Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon-222 analysis

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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1621–1631, 2007 © Author(s) 2007. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon-222 analysis T. Kluge, J. Ilmberger, C. von Rohden, and W. Aeschbach-Hertig Institute for Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany Received: 16 May 2007 – Published in Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.: 12 June 2007 Revised: 31 August 2007 – Accepted: 19 September 2007 – Published: 28 September 2007 Abstract. Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222 Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3 , appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l) water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222 Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake water interaction. 1 Introduction In the Rhine Valley a large number of dredging lakes have been created during the last century as a result of extraction of gravel and sand. These lakes are now often used as recreation areas. To estimate the impact of the newly created lakes on the hydrological system or the ecosystem by changes in the lakes themselves (direct introduction of polCorrespondence to: T. Kluge ( lutants or nutrients) or in the surroundings (fertilization, creation of new lakes and wells for water supply) more information about the groundwater-lake water interaction is needed. This information is also of interest for the use of groundwater wells for drinking water purposes. The determination of the groundwater-lake water interaction is also important for the estimation of the nutrient budget and the prediction of the bio-geochemical evolution of the lake water, especially the eutrophication. The connection to the groundwater system is the most important component in the water budget of these lakes. A network of seepage meters can be used to estimate directly the inflow of groundwater (Lee, 1977). However, the uncertainty of this approach is high. If the aquifer is heterogeneous, the spatial variation of the inflow can be large (Krabbenhoft et al., 1990), requiring a considerable number of seepage meters and a large effort to get acceptable results. Hydraulic heads of the groundwater in the lake’s surroundings and typical evaporation and precipitation values can be used to determine the groundwater inflow indirectly. Using this method leads to large uncertainties due to unknown flow paths and small scale changes in the hydraulic conductivity (Wollschläger et al., 2007). Furthermore, low hydraulic head gradients as in our study area may make it difficult to obtain sufficient precision. The groundwater inflow can also be estimated indirectly by balancing of environmental tracers, such as stable isotopes, tritium, salts or radon. The stable isotopes deuterium and 18 O are a useful tool to examine the groundwater-lake interaction (Krabbenhoft et al., 1990). However, the problem of this method is the relatively large uncertainty resulting from the measurement error and seasonal variability of the isotopic composition of the evaporation flux, the lake water and the groundwater inflow (Yehdegho et al., 1997). The isotopic composition of the evaporative flux can not be measured directly and theoretical approaches are charged with high uncertainty. Although the isotopic composition of the Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 1622 lake water can be measured easily, small uncertainties have a large influence on the mass balance because of the comparatively small signal differences between lake- and groundwater. We used in a similar way the radon isotope 222 Rn as a budget tracer. 222 Rn is a radioactive noble gas isotope, which is produced by the decay of 226 Ra within the natural decay chain of 238 U. It decays by α-emission to 218 Po with a half life of 3.82 d. Despite the existence of other, more short-lived radon isotopes, we use the term radon synonymous to 222 Rn, which is the relevant isotope in our context. Radon emitted from the rocks or the sediment grains is dissolved and transported by the groundwater. As a result of outgassing to the atmosphere and the short lifetime of radon, concentration gradients are created between surface waters and groundwater. The strong gradients of radon between the reservoirs are used for applications in aquatic systems. For example, 222 Rn has been used as a tracer for the examination of the air-sea gas exchange (Roether and Kromer, 1978; Kawabata et al., 2003) or the estimation of vertical and horizontal mixing near the bottom boundary of lakes (Imboden and Emerson, 1984; Colman and Armstrong, 1987). Radon is particularly well suited to study groundwater-surface water interaction, because activity concentrations in groundwater (on the order of 1 to 100 kBq