Drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders in Sao Paulo, Brazil: the role of neighborhood social deprivation and socioeconomic status.
... living in areas with lower NSD level are more likely to be Prevalences of alcohol use and outcomes: unconditional and conditional Table 1, bottom half, shows unconditional prevalence of recently active (past-year) drinking, as well as the estimated conditional prevalence for all recently active alcohol outcomes. Overall, an estimated 46% of the São ... nonHDLF/HDHF). Also conditioned on past-year RU, about 4%– 8% qualified for these recently active DSM conditions: DSM-IV abuse (7.9%); DSM-IV dependence (3.8%); DSM-5 AUD (8.1%). In basic cross-tabulations, males were more likely than females to be past-year users, RU, and HDHF drinkers (all p,0.05), but were not more likely to qualify for DSM conditions (among ... active users, as explained in footnotes to the tables. For example, for the ‘conditional prevalence’ of RU among pastyear drinkers, the denominator excludes lifelong abstainers as well as those who drank in past years but have not had a drink in the past year. Further in ‘conditional prevalence’ analyses restricted to regular users, the interpretation
Historical changes in the ecosystem condition of a small mountain lake over the past 60 years as revealed by plankton remains and Daphnia ephippial carapaces stored in lake sediments.
... compared with that before the 1970s, which supports this suggestion. At present the lake is in a mesotrophic condition based on the TP concentration of the lake water. Why was the lake eutrophied in the 1980s? Since the change in the trophic condition occurred only for the past 35 years, it cannot be explained by a long-term natural eutrophication. In ... Chiba, Japan * firstname.lastname@example.org OPEN ACCESS Citation: Ohtsuki H, Awano T, Tsugeki NK, Ishida S, Oda H, Makino W, et al. (2015) Historical Changes in the Ecosystem Condition of a Small Mountain Lake over the Past 60 Years as Revealed by Plankton Remains and Daphnia Ephippial Carapaces Stored in Lake Sediments. PLoS ONE 10(3): e0119767. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119767 Academic ... In parallel with this increase, abundance of most plankton remains increased although abundance of benthic testate amoebae’s remains decreased, indicating that the lake trophic condition had changed from oligo- to mesotrophic for the past 60 years. According to cluster analysis, the stratigraphic sediments were divided into two periods with different
Opened athletic-educational space - the condition of professional development of future teacher of physical culture is needed
... европейское образовательное пространство, европейское пространство высшего образования, образовательное пространство стран СНГ. Dragnev Y.V. Opened athleticeducational space – the condition of professional development of future teacher of physical culture is needed. It is shown that the opening of the sports and educational space is determined by the whole ... fizkul’turno-obrazovatel’noe prostranstvo kak uslovie podgotovki studentov fakul’teta fizicheskoj kul’tury k pedagogicheskoj praktike [Open physical culture and educational space as a condition of students’ training of the Physical culture department to pedagogical practice], Cand. Diss., Shuya, 2005, 172 p. Information about the author: Dragnev Y.V. email@example.com Luhansk
К УСТОЙЧИВОСТИ ЦИЛИНДРИЧЕСКИХ ОБОЛОЧЕК С НАПОЛНИТЕЛЕМ СО СМЕШАННЫМИ ГРАНИЧНЫМИ УСЛОВИЯМИ About the stability of cylindrical shell with core for mixed boundary condition
... դեպքում միաչափ խնդիրը օղակի համար լուծվում է ճշգրիտ: Movsisyan L.A. About the stability of cylindrical shell with core for mixed boundary condition The stability of cylindrical shell with a core for mixed boundary conditions under external normal pressure is conidered. The influence of the core is considered by the model of Vincler. Onedemitional problen ... նորմալ ճնշում: Ключевые слова: цилиндрическая оболочка, устойчивость, наполнитель, смешанные граничные условия, нормальное давление. Key words: cylindtical shell, stability, core, mixed boundary conditions, external normal pressure. Մովսիսյան Լ.Ա. Խառը եզրային պայմաններով լցոնված գլանային թաղանթի կայունության մասին Դիտարկվում է լցոնված գլանային թաղանթի կայունությունը խառը
A Cross-Sectional Study on Socioeconomic Systems Supporting Outpatients With Parkinson’s Disease in Japan
... J Epidemiol 2016;26(4):185-190 doi:10.2188/jea.JE20150081 Original Article A Cross-Sectional Study on Socioeconomic Systems Supporting Outpatients With Parkinson’s Disease in Japan Aiko Matsushima1, Akihisa Matsumoto2, Fumio Moriwaka3, Sanae Honma3, Kazunori Itoh4, Keiko Yamada4, ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. ABSTRACT Objectives: We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socioeconomic systems supporting outpatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Japan. Methods: The study was performed in 2013 at two private hospitals and one clinic in Hokkaido ... signiﬁcantly more out of pocket for their medical services than other elderly individuals.10 PD has also been shown to have a chronic course with growing disability and considerable socioeconomic burden in Germany, as well.11 INTRODUCTION Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common progressive and disabling neurological disorders throughout the world.
