Substitute Skin

Humpback whale populations share a core skin bacterial community: towards a health index for marine mammals?

... sloughed skin is likely only slightly older in age than the biopsied skin. Additionally, some samples were obtained from the suction cup used to attach acoustical tags to whales (Table S1). Skin samples were handled using sterile tools, with the exception of sloughed skin nets and sieves which were only rinsed with seawater between uses. However, skin was ... animals developing skin infections that may have been linked to a lack of beneficial microbes on their skin [22]. It is clear that an understanding of skin- bacteria on normal, healthy marine mammals is necessary before any connections about health can be explored. Importantly, this framework will be useful to recognize if and how skin- bacteria differ ... within the skin- bacteria. Lastly, the diversity and composition of skin- bacteria from the apparently healthy animals was compared to entangled and recently deceased individuals (with potentially reduced or extinct immune responses), and used to examine the potential for skin- bacteria to provide any clues about a compromised health state. Samples Skin samples
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Hepatitis B and skin: review

... 30– 180 days (mean 60 – 90 days). Dermatological signs and symptoms [12-22] 1. Jaundice This is yellow discolouration of sclera ad/or skin due to deposition of bilirubin. Jaundice is usually visible in the sclera or skin when the serum bilirubin value is >43 mol/L (2.5 mg/dL). 2. Pruritus This is due to deposition of bile salts and toxins which are ... surface of the skin. They appear as slightly raised, small, reddish spots from which fine lines radiate outward, giving them a spider-like appearance. 4. Bier spots Bier spots are small, irregularly shaped, hypopigmented patches on the arms and legs. They are likely due to venous stasis associated with functional damage to the small vessels of the skin. 5. ... shaped, hypopigmented patches on the arms and legs. They are likely due to venous stasis associated with functional damage to the small vessels of the skin. 5. Paper-money skin Paper-money skin (or “dollar-paper” markings) describes the condition in which the upper trunk is covered with many randomly scattered, needle-thin superficial capillaries. It often
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Dysregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in keratinocytes causes skin inflammation mediated by interleukin-20 receptor-related cytokines.

... the regulation of skin homeostasis by producing a variety of cytokines [5]. TNF-a, IL-1 and IL-6 have been shown to have regulatory roles in skin wound healing, and also in skin permeability [6,7,8]. For example, IL-6 deficiency caused delayed skin repair, and topical application of IL-6 to barrier-disrupted skin enhanced repair of the skin barrier [8]. STAT3 ... signaling [1,2]. Additionally, SOCS3 negatively regulates skin wound healing through inhibition of the gp130STAT3 pathway [3], suggesting a pivotal role for SOCS proteins in skin inflammatory responses. However, the regulatory role of SOCSs in the maintenance of skin homeostasis remains unclear. The skin consists of two major layers, the epidermis and the dermis. ... lesional skin of Socs3 cKO mice To understand the mechanism underlying the development of skin inflammation in Socs3 cKO mice, we examined the cytokine profiles. Cytokines, cytokine receptors, and anti-microbial peptide gene panels, that are known to play a role in skin homeostasis or diseases, were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in normal skin
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Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score as a predictor and monitor of mortality in patients with Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections.

... with VNSSTIs. Introduction Necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections caused by marine bacteria, especially of the genus Vibrio, appear to be increasing frequency and recognition [1]. Among these, Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections (VNSSTIs), including primary sepsis with secondary skin manifestation and necrotizing wound ... bacteria from soft-tissue lesions and/or blood collected immediately after arrival at emergency department. Necrotizing skin and soft tissue infection was defined by either histopathologic or surgical findings such as the presence of necrosis of skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, or underlying muscles. All patients received the same treatment protocol based on ... Hospital in Taiwan (Grant No. CORPG6E0071 to Kuo-Chin Huang). Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections (VNSSTIs) usually predispose patients with or without preexisting liver disease to septic shock, and then evolve to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
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PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP) AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC AND HARD-TO-HEAL SKIN WOUNDS. A Review.

... Treatment of Chronic Wounds Skin wounds are defined as the absence of tissue, where epidermis and dermis are affected, while sometimes can reach the adipose tissue and muscle fascia. In this process, no natural regeneration is observed and tissue lesion is transformed into fibrotic scarring [27]. The process of healing of skin wounds is very intense ... have a tendency to aggregate when activated, having a leading role in skin healing. Activated platelets release growth factors, adhesion molecules, and lipids through which migration, proliferation, and the function of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells are regulated [28]. Skin wounds have a frequency of 0.78% and huge funds are spent for ... billion are used for the treatment of decubitus in the US [29]. For the development of skin wounds facilitate various etiological factors such as: chronic venous disease, peripheral arterial disease, neuropathy, arterial hypertension, physical injury, hematologic disorders, skin infection, inflammatory diseases, neoplasms, iatrogenic changes, and those associated
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Pigmentation and vitamin D metabolism in Caucasians: low vitamin D serum levels in fair skin types in the UK.

