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SUN PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF Clitoria Ternata Linn, Canna Indica Linn FLOWER

... extract INTRODUCTION Sun is the source of energy for all forms of life on earth. Sun shade helps in the synthesis of vitamin D in turn promotes proper growth of bones by synthesizing calcium. As we know skin is the outermost organ of the body and so it is easily affected by the UV rays from the sun. Sun rays are the most harmful factor that affects skin and causes sunburns, ... time the longer wavelength of UVB and UVA pass right through the atmosphere. The molecules in sunscreen absorb most UVB and prevent it from reaching the skin just as the molecules of the atmosphere absorb UVC and prevent it from reaching the ground. Exposed sun ultraviolet light classify in to 3 types, by its wavelengths: UVA, UVB and UVC. The dimensions ... spathulate, 1 linear revolute. In the gold coast, the flowers are said to cure eye disease. [4] Knowingly or unknowingly there is a sun protective activity in the daily food that we eat. This can be use as an alternative to commercial sunscreens. Some of the food that helps us from UV rays is as follows Tomato paste, Olive oil, Cabbage, Broccoli, Grape skins, Mustard
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SUN OF KARAKUM - I KARAKUM GÜNEŞİ - I [ROMANLAR]

... hayata karşı olan isteğidir. Yazar eserinde roman kahramanını ölümden kurtaran sebepler ile romanın mesajını çok incelikli bir dille okuyucunun dikkatine sunar. Ona göre kahramanın hayata bağlı olma konusunda oldukça güçlü bir irade ve bakış açısına sahip olması, sınıf arkadaşı Gözel’e karşı duyduğu sevgi ve Türkmenler arasındaki acımasız boy kavgalarıdır. Romanın ... alıp çöle götürmek istediğini söylemiş. Düşmanlarının başı bu isteği büyük bir memnuniyetle kabul etmiş. Fakat yaşlı adam esirler içerisindeki Türkmen çocukla- 2 Edebiyat ve Sungat Gazetesi, 30 Ocak 1987, Aşgabat. International Journal of Languages’ Education and Teaching Volume 3/1 April 2015 p. 444-465 KARAKUM GÜNEŞİ - I 449 rını ayırt ... etmiş ve kavun gibi başı olanları ayırıp yanında götürmüş. Yolda giderken yaptığı bu işten dolayı oldukça pişman olmuş. Çünkü bu çocukların gerçekten Türkmen olup olmadığı konusunda şüpheye düşmüş. Üstelik aldığı çocukların düşmanlarının dilini konuşmaları da yaşlı adamı bir hayli tedirgin etmiş. Ama çöle geldikten sonra çocuklardaki bütün yaraların
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African-american manhood: obstacles, reactions and reconciliation in A raisin in the sun, Dutchman and Blues for Mister Charlie

... Manhood: Obstacles, Reactions and Reconciliation in A Raisin in the Sun, Dutchman and Blues for Mister Charlie Belo Horizonte Faculdade de Letras Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais 2013 Paolucci Neto ii African-American Manhood: Obstacles, Reactions and Reconciliation in A Raisin in the Sun, Dutchman and Blues for Mister Charlie By Orozimbo Paolucci ... in the United States of America. Two of the plays are set in the North, A Raisin in the Sun, in Southside Chicago, and Dutchman, in a New York subway; and one of them, Blues for Mister Charlie, is set in a small town in Mississippi, in the South. A Raisin in the Sun3 produced in 1959, and debuting the revolutionary theater scenery of the 60s, was praised ... Alteridade. Dissertação (mestrado) – Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Faculdade de Letras. Bibliografia: f. 148-155. Anexos: f. 146-147. 1. Hansberry, Lorraine, 1930-1965. – Raisin in the Sun – Crítica e interpretação – Teses. 2. Baraka, Amiri, 1934- – Dutchman – Crítica e interpretação – Teses. 3. Baldwin, James, 1924-1987. – Blues for Mister Charlie – Crítica
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Soil CO2 Efflux in Agroforestry and Full-Sun Coffee Systems