m−3 , depending on the lithology) are much higher than in surface water (about 1 to 100 Bq m−3 ). This contrast has been used to study groundwater recharge and flow in the vicinity of rivers (Hoehn and von Gunten, 1989; Schubert et al., 2006). Furthermore, radon has been applied successfully and quite extensively in the investigation of submarine groundwater discharge (e.g. Cable et al., 1996; Corbett et al., 1999, 2000; Crusius et al., 2005). Similarly, some studies used radon to asses groundwater exfiltration into lakes (Corbett et al., 1997; Tuccimei et al., 2005; Trettin et al., 2006). More frequent application of radon in groundwater-lake water interaction studies may be impeded by the specialized and extensive measurement procedure. In a conventional method for radon detection at low activity levels described by Mathieu et al. (1988), used for instance by Corbett et al. (1997, 1999, 2000), radon is extracted from large water samples by stripping with radon-free He, enriched on a charcoal trap cooled with dry ice, and subsequently detected in a scintillation cell. More recently, methods for continuous radon measurement have been proposed and used in studies of submarine groundwater discharge (Burnett et al., 2001; Lambert and Burnett, 2003; Dulaiova et al., 2005). This approach offers the advantage of time series but requires time consuming measurements in the field with the respective logistical effort. While adequate for studies in coastal regions with radon activity levels in the range of 100 Bq m−3 and variability on the tidal time scale, this approach may be less suitable for application in lakes, where even lower but steady radon activities are to be expected. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1621–1631, 2007 T. Kluge et al.: Radon measurment in lakes In this paper, an alternative, comparatively simple and low-cost method is presented, which can be used in the lowlevel range of surface waters without enrichment of radon and with a low effort in the field. As the continuous techniques, our method is based on a commercially available radon alpha spectrometer, which detects the radon activity in the gas phase. Using large sample containers and an appropriate transfer system for radon from the sample water to the gas phase, the water activity can be determined at low levels with a sufficient accuracy with regard to the application in lakes. In addition to the analytical method, a concept for the derivation of the groundwater inflow rate from the radon balance within the lake is discussed. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by a case study at a dredging lake in the Rhine Valley. 2 Materials and methods Our method is based on the determination of the radon activity with the commercial alpha spectrometer RAD7 (Durridge Company Inc., Bedford, MA, USA), which measures radon in the gas phase. The radon activity is deduced from the activity of its decay products (primarily 218 Po). The alpha particles are detected in a discrete energy spectrum by a semiconductor crystal. The energy sensitive counting allows to separate all alpha-emanating polonium isotopes. The half-life of 218 Po (daughter of 222 Rn) is 3.1 min. The radon concentration can be derived by counting of the decay of 218 Po, which is almost in equilibrium with the radon decay in about 15 min. To increase the precision, 214 Po can be taken into account as well. Due to the longer half-life (26.8 min, 19.9 min) of the intermediate nuclides 214 Pb and 214 Bi this can only be done after about 3 h when the secular equilibrium is reached. The spectrum is recorded from 0 to 10 MeV with a resolution of 0.05 MeV (Durridge Co., 2000). Our device has a chamber sensitivity of 1 cpm at 151.7 Bq m−3 . Typical background count rates are 1.2 to 1.5 counts per hour within the energy window of 218 Po. Durridge Company offers two systems (Rad H2 O, Rad Aqua) for the extraction of radon from water samples and measurement with the RAD7 detector. Rad H2 O is designed for the analysis of small water samples (250 ml) with high activities (>400 Bq m−3 ). The air is circulated in a closed cycle through a radon-tight water bottle, containing the sample to extract the radon. The other system (Rad Aqua) is designed for continuous measurements. Sample water is pumped through a gas exchange cylinder, which is connected to the air cycle. Radon outgasses from the water until solubility equilibrium is reached. In both cases the air cycle is connected to the radon alpha detector via a drying unit to remove water vapor. Detailed descriptions of the RAD7 detector as well as the two water extraction procedures are available (Durridge Co., 2000, 2001a, 2001b). T. Kluge et al.: Radon measurment in lakes 1623 Table 1. Different analytical methods and their detection limit. Counting times are typical values for the respective methods and are in