Socioeconomic disparity in survival after breast cancer in ireland: observational study.
... Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e111729 Socioeconomic Disparity in Breast Cancer Survival adjustment for stage reduced deprivation-related survival disparities only slightly . In the Netherlands, patients of lower socioeconomic status had more advanced stage and, among nonscreen-detected cases, stage explained about half of the socioeconomic survival disparities ... . 1 November 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e111729 Socioeconomic Disparity in Breast Cancer Survival Figure 1. Trends in invasive breast cancer incidence and mortality, Ireland, 1994–2010 (European age-standardized rates). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111729.g001 2 = two or more other conditions) was derived for each linked patient . Linkage ... 2002–2008 to public hospital data (Hospital Inpatient Enquiry System)  to identify other significant medical conditions within a year following (or a month before) breast cancer diagnosis. The Charlson Index of comorbidity (0 = no significant conditions other than breast cancer, 1 = one other, or PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org Statistical methods All analyses
Generalized analytical solution for advection-dispersion equation in finite spatial domain with arbitrary time-dependent inlet boundary condition
... in a finite spatial domain associated with timeinvariant boundary conditions, the filter function for homogenizing the inhomogeneous boundary condition can be easily derived. However, the procedure for obtaining the filter function for finite spatial domain with time-dependent boundary condition is much more complicated because of the need to define ... to arbitrary time-dependent inlet boundary condition. The Laplace transform in combination with generalized integral transform is used to obtain the generalized analytical solution. Laplace transform is applied to convert the time-dependent inhomogeneous boundary condition into non-time-dependent boundary condition and the constraint in obtaining the ... Paper 5 constant and time-dependent exponentially decaying inlet boundary condition (Pérez Guerrero et al., 2009a,b, 2010; Pérez Guerrero and Skaggs, 2010). As the authors aware, analytical solution for finite spatial domain associated with arbitrary time-dependent inlet boundary condition has not been reported in literature yet. In many instances the
Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Report from a Community-Based Survey in Jiaxing, China.
... contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population. PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132918 July 15, 2015 1 / 12 Socioeconomic Disparities in Physical Activity in Chinese Adults Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conclusions Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic ... variables). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0132918.t001 PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132918 July 15, 2015 5 / 12 Socioeconomic Disparities in Physical Activity in Chinese Adults Table 2. Demographic, clinical and lifestyle factors of study participants by socioeconomic status, the community-based survey in Jiaxing, China, 2010. Socioeconomic status P for trend d Lower class Lower middle class Upper ... ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132918 July 15, 2015 6 / 12 Socioeconomic Disparities in Physical Activity in Chinese Adults Table 3. Physical activity patterns of study participants by socioeconomic status, the community-based survey in Jiaxing, China, 2010. Types of physical activity Socioeconomic status P for trend c Lower class Lower middle
An integrated model of multiple-condition ChIP-Seq data reveals predeterminants of Cdx2 binding.
