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The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLI-B4, 2016 XXIII ISPRS Congress, 12–19 July 2016, Prague, Czech Republic A WILDLIFE MONITORING SYSTEM BASED ON TIANDITU AND BEIDOU: IN CASE OF THE TIBETAN ANTELOPE Zhang Hongpinga, *, Huang Weia, Wei Dongb, Jiang Jieb aNational Geomatics Center of China, 28 Lianhuachi West Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China, 100830 bIntegrated Geographic Information Center of Shanxi Province, 136 Yingze Street, Taiyuan. China 03001 Commission IV, WG IVI/5 KEY WORDS: Tianditu, Beidou, GPS,Wildlife Monitoring, Realtime ABSTRACT: Positioning and tracking wildlife is already being an effective way to collect biological information for research and species of wildlife protection. The common technologies of tracking wildlife are divided into several categories, such as radio tracking technology, GPS tracking system, radio frequency identification technology (RFID), and SIM card based technology. Some positive results achieved from these technologies, but there are some problems in location accuracy, price of the system. Taking the case of the protection of the Tibetan antelope, this paper introduces a wildlife monitoring system based on Tianditu and Beidou navigation satellite system. The system consists of two parts: real-time location system and 3D display system. The practical application demonstrates that the system is stable, and data transmission is reliable with lower construction cost, which can improve the capability of national rare wildlife monitoring and protection effectively. 1. INTRODUCTION The Tibetan antelope, as the national first-grade attentive protected species, is mainly distributed over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu and Xinjiang), and is also listed in the U.N. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. For a long time, the Tibetan antelope is acknowledged as the typical indication species to Qinghai-Tibet plateau natural ecosystem, and has become the important object of research among scholars. Tibetan antelopes are of great value in scientific research, ecological balance, even humane and and aesthetic aspects. Therefore, there is a need for tracking and protecting the Tibetan antelope. Nowadays, radio tracking technology, GPS tracking technology, RFID technology, SIM card based tracking technology are the main technologies in the field of wildlife research and protection on international. The Argos tracking system was firstly applied to researching migration rules of Tibetan antelopes in Shaanxi Institute of Zoology from 2007 to 2010, which is built as a satellite communications system by the Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES) of France, NASA and NOAA for data collection and location tracking. But there are many disadvantages such as low frequency and precision of positioning, inconvenience of data acquisition and high cost. In order to restore the routes of migration and giving birth of the Tibetan antelope, a wildlife monitoring system must be developed including global, all-weather, continuous real-time and precision positioning, data acquisition and processing, 3D-Map display and analysis and other This contribution has been peer-reviewed. doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-XLI-B4-259-2016 259 The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLI-B4, 2016 XXIII ISPRS Congress, 12–19 July 2016, Prague, Czech Republic functions, so as to provide scientific basis for the future monitoring and protection of the Tibetan antelope. TIANDITU is the website providing “one-stop” geospatial information services to personal users, enterprises, professional agencies and governments via public networks such as Internet, mobile communication network, etc. It is the public version of the National Platform for Common GeoSpatial Information Services, which is created by National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation of China (NASG) as an important part of the geospatial framework for digital China aims at promoting the geographic information resources sharing, and improving the ability and efficiency for services. into Tianditu 3D display system to show the entire migration, including two parts: Beidou real-time location system for the Tibetan antelope and Tianditu 3D display system. Function interface Map data Beidou satellite system Receiver Tianditu 3D display system Beidou Real- The collar for time location the Tibetan system antelope Figure 1: System overall structure BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is China’s global navigation satellite system which has been developed independently. It is not only equipped global, all-weather, continuous real-time and precision navigation and positioning capabilities, but also has good antijamming and security performance Therefore, a wildlife monitoring system for monitoring and protecting Tibetan antelopes based on Tianditu and Beidou was built. The system is not only achieve real-time monitoring