... The general objective of this study it was to understand how the canopy’s trees in agroforestry and full -sun coffee systems affect the soil CO2 efflux and which factors control it. To this end we evaluated the soil CO2 efflux (in situ) in agroforestry and full -sun coffee systems in three different farms in Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The increase ... average of soil CO2 efflux between agroforestry and full -sun coffee systems, but viii they showed different daily emission dynamics. In agroforestry system the soil CO2 efflux was more stable during the day, presenting less variation from morning to midday and higher spatial variation than the full -sun system. In agroforestry system the variation of soil ... al., 2012) and reduced the rates of moisture loss from soil surface (Carvalho, 2011) compared to full -sun coffee systems. Therefore, it is expected that agroforestry systems may change the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux compared with management of full -sun coffee. 10 6. CONSIDERATIONS The soil CO2 efflux is a complex process that depends on the soil
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Beyond sea, sun and fun in Rio de Janeiro: understanding exchange students motivations and interests

... ESCOLA BRASILEIRA DE ADMINISTRAÇÃO PÚBLICA E DE EMPRESAS LUIZ FELIPE DIAS RANGEL KLING BEYOND SEA, SUN AND FUN IN RIO DE JANEIRO: UNDERSTANDING EXCHANGE STUDENTS MOTIVATIONS AND INTERESTS Rio de Janeiro 2013 LUIZ FELIPE DIAS RANGEL KLING Beyond Sea, Sun and Fun in Rio de Janeiro: Understanding exchange students motivations and interests Dissertação ... students from 11 different countries were interviewed. Results show that there is much more in Rio de Janeiro than sunshine and beautiful beaches. There is a plethora of interests that explain why exchange students choose this destination. The sun, beach and carnival cliché was present in several answers, but it was never the driving factor. Students are ... Escola Brasileira de Administração Pública e de Empresas. Centro de Formação Acadêmica e Pesquisa. III. Título. CDD – 378.0162 Luiz Felipe Dias Rangel Kling Beyond Sea, Sun and Fun in Rio de Janeiro: Understanding exchange students motivations and interests Dissertação para obtenção do grau de mestre, apresentada à Escola Brasileira de Administração
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The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere I. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Chromosphere

... 2, 87–97. 12. Robitaille P.M. Commentary on the liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun: Insight relative to coronal holes, sunspots, and solar activity. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, L7–L9. 13. Robitaille P.M. Commentary on the liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun II. Insight relative to coronal rain and splashdown events. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. ... Stellar opacity: The Achilles heel of the gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 93–99. 8. Robitaille P.M. A high temperature liquid plasma model of the Sun. Progr. Phys., 2007, v. 1, 70–81 (also in arXiv: astro-ph/0410075). 9. Robitaille P.M. Liquid metallic hydrogen: A building block for the liquid Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 60–74. 10. Robitaille ... of the Sun acts as the most important line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter (see [8–14] and references therein). This was recognized long ago by Gustav Kirchhoff: gases cannot properly account for the solar spectrum [1]. The presence of continuous thermal emission by the photosphere is complemented in the outer atmosphere of the Sun. The
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Automated system of seedling image analysis (SVIS) and electrical conductivity to assess sun hemp seed vigor

... of vigor in sun hemp seeds can be made easily and accurately combining both the SVIS and electrical conductivity readings of the seed imbibition solution. This software, associated with the electrical conductivity test, can be included in seed quality control programs and aid in decision making at different stages of production and use of sun hemp seeds, ... seed industry. In this study, the effectiveness of an automated system of seedling image analysis (Seed Vigor Imaging System – SVIS) in determining the physiological potential of sun hemp seeds and its relationship with electrical conductivity tests, were evaluated. SVIS evaluations were performed three and four days after sowing and data on the vigor index ... of imbibition. Electrical conductivity measurements at 4 or 8 hours and the use of the SVIS on 3-day old seedlings can effectively detect differences in vigor between different sun hemp seed lots. Index terms: Crotalaria juncea, seedling image, software. Sistema automatizado de análise de imagens (SVIS) e condutividade elétrica para avaliação do vigor
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Simultaneous determination of carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbital in dried blood spots by high performance liquid chromatography.

... 37, No. 6, 1067-1071, 2014 SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CARBAMAZEPINE, PHENYTOIN AND PHENOBARBITAL IN DRIED BLOOD SPOTS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY. Carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin were determined in dried blood spots (DBS) by high performance liquid chromatography, after extraction of 8 mm DBS using a mixture of acetonitrile ... temperature for up to 12 days and at 45 °C for 9 days. The method was applied to 14 paired clinical samples of blood serum and DBS. Keywords: antiepileptic drugs; dried blood spots; HPLC; therapeutic drug monitoring. INTRODUÇÃO O tratamento da epilepsia é baseado na utilização de fármacos chamados de anticonvulsivantes, objetivando proporcionar ao
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Solid state Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) from spots of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC): a new method for analysis of antioxidant phytoactives.

