥ P♦♦✈❡②✱ ❉❛♥ ❈❛♠♣❜❡❧❧✱ ❛♥❞ ❉❛✈✐❞ ❆✳ ❇❛❞❡r✳ ❆ P❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❊✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❖♣❡♥ ❙♦✉r❝❡ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s✳ ■♥ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ❋✐rst ❲♦r❦s❤♦♣ ♦♥ P❛r❛❧❧❡❧ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠✐♥❣ ❢♦r ❆♥❛❧②t✐❝s ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✱ ✬✶✹✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✶✶✕✶✽✱ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ◆❨✱ ❯❙❆✱ ✷✵✶✹✳ ❆❈▼✳ ✶✸

  ❬✷✾❪ ❏❡✛r❡② ❙❝♦tt ▼❝■❧❧✇❛✐♥✳ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❡❞ ❝r✐♠❡✿ ❆ s♦❝✐❛❧ ♥❡t✇♦r❦ ❛♣♣r♦❛❝❤✳ ❈r✐♠❡✱ ▲❛✇ ❛♥❞ ❙♦❝✐❛❧ ❈❤❛♥❣❡✱ ✸✷✭✹✮✿✸✵✶✕✸✷✸✱ ❉❡❝❡♠❜❡r ✶✾✾✾✳ ✶✸ ✱ ✹✺

  ❬✸✵❪ ❘✉ss ▼✐❧❡s ❛♥❞ ❑✐♠ ❍❛♠✐❧t♦♥✳ ▲❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❯▼▲ ✷✳✵✳ ❖✬❘❡✐❧❧② ▼❡❞✐❛✱ ❇❡✐❥✐♥❣ ❀ ❙❡❜❛s✲ t♦♣♦❧✱ ❈❆✱ ✶ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥✱ ▼❛② ✷✵✵✻✳ ✷✷ ✱ ✸✷ ❬✸✶❪ ❊r✐❝ ❘❡❞♠♦♥❞ ❛♥❞ ❏✐♠ ❘✳ ❲✐❧s♦♥✳ ❙❡✈❡♥ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s ✐♥ ❙❡✈❡♥ ❲❡❡❦s✿ ❆ ●✉✐❞❡ t♦

  ▼♦❞❡r♥ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ◆♦❙◗▲ ▼♦✈❡♠❡♥t✳ Pr❛❣♠❛t✐❝ ❇♦♦❦s❤❡❧❢✱ ❉❛❧❧❛s✱ ❚❡①✱ ✶ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥✱ ▼❛② ✷✵✶✷✳ ✶ ✱ ✶✹

  ❬✸✷❪ ■❛♥ ❘♦❜✐♥s♦♥✱ ❏✐♠ ❲❡❜❜❡r✱ ❛♥❞ ❊♠✐❧ ❊✐❢r❡♠✳ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s✳ ❖✬❘❡✐❧❧② ▼❡❞✐❛✱ ❙❡❜❛st♦♣♦❧✱ ❈❛❧✐❢✳✱ ✶ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥ ❡❞✐t✐♦♥✱ ❏✉♥❡ ✷✵✶✸✳ ✶✶ ✱ ✸✾ ✱ ✻✹ ✱ ✼✵

  ❬✸✸❪ ◆✐❝♦❧❛s ❘✉✢✐♥✱ ❍❡❧♠❛r ❇✉r❦❤❛rt✱ ❛♥❞ ❙✈❡♥ ❘✐③③♦tt✐✳ ❙♦❝✐❛❧✲❞❛t❛ ❙t♦r❛❣❡✲s②st❡♠s✳ ■♥ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s ❛♥❞ ❙♦❝✐❛❧ ◆❡t✇♦r❦s✱ ✬✶✶✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✼✕✶✷✱ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ◆❨✱ ❯❙❆✱ ✷✵✶✶✳ ❆❈▼✳

  ✶ ✱ ✼✻

  ❬✸✹❪ ▼❛❧❝♦❧♠ ❑✳ ❙♣❛rr♦✇✳ ❚❤❡ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ♥❡t✇♦r❦ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s t♦ ❝r✐♠✐♥❛❧ ✐♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥❝❡✿ ❆♥ ❛ss❡ss♠❡♥t ♦❢ t❤❡ ♣r♦s♣❡❝ts✳ ❙♦❝✐❛❧ ◆❡t✇♦r❦s✱ ✶✸✭✸✮✿✷✺✶✕✷✼✹✱ ✶✾✾✶✳ ✹✺

  ❬✸✺❪ ❙r✐♥❛t❤ ❙r✐♥✐✈❛s❛✳ ❉❛t❛✱ ❙t♦r❛❣❡ ❛♥❞ ■♥❞❡① ▼♦❞❡❧s ❢♦r ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s✳ ■♥ ❙❤❡r✐❢ ❙❛❦r ❛♥❞ ❊r✐❝ P❛r❞❡❞❡✱ ❡❞✐t♦rs✱ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛ ▼❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✹✼✕✼✵✳ ■●■ ●❧♦❜❛❧✱ ✷✵✶✶✳ ✶ ✱ ✶✶ ✱ ✶✸

  ❬✸✻❪ ▼✐❝❤❛❡❧ ❙t♦♥❡❜r❛❦❡r✳ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s ❱✳ ◆♦❙◗▲ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡s✳ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✳ ❆❈▼✱ ✺✸✭✹✮✿✶✵✕✶✶✱ ✷✵✶✵✳ ✶✸

  ❬✸✼❪ ❈❤❛❞ ❱✐❝❦♥❛✐r✱ ▼✐❝❤❛❡❧ ▼❛❝✐❛s✱ ❩❤❡♥❞♦♥❣ ❩❤❛♦✱ ❳✐❛♦❢❡✐ ◆❛♥✱ ❨✐①✐♥ ❈❤❡♥✱ ❛♥❞ ❉❛✇♥ ❲✐❧❦✐♥s✳ ❆ ❈♦♠♣❛r✐s♦♥ ♦❢ ❛ ●r❛♣❤ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ❛♥❞ ❛ ❘❡❧❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡✿ ❆ ❉❛t❛ Pr♦✈❡♥❛♥❝❡ P❡rs♣❡❝t✐✈❡✳ ■♥ Pr♦❝❡❡❞✐♥❣s ♦❢ t❤❡ ✹✽t❤ ❆♥♥✉❛❧ ❙♦✉t❤❡❛st ❘❡❣✐♦♥❛❧ ❈♦♥✲ ❢❡r❡♥❝❡✱ ❙❊ ✬✶✵✱ ♣❛❣❡s ✹✷✿✶✕✹✷✿✻✱ ◆❡✇ ❨♦r❦✱ ◆❨✱ ❯❙❆✱ ✷✵✶✵✳ ❆❈▼✳ ✼✻

  ❬✸✽❪ ❏❡♥♥✐❢❡r ❳✉ ❛♥❞ ❍s✐♥❝❤✉♥ ❈❤❡♥✳ ❈r✐♠✐♥❛❧ ◆❡t✇♦r❦ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s ❛♥❞ ❱✐s✉❛❧✐③❛t✐♦♥✳ ❈♦♠♠✉♥✳ ❆❈▼✱ ✹✽✭✻✮✿✶✵✵✕✶✵✼✱ ❏✉♥❡ ✷✵✵✺✳ ✶✸ ✱ ✹✺

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