without any blind spot for all day, but also can display the migration routes on the 3D digital map. 2. SYSTEM OUTLINE DESIGN 2.1 System Overall Structure As shown in Figure 1, the system mainly realized the collecting realtime positioning data from the Tibetan antelopes and integrate them Figure 2: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System frame diagram This contribution has been peer-reviewed. doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-XLI-B4-259-2016 260 The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLI-B4, 2016 XXIII ISPRS Congress, 12–19 July 2016, Prague, Czech Republic 2.2 Beidou Real-time Location System For The Tibetan Antelope Beidou real-time location system for the Tibetan antelope is composed of two parts: locating terminals (Beidou collar) and monitoring platform. The locating terminals achieve the functions of location, data acquisition, data distribution, and the monitoring platform, and the monitoring platform is responsible to receive, record, save the data from the locating terminals. Through the low power chip solution with the advantages of fast capture, location, communication and high-efficiency power management, it can reduce the power dissipation, shorten running time, and control standby current, and support up to 18 months to work. As shown in Figure 2, the monitoring platform, composed of Beidou general control, servers, and databases, which is responsible for real-time monitoring and receiving location information from information is saved in standard form in real time, and Tianditu 3D display system can obtain and draw the routes in time. 2.3 Tianditu Three-dimensional Display System Tianditu three-dimensional display system is an important carrier of Tibetan Antelope positioning, tracking and visualization. The system is composed ofthe following modules: a) Map service: realization the map service of images and three dimensional terrain loading, supports both online and offline; b) BeiDou location data loading: analyzing and loading the location data from the Beidou real-time location system which receives coordinates of the Tibetan antelopes. c) Three dimensional browsing: providing functions such as roam, rotation, location with coordinates, and custom flight; d) Terrain analysis: including height, distance and area measurement; e) Analysis of Tibetan antelopes: providing analysis functions of migration path for different populations of Tibetan antelope and distribution of different species of antelope in different periods. The monitoring result of Tibetan antelope is shown in figure 3. Figure 3: Migratory path of Tibetan antelopes 3. KEY TECHNOLOGIES 3.1 Long-term Monitoring of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System in Real-time Tibetan antelopes inhabit Tibet Plateau where there is no public network and location information can’t be sent back to the monitor platform easily, although almost accurate location can be found by GPS and BeiDou passive positioning technique. Problems in monitoring antelope remain unsolved. BeiDou RDSS system can not only provide relatively accurate location information, but also send it back to the monitor platform in real-time through BeiDou satellites. However, since using bi-direction transmission for Beidou RDSS positioning and communication, the standby time is very short (Common Beidou RDSS Terminals standby time is up to 7 days), and the migratory cycle of Tibetan antelopes is about one year. Thus, according to the application scenarios, the functions of BeiDou terminals are simplified to guarantee 18 months’ working time. Using the function of location report to tracking Tibetan antelopes, which reduces working current and time of Beidou modules. In addition, the time and frequency will be pre-set based on the movement patterns of Tibetan antelopes, and the terminal will be in standby state after finishing a given task to make maximum save of energy consumption. This contribution has been peer-reviewed. doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-XLI-B4-259-2016 261 The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLI-B4, 2016 XXIII ISPRS Congress, 12–19 July 2016, Prague, Czech Republic 3.2 Three Dimensional Display and Analysis Although Tianditu supports BeiDou satellites signals importing, map view and virtual roaming, functions still needed to be expanded to meet the system’s demands. Due to the characteristics of the point location data and high frequency, extra functions such as data filter and inquiry are added to draw the routes automatically with the location data at a time of the choosing, which can demonstrate the whole migration trajectory of the Tibetan antelopes with the same ID. The perspective management of three dimensional flight is provided, so that users can edit every view while flying in the scene, and fly along with the migration route, even simulate their migration state. Also, configuration files of the perspectives can be imported or output so as to be connected to TV, and this increases reusability and inheritance