... Vitamin D in Fair Skin versus urban areas was also collected. Latitude of place of residence within the UK was also recorded. A skin examination was performed by trained research nurses and included a record of skin type using the Fitzpatrick classification. Fair skin grouped Fitzpatrick skin type 1 and 2 whilst dark skin included skin type 3 and 4. Total ... below 70 nmol/L according to skin type (adjusting for age, BMI, season of sampling, total number of weeks of sunny holidays and sunbed use). Skin type Nos (%) Odds ratios P value Confidence Intervals Skintype 1 169(16) 1.0 referent Skintype 2 432(33) 0.85 0.507 0.54–1.36 Skintype 3 469(36) 0.59 0.033 0.37–0.96 Skintype 4 253(19) 0.45 0.002 0.27–0.75 Test ... 25(OH)D serum levels. Skin type, sun exposure The distribution of skin types is shown in Table 1 with the majority of the subjects belonging to skin type 2 and 3. Mean number of weeks of holiday abroad over a lifetime was 21 weeks (range 0–318) and was positively correlated with skin type with a highly significant trend (p,0.0001): darker skin types (3 and
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Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

... without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions. Citation: Duval A, Marinov I, Bousquet G, Gapihan G, Starikovskaia SM, et al. (2013) Cell Death Induced on Cell Cultures and Nude Mouse Skin by NonThermal, Nanosecond-Pulsed ... death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm2 for ... work. Introduction healing [7–9], treatment of cancer [10–15]; infection [16], and skin rejuvenation [17]. Preclinical studies of NanosecondPulsed Plasma (NPP) for dermatological applications are however lacking. We chose NPP because its homogeneity in space and well-controlled energy per pulse makes it preferable for skin treatment. We investigated the pathological effects
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Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis.

... intact PTH levels to skin involvement of SSc patients, we evaluated the extent of skin fibrosis by Rodnan Skin score. We found a significant inverse relationship between the degree of skin fibrosis and circulating levels of 25OHD (r = -0,7 p
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Foxn1 Transcription Factor Regulates Wound Healing of Skin through Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

... factor, Foxn1, whose expression is limited to the skin and thymus epithelium. Our previous studies showed that Foxn1 inactivity in nude mice creates a pro-regenerative environment during skin wound healing. To explore the mechanistic role of Foxn1 in the skin wound healing process, we analyzed post-injured skin tissues from Foxn1::Egfp transgenic and C57BL/6 ... the skin [15]. Post-wounded skin tissues showed modulation of Foxn1-eGFP signal (Fig 2B–2D and 2F and 2G). Two days after injury, thickened epidermis at the wound margin was built up from PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0150635 March 3, 2016 6 / 21 Foxn1 Regulates Wound Healing of Skin Fig 1. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the skin ... the post-wounded skin area, we performed epidermal whole-mounts of the skin (S1 Protocol) collected from Foxn1::Egfp mice at day 5 after injury (S2A Fig) and non-injured skin (S2B Fig). Foxn1-eGFP-positive cells within and adjacent to the wound area were observed (S2A Fig). To assess the possible changes in total Foxn1 protein content in skin tissues during
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Spatial reconstruction of facial skin capillaries

... reconstruction of facial skin capillaries. Summary. To define structural and functional changes of skin capillaries in women of different age groups in this work intraoperational biopsy material of skin of 205 women at the age from 19 to 75 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face and neck skin correction, ... observed in skin of cheek region in women of 33-40 years and in temple region of head and anterior neck region in women of 41-50 years. It is typical at the patients with nicotinic dependence, ischemic heart disease, hypertonic disease, a diabetes, and also adiposity of a different degree essential infringement of microvessels bed structure of a skin that ... of the given contingent of patients as group high intraoperative and postoperative risk at carrying out of operative interventions for correction of face skin involutive changes. Key words: human skin, microcirculation, capillary loop, spatial reconstruction, age changes. Вступ У сучасній естетичній хірургії обличчя і шиї визначальними факторами для
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The human touch: skin temperature during the rubber hand illusion in manual and automated stroking procedures.

