Isolation and characterization of a single-stranded DNA virus infecting the marine diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11 isolated from western Japan.

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Isolation and Characterization of a Single-Stranded DNA Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Chaetoceros sp. Strain SS628-11 Isolated from Western JAPAN Kei Kimura1,2, Yuji Tomaru1* 1 National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima, Japan, 2 Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan Abstract Diatoms are significant organisms for primary production in the earth’s aquatic environment. Hence, their dynamics are an important focus area in current studies. Viruses are a great concern as potential factors of diatom mortality, along with other physical, chemical, and biological factors. We isolated and characterized a new diatom virus (Csp07DNAV) that lyses the marine planktonic diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11. This paper examines the physiological, morphological, and genomic characteristics of Csp07DNAV. The virus was isolated from a surface water sample that was collected at Hiroshima Bay, Japan. It was icosahedral, had a diameter of 34 nm, and accumulated in the nuclei of host cells. Rod-shaped virus particles also coexisted in the host nuclei. The latent period and burst size were estimated to be ,12 h and 29 infectious units per host cell, respectively. Csp07DNAV had a closed circular single-stranded DNA genome (5,552 nucleotides), which included a double-stranded region and 3 open reading frames. The monophyly of Csp07DNAV and other Bacilladnavirus group single-stranded DNA viruses was supported by phylogenetic analysis that was based on the amino acid sequence of each virus protein. On the basis of these results, we considered Csp07DNAV to be a new member of the genus Bacilladnavirus. Citation: Kimura K, Tomaru Y (2013) Isolation and Characterization of a Single-Stranded DNA Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Chaetoceros sp. Strain SS628-11 Isolated from Western JAPAN. PLoS ONE 8(12): e82013. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082013 Editor: Darren P. Martin, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, South Africa Received September 11, 2013; Accepted October 28, 2013; Published December 17, 2013 Copyright: ß 2013 Kimura, Tomaru. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This study was supported by Research Fellowships for Young Scientists and Grants-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) (22688016) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: based on the deduced amino acid sequence of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains strongly supported the monophyly of these 3 viruses with a bootstrap value of 100% [10]. Seven ssDNA viruses that infect the centric diatom Chaetoceros spp. and the pennate diatom Thalassionema have been isolated: C. salsugineum DNA virus (CsalDNAV, previously reported as CsNIV) [13], C. debilis DNA virus (CdebDNAV) [14], C. tenuissimus DNA virus (CtenDNAV) [15], C. lorenzianus DNA virus (ClorDNAV) [16], C. sp. strain TG07-C28 DNA virus (Csp05DNAV) [17], C. setoensis DNA virus (CsetDNAV) (unpublished), and Thalassionema nitzschioides DNA virus (TnitDNAV) [11]. Two other diatom viruses, CspNIV and CwNIV, infect C. cf. gracilis [6] and C. cf. wighamii [18], respectively, but their nucleic acid types are still unknown. All these diatom viruses have a diameter of 32–38 nm and specifically lyse their respective host diatom species. Although knowledge on diatom viruses has gradually accumulated, more virus isolations and characterizations are required for further understanding diatom host-virus systems that exist in nature. Moreover, the phylogenetic relationships among viruses must be clarified to understand their evolution in the ocean. In the present study, we have introduced a new ssDNA diatom virus that infects C. sp. strain SS628-11, which was isolated from Hiroshima Bay, Japan. In addition, we have performed phylogenetic analysis of ssDNA viruses that infect diatoms. Introduction Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) account for over 40% of the total marine primary biomass in the oceans and generate most of the organic matter that serves as food for aquatic organisms [1,2]. Among them, the genus Chaetoceros is a major taxonomic group in the case of