of the view. 4. CONCLUSION Beidou Navigation Satellite System, Tibetan Antelope tracking system and Tianditu platform introduced in this paper are all created by China, which effectively improve China’s ability to track and protect rare animals. On the technical side of things, the system makes full use of Beidou bilateral communication technology and has solved the problem to get wildlife’s location in real time. Attempts have been made to prolong working time and duration of Beidou terminals in a bad environment. BeiDou navigation satellite system with fully independent intellectual property, high performance and reliability can successfully replace France’s Argos in the field of wildlife protection, which has absolute advantages in location accuracy, real-time transmission and data security. Tianditu three dimensional display system has provided comprehensive services including data processing, visualization, analysis and custom flight, and it can support researchers to monitor and protect Tibetan antelopes efficiently. The system has been applied in the special program of Tibetan antelopes in CCTV (China Central TeleVision). As Beidou and Tianditu technology develops, the integrated application of them in the field of wildlife protection will be wider and deeper, which will make more contributions to protect the ecological environment of China. REFERENCE WU Xiao min, ZHANG Hong feng, 2011. Resources Regarding Populations of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) and the Status of Its Protection. Chinese Journal of Nature 33(3), 143-148+154+188189. Horback, K. M., Miller, L. J., Andrews, J., Kuczaj, S. A., & Anderson, M. (2012). The effects of GPS collars on African elephant (Loxodonta africana) behavior at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 142(1), 76-81. Zhang xianfeng, Wang Ding, &Yang Jian,etc(1996). Study on Radio-Tracking Finless porpoise Neophocaena Phocaenoides, At the Yangtze River. Acta Ecologica Sinica 16(5), pp, 490-496. Dyo, V., Ellwood, S. A., Macdonald, D. W., Markham, A., Mascolo, C., Pásztor, B., . & Yousef, K. (2010, November). Evolution and sustainability of a wildlife monitoring sensor network. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (pp. 127-140). ACM. Dyo, V., Ellwood, S. A., Macdonald, D. W., Markham, A., Trigoni, N., Wohlers, R., . & Yousef, K. (2012). WILDSENSING: Design and deployment of a sustainable sensor network for wildlife monitoring. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN), 8(4), 29. This contribution has been peer-reviewed. doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-XLI-B4-259-2016 262 equilibrium value of MeCpG steps (,+14 deg.) [31,44]. In comparison, methylation has a significantly lower stability cost when happening at major groove positions, such as 211 and 21 base pair from dyad (mutations 9 and 12), where the roll of the nucleosome bound conformation (+10 deg.) is more compatible with the equilibrium geometry of MeCpG steps. The nucleosome destabilizing effect of cytosine methylation increases with the number of methylated cytosines, following the same position dependence as the single methylations. The multiple-methylation case reveals that each major groove meth- PLOS Computational Biology | www.ploscompbiol.org 3 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning ylation destabilizes the nucleosome by around 1 kJ/mol (close to the average estimate of 2 kJ/mol obtained for from individual methylation studies), while each minor groove methylation destabilizes it by up to 5 kJ/mol (average free energy as single mutation is around 6 kJ/mol). This energetic position-dependence is the reverse of what was observed in a recent FRET/SAXS study [30]. The differences can be attributed to the use of different ionic conditions and different sequences: a modified Widom-601 sequence of 157 bp, which already contains multiple CpG steps in mixed orientations, and which could assume different positioning due to the introduction of new CpG steps and by effect of the methylation. The analysis of our trajectories reveals a larger root mean square deviation (RMSD) and fluctuation (RMSF; see Figures S2– S3 in Text S1) for the methylated nucleosomes, but failed to detect any systematic change in DNA geometry or in intermolecular DNA-histone energy related to methylation (Fig. S1B, S1C, S4–S6 in Text S1). The hydrophobic effect should favor orientation of the methyl group out from the solvent but this effect alone is not likely to justify the positional dependent stability changes in Figure 2, as the differential solvation of the methyl groups in the bound and unbound states is only in the order of a fraction of a water molecule (Figure S5 in Text S1). We find however, a reasonable correlation between methylation-induced changes in hydrogen bond and stacking interactions of the bases and the change in nucleosome stability (see Figure S6 in Text S1). This finding suggests that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is related to the poorer ability of methylated DNA