part limited by the increasing background from the drying medium, except if a water trap is used. The detection limit is defined as the activity concentration that – using the stated sample size and during the given counting time – produces a background-corrected signal which deviates two standard deviations from zero (i.e., the 1σ uncertainties of the listed values are 50%). Method Rad H2 O Rad H2 O with N2 -purging Rad Aqua Rad Aqua Plus with N2 -purging Rad Aqua Plus with N2 -purging and water trap Sample volume (L) Counting time (min) Detection limit (Bq m−3 ) 0.25 0.25 continuous 12 12 20 60 30 60 240 400 160 10 8 3 The Rad H2 O procedure is suitable for groundwater analyses, but its detection limit is in most cases too high to analyze surface water (typical detection limits achieved for the two standard techniques compared to improvements discussed below are listed in Table 1). In contrast, the Rad Aqua technique is in principle suitable for the detection of groundwater exfiltration into surface waters, but due to the long equilibration times, the measurements in the field are very time consuming. The Rad Aqua method has been used for continuous radon detection in coastal environments in order to investigate submarine groundwater discharge (Burnett et al., 2001; Lambert and Burnett, 2003). In this application, at least 20 min are required to reach equilibrium and up to several hours for the subsequent counting to obtain an acceptable uncertainty, thus a long time has to be spent at each sampling point. In order to be able to measure depth profiles in a reasonable time, several measurement systems have to be run in parallel (Dulaiova et al., 2005). Therefore we searched for an alternative way that provides simple and quick sampling in the field and measurement with adequate precision in the laboratory. We developed a new setup for the sample preparation, which we call Rad Aqua Plus, that combines the advantages of the two standard techniques for our purpose. The method involves discrete samples as in Rad H2 O, which can be measured sequentially in the laboratory with only one detector. The required precision can be reached within reasonable counting times. However, larger (12 l) samples are used, which are taken in low-cost closed polypropylene buckets (diameter 26 cm, height 22.7 cm). The gas extraction from the samples is accomplished by an equilibration procedure as in Rad Aqua, but based on two closed loops (Fig. 1), one for the gas- and the other for the water circulation. The gas loop is connected to the alpha-detector RAD7 and the water circulation to the sample bucket. The water from the closed, airfree bucket is sprayed in a gas-exchange cylinder, in which the gas of the closed gas loop is pumped in counter current. Both loops are driven by pumps. The internal pump of RAD7 with a flow rate of about 1 L min−1 is used for the gas loop. The water cycle is driven by a submersible pump (Barwig, 12V) with a flow rate of about 1.5 L min−1 . Temperaturesensor Gas loop Drystick Drying unit Water loop Pump Rad7 Sample bucket Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the setup consisting of closed water and gas loops, interconnected at the exchanger, where radon is transferred from the water to the gas cycle until equilibrium is reached. The equilibrium partitioning depends on temperature and the volume ratio of the two loops. The radon activity is measured in the gas loop with an alpha spectrometer (RAD7). In order to enable the analysis of low radon activities, special care was taken to reduce the background counting rate. The background caused by the ambient air in the gas loop is unimportant in case of high radon concentrations or the continuous measurement system. In the continuous method, the initial radon activity from the air is gradually removed by equilibration with the through flowing water. In a system with a closed water- and air cycle it is not negligible if the water activity is below 50 Bq m−3 . Typical air activities in the Rhine Valley (Heidelberg) are 2 to 30 Bq m−3 (Levin et al., 2002). Thus, in order to get rid of the air background and to prepare a well defined initial state, the whole system is purged with Rn-free nitrogen. We found that the background can be substantially reduced by flushing the air loop with nitrogen for 10 min prior to each analysis. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1621–1631, 2007 Radon Activity Concentration (Bq/l) 1624 T. Kluge et al.: Radon measurment in lakes 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 0 50 100 Storage Time (h) 150 200 Fig. 2. Test of the tightness of the sampling buckets. Several buckets were filled with the same water and then stored. The results are compared to the decay curve. Furthermore, we observed that the desiccant used to remove humidity from the air loop caused a significant background. In a closed loop containing the CaSO4 -drying unit and the RAD7, the radon signal increased linearly with time up to some tens of counts per hour, even after intensive flushing of the whole system with nitrogen (Kluge, 2005). Using a cold trap instead of the standard drying unit and purging with nitrogen reduces the background to a value of 1.2 to 1.5 counts per hour in the energy window of 218 Po. Detection limits achieved with these modifications are listed in Table 1. For a typical 4 h measurement with the Rad Aqua Plus method a detection limit of 3 Bq m−3 is obtained. At the beginning of the measurement procedure, the gas cycle contains no radon. Then outgassing starts. This process continues until solubility equilibrium between the two phases is reached. Depending on the volume of the gas loop and the water flow rate through the exchange chamber, the equilibration takes 30 min up to several hours (Burnett et al., 2001). In our setup, equilibrium is reached after 40 min at a flow rate of 1.5 l min−1 . The radon extracted from the water samples is measured with the RAD7 radon monitor as a gas phase activity concentration Cgas , which has to be converted to the activity concentration in the water CH2 O , as follows: CH2 O = Cgas   Vgas + α(T ) VH2 O (1) where Vgas and VH2 O are the volumes of the closed air and water loops, respectively, and α(T ) is the temperature dependent partition coefficient (or Ostwald solubility) of radon. An equation for α(T ) is given by Weigel (1978): α(T ) = 0.105 + 0.405 × e−0.0502×T (T in C). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1621–1631, 2007 (2) At room temperature, α is about 0.25, indicating that the volumetric concentration in the gas phase is 4 times higher than in the water phase. The buckets were filled on the lake by lowering a submersible pump to the sampling depth and pumping the water up through a metal tube system. The tubes that are originally designed for SF6 -sampling provide an exact depth determination and prevent contamination (von Rohden equilibrium value of MeCpG steps (,+14 deg.) [31,44]. In comparison, methylation has a significantly lower stability cost when happening at major groove positions, such as 211 and 21 base pair from dyad (mutations 9 and 12), where the roll of the nucleosome bound conformation (+10 deg.) is more compatible with the equilibrium geometry of MeCpG steps. The nucleosome destabilizing effect of cytosine methylation increases with the number of methylated cytosines, following the same position dependence as the single methylations. The multiple-methylation case reveals that each major groove meth- PLOS Computational Biology | 3 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning ylation destabilizes the nucleosome by around 1 kJ/mol (close to the average estimate of 2 kJ/mol obtained for from individual methylation studies), while each minor groove methylation destabilizes it by up to 5 kJ/mol (average free energy as single mutation is around 6 kJ/mol). This energetic position-dependence is the reverse of what was observed in a recent FRET/SAXS study [30]. The differences can be attributed to the use of different ionic conditions and different sequences: a modified Widom-601 sequence of 157 bp, which already contains multiple CpG steps in mixed orientations, and which could assume different positioning due to the introduction of new CpG steps and by effect of the methylation. The analysis of our trajectories reveals a larger root mean square deviation (RMSD) and fluctuation (RMSF; see Figures S2– S3 in Text S1) for the methylated nucleosomes, but failed to detect any systematic change in DNA geometry or in intermolecular DNA-histone energy related to methylation (Fig. S1B, S1C, S4–S6 in Text S1). The hydrophobic effect should favor orientation of the methyl group out from the solvent but this effect alone is not likely to justify the positional dependent stability changes in Figure 2, as the differential solvation of the methyl groups in the bound and unbound states is only in the order of a fraction of a water molecule (Figure S5 in Text S1). We find however, a reasonable correlation between methylation-induced changes in hydrogen bond and stacking interactions of the bases and the change in nucleosome stability (see Figure S6 in Text S1). This finding suggests that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is related to the poorer ability of methylated DNA to fit into the required conformation for DNA in a nucleosome. Changes in the elastic deformation energy between methylated and un-methylated DNA correlate with nucleosomal differential binding free energies To further analyze the idea that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is connected to a worse fit of methylated DNA into the required nucleosome-bound conformation, we computed the elastic energy of the nucleosomal