coastal oceans and approximately 400 species have been described in this genus. The dynamics of diatoms, including Chaetoceros, is an important focus area for marine ecology researchers because most diatoms play essential roles as primary photosynthetic producers in various marine environments [3–5]. Additionally, several Chaetoceros species are harmful to aquaculture, e.g., mortality in caged salmon and damage to the seaweed laver Porphyra yezoensis. Recently, several studies reported that the dynamics of diatoms are significantly affected by viruses as well as by diverse physical, chemical, and biological factors [6,7]. Diatom viruses are classified into 2 groups: single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses. To date, 5 different species of diatom ssRNA viruses have been reported: Rhizosolenia setigera RNA virus (RsetRNAV) [8], Chaetoceros tenuissimus RNA virus (CtenRNAV) [9], C. socialis f. radians RNA virus (CsfrRNAV) [10], Asterionellopsis glacialis RNA virus (AglaRNAV) [11], and C. sp. strain SS08-C03 RNA virus (Csp02RNAV) [12]. These viruses harbor an ssRNA genome with two ORFs (polyprotein genes) that encode putative replication-related proteins and capsid proteins. Phylogenetic analysis PLOS ONE | 1 December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e82013 New ssDNA Virus That Infects Chaetoceros lysate in the well with the highest dilution in the second assay by filtration through a 0.1-mm polycarbonate membrane filter (Nuclepore), after which the lysate was transferred to an exponentially growing host culture. Bacterial contamination of each lysate was examined using epifluorescence microscopy after staining with SYBR-Gold (Life Technologies, CA, USA). Briefly, the lysate was fixed with 1% glutaraldehyde and a 1.061024 dilution of commercial SYBR-Gold stock was added to each fixed sample. The stained samples were filtered through a polycarbonate membrane filter (pore size, 0.2 mm; Nuclepore; Whatman, Kent, UK). Subsequently, the filters were mounted on glass slides with a drop of low-fluorescence immersion oil and then covered with another drop of immersion oil and a cover slip. The slides were viewed at a magnification of 1,0006with an Olympus BX50 epifluorescence microscope (excitation, 470–490 nm; emission, 510–550 nm; dichroic mirror, 505 nm). The resultant axenic lysate was referred to as being a clonal virus (Csp07DNAV) suspension. Materials and Methods Algal cultures and growth conditions The axenic clonal algal strain C. sp. SS628-11 (Fig. 1) was isolated from surface water at landing bridge of the National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (FEIS) (34u27.5259N, 132u26.6539E) in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, on June 28, 2011. Algal cultures were grown at 15uC in modified SWM3 medium that was enriched with 2 nM Na2SeO3 [19] under a 12/12-h light-dark cycle of ca. 110–150 mmol of photons m22Ns21 by using cool white fluorescent illumination. No specific permits were required for the described field studies, as the location is not privately-owned or protected in any way, and the field studies did not involve endangered or protected species. Virus isolation Surface water samples were obtained as described above. The samples were stored at 220uC until analysis. The water samples were filtered through 0.2-mm Dismic-25cs filters (Advantec Toyo, Tokyo, Japan) to remove eukaryotic microorganisms and most bacteria. An aliquot (0.5 mL) of the filtrate was inoculated into an exponentially growing C. sp. SS628-11 culture (1 mL), and the cell suspension was then incubated at 20uC by using the lighting conditions described above. Algal cultures that were inoculated with SWM3 served as controls. A C. sp. SS628-11 culture that was inoculated with the filtrate exhibited inhibition of algal growth at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi). Cell conditions were observed using an inverted optical microscope (Ti-U; Nikon, Tokyo, Japan). We cloned the pathogen that was responsible for inhibiting the algal growth through 2 extinction-dilution cycles [20,21] by using lysed cultures of C. sp. SS628-11. Briefly, the algal lysate was diluted in modified SWM3 medium over a series of 10-fold dilution steps. Aliquots (100 mL) from each dilution step were added to 8 wells of a 96-well flat-bottom plate (Falcon; Becton, Dickinson and Company, NJ, USA) that contained 150 mL of an exponentially growing