to fit into the required conformation for DNA in a nucleosome. Changes in the elastic deformation energy between methylated and un-methylated DNA correlate with nucleosomal differential binding free energies To further analyze the idea that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is connected to a worse fit of methylated DNA into the required nucleosome-bound conformation, we computed the elastic energy of the nucleosomal DNA using a harmonic deformation method [36,37,44]. This method provides a rough estimate of the energy required to deform a DNA fiber to adopt the super helical conformation in the nucleosome (full details in Suppl. Information Text S1). As shown in Figure 2, there is an evident correlation between the increase that methylation produces in the elastic deformation energy (DDE def.) and the free energy variation (DDG bind.) computed from MD/TI calculations. Clearly, methylation increases the stiffness of the CpG step [31], raising the energy cost required to wrap DNA around the histone octamers. This extra energy cost will be smaller in regions of high positive roll (naked DNA MeCpG steps have a higher roll than CpG steps [31]) than in regions of high negative roll. Thus, simple elastic considerations explain why methylation is better tolerated when the DNA faces the histones through the major groove (where positive roll is required) that when it faces histones through the minor groove (where negative roll is required). Nucleosome methylation can give rise to nucleosome repositioning We have established that methylation affects the wrapping of DNA in nucleosomes, but how does this translate into chromatin structure? As noted above, accumulation of minor groove methylations strongly destabilizes the nucleosome, and could trigger nucleosome unfolding, or notable changes in positioning or phasing of DNA around the histone core. While accumulation of methylations might be well tolerated if placed in favorable positions, accumulation in unfavorable positions would destabilize the nucleosome, which might trigger changes in chromatin structure. Chromatin could in fact react in two different ways in response to significant levels of methylation in unfavorable positions: i) the DNA could either detach from the histone core, leading to nucleosome eviction or nucleosome repositioning, or ii) the DNA could rotate around the histone core, changing its phase to place MeCpG steps in favorable positions. Both effects are anticipated to alter DNA accessibility and impact gene expression regulation. The sub-microsecond time scale of our MD trajectories of methylated DNAs bound to nucleosomes is not large enough to capture these effects, but clear trends are visible in cases of multiple mutations occurring in unfavorable positions, where unmethylated and methylated DNA sequences are out of phase by around 28 degrees (Figure S7 in Text S1). Due to this repositioning, large or small, DNA could move and the nucleosome structure could assume a more compact and distorted conformation, as detected by Lee and Lee [29], or a slightly open conformation as found in Jimenez-Useche et al. [30]. Using the harmonic deformation method, we additionally predicted the change in stability induced by cytosine methylation for millions of different nucleosomal DNA sequences. Consistently with our calculations, we used two extreme scenarios to prepare our DNA sequences (see Fig. 3): i) all positions where the minor grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps, and ii) all positions where the major grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps. We then computed the elastic energy required to wrap the DNA around the histone proteins in unmethylated and methylated states, and, as expected, observed that methylation disfavors DNA wrapping (Figure 3A). We have rescaled the elastic energy differences with a factor of 0.23 to match the DDG prediction in figure 2B. In agreement with the rest of our results, our analysis confirms that the effect of methylation is position-dependent. In fact, the overall difference between the two extreme methylation scenarios (all-in-minor vs all-in-major) is larger than 60 kJ/mol, the average difference being around 15 kJ/ mol. We have also computed the elastic energy differences for a million sequences with CpG/MeCpG steps positioned at all possible intermediate locations with respect to the position (figure 3B). The large differences between the extreme cases can induce rotations of DNA around the histone core, shifting its phase to allow the placement of the methylated CpG steps facing the histones through the major groove. It is illustrative to compare the magnitude of CpG methylation penalty with sequence dependent differences. Since there are roughly 1.5e88 possible 147 base pairs long sequence combinations (i.e., (4n+4(n/2))/2, n = 147), it is unfeasible to calculate all the possible sequence effects. However, using our elastic model we can provide a range of values based on a reasonably large number of samples. If we consider all possible