DNA using a harmonic deformation method [36,37,44]. This method provides a rough estimate of the energy required to deform a DNA fiber to adopt the super helical conformation in the nucleosome (full details in Suppl. Information Text S1). As shown in Figure 2, there is an evident correlation between the increase that methylation produces in the elastic deformation energy (DDE def.) and the free energy variation (DDG bind.) computed from MD/TI calculations. Clearly, methylation increases the stiffness of the CpG step [31], raising the energy cost required to wrap DNA around the histone octamers. This extra energy cost will be smaller in regions of high positive roll (naked DNA MeCpG steps have a higher roll than CpG steps [31]) than in regions of high negative roll. Thus, simple elastic considerations explain why methylation is better tolerated when the DNA faces the histones through the major groove (where positive roll is required) that when it faces histones through the minor groove (where negative roll is required). Nucleosome methylation can give rise to nucleosome repositioning We have established that methylation affects the wrapping of DNA in nucleosomes, but how does this translate into chromatin structure? As noted above, accumulation of minor groove methylations strongly destabilizes the nucleosome, and could trigger nucleosome unfolding, or notable changes in positioning or phasing of DNA around the histone core. While accumulation of methylations might be well tolerated if placed in favorable positions, accumulation in unfavorable positions would destabilize the nucleosome, which might trigger changes in chromatin structure. Chromatin could in fact react in two different ways in response to significant levels of methylation in unfavorable positions: i) the DNA could either detach from the histone core, leading to nucleosome eviction or nucleosome repositioning, or ii) the DNA could rotate around the histone core, changing its phase to place MeCpG steps in favorable positions. Both effects are anticipated to alter DNA accessibility and impact gene expression regulation. The sub-microsecond time scale of our MD trajectories of methylated DNAs bound to nucleosomes is not large enough to capture these effects, but clear trends are visible in cases of multiple mutations occurring in unfavorable positions, where unmethylated and methylated DNA sequences are out of phase by around 28 degrees (Figure S7 in Text S1). Due to this repositioning, large or small, DNA could move and the nucleosome structure could assume a more compact and distorted conformation, as detected by Lee and Lee [29], or a slightly open conformation as found in Jimenez-Useche et al. [30]. Using the harmonic deformation method, we additionally predicted the change in stability induced by cytosine methylation for millions of different nucleosomal DNA sequences. Consistently with our calculations, we used two extreme scenarios to prepare our DNA sequences (see Fig. 3): i) all positions where the minor grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps, and ii) all positions where the major grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps. We then computed the elastic energy required to wrap the DNA around the histone proteins in unmethylated and methylated states, and, as expected, observed that methylation disfavors DNA wrapping (Figure 3A). We have rescaled the elastic energy differences with a factor of 0.23 to match the DDG prediction in figure 2B. In agreement with the rest of our results, our analysis confirms that the effect of methylation is position-dependent. In fact, the overall difference between the two extreme methylation scenarios (all-in-minor vs all-in-major) is larger than 60 kJ/mol, the average difference being around 15 kJ/ mol. We have also computed the elastic energy differences for a million sequences with CpG/MeCpG steps positioned at all possible intermediate locations with respect to the position (figure 3B). The large differences between the extreme cases can induce rotations of DNA around the histone core, shifting its phase to allow the placement of the methylated CpG steps facing the histones through the major groove. It is illustrative to compare the magnitude of CpG methylation penalty with sequence dependent differences. Since there are roughly 1.5e88 possible 147 base pairs long sequence combinations (i.e., (4n+4(n/2))/2, n = 147), it is unfeasible to calculate all the possible sequence effects. However, using our elastic model we can provide a range of values based on a reasonably large number of samples. If we consider all possible nucleosomal sequences in the yeast genome (around 12 Mbp), the energy difference between the best and the worst sequence that could form a nucleosome is 0.7 kj/mol per base (a minimum of 1 kJ/mol and maximum of around 1.7 kJ/mol per base, the