host culture. Subsequently, the algal lysate in the well with the highest dilution in the first assay was carried over to the second extinction dilution cycle. The resultant lysate in the final end-point dilution was used as a clonal lysate, for which the probability of the presence of 2 or more viruses (i.e., failure in cloning) was estimated to be ,0.0106. Contaminating bacteria were removed from each Host range The interspecies host specificity of the virus Csp07DNAV was tested by the addition of 5% (v/v) aliquots of fresh lysate that had been passed through 0.2-mm filters (Nuclepore) into duplicate cultures of 17 exponentially growing clonal algal strains: C. cf. affinis, C. debilis, C. lorenzianus, C. tenuissimus 2-6, C. tenuissimus 2-10, C. setoensis, C. socialis f. radians, C. sp. SS628-11, C. sp. TG07-C28, C. sp. SS08-C03, Eucampia zodiacus, Asterionellopsis glacialis, Thalassiosira rotula (Bacillariophyceae), Teleaulax amphioxeia (Cryptophyceae), Heterocapsa circularisquama, Karenia mikimotoi (Dinophyceae), and Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae). Diatoms were cultured at 15uC under the conditions that were described above and the other cultures were maintained at 20uC. Growth and evidence of lysis were monitored in each algal culture by using optical microscopy and were compared with those in control cultures that had been inoculated with SWM3. Cultures that were not lysed at 14 dpi were considered to be unsuitable hosts for the pathogen. Virus purification A 500-mL exponentially growing C. sp. SS628-11 culture was inoculated with 5 mL of the virus suspension and lysed. The lysate was passed through 0.4-mm polycarbonate Nuclepore filters (Isopore, Merk, Darmstadt, Germany) to remove cellular debris. Polyethylene glycol 6,000 (Wako Pure Chemical Industries Ltd., Osaka, Japan) was added to the filtrate to achieve a final concentration of 10% (wt/vol), and the suspension was stored at 4uC in the dark overnight. After centrifugation at 57,0006 g at 4uC for 1.5 h, the pellet was washed with 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) and added to an equal volume of chloroform. After vigorous vortexing, the suspension was centrifuged at 2,2006 g for 20 min at room temperature to remove the chloroform. The water phase was collected and ultracentrifuged at 217,0006 g for 4 h at 4uC to collect the virus particles. The virus particles were resuspended in 300 mL of ultrapure water, (i.e., virus suspension) and were used for viral genome and protein analyses. Transmission electron microscopy An exponentially growing culture of C. sp. SS628-11 was inoculated with Csp07DNAV suspension (5% v/v). As a control, a C. sp. SS628-11 culture was inoculated with autoclaved culture medium SWM3. An aliquot of the cell suspension was sampled at 1 dpi. C. sp. SS628-11 cells were fixed with 3% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in SWM3 for 2 h at 4uC. The cells were collected by centrifugation at 2,5006 g for 5 min at 4uC. After the cell pellets were washed with SWM3, they were Figure 1. Cultures and micrographs of Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11 isolated from surface water in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. (A) Cultures without inoculation of Csp07DNAV. (B) Cultures with inoculation of Csp07DNAV at 48 h post-inoculation (hpi). (C) Optical micrograph of an intact cell. (D) Optical micrograph of a Csp07DNAVinoculated cell at 48 hpi. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082013.g001 PLOS ONE | 2 December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e82013 New ssDNA Virus That Infects Chaetoceros embedded into agarose (Type IX-A, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO) and then post-fixed with 2% OsO4 for 2 h on ice. Then, the samples were washed, prestained with 4% uranyl acetate, dehydrated by using an acetone series, and embedded in Spurr’s resin (Nisshin EM, Tokyo, Japan). Ultrathin sections were prepared using Ultracut R (Leica, Wetzlar, Germany) and stained with 4% uranyl acetate and 3% lead citrate. The sections were observed under a JEOL JEM-1010 transmission electron microscope (TEM; JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). Csp07DNAV particles that were negatively stained with uranyl acetate were also observed using TEM. Briefly, the fresh lysate of host culture inoculated with Csp07DNAV was concentrated using an Amicon Ultra-15 30K (Merck) and