nucleosomal sequences in the yeast genome (around 12 Mbp), the energy difference between the best and the worst sequence that could form a nucleosome is 0.7 kj/mol per base (a minimum of 1 kJ/mol and maximum of around 1.7 kJ/mol per base, the first best and the last worst sequences are displayed in Table S3 in Text S1). We repeated the same calculation for one million random sequences and we obtained equivalent results. Placing one CpG step every helical turn gives an average energetic difference between minor groove and major groove methylation of 15 kJ/ mol, which translates into ,0.5 kJ/mol per methyl group, 2 kJ/ mol per base for the largest effects. Considering that not all nucleosome base pair steps are likely to be CpG steps, we can conclude that the balance between the destabilization due to CpG methylation and sequence repositioning will depend on the PLOS Computational Biology | www.ploscompbiol.org 4 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning Figure 3. Methylated and non-methylated DNA elastic deformation energies. (A) Distribution of deformation energies for 147 bplong random DNA sequences with CpG steps positioned every 10 base steps (one helical turn) in minor (red and dark red) and major (light and dark blue) grooves respectively. The energy values were rescaled by the slope of a best-fit straight line of figure 2, which is 0.23, to por la lectura a través de la lectura de la prensa. La educación en los medios las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio adquiere pleno derecho y entidad en la sección sexta titulada «competencias sociales y cívi- técnico de los aparatos. cas» que indica que «los alum- nos deberán ser capaces de juz- gar y tendrán espíritu crítico, lo que supone ser educados en los las programaciones oficiales, ya que, a lo largo de un medios y tener conciencia de su lugar y de su influencia estudio de los textos, los documentalistas del CLEMI en la sociedad». han podido señalar más de una centena de referencias a la educación de los medios en el seno de disciplinas 4. Un entorno positivo como el francés, la historia, la geografía, las lenguas, Si nos atenemos a las cifras, el panorama de la las artes plásticas : trabajos sobre las portadas de educación en medios es muy positivo. Una gran ope- prensa, reflexiones sobre temas mediáticos, análisis de ración de visibilidad como la «Semana de la prensa y publicidad, análisis de imágenes desde todos los ángu- de los medios en la escuela», coordinada por el CLE- los, reflexión sobre las noticias en los países europeos, MI, confirma año tras año, después de 17 convocato- información y opinión rias, el atractivo que ejerce sobre los profesores y los Esta presencia se constata desde la escuela mater- alumnos. Concebida como una gran operación de nal (2 a 6 años) donde, por ejemplo, se le pregunta a complementariedad entre la escuela y los profesiona- los niños más pequeños si saben diferenciar entre un les de los medios, alrededor del aprendizaje ciudada- periódico, un libro, un catálogo, a través de activida- no de la comunicación mediática, este evento moviliza des sensoriales, si saben para qué sirve un cartel, un durante toda una semana un porcentaje elevado de periódico, un cuaderno, un ordenador si son capa- centros escolares que representan un potencial de 4,3 ces de reconocer y distinguir imágenes de origen y de millones de alumnos (cifras de 2006). Basada en el naturaleza distintas. Podríamos continuar con más voluntariado, la semana permite desarrollar activida- ejemplos en todos los niveles de enseñanza y práctica- des más o menos ambiciosas centradas en la introduc- Páginas 43-48 ción de los medios en la vida de la escuela a través de la instalación de kioscos, organización de debates con profesionales y la confección por parte de los alumnos de documentos difundidos en los medios profesionales. Es la ocasión de dar un empujón a la educación en medios y de disfrutarlos. Los medios –un millar en 2006– se asocian de maneras diversas ofreciendo ejemplares de periódicos, acceso a noticias o a imágenes, proponiendo encuentros, permitiendo intervenir a los jóvenes en sus ondas o en sus columnas Esta operación da luz al trabajo de la educación en medios y moviliza a los diferentes participantes en el proyecto. 5. La formación de los docentes La formación es uno de los pilares principales de la educación en los medios. Su función es indispensable ya que no se trata de una disciplina, sino de una enseñanza que se hace sobre la base del voluntariado y del compromiso personal. Se trata de convencer, de mostrar, de interactuar. En primer lugar es necesario incluirla en la formación continua de los docentes, cuyo volumen se ha incrementado desde 1981 con la aparición de una verdadera política de formación continua de personal. Es difícil dar una imagen completa del volumen y del público, pero si nos atenemos a las cifras del CLEMI, hay más de 24.000 profesores que han asistido y se han involucrado durante 2004-05. 