... machine learning approach for the analysis of condition- specific binding events from multi -condition ChIP-seq data. MultiGPS performs binding event analysis across multiple conditions, sharing information across conditions to produce accurate joint binding estimates while simultaneously allowing for condition- specific binding events. MultiGPS employs ... binding location between conditions, which may be useful for studies of nucleosome positioning or regulators that might bind alternate nearby locations in different conditions. We demonstrated that MultiGPS can characterize conditionspecific binding and then used MultiGPS to characterize the nature of both condition- specific and condition- independent ... e1003501 Multiple -Condition ChIP-Seq Analysis already displayed regulatory activity or accessibility before Cdx2 expression was induced. Condition- independent Cdx2 binding is associated with higher cognate motif affinity Since condition- specific Cdx2 binding events appear highly correlated with immediately pre-existing genomic context, we reasoned that the condition- independent
Sus scrofa: Population Structure, Reproduction and Condition in Tropical North Eastern Australia
... Australia Acta Silv. Lign. Hung. 5, 2009 Sus scrofa: Population Structure, Reproduction and Condition 185 Condition Index 2.5 2* 1.5 1 Condition Index of three feral pig populations ** ** * LR CY POW 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month Figure 3. Condition Index of feral pigs from three different populations in tropical northern ... age class was compared by x²test between the populations. 2.4 Individual condition In order to assess the condition of animals, the weight of its mesogastric fat (StoFat) was related to the weight of the carcase (Gutted Weight = GW) by using the following formula describing a condition index [CondInd = (StoFat/GW) x 1000]. Mesogastric fat is associated ... sufficient food supply all year round. This was reflected in LR pigs having better condition than those caught on CY or on POW, for most of the year. This indicates that more food is available in the LR habitat than in the other two sites. CY pigs showed a significantly higher condition index in September compared to the LR sample. In September, pigs were
Remote Monitoring of the Heart Condition of Athletes by Measuring the Cardiac Action Potential Propagation Time Using a Wireless Sensor Network
... International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 6, no. 2, 2016, pp. 123 - 134 Remote Monitoring of the Heart Condition of Athletes by Measuring the Cardiac Action Potential Propagation Time Using a Wireless Sensor Network S.Ananthi1,*, V.Vignesh1, R.Hariprakash2, and K.Padmanabhan3 1Department ... station. Keywords: wireless sensor networks, prophylactic athlete monitoring, ECG action potential time, ischemia 1. Introduction The extreme physical throughput under stressed conditions in highly competing games for athletes needs instantaneous medical attention. Too much stress has a direct effect on hormonal balance, and eventually stress affects ... gap junctions [12-13] and the specific subcellular distribution of the gap junctions packed by rod shaped cardio myocytes causes continuous conduction . In a pathological condition, the substrate associated with Myocardial infarction (MI) contains islands of surviving myocardium interconnected by narrowed strands with reduced coupling through nexus
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš
... of cigarettes used during pregnancy, paternal earnings and socioeconomic factors. In a multivariant model the most significant factors were socioeconomic factors, education level of the mothers, paternal earnings and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. Smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors have great influence on LBW. Future studies ... with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smoking habits of the mothers, ... 618.29:[613.84–055.26+316.344–055.52 Pušenje majki u trudnoći i socioekonomski faktori kao prediktori male telesne mase na rođenju kod terminske novorođenčadi u Nišu Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš Miodrag Stojanović*†, Vladmila Bojanić*, Dijana Mušović*, Zoran Milošević*†, Dušica Stojanović*†,
Tool Condition Monitoring using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Signature in Turning
... cutting conditions, the frequency of vibration components always lies within a band of 0 Hz - 41 kHz, and the AE varies between 56 kHz and 581 kHz. Key words - Acoustic emission, Vibration, Tool condition monitoring, Tool wear, Surface roughness. I. INTRODUCTION THE cutting process dynamics is very transient and unpredictable whereas the cutting conditions ... transient elastic wave inside the workmaterial and cutting tool known as, the acoustic emission (AE). The changes in cutting condition produce vibration in the system and thus affect the cutting tool state. Therefore, investigating the tool condition using the acoustic emission and vibration signature would be an effective approach. In this study, an acoustic ... Congress on Engineering 2012 Vol III WCE 2012, July 4 - 6, 2012, London, U.K. Tool Condition Monitoring using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Signature in Turning M. S. H. Bhuiyan, I. A. Choudhury, and Y. Nukman Abstract - The various sensors used to monitor tool condition usually sense the cutting tool state in terms of electric/magnetic/optical
Condition and Organization of Everyday Life in the Military Units of the Southwestern, Stalingrad and Don fronts (1942–1943)
... Federation Voennyi Sbornik Has been issued since 1858. ISSN: 2309-6322 E-ISSN: 2409-1707 Vol. 7, Is. 1, pp. 40-47, 2015 DOI: 10.13187/vs.2015.7.40 www.ejournal6.com UDC 94(47).084.8 Condition and Organization of Everyday Life in the Military Units of the Southwestern, Stalingrad and Don fronts (1942–1943) Tatiana P. Khlynina Institute of Social and Economic ... Sciences, Russian Federation 41, Chekhova Prospekt, Rostov-on-Don 344006 Doctor of History E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The article is devoted to various aspects of the condition and organization of the everyday life of military units of the Southwestern, Stalingrad and Don fronts in 1942–1943 years. The looks of the questions of food and clothing
Is there an association between traumatic dental injury and social capital, binge drinking and socioeconomic indicators among schoolchildren?