... Federal de Goiás, CP 131, 74605-220 Goiânia - GO, Brasil Recebido em 17/3/10; aceito em 3/8/10; publicado na web em 30/11/10 SOLID STATE DIFFERENTIAL PULSE VOLTAMMETRY (DPV) FROM SPOTS OF THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC): A NEW METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF ANTIOXIDANT PHYTOACTIVES. A new electroanalytical method coupling TLCDPV in solid state was developed for ... D.; J. Planar Chromatogr. Modern TLC 1996, 9, 269; Aldstadt, J. H.; Dewald, H. D.; Anal. Chem.(Washington, DC, U.S.) 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Quim. Nova 1992, 64, 3176; Sun, P.; Mirkin, M. V.; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 8241. Budnikov, G. K.; Kargina, O. Y.; Kargina, N. M.; Farmatsiya 1990, 39, 60; Brown, G. N.; Birks, J. W.; Koval, C. A.; Anal.
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Proteção solar para crianças: estudo preliminar sobre conhecimentos e atitudes dos pais = Sun protection for children: preliminary study on the knowledge and attitudes of parents

... Regarding the frequent use of other forms of sun protection such as hat, cap, appropriate t-shirts, glasses, 66.7% reported no use. When asked regarding the sunscreen use,50% of the participants reported that the children do not use sunscreen even when exposed to intense sun. Conclusion: The habits, care and sun exposure practices of parents towards their ... We conducted a semi-structured interview covering measures of sun protection, knowledge of the dangers of sun exposure and also social aspects such as family income and schooling. Results: The day period of most exposure was between 10 and 16 hours (65.5%). Concerning the amount of daily sun exposure, we found that three to four hours per day was reported ... adequate and the knowledge about the subject of skin cancer is considered by them as insufficient, although they have an understanding of the dangers of excessive sun exposure. Keywords: skin cancer; sun protection; child health; health promotion. 1Enfermeira. Egressa do curso de Enfermagem do Centro Universitário do Planalto de Araxá (UNIARAXÁ). 2Cirurgiã-Dentista.
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IP-10 can be measured in dried plasma spots in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

... service [14]. Recent publications have demonstrated that dried blood spots (DBS) are a reliable alternative to serum specimens for detecting anti-HCV, quantifying HCV RNA and genotyping HCV [15]. We have recently developed an ELISA based assay for IP-10 detection in DBS and dried plasma spots (DPS) [16]. Using this assay we have Introduction Globally, ... measurements. IP-10 measured in plasma (left) and dried plasma spots (right) from 19 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection and no/mild liver fibrosis and 21 patients with liver cirrhosis. Line denote median. There was a significant difference between the groups in both plasma and dried plasma spots, p,0.0004. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045181.g001 not ... to detect hepatitis C virus RNA in dried blood spots from Brazilian patients infected chronically. J. Virol. Methods 179: 17–20. doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.06.012. 16. Aabye MG, Eugen-Olsen J, Werlinrud AM, Holm LL, Tuuminen T, et al. (2012) A Simple Method to Quantitate IP-10 in Dried Blood and Plasma Spots. PLoS ONE 7: e39228. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039228#s5. 17.
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Traffic Engineering without Congestion Hot Spots in MPLS

... Traffic Engineering include balance traffic distribution across the network and avoiding congestion hot spots. To meet the objectives, demands have to be placed over the links in order to achieve balanced traffic distribution and to avoid congestion hot spots in the network. A technique for monitoring network utilization and manipulating transmission or ... “C” 5 5 0.5 TABLE III CPD FOR THE NODE “G” A D P(A=1) TABLE II CPD FOR THE NODE “D” B. Identification of Congestion Hot Spots using Bayesian approach Currently the so-called Bayesian network approach [9] is used to identify the congestion hot spots in MPLS. With this approach, in addition to the network topology, it is necessary to specify the parameters ... almost perfection there by avoiding congestion hot spots in the network. REFERENCES 2.000 [1] Values 1.500 1.000 0.500 0.000 A B C D E F G Nodes PNP NEW HITS Figure 3. Comparison chart V. CONCLUSION We observe that both the PNP approach and HITS method of improving QoS, will effectively identify the congestion hot spots in operational IP networks. Both
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The Design of Simple Bacterial Microarrays: Development towards Immobilizing Single Living Bacteria on Predefined Micro-Sized Spots on Patterned Surfaces.