then mounted on a grid (no. 780111630; Nisshin EM) for 30 s. Excess water was removed using a filter paper (no. 2; Advantec). Subsequently, 4% uranyl acetate was applied for 10 s and any excess dye was removed using a filter paper. After drying the grid, negatively stained Csp07DNAV particles were observed under a TEM at an acceleration voltage of 80 kV. Particle diameters were estimated from the negatively stained images. acid samples prepared were electrophoresed on 1.5% SeaKem Gold Agarose gel at 50 V for 1 h. The nucleic acids were visualized using SYBR-Gold staining (Life Technologies). Viral Genome sequencing Viral genome DNA sequencing was detected from extracted Csp07DNAV DNA by using GS FLX (Roche, Basel, Schweiz) according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Hokkaido System Science, Sapporo, Japan). The sequence data were automatically assembled using GS De Novo Assembler v2.3 (Roche) and manually reassembled with Sequencher v4.9 (Hitachi Soft, Tokyo, Japan). Putative open reading frames were identified using ORF Finder ( Automated comparisons of the Csp07DNAV sequence with genetic databases were performed using the Basic Local Alignment Research Tool (BLAST) program. The S1 nuclease-resistant fragment (,1 kbp) was purified using a QIAquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen). It was then blunt ended using T4 DNA Polymerase (TaKaRa Bio) and ligated into the pUC 118 DNA Hin c II/BAP vector (TaKaRa Bio). Subsequently, it was sequenced using an ABI PRISM 3730xl DNA Analyzer (Life Technologies). Viral Nucleic acids RNA and DNA were extracted from the viral pellet by using an RNeasy Plus Mini Kit and a DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, , Valencia, CA), respectively. Each nucleic acid sample was electrophoresed on denatured agarose gels (1.5%; SeaKemH Gold Agarose; TaKaRa Bio, Otsu, Japan) at 50 V for 1 h. The nucleic acids were visualized using SYBR-Gold staining (Life Technologies). Aliquots (4 ml) of the nucleic acid solution were digested with DNase I (0.5 UNml21; Takara Bio) at 37uC for 1 h, incubated with RNase A (0.025 mgNml21; Nippon Gene) at 37uC for 1 h, and digested with S1 nuclease (0.7 UNml21; Takara Bio) at 23uC for 15 min or boiled at 100uC for 5 min. Nucleic acid extracts that were kept on ice without treatment served as controls. The nucleic Csp07DNAV proteins One hundred microliters of virus suspension was mixed with the same volume of denaturing sample buffer (62.5 mM Tris-HCl, 5% 2-mercaptoethanol, 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], 20% glycerol, and 0.005% bromophenol blue) and boiled for 5 min. The proteins were then separated using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) (12% polyacrylamide gel, 40 mA, 50 min) by employing a mini-Protean system (Bio-Rad, Richmond, CA). The proteins were visualized by using Coomassie brilliant blue stain. Precision Plus Protein Standards (Bio-Rad) were used for size calibration. Table 1. Infection Specificities of Csp07DNAV against 17 strains of marine phytoplankton. Family Species Strain code Temperature Strains lysed by CtenDNAV06 Bacillariophyceae Chaetoceros sp. SS628-11 20 ++ Chaetoceros sp. TG07-C28 15 2 Chaetoceros sp. SS08-C03 15 2 Chaetoceros cf. affinis IT07-C40 15 2 C. debilis Ch48 15 2 C. lorenzianus IT-DiaD51 15 2 C. tenuissimus 2-6 15 2 C. tenuissimus 2-10 15 2 C. setoensis IT07-C11 15 2 C. socialis cf. radians L-4 15 2 Eucampia zodiacus EzB 15 2 Asterionellopsis glacialis Ast K25 15 2 Thalassiosira rotula It-Dia1 15 2 Cryptophyceae Teleaulax amphioxeia Tel5W4 20 2 Dinophyceae Heterocapsa circularisquama HU9433-P 20 2 Karenia mikimotoi KmY7 20 2 Raphidophyceae Heterosigma akashiwo HaSS12-1 20 2 +: lysed, 2: not lysed. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082013.t001 PLOS ONE | 3 December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e82013 New ssDNA Virus That Infects Chaetoceros Figure 3. Nucleic acids analysis of Csp07DNAVgenome. (A) Csp07DNAV genome. Extracts of DNA (lane 1) and RNA (lane 2). (B) Nucleic acids of Csp07DNAV without treatment (lane 1), 100uC for 5 min (lane 2), treated with DNase I (lane 3), RNase A (lane 4), and S1 nuclease (lane 5). The samples were electrophoresed on a formaldehyde-agarose gel. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082013.g003 AB781284; and C. sp. SS628-11 DNA virus (Csp07DNAV), AB844272. Host 18s rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of host diatoms DNAs were extracted from C. lorenzianus strain IT-Dia51, Chaetoceros sp. strain TG07-C28, C. sp. strain SS628-11, C. tenuissimus strain 2-10, C. setoensis strain IT07-C11 and C. debilis strain Ch48 by using a DNeasy Plant Mini Kit, and 1 ml each samples were added to 19 equilibrium value of MeCpG steps (,+14 deg.) [31,44]. In comparison, methylation has a significantly lower stability cost when happening at major groove positions, such as 211 and 21 base pair from dyad (mutations 9 and 12), where the roll of the nucleosome bound conformation (+10 deg.) is more compatible with the equilibrium geometry of MeCpG steps. The nucleosome destabilizing effect of cytosine methylation increases with the number of methylated cytosines, following the same position dependence as the single methylations. The multiple-methylation case reveals that each major groove meth- PLOS Computational Biology | 3 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning ylation destabilizes the nucleosome by around 1 kJ/mol (close to the average estimate of 2 kJ/mol obtained for from individual methylation studies), while each minor groove methylation destabilizes it by up to 5 kJ/mol (average free energy as single mutation is around 6 kJ/mol). This energetic position-dependence is the reverse of what was observed in a recent FRET/SAXS study [30]. The differences can be attributed to the use of different ionic conditions and different sequences: a modified Widom-601 sequence of 157 bp, which already contains multiple CpG steps in mixed orientations, and which could assume different positioning due to the introduction of new CpG steps and by effect of the methylation. The analysis of our trajectories reveals a larger root mean square deviation (RMSD) and fluctuation (RMSF; see Figures S2– S3 in Text S1) for the methylated nucleosomes, but failed to detect any systematic change in DNA geometry or in intermolecular DNA-histone energy related to methylation (Fig. S1B, S1C, S4–S6 in Text S1). The hydrophobic effect should favor orientation of the methyl group out from the solvent but this effect alone is not likely to justify the positional dependent stability changes in Figure 2, as the differential solvation of the methyl groups in the bound and unbound states is only in the order of a fraction of a water molecule (Figure S5 in Text S1). We find however, a reasonable correlation between methylation-induced changes in hydrogen bond and stacking interactions of the bases and the change in nucleosome stability (see Figure S6 in Text S1). This finding suggests that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is related to the poorer ability of methylated DNA to fit into the required conformation for DNA in a nucleosome. Changes in the elastic deformation energy between methylated and un-methylated DNA correlate with nucleosomal differential binding free energies To further analyze the idea that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is connected to a worse fit of methylated DNA into the required nucleosome-bound conformation, we computed the elastic energy of the nucleosomal DNA using a harmonic deformation method [36,37,44]. This method provides a rough estimate of the energy required to deform a DNA fiber to adopt the super helical conformation in the nucleosome (full details in Suppl. Information Text S1). As shown in Figure 2, there is an evident correlation between the increase that methylation produces in the elastic deformation energy (DDE def.) and the free energy variation (DDG bind.) computed from MD/TI calculations. Clearly, methylation increases the stiffness of the CpG step [31], raising the energy cost required to wrap DNA around the histone octamers. This extra energy cost will be smaller in regions of high positive roll (naked DNA MeCpG steps have a higher roll than CpG steps [31]) than in regions of high negative roll. Thus, simple elastic considerations explain why methylation is better tolerated when the DNA faces the histones through the major groove (where positive roll is required) that when it faces histones through the minor groove (where negative roll is required). Nucleosome methylation can give rise to nucleosome repositioning We have established that methylation affects the wrapping of DNA in nucleosomes, but how does this translate into chromatin structure? As noted above, accumulation of minor groove methylations strongly