... of the stimulated hand. Skin cooling after congruent visuo-tactile stimulation has also been reported for a full body variant of the experiment where tactile vibrators were used to deliver tactile stimulation (out of body experience, [17]). There are, however, also studies that call a direct link between subjective ownership and skin cooling into question. ... Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Tübingen, Germany, 5 Research Division Mind and Brain, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract A difference in skin temperature between the hands has been identified as a physiological correlate of the rubber hand illusion (RHI). The RHI is an illusion of body ownership, where participants ... far considered irrelevant to the RHI appear to play a role in bringing about this temperature effect. Citation: Rohde M, Wold A, Karnath H-O, Ernst MO (2013) The Human Touch: Skin Temperature during the Rubber Hand Illusion in Manual and Automated Stroking Procedures. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80688. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080688 Editor: Mel Slater, ICREA-University
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Prediction of Skin Penetration using Artificial Neural Network

... the QSAR model for skin permeability does not consider the dynamic process of skin permeation. Main problem with the QSAR models is that, it cannot be extrapolated. Various QSAR models for skin permeability have been reported. A comprehensive review was given on different QSAR models for skin permeability. An early study relates the skin permeability ... determination of Skin permeability is a time consuming process; which involves a quite tedious work. This paper uses this artificial neural network in Skin permeability study. The results are almost as compared to experimental value of skin penetration. 2. Material and Method Abraham descriptors were used for predicting skin permeability. A database of skin ... enhancing activity 1-3. Skin permeability is of relevance to a number of applications including the design of skin cream products, risk assessment of hazardous chemicals, and in particular, transdermal delivery of drugs. Knowledge of the skin permeability is of critical importance for the understanding of their mode of action in skin. This is partly due
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Multiple helminth infection of the skin causes lymphocyte hypo-responsiveness mediated by Th2 conditioning of dermal myeloid cells.

... host by schistosome larvae occurs via the skin, although nothing is known about the development of immune responses to multiple exposures of schistosome larvae, and/or their excretory/secretory (E/S) products. Here, we show that multiple (4x) exposures, prior to the onset of egg laying by adult worms, modulate the skin immune response and induce CD4+ cell ... proceeds via the rapid penetration of exposed areas of skin by invasive aquatic cercariae, and people living in endemic areas are likely to repeatedly come into contact with infective cercariae. However, it is not known whether repeated exposure to cercariae affects the development of immune responses in the skin, or responses to later stages of the parasite ... neutrophil influx into the skin [8], followed by MHC-II+ macrophages (MW) and dendritic cells (DC) orchestrated by a cascade of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines [9]. Both MW and DC in the dermis take up antigenic excretory/secretory (E/S) material released by invading larvae and are subsequently detected in the skin draining lymph nodes (sdLN)
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Comparison of outcomes and safety of using hydroxyapatite granules as a substitute for autograft in cervical cages for anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion

... 33 67 24 55/69 (22.5%/28.5%) 60 22 31 HA granule 65 39 13 7 10 16 37 38 15 8 124 terials have been examined as substitutes for autogenetic bone, including allografts, ceramics, and various osteoinductive agents (9). A bone substitute eliminates the need for autogenic and allogenic bone grafting and the associated complications especially related ... increase the rate of union between adjacent vertebral bodies, but donor site–related complications can still occur. In this study we evaluate the use of hydroxyapatite granules as a substitute for autograft for interbody fusion. Methods: From November 2008 to November 2011, 236 patients participated in this study. Peek cages were packed with autologous bone ... )37( COPYRIGHT © 2014 BY THE ARCHIVES OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY RESEARCH ARTICLE Comparison of outcomes and safety of using hydroxyapatite granules as a substitute for autograft in cervical cages for anterior cervical dis- cectomy and interbody fusion Hosein Mashhadinezhad, MD; Fariborz Samini, MD; Reza Zare, MD Research
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Regraft from Amputated Forehead Tissue of a 4×7 cm Skin Defect Containing Bony Defects

... also used to lower the metabolic rate [3]. It has also been reported that vascular anastomosis can be an effective treatment modality if the size of a skin defect exceeds 2 cm [1,2].   We treated a 4 × 7 cm skin defect on the frontal region containing bony defects of approximately 2 × 3 cm using a regraft from amputated soft tissue of the forehead. Thus, ... skin defect of 4 × 7 cm containing a bony defect of 2 × 3 cm. In the center of the bony defect, the medulla was exposed. (B) Approximately 21 months postoperatively, during an outpatient visit, the patient showed results of such a successful engraftment of the graft tissue that some hairs even grew at the site of transplantation. In addition, the skin ... between the skin defects, and thus attempted to induce angiogenesis as promptly as possible within the dermal plexus.   Approximately 21 months postoperatively, during an outpatient visit, the patient showed results of such a successful engraftment of the graft tissue that some hairs even grew at the site of transplantation. In addition, the skin color
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Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation.

... distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells. Results: Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression ... elaine.jacobson@pharmacy.arizona.edu Introduction The skin functions as a metabolically active biological barrier protecting against external environmental insults. The maintenance of the skin barrier is critical as many dermatological diseases are characterized by defective barrier integrity resulting in a diminished protective capacity of the skin. Skin barrier formation is ... filaggrin. The placebo formulation substituted myristyl myristate for MN, ruling out any effects of PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 May 2011 | Volume 6 | Issue 5 | e20487 Nicotinic Acid Receptor Defects in Skin Cancer Figure 1. Nicotinic acid promotes epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin. Tissue arrays of skin biopsy samples from a
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Polycomb-Mediated Repression and Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Interact to Regulate Merkel Cell Specification during Skin Development.

... in the number of Merkel cells in neonatal Smo cKO skin compared to control skin (Fig 3A–3C), although a few fully differentiated Merkel cells were observed in P0 Smo cKO skin (Fig 3A–3C). Analysis of cell proliferation and apoptosis did not reveal significant alterations between control and Smo cKO skins at P0 (Figs 3D, S3B and S3C). Analysis of Smo ... epigenetic and morphogen cues functions to establish the complex patterning and formation of the mammalian skin. Introduction The skin epithelium is an excellent model system to study mechanisms of stem cell maintenance and differentiation [1]. During skin development, a single layer of embryonic epidermal stem cells gives rise to multiple lineages, including ... interfollicular epidermis (IFE), the hair follicles, and the Merkel cells [1,2]. The precise patterning of the skin suggests that there is crosstalk between different skin epithelial lineages. However, the precise mechanisms coordinating the development of skin structures are largely unknown. Merkel cells are a subtype of mechanoreceptor cells involved in light
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Feasibility Study to Substitute the EER with the SEER - Case Study Chiang Mai, Thailand

... Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2012 Vol II WCECS 2012, October 24-26, 2012, San Francisco, USA Feasibility Study to Substitute the EER with the SEER – Case Study Chiang Mai, Thailand Chutchawan Tantakitti , Thutchai Rungpairojcharoen, NaruemonTontanasarn, and Suwanun Kaewjino  Abstract—The
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Parental experiences of providing skin-to-skin care to their newborn infant—Part 1: A qualitative systematic review

... experiences is recommended. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, meta-study, newborn infant, skin- to -skin care, qualitative systematic review Responsible Editor: Carina Bertero¨, Linko¨ ping University, Sweden. (Accepted: 12 June 2014; Published: 13 October 2014) Skin- to -skin care (SSC) started as kangaroo mother care (KMC) in a Colombian hospital in the ... described an instant and overwhelming love on the occasion of their first skin- to -skin contact with their infant (Finigan & Davies, 2004; De Moura & Arau´ jo, 2005). They reported that they melted the first time the infant looked at them (Finigan & Davies, 2004) and that skin- to -skin holding was a wonderful experience (Neves, Ravelli, & Lemos, 2010; Roller, ... International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being æ REVIEW ARTICLE *Parental experiences of providing skin- to -skin care to their newborn infant Part 1: A qualitative systematic review AGNETA ANDERZE´ N-CARLSSON, Associate Professor1,2, ZENI CARVALHO LAMY, Professor3 & MATS ERIKSSON,
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An Exploration of Molecular Correlates Relevant to Radiation Combined Skin-Burn Trauma.

... radiation facility, and restrained for the time required for irradiation. Skin- burn injury Skin surface burn injuries were performed on the shaved dorsal surface of mice. Animals receiving skin burns were anesthetized by methoxyflurane inhalation. A 15% total body-surface-area skin burn was performed within 1 h of irradiation using a 2.5 x 2.5 cm custom ... dorsal skin surface. Mice received a 12 second burn from ignited 95% ethanol (0.5 mL) [8]. All mice subjected to the skin burn injury and their controls were administered 0.5 mL sterile 0.9% saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) which contained analgesics, acetaminophen (150 mg/kg, Cadence Pharmaceuticals, CA) and buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg), immediately after skin ... miRNA seed sequences (A) miR-690 and (B) miR-223 determined to be important in radiation combined skin burn injury pathways of female B6D2F1/J mice subjected to skin burn injury alone (BURN), whole-body ionizing irradiation alone (RI) or when combined with skin burn injury (CI) compared to experimental control mice (SHAM) at 30 days survival. *p
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Metabolism of skin-absorbed resveratrol into its glucuronized form in mouse skin.