... microarrays. For each PD island size, both the fraction of the spots having one or more bacteria attached (Nb  1) as well as the fraction of the spots with only one bacterium attached (Nb = 1), were determined. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128162.g005 displays this analysis for deposited spots with a measured size in the range 3.6 to 5.2 μm. Guided by ... coated surfaces revealed that the fraction of spots occupied by one or more bacteria was between 97 and 100% whereas the fraction of spots with single bacterial occupancy varied from 21.4 to 62.2% (Table 1). The amount of bacterial adhesion to the PEG coated areas was insignificant, as was the fraction of spots bridged by bacteria. The proposed method ... even for separation distances equal to 8 μm, i.e. the largest distance included in the photolithography mask (Fig 1a), a fraction of the spots were bridged by the bacteria. This was especially apparent for the larger spots. Based on these findings, the pattern for a second photolithography mask was designed. The pattern had the following characteristics:
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Measurements on pointing error and field of view of Cimel-318 Sun photometers in the scope of AERONET

... 3.5 min. 3.1.2 Sun correction in matrix procedure The image produced by the matrix (Fig. 3 on the right) seems to be wrong at first glance. The cause of this strange result is the Sun movement during the matrix measurement. In order to illustrate how the Sun movement affects our measurements, we show a brief study of how fast the Sun moves in angular ... field of view Field of view of the Sun photometers Definition Ideally, the solid angle in a radiance measurement is supposed to be infinitesimal. However, the solid angle is finite in the Sun photometers, and this fact could cause some disturbances in the radiance value. According to the Cimel company, manufacturer of the Sun photometer Cimel-318, the value ... Cimel-318, the value of the field of view1 in the current Sun photometers is 1.2◦ while in the old versions it was 2.4◦ . The field of view is an important characteristic of the Sun photometers: in radiance measurements, a large field of view can yield undesired averaging of radiances at sky regions near the Sun in which the change of radiance with the scattering
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A new method for the absolute radiance calibration for UV/vis measurements of scattered sun light

... Thuillier et al. (2004). Before it is applied to Eq. (2) it is multiplied by 0.969 to account for the effect of the changing sun- earth distance (during our measurement the sun- earth distance is 1.6 % larger than for the measurement of the sun irradiance spectrum). Here it is interesting to note that changes of the solar irradiance during the solar cycle are ... method for the absolute radiometric calibration of instruments that observe spectrally resolved scattered sun light, which is completely independent from laboratory measurements. Instead it is based on the comparison of measurements of scattered sun light under well-defined conditions with radiative transfer simulations. In particular the dependence ... observations (see above) can be improved if radiometrically calibrated DOAS instruments are used. Our new method can also be applied to other measurements of scattered sun light (e.g. spectroradiometer or sun photometer measurements). The paper is organised as follows: in Sect. 2 the data sets used in our study (MAXDOAS measurements and radiative transfer simulations)
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Estimation of aerosol water and chemical composition from AERONET Sun–sky radiometer measurements at Cabauw, the Netherlands

... www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/5969/2014/ doi:10.5194/acp-14-5969-2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Estimation of aerosol water and chemical composition from AERONET Sun? ??sky radiometer measurements at Cabauw, the Netherlands A. J. van Beelen1, G. J. H. Roelofs1, O. P. Hasekamp2, J. S. Henzing3, and T. Röckmann1 1Institute for Marine and Atmospheric ... measurements of remotely sensed aerosol properties (e.g., optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, refractive index and size distribution) from an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) Sun? ?? sky radiometer with radiosonde measurements of relative humidity. The model simulates water uptake by aerosols based on the chemical composition (e.g., sulfates, ammonium, ... interact directly and indirectly, i.e., through cloud albedo and lifetime, with radiation (Lohmann and Feichter, 2005). Aerosols influence weather and climate through visibility, sunshine duration, global radiation and temperature, as has been observed on regional (e.g., Van Beelen and Van Delden, 2012) and global scales (Wang et al., 2009; Wild et al.,
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Molecular Determinants Underlying Binding Specificities of the ABL Kinase Inhibitors: Combining Alanine Scanning of Binding Hot Spots with Network Analysis of Residue Interactions and Coevolution.