destabilizes the nucleosome, and could trigger nucleosome unfolding, or notable changes in positioning or phasing of DNA around the histone core. While accumulation of methylations might be well tolerated if placed in favorable positions, accumulation in unfavorable positions would destabilize the nucleosome, which might trigger changes in chromatin structure. Chromatin could in fact react in two different ways in response to significant levels of methylation in unfavorable positions: i) the DNA could either detach from the histone core, leading to nucleosome eviction or nucleosome repositioning, or ii) the DNA could rotate around the histone core, changing its phase to place MeCpG steps in favorable positions. Both effects are anticipated to alter DNA accessibility and impact gene expression regulation. The sub-microsecond time scale of our MD trajectories of methylated DNAs bound to nucleosomes is not large enough to capture these effects, but clear trends are visible in cases of multiple mutations occurring in unfavorable positions, where unmethylated and methylated DNA sequences are out of phase by around 28 degrees (Figure S7 in Text S1). Due to this repositioning, large or small, DNA could move and the nucleosome structure could assume a more compact and distorted conformation, as detected by Lee and Lee [29], or a slightly open conformation as found in Jimenez-Useche et al. [30]. Using the harmonic deformation method, we additionally predicted the change in stability induced by cytosine methylation for millions of different nucleosomal DNA sequences. Consistently with our calculations, we used two extreme scenarios to prepare our DNA sequences (see Fig. 3): i) all positions where the minor grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps, and ii) all positions where the major grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps. We then computed the elastic energy required to wrap the DNA around the histone proteins in unmethylated and methylated states, and, as expected, observed that methylation disfavors DNA wrapping (Figure 3A). We have rescaled the elastic energy differences with a factor of 0.23 to match the DDG prediction in figure 2B. In agreement with the rest of our results, our analysis confirms that the effect of methylation is position-dependent. In fact, the overall difference between the two extreme methylation scenarios (all-in-minor vs all-in-major) is larger than 60 kJ/mol, the average difference being around 15 kJ/ mol. We have also computed the elastic energy differences for a million sequences with CpG/MeCpG steps positioned at all possible intermediate locations with respect to the position (figure 3B). The large differences between the extreme cases can induce rotations of DNA around the histone core, shifting its phase to allow the placement of the methylated CpG steps facing the histones through the major groove. It is illustrative to compare the magnitude of CpG methylation penalty with sequence dependent differences. Since there are roughly 1.5e88 possible 147 base pairs long sequence combinations (i.e., (4n+4(n/2))/2, n = 147), it is unfeasible to calculate all the possible sequence effects. However, using our elastic model we can provide a range of values based on a reasonably large number of samples. If we consider all possible nucleosomal sequences in the yeast genome (around 12 Mbp), the energy difference between the best and the worst sequence that could form a nucleosome is 0.7 kj/mol per base (a minimum of 1 kJ/mol and maximum of around 1.7 kJ/mol per base, the first best and the last worst sequences are displayed in Table S3 in Text S1). We repeated the same calculation for one million random sequences and we obtained equivalent results. Placing one CpG step every helical turn gives an average energetic difference between minor groove and major groove methylation of 15 kJ/ mol, which translates into ,0.5 kJ/mol per methyl group, 2 kJ/ mol per base for the largest effects. Considering that not all nucleosome base pair steps are likely to be CpG steps, we can conclude that the balance between the destabilization due to CpG methylation and sequence repositioning will depend on the PLOS Computational Biology | 4 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning Figure 3. Methylated and non-methylated DNA elastic deformation energies. (A) Distribution of deformation energies for 147 bplong random DNA sequences with