first best and the last worst sequences are displayed in Table S3 in Text S1). We repeated the same calculation for one million random sequences and we obtained equivalent results. Placing one CpG step every helical turn gives an average energetic difference between minor groove and major groove methylation of 15 kJ/ mol, which translates into ,0.5 kJ/mol per methyl group, 2 kJ/ mol per base for the largest effects. Considering that not all nucleosome base pair steps are likely to be CpG steps, we can conclude that the balance between the destabilization due to CpG methylation and sequence repositioning will depend on the PLOS Computational Biology | 4 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning Figure 3. Methylated and non-methylated DNA elastic deformation energies. (A) Distribution of deformation energies for 147 bplong random DNA sequences with CpG steps positioned every 10 base steps (one helical turn) in minor (red and dark red) and major (light and dark blue) grooves respectively. The energy values were rescaled by the slope of a best-fit straight line of figure 2, which is 0.23, to por la lectura a través de la lectura de la prensa. La educación en los medios las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio adquiere pleno derecho y entidad en la sección sexta titulada «competencias sociales y cívi- técnico de los aparatos. cas» que indica que «los alum- nos deberán ser capaces de juz- gar y tendrán espíritu crítico, lo que supone ser educados en los las programaciones oficiales, ya que, a lo largo de un medios y tener conciencia de su lugar y de su influencia estudio de los textos, los documentalistas del CLEMI en la sociedad». han podido señalar más de una centena de referencias a la educación de los medios en el seno de disciplinas 4. Un entorno positivo como el francés, la historia, la geografía, las lenguas, Si nos atenemos a las cifras, el panorama de la las artes plásticas : trabajos sobre las portadas de educación en medios es muy positivo. Una gran ope- prensa, reflexiones sobre temas mediáticos, análisis de ración de visibilidad como la «Semana de la prensa y publicidad, análisis de imágenes desde todos los ángu- de los medios en la escuela», coordinada por el CLE- los, reflexión sobre las noticias en los países europeos, MI, confirma año tras año, después de 17 convocato- información y opinión rias, el atractivo que ejerce sobre los profesores y los Esta presencia se constata desde la escuela mater- alumnos. Concebida como una gran operación de nal (2 a 6 años) donde, por ejemplo, se le pregunta a complementariedad entre la escuela y los profesiona- los niños más pequeños si saben diferenciar entre un les de los medios, alrededor del aprendizaje ciudada- periódico, un libro, un catálogo, a través de activida- no de la comunicación mediática, este evento moviliza des sensoriales, si saben para qué sirve un cartel, un durante toda una semana un porcentaje elevado de periódico, un cuaderno, un ordenador si son capa- centros escolares que representan un potencial de 4,3 ces de reconocer y distinguir imágenes de origen y de millones de alumnos (cifras de 2006). Basada en el naturaleza distintas. Podríamos continuar con más voluntariado, la semana permite desarrollar activida- ejemplos en todos los niveles de enseñanza y práctica- des más o menos ambiciosas centradas en la introduc- Páginas 43-48 ción de los medios en la vida de la escuela a través de la instalación de kioscos, organización de debates con profesionales y la confección por parte de los alumnos de documentos difundidos en los medios profesionales. Es la ocasión de dar un empujón a la educación en medios y de disfrutarlos. Los medios –un millar en 2006– se asocian de maneras diversas ofreciendo ejemplares de periódicos, acceso a noticias o a imágenes, proponiendo encuentros, permitiendo intervenir a los jóvenes en sus ondas o en sus columnas Esta operación da luz al trabajo de la educación en medios y moviliza a los diferentes participantes en el proyecto. 5. La formación de los docentes La formación es uno de los pilares principales de la educación en los medios. Su función es indispensable ya que no se trata de una disciplina, sino de una enseñanza que se hace sobre la base del voluntariado y del compromiso personal. Se trata de convencer, de mostrar, de interactuar. En primer lugar es necesario incluirla en la formación continua de los docentes, cuyo volumen se ha incrementado desde 1981 con la aparición de una verdadera política de formación continua de personal. Es difícil dar una imagen completa del volumen y del público, pero si nos atenemos a las cifras del CLEMI, hay más de 24.000 profesores que han asistido y se han involucrado durante 2004-05. 