... embody strong coevolutionary signal and high network centrality with a propensity to be energetic hot spots for drug binding. We have found that selective (Nilotinib) and promiscuous (Bosutinib, Dasatinib) kinase inhibitors can use their energetic hot spots to differentially modulate stability of the residue interaction networks, thus inhibiting or promoting ... Residues: Energetic Hot Spots of the Type 1 and Type 2 Kinase Inhibitors MD simulations were employed to perform binding free energy calculations followed by a systematic alanine scanning of the binding site residues in the studied complexes. The central objective of this analysis was to determine key functional residues and identify energetic hot spots that may ... Importantly, several globally connected residues (Y253, T315, and F382) are also among energetic hot spots of Nilotinib binding (Y253, M290, T315, F317, F359, L370, and F382). In this mechanism, through direct contacts with the globally connected energetic hot spots, Nilotinib binding may affect allosteric interactions in the kinase domain and modulate stability
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A software process model for follow the sun development

... desenvolvimento de software offshore. Assim, o desenvolvimento Follow the Sun é visto como uma potencial estratégia para essas organizações. O Follow the Sun visa reduzir a duração do ciclo de desenvolvimento do software ou time-to-market. Entretanto, enquanto o conceito Follow the Sun parece ser promissor na teoria, ele é difícil de ser colocado em prática. ... implementação do desenvolvimento Follow the Sun e também para enfrentar os diferentes desafios do desenvolvimento global de software. Palavras-chave: Desenvolvimento Global de Software; Modelo de processo de software; Follow the Sun; Gerenciamento de fuso horário; Time-to-market. A SOFTWARE PROCESS MODEL FOR FOLLOW THE SUN DEVELOPMENT ABSTRACT Many companies ... operations to offshore software development centers. Thus, Follow the Sun development is seen as a potential software development strategy for these companies. Follow the Sun can help with reducing the software development life cycle duration or time-to-market. However, while Follow the Sun concept looks promising in theory, it appears to be difficult to
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Degradation of Corn Oil Wastes by Fenton Reaction and Under Mildly Basic Media in the Presence of Oxidants Assisted with Sun Light

... 602-607, 2008 ISSN 1553-345X © 2008 Science Publications Degradation of Corn Oil Wastes by Fenton Reaction and Under Mildly Basic Media in the Presence of Oxidants Assisted with Sun Light 1 Josefina Vergara Sánchez, 2Susana Silva Martínez and 3Maria del Refugio Trejo Hernández 1 Posgrado en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas FCQeI-CIICAp 2 Centro de Investigacion ... necessary to withdraw from the LS, as shown by Eq. 1. 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 S u n ir r a d ia t io n t i m e ( h ) 25 30 Fig. 1: Graph showing the pH change as a function of sun irradiation time for the degradation of a lipid aqueous solution initially containing 1.867 g L-1 C173H 326O 20 by photolysis: ( ) in the absence of oxidants, ( ) with 0.334 ... molecules[13]. 4800 4200 -1 COD (mg l ) 3600 3000 2400 1800 1200 λν → 2SO•−4 S2O82−  SO•−4 + Organic Compound → SO 24− + end products (7) 600 0 (8) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Sun irradiation time (h) Several degradation tests were carried out employing a LS initially containing 1,866.7 mg L-1 of corn oil. The experiments were performed from 10:00 h to
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Empirically derived dietary patterns and health-related quality of life in the SUN project.

... quality of life four years later in the SUN Project. Citation: Ruano C, Henriquez P, Martı́nez-González MÁ, Bes-Rastrollo M, Ruiz-Canela M, et al. (2013) Empirically Derived Dietary Patterns and Health-Related Quality of Life in the SUN Project. PLoS ONE 8(5): e61490. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061490 Editor: Qinghua Sun, The Ohio State University, United ... CVD, PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 4 May 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 5 | e61490 Diet and Quality of Life in the SUN Project Table 3. Baseline characteristics of participants according to extreme quintiles of the two major dietary patterns in the SUN project. Western dietary pattern Mediterranean dietary pattern Q1 Q5 p value Q1 (n = 2225) (n = ... correction). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061490.t004 PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 5 May 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 5 | e61490 Diet and Quality of Life in the SUN Project Table 5. Mean scores (95% CI)* of the SF-36 dimensions according to quintiles of Mediterranean dietary pattern in the SUN project. Quintiles of Mediterranean Dietary Pattern SF-36 scores after 4 years of follow-up Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 (n
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Exploring User Acceptance Of Free Wireless Fidelity Public Hot Spots: An Emperical Study