... dorsal skin where RESV was applied, but at lower levels in leg skin, distant from dorsal skin. These data suggest that skin cells may be able to directly metabolize RESV into RESV glucuronides, which has not been reported previously. Resveratrol metabolism in cell culture While the tissue distribution of most RESV metabolites after oral and skin administration ... trans-RESV-3-O-GLUC in dorsal skin, as well as in blood and liver. Interestingly, after dermal application of RESV, higher levels of cis-RESV-3-O-GLUC were detected in dorsal skin compared to other tissues. In contrast, after oral administration more or less equal levels of cis-RESV-3-O-GLUC were found in blood, liver, dorsal skin and leg skin. We noticed that ... applied on the dorsal skin or mixed with 230 mg of base (0.4% RESV) and then swabbed onto the dorsal skin (around 2 cm2) without using anesthesia. Mice were separated from each other and could not lick RESV from their dorsal skin. PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115359 December 15, 2014 3 / 20 Resveratrol Absorption through Skin Resveratrol
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A novel non-lens betagamma-crystallin and trefoil factor complex from amphibian skin and its functional implications.

... (Bm-TFF2) [12] and a complex of a non-lens bccrystallin and a TFF (bc-CAT, present study) in B. maxima skin. It is reasonable to hypothesize that rich distribution of such proteins in frog skin, especially in epidermis, could play important physiological roles in skin tissue repair and maintaining of tissue homeostasis. Alternatively, by possessing potent toxicity ... indigenous people that the frog lives in very harsh environments and its skin is very ‘‘toxic’’. Here we show the purification, molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel protein that is responsible for the potent hemolytic activity and lethal toxicity on mice of the frog skin secretions. We demonstrated that this protein is a naturally existing ... pyrrhogaster [2,3], AIM1 gene family products in mammals [5,6], and TFFs in amphibian and mammals [10,11,22]. Frog skin is naked and constantly confronted by a complex mixture of potentially injurious mechanical and chemical factors. Constant skin renewal and repair in disruptions of the surface layer of cells occur frequently. Our study has revealed the
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Near–surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

... air minus snow skin temperature difference (T -air minus T -skin) and tries to cluster specific air temperature 5 ranges to find certain patterns or behaviors. It demonstrates that whenever cloud cover is non-existent, so is its radiative cooling of the ground; resulting in lower T -skin and larger differences between the air minus snow skin temperatures. ... responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T -air) and snow skin temperature (T -skin) helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the 10 Earth’s hydrological cycle. T -skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation ... -air minus T -skin difference is large. This leads to the understanding that the low MODIS LST and T -skin correlation values can be partially attributed not only to the clouds’ 15 downward thermal flux but to wind speed as well. Figure 6b demonstrates a day with high wind speed conditions, close to no cloud coverage, and a small T -air minus T skin difference.
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An Illumination Invariant Face Detection Based on Human Shape Analysis and Skin Color Information

... localization is using skin color information are severely influenced by illumination factor. In case of HSI model which is the most suitable for skin Color based face detection. HSI model incorporates three parameters namely hue, saturation and intensity. The intensity(value) factor is dependent on illumination level. Hence, the skin color based algorithms ... to analyze. In the present work shape based detection methodology together with skin color have been utilized to develop a face detection algorithm. The basic idea of shape based detection has been presented in section 2. Section 3 deals with the methodology of utilizing skin color features. The proposed algorithm together with the necessary techniques ... in the shoulder area from neck region. For ensuring face area skin color information is also analyzed. The experimental analysis shows that the proposed algorithm detects the face area effectively and it’s performance is found to be quite satisfactory. KEYWORDS Color Space, Face detection, skin color information, sharp transition ,Threshold. 1. INTRODUCTION Human
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Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

... University, Chongqing, China Abstract Background: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST) and skin prick testing (SPT) to house dust mite (HDM) in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses ... 44(5.1) Total No.(%) 41(34.2) 50(29.1) 30/(11.6) 16(8.2) 16(13.8) 153(17.7) Skin prick test (SPT) SPT was performed by placing a drop of HDM allergen solution (AllergopharmaTM Skin Prick Testing Kits, Reinbeck, Germany) on the inner side of forearm. The solution was allowed to enter the skin using a needle. Saline and histamine phosphate (10 mg/mL) were used ... Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST. Citation: Song Z, Zhai Z, Zhong H, Zhou Z, Chen W, et al. (2013) Evaluation of Autologous Serum Skin Test and Skin Prick Test Reactivity to House Dust Mite in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria. PLoS ONE 8(5): e64142. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064142 Editor: Robert K. Hills,
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