CpG steps positioned every 10 base steps (one helical turn) in minor (red and dark red) and major (light and dark blue) grooves respectively. The energy values were rescaled by the slope of a best-fit straight line of figure 2, which is 0.23, to por la lectura a través de la lectura de la prensa. La educación en los medios las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio adquiere pleno derecho y entidad en la sección sexta titulada «competencias sociales y cívi- técnico de los aparatos. cas» que indica que «los alum- nos deberán ser capaces de juz- gar y tendrán espíritu crítico, lo que supone ser educados en los las programaciones oficiales, ya que, a lo largo de un medios y tener conciencia de su lugar y de su influencia estudio de los textos, los documentalistas del CLEMI en la sociedad». han podido señalar más de una centena de referencias a la educación de los medios en el seno de disciplinas 4. Un entorno positivo como el francés, la historia, la geografía, las lenguas, Si nos atenemos a las cifras, el panorama de la las artes plásticas : trabajos sobre las portadas de educación en medios es muy positivo. Una gran ope- prensa, reflexiones sobre temas mediáticos, análisis de ración de visibilidad como la «Semana de la prensa y publicidad, análisis de imágenes desde todos los ángu- de los medios en la escuela», coordinada por el CLE- los, reflexión sobre las noticias en los países europeos, MI, confirma año tras año, después de 17 convocato- información y opinión rias, el atractivo que ejerce sobre los profesores y los Esta presencia se constata desde la escuela mater- alumnos. Concebida como una gran operación de nal (2 a 6 años) donde, por ejemplo, se le pregunta a complementariedad entre la escuela y los profesiona- los niños más pequeños si saben diferenciar entre un les de los medios, alrededor del aprendizaje ciudada- periódico, un libro, un catálogo, a través de activida- no de la comunicación mediática, este evento moviliza des sensoriales, si saben para qué sirve un cartel, un durante toda una semana un porcentaje elevado de periódico, un cuaderno, un ordenador si son capa- centros escolares que representan un potencial de 4,3 ces de reconocer y distinguir imágenes de origen y de millones de alumnos (cifras de 2006). Basada en el naturaleza distintas. Podríamos continuar con más voluntariado, la semana permite desarrollar activida- ejemplos en todos los niveles de enseñanza y práctica- des más o menos ambiciosas centradas en la introduc- Páginas 43-48 ción de los medios en la vida de la escuela a través de la instalación de kioscos, organización de debates con profesionales y la confección por parte de los alumnos de documentos difundidos en los medios profesionales. Es la ocasión de dar un empujón a la educación en medios y de disfrutarlos. Los medios –un millar en 2006– se asocian de maneras diversas ofreciendo ejemplares de periódicos, acceso a noticias o a imágenes, proponiendo encuentros, permitiendo intervenir a los jóvenes en sus ondas o en sus columnas Esta operación da luz al trabajo de la educación en medios y moviliza a los diferentes participantes en el proyecto. 5. La formación de los docentes La formación es uno de los pilares principales de la educación en los medios. Su función es indispensable ya que no se trata de una disciplina, sino de una enseñanza que se hace sobre la base del voluntariado y del compromiso personal. Se trata de convencer, de mostrar, de interactuar. En primer lugar es necesario incluirla en la formación continua de los docentes, cuyo volumen se ha incrementado desde 1981 con la aparición de una verdadera política de formación continua de personal. Es difícil dar una imagen completa del volumen y del público, pero si nos atenemos a las cifras del CLEMI, hay más de 24.000 profesores que han asistido y se han involucrado durante 2004-05. 