... . Household income and mother’s schooling were used as socioeconomic indicators, but neither was significantly associated with the occurrence of the outcome. Indeed, the literature reports divergent findings regarding the association between TDI and socioeconomic status . Feldens et al.  found that socioeconomic status exerted an influence in different ... that social capital is affected by the failure to recognize TDI as an adverse health condition, since the majority of TDIs in the present study were also enamel fractures, which have less social, esthetic and functional impact. To be recognized as an adverse oral health condition with an impact on quality of life, it is necessary for individuals to be ... (MG). Rev Bras Epidemiol. 10: 637–647. 39. Jorge KO, Oliveira PM Filho, Ferreira EF, Oliveira AC, Vale MP, et al. (2012) Prevalence and association of dental injuries with socioeconomic conditions and alcohol/drug use in adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age. Dental Traumatol. 28: 136–141. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2011.01056.x PMID: 21989043 40. Reinert
Identifying determinants of socioeconomic inequality in health service utilization among patients with chronic non-communicable diseases in China.
... explain reasons for the treatment or/and hospitalization (including duration of conditions and diagnosis in relation to those conditions). The reported reasons were coded and classified into NCD-associated and non-NCD-associated conditions. NCD was defined as a chronic medical condition diagnosed by a doctor at least six months before the survey, for which ... Victoria, Australia Abstract Background: People with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are particularly vulnerable to socioeconomic inequality due to their long-term expensive health needs. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic- related inequality in health service utilization among NCD patients in China and to analyze factors associated with ... services, which was expressed as HI (Horizontal Inequity Index) for needstandardized use of services. A non-linear probit regression model was employed to detect inequality across socioeconomic groups. Results: Pro-rich inequity in health services among NCD patients was more substantial than the average population. A higher degree of pro-rich inequity (HI
Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism
... physical health’s condition. Key words: assessment, level, health, students, youth. Introduction1 It is known that in order to preserve and strengthen health of sound people information about conditions of health’s formation, final result of this information’s realization: specific indicators, characterizing individual’s or population’s health condition, ... group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied ... PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF STUDENTS ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS’ HEALTH CONDITION BY INDICATORS OF ADAPTATION POTENTIAL, BIOLOGICAL AGE AND BIO-ENERGETIC RESERVES OF ORGANISM Martyniuk O.V., Vilyanskiy V.N. National mining university Abstract. Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and expressassessment.
Sociodemographic and socioeconomic patterns of chronic non-communicable disease among the older adult population in Ghana
... DALYs attributable to chronic conditions, particularly in the older age groups (2). In Ghana, communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions currently constitute about 53% of non-fatal disease burden, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constituted 41% and injuries 6% (2). As Ghana strives towards continued socioeconomic development through ... wellbeing of older people is not only affected by ‘higher profile’ chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and arthritis, but also by such conditions as edentulism and visual impairment (mainly due to cataracts) as demonstrated in this study. These are health conditions that are easily preventable and should not be disabling older ... aim of the current paper is to describe the burden of chronic health conditions and prevalence of contributing risk factors of older adults in contemporary Ghana. A more detailed investigation of hypertension (both self-reported and measured) and arthritis, the two most prevalent health conditions, is also presented. This overall objective is to generate
Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition
... CULTIVARS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS CONDITION Ahmad Reza GOLPARVAR Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran Golparvar R.A. (2013): Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition. Genetika, Vol ... assessment of some morphophysiological traits in bread wheat under drought stress condition. Pajouhesh. Sazandegi.,17 (91): 90-95. GOLPARVAR, A.R., O. LOTFIFAR and S. MOTTAGHI, (2011): Diallel analysis of grain yield and its components in bread wheat genotypes under drought stress conditions. Plant. Prod. Tech., 11(1): 51-61. GRIFFING, B, (1956): Concept of ... inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of physiological traits flag leaf area and relative water content bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eight winter cultivars of bread wheat including four Iranian (Sardari, Zarrin, Zagros, and Alamoot) and four foreigner (Veenaac,M75-7,C75-5,
Socioeconomic factors influencing hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Mexico.