5.1. La formación continua En la mayoría de los casos, los profesores reciben su formación en contextos cercanos a su centro de trabajo, o incluso en este mismo. Después de una política centrada en la oferta que hacían los formadores, se valora más positivamente la demanda por parte del profesorado, ya que sólo así será verdaderamente fructífera. Los cursos de formación se repartieron en varias categorías: desde los formatos más tradicionales (cursos, debates, animaciones), hasta actividades de asesoramiento y de acompañamiento, y por supuesto los coloquios que permiten un trabajo en profundidad ya que van acompañados de expertos investigadores y profesionales. Citemos, por ejemplo en 2005, los coloquios del CLEMI-Toulouse sobre el cine documental o el del CLEMI-Dijon sobre «Políticos y medios: ¿connivencia?». Estos coloquios, que forman parte de un trabajo pedagógico regular, reagrupan a los diferentes participantes regionales y nacionales alrededor de grandes temas de la educación en medios y permiten generar nuevos conocimientos de aproximación y una profundización. Páginas 43-48 Hay otro tipo de formación original que se viene desarrollando desde hace menos tiempo, a través de cursos profesionales, como por ejemplo, en el Festival Internacional de Foto-periodismo «Visa para la imagen», en Perpignan. La formación se consolida en el curso, da acceso a las exposiciones, a las conferencias de profesionales y a los grandes debates, pero añade además propuestas pedagógicas y reflexiones didácticas destinadas a los docentes. Estas nuevas modalidades de formación son también consecuencia del agotamiento de la formación tradicional en las regiones. Los contenidos más frecuentes en formación continua conciernen tanto a los temas más clásicos como a los cambios que se están llevando a cabo en las prácticas mediáticas. Así encontramos distintas tendencias para 2004-05: La imagen desde el ángulo de la producción de imágenes animadas, el análisis de la imagen de la información o las imágenes del J.T. La prensa escrita y el periódico escolar. Internet y la información en línea. Medios y educación de los medios. 5.2 La formación inicial La formación inicial está aun en un grado muy ini- cial. El hecho de que la educación en medios no sea una disciplina impide su presencia en los IUFM (Institutos Universitarios de Formación de Maestros) que dan una prioridad absoluta a la didáctica de las disciplinas. En 2003, alrededor de 1.400 cursillistas sobre un total de 30.000 participaron en un momento u otro de un módulo de educación en medios. Estos módulos se ofrecen en función del interés que ese formador encuentra puntualmente y forman parte a menudo de varias disciplinas: documentación, letras, historia-geografía Estamos aún lejos de una política concertada en este dominio. La optativa «Cine-audiovisual» ha entrado desde hace muy poco tiempo en algunos IUFM destinada a obtener un certificado de enseñanza de la opción audiovisual y cine. Internet tiene cabida también en los cursos de formación inicial, recientemente con la aparición de un certificado informático y de Internet para los docentes, dirigido más a constatar competencias personales que a valorar una aptitud para enseñarlos. 6. ¿Y el futuro? El problema del futuro se plantea una vez más por la irrupción de nuevas técnicas y nuevos soportes. La difusión acelerada de lo digital replantea hoy muchas cuestiones relativas a prácticas mediáticas. Muchos Comunicar, 28, 2007 47 Comunicar, 28, 2007 Enrique Martínez-Salanova '2007 para Comunicar 48 trabajos que llevan el rótulo de la educación en medios solicitan una revisión ya que los conceptos cambian. La metodología elaborada en el marco de la educación en medios parece incluso permitir la inclinación de la sociedad de la información hacia una sociedad del conocimiento, como defiende la UNESCO. En Francia, se necesitaría unir las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio técnico de los aparatos. Los avances recientes en el reconocimiento de estos contenidos y las competencias que supondrían podrían permitirlo. Referencias CLEMI/ACADEMIE DE BORDEAUX (Ed.) (2003): Parcours médias au collège: approches disciplinaires et transdisciplinaires. Aquitaine, Sceren-CRDP. GONNET, J. (2001): Education aux médias. Les controverses fécondes. Paris, Hachette Education/CNDP. SAVINO, J.; MARMIESSE, C. et BENSA, F. (2005): L’éducation aux médias de la maternelle au lycée. Direction de l’Enseignement Scolaire. Paris, Ministère de l’Education Nationale, Sceren/CNDP, Témoigner. BEVORT, E. et FREMONT, P. (2001): Médias, violence et education. Paris, CNDP, Actes et rapports pour l’éducation. – fiches pédagogiques, rapports et liens avec les pages régionales/académiques. – Le site «Quai des images» est dédié à l’enseignement du cinéma et de l’audiovisuel. – la rubrique «Côté profs» a une entrée «education aux médias». – Programme européen d’éducation aux risques liés à Internet. dResedfeleexliobnuetsacón Páginas 43-48
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