... governments have supported its deployment and development by promoting the establishment of free public “hot spots? ?? for citizen use, while businesses have created commercial public hot spots for subscription fees. For example, the early free Wi-Fi public hot spots were championed by technology enthusiasts, such as, among others, Anthony Townsend—professor of ... hot spots in Bryant Park, Manhattan in 2002. In May 2003, the Alliance for Downtown New York City launched the Lower Manhattan Wireless Network, a collection of free wireless public hotspots in seven large and widely used locations throughout Lower Manhattan. In recent years, other players have joined in the deployment of free Wi-Fi public hot spots, ... affect acceptance of Wi-Fi in free public hotspots. In all cases, the theoretical framework of this research is based on the TAM and the DIT, as previously discussed. The five critical factors from TAM and DIT that affect the acceptance of free Wi-Fi public hot spots are shown in Figure 1. 148 Acceptance of Free Wi-Fi public hot spots PI RA CU WT EU FU FC Figure
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Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy.

... there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures. PLOS ... other sun- protection habits (Fig 4). Correlation between age and sun habits No correlation was found between age and time spent outside each day. However, age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year (r = 0.15, p = 0.009), and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning (r = 0.424, p
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Commentary on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun: Insight Relative to Coronal Holes, Sunspots, and Solar Activity

... Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun: Insight Relative to Coronal Holes, Sunspots, and Solar Activity Pierre-Marie Robitaille Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, 395 W. 12th Ave, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. robitaille.1@osu.edu While mankind will always remain unable to sample the interior of the Sun, the presence of sunspots and coronal holes ... great deal with respect to the formation of sunspots, coronal holes, and measures of solar activity. The magnetic field lines that are observed above the photosphere are a direct consequence of this orientation. Conversely, in the gaseous models of the Sun, the origin of magnetic field lines, coronal holes, sunspots, flares, coronal mass ejections, prominences, ... Schematic representation of the appearance of a pair of sunspots on an active solar surface. The horizontal thick line illustrates the location of the photosphere, the thin lines the layers of metallic hydrogen, and the dashed lines the magnetic field. The two shaded circles outline the position of sunspots. In the lower portion of the figure, the layers
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Herbivory on temperate rainforest seedlings in sun and shade: resistance, tolerance and habitat distribution.

... leaf area when fed on shade leaves compared to sun leaves, i.e., plant resistance was greater in sun- grown seedlings. Herbivore abundance (total biomass) was two-fold greater in treefall gaps compared to the forest understory. Undamaged seedlings survived better and showed a slightly higher growth rate in the sun. Whereas simulated herbivory in the shade ... (P.0.15, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, data not shown) and markedly differed between sun and shade (P,0.001, Mann-Whitney U test, data not shown). Canopy gaps and forest understories received about 67% and 5% of full sunlight, respectively. We sampled 68 and 64 seedlings of E. coccineum in sun and shade, respectively. Seedling height ranged from 20 to 40 cm and they ... leaf from a separate set of 20 seedlings in both sun and shade environments to determine the specific leaf area (SLA, cm2 g21). We compared IH between sun and shade using a t-test. Furthermore, to make a comparison including a gross estimation of herbivory standardized by herbivore abundance, we used a sun vs. shade 262 table of contingency, where IH
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Measurements on pointing error and field of view of Cimel-318 Sun photometers in the scope of AERONET-Europe

... the forward direction of the Sun beam and a straight line connecting the scattering point observed by a detector. In our particular case, where the detector is a ground based sun- photometer, the Sun can be considered to be in the infinite and the scattering angle is equivalent to the angle formed by the directions of the Sun and the observation from ... the sun photometers | 25 Ideally, the solid angle in a radiance measurement is supposed to be infinitesimal. However, sun- photometers have a finite field of view and this could cause some disturbances in the radiance value. According to the Cimel company, manufacturer of the sun- photometer Cimel-318, the ◦ value of the field of view in the current sun- photometers ... how the Cimel sun photometer points at the Sun during its automated operation. The photometer robot has origin positions in both the zenith and azimuth motors. These are found with the so-called PARK procedure or “scenario”. Once the parking position is achieved, the instrument tries to find the sun following an astronomical calculation (GOSUN scenario) based
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