5.1. La formación continua En la mayoría de los casos, los profesores reciben su formación en contextos cercanos a su centro de trabajo, o incluso en este mismo. Después de una política centrada en la oferta que hacían los formadores, se valora más positivamente la demanda por parte del profesorado, ya que sólo así será verdaderamente fructífera. Los cursos de formación se repartieron en varias categorías: desde los formatos más tradicionales (cursos, debates, animaciones), hasta actividades de asesoramiento y de acompañamiento, y por supuesto los coloquios que permiten un trabajo en profundidad ya que van acompañados de expertos investigadores y profesionales. Citemos, por ejemplo en 2005, los coloquios del CLEMI-Toulouse sobre el cine documental o el del CLEMI-Dijon sobre «Políticos y medios: ¿connivencia?». Estos coloquios, que forman parte de un trabajo pedagógico regular, reagrupan a los diferentes participantes regionales y nacionales alrededor de grandes temas de la educación en medios y permiten generar nuevos conocimientos de aproximación y una profundización. Páginas 43-48 Hay otro tipo de formación original que se viene desarrollando desde hace menos tiempo, a través de cursos profesionales, como por ejemplo, en el Festival Internacional de Foto-periodismo «Visa para la imagen», en Perpignan. La formación se consolida en el curso, da acceso a las exposiciones, a las conferencias de profesionales y a los grandes debates, pero añade además propuestas pedagógicas y reflexiones didácticas destinadas a los docentes. Estas nuevas modalidades de formación son también consecuencia del agotamiento de la formación tradicional en las regiones. Los contenidos más frecuentes en formación continua conciernen tanto a los temas más clásicos como a los cambios que se están llevando a cabo en las prácticas mediáticas. Así encontramos distintas tendencias para 2004-05: La imagen desde el ángulo de la producción de imágenes animadas, el análisis de la imagen de la información o las imágenes del J.T. La prensa escrita y el periódico escolar. Internet y la información en línea. Medios y educación de los medios. 5.2 La formación inicial La formación inicial está aun en un grado muy ini- cial. El hecho de que la educación en medios no sea una disciplina impide su presencia en los IUFM (Institutos Universitarios de Formación de Maestros) que dan una prioridad absoluta a la didáctica de las disciplinas. En 2003, alrededor de 1.400 cursillistas sobre un total de 30.000 participaron en un momento u otro de un módulo de educación en medios. Estos módulos se ofrecen en función del interés que ese formador encuentra puntualmente y forman parte a menudo de varias disciplinas: documentación, letras, historia-geografía Estamos aún lejos de una política concertada en este dominio. La optativa «Cine-audiovisual» ha entrado desde hace muy poco tiempo en algunos IUFM destinada a obtener un certificado de enseñanza de la opción audiovisual y cine. Internet tiene cabida también en los cursos de formación inicial, recientemente con la aparición de un certificado informático y de Internet para los docentes, dirigido más a constatar competencias personales que a valorar una aptitud para enseñarlos. 6. ¿Y el futuro? El problema del futuro se plantea una vez más por la irrupción de nuevas técnicas y nuevos soportes. La difusión acelerada de lo digital replantea hoy muchas cuestiones relativas a prácticas mediáticas. Muchos Comunicar, 28, 2007 47 Comunicar, 28, 2007 Enrique Martínez-Salanova '2007 para Comunicar 48 trabajos que llevan el rótulo de la educación en medios solicitan una revisión ya que los conceptos cambian. La metodología elaborada en el marco de la educación en medios parece incluso permitir la inclinación de la sociedad de la información hacia una sociedad del conocimiento, como defiende la UNESCO. En Francia, se necesitaría unir las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio técnico de los aparatos. Los avances recientes en el reconocimiento de estos contenidos y las competencias que supondrían podrían permitirlo. Referencias CLEMI/ACADEMIE DE BORDEAUX (Ed.) (2003): Parcours médias au collège: approches disciplinaires et transdisciplinaires. Aquitaine, Sceren-CRDP. GONNET, J. (2001): Education aux médias. Les controverses fécondes. Paris, Hachette Education/CNDP. SAVINO, J.; MARMIESSE, C. et BENSA, F. (2005): L’éducation aux médias de la maternelle au lycée. Direction de l’Enseignement Scolaire. Paris, Ministère de l’Education Nationale, Sceren/CNDP, Témoigner. BEVORT, E. et FREMONT, P. (2001): Médias, violence et education. Paris, CNDP, Actes et rapports pour l’éducation. – fiches pédagogiques, rapports et liens avec les pages régionales/académiques. – Le site «Quai des images» est dédié à l’enseignement du cinéma et de l’audiovisuel. – la rubrique «Côté profs» a une entrée «education aux médias». – Programme européen d’éducation aux risques liés à Internet. dResedfeleexliobnuetsacón Páginas 43-48
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