5.1. La formación continua En la mayoría de los casos, los profesores reciben su formación en contextos cercanos a su centro de trabajo, o incluso en este mismo. Después de una política centrada en la oferta que hacían los formadores, se valora más positivamente la demanda por parte del profesorado, ya que sólo así será verdaderamente fructífera. Los cursos de formación se repartieron en varias categorías: desde los formatos más tradicionales (cursos, debates, animaciones), hasta actividades de asesoramiento y de acompañamiento, y por supuesto los coloquios que permiten un trabajo en profundidad ya que van acompañados de expertos investigadores y profesionales. Citemos, por ejemplo en 2005, los coloquios del CLEMI-Toulouse sobre el cine documental o el del CLEMI-Dijon sobre «Políticos y medios: ¿connivencia?». Estos coloquios, que forman parte de un trabajo pedagógico regular, reagrupan a los diferentes participantes regionales y nacionales alrededor de grandes temas de la educación en medios y permiten generar nuevos conocimientos de aproximación y una profundización. Páginas 43-48 Hay otro tipo de formación original que se viene desarrollando desde hace menos tiempo, a través de cursos profesionales, como por ejemplo, en el Festival Internacional de Foto-periodismo «Visa para la imagen», en Perpignan. La formación se consolida en el curso, da acceso a las exposiciones, a las conferencias de profesionales y a los grandes debates, pero añade además propuestas pedagógicas y reflexiones didácticas destinadas a los docentes. Estas nuevas modalidades de formación son también consecuencia del agotamiento de la formación tradicional en las regiones. Los contenidos más frecuentes en formación continua conciernen tanto a los temas más clásicos como a los cambios que se están llevando a cabo en las prácticas mediáticas. Así encontramos distintas tendencias para 2004-05: La imagen desde el ángulo de la producción de imágenes animadas, el análisis de la imagen de la información o las imágenes del J.T. La prensa escrita y el periódico escolar. Internet y la información en línea. Medios y educación de los medios. 5.2 La formación inicial La formación inicial está aun en un grado muy ini- cial. El hecho de que la educación en medios no sea una disciplina impide su presencia en los IUFM (Institutos Universitarios de Formación de Maestros) que dan una prioridad absoluta a la didáctica de las disciplinas. En 2003, alrededor de 1.400 cursillistas sobre un total de 30.000 participaron en un momento u otro de un módulo de educación en medios. Estos módulos se ofrecen en función del interés que ese formador encuentra puntualmente y forman parte a menudo de varias disciplinas: documentación, letras, historia-geografía Estamos aún lejos de una política concertada en este dominio. La optativa «Cine-audiovisual» ha entrado desde hace muy poco tiempo en algunos IUFM destinada a obtener un certificado de enseñanza de la opción audiovisual y cine. Internet tiene cabida también en los cursos de formación inicial, recientemente con la aparición de un certificado informático y de Internet para los docentes, dirigido más a constatar competencias personales que a valorar una aptitud para enseñarlos. 6. ¿Y el futuro? El problema del futuro se plantea una vez más por la irrupción de nuevas técnicas y nuevos soportes. La difusión acelerada de lo digital replantea hoy muchas cuestiones relativas a prácticas mediáticas. Muchos Comunicar, 28, 2007 47 Comunicar, 28, 2007 Enrique Martínez-Salanova '2007 para Comunicar 48 trabajos que llevan el rótulo de la educación en medios solicitan una revisión ya que los conceptos cambian. La metodología elaborada en el marco de la educación en medios parece incluso permitir la inclinación de la sociedad de la información hacia una sociedad del conocimiento, como defiende la UNESCO. En Francia, se necesitaría unir las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio técnico de los aparatos. Los avances recientes en el reconocimiento de estos contenidos y las competencias que supondrían podrían permitirlo. Referencias CLEMI/ACADEMIE DE BORDEAUX (Ed.) (2003): Parcours médias au collège: approches disciplinaires et transdisciplinaires. Aquitaine, Sceren-CRDP. GONNET, J. (2001): Education aux médias. Les controverses fécondes. Paris, Hachette Education/CNDP. SAVINO, J.; MARMIESSE, C. et BENSA, F. (2005): L’éducation aux médias de la maternelle au lycée. Direction de l’Enseignement Scolaire. Paris, Ministère de l’Education Nationale, Sceren/CNDP, Témoigner. BEVORT, E. et FREMONT, P. (2001): Médias, violence et education. Paris, CNDP, Actes et rapports pour l’éducation. – www.clemi.org: fiches pédagogiques, rapports et liens avec les pages régionales/académiques. – www.ac-nancy-metz.fr/cinemav/quai.html: Le site «Quai des images» est dédié à l’enseignement du cinéma et de l’audiovisuel. – www.france5.fr/education: la rubrique «Côté profs» a une entrée «education aux médias». – www.educaunet.org: Programme européen d’éducation aux risques liés à Internet. dResedfeleexliobnuetsacón Páginas 43-48
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