... Volume 7 | Issue 7 | e40529 Socioeconomic Factors for H1N1 Pneumonia in Mexico underlying conditions, including such environmental and socioeconomic factors as education and poverty, are also thought to affect the disease morbidity and mortality [12,13]. However, only limited data are available regarding the influence of socioeconomic factors on the ... pneumonia due to H1N1 virus from a socioeconomic point of view. These socioeconomic factors may explain the different patterns of morbidity and mortality for H1N1 influenza observed among different countries and regions. Citation: Manabe T, Higuera Iglesias AL, Vazquez Manriquez ME, Martinez Valadez EL, Ramos LA, et al. (2012) Socioeconomic Factors Influencing ... in seeking healthcare, need to be addressed from the socioeconomic rather than clinical point of view. These factors may explain the different mortality and morbidity patterns for A(H1N1)pdm09 in different countries and regions. The aim of the present study was to assess how socioeconomic and living conditions relate to the disease severity of H1N1 influenza,
A condition-based maintenance policy and input parametersestimation for deteriorating systems under periodic inspection
... MAXSTALEY LENINYURI NEVES A Condition- Based Maintenance Policy and Input Parameters Estimation for Deteriorating Systems under Periodic Inspection Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil Mar¸co 2010 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Escola de Engenharia Programa de Po´s-Gradua¸ca˜o em Engenharia El´etrica A Condition- Based Maintenance Policy and ... Research 56 Bibliography 61 xviii List of Figures 3.1 Condition measurement cycles: up to a preventive maintenance (a) and up to a failure (b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.2 The CBM approach proposed in this paper. . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.3 Long-run horizon optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.4 The Markov chain that denotes the system condition evolu- tion ... for ΨA if no control is applied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 5.8 Scenario 1: condition observed (top) and state estimation (bottom). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.9 Scenario 3: condition observed (top) and state estimation (bottom). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Socioeconomic position and health in a population of Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS)
... population in Brazil and other countries with great socioeconomic inequalities. However, the effects of socioeconomic circumstances on the health of the elderly in Brazil and in other developing countries have not been thoroughly investigated. This article examines whether there is an association between socioeconomic position and health among older adults ... relationship among income, other socioeconomic indicators, and functional level in older persons. J Aging Health 1998;10:81–98. 8. Parker MG, Ahacic K, Thorslund M, Lundberg O. Socioeconomic status and health among elderly people in Sweden. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;896:383–385. 9. Liao Y, McGee DL, Kaufman JS, Cao G, Cooper RS. Socioeconomic status and morbidity ... countries of a lack of association between socioeconomic status and health among the aged. Our results showed that a small difference in monthly family income was sufficiently sensitive to identify elderly persons in worse health, even within a community that appears to be uniformly poor. Key words Aged, health status, socioeconomic factors, health services
The association between socioeconomic development at the town level and the distribution of dental caries in Brazilian children
... diseases should be emphasized within the context of overall health promotion for children. Key words Dental caries, dental care, socioeconomic factors, Brazil. There is a well-established relationship between socioeconomic conditions and health. Attempts at a better understanding of this process have been based on at least two different paradigms. ... between populations (1, 2). Various studies have explored the impact that socioeconomic standing has on the health status of a community and on the provision of health services (3, 4). Dental caries is the most common dental disease. As with other chronic 149 diseases, a population-level association between socioeconomic development and dental caries has been found in ... of this study was to investigate the association that townlevel indices of socioeconomic development had with outcomes for the oral health status of children who were 5 or 6 years old and living in the state of São Paulo. We especially wanted to investigate which dimensions of socioeconomic development best correlated with town-level variations in dental
Welfare indicators and health: the selection and use of socioeconomic indicators for monitoring and evaluation
... the quality of instruction. Prevalences of Extreme Poverty and Marginal Living Conditions These two indicators are considered together because, depending on what is meant by “marginal conditions,” they may coincide. Accordingly, it is necessary to define “marginal conditions.” Such conditions may be defined economically and thus correspond to poverty; or ... can and perhaps should be used in acquiring socioeconomic data; the key thing, however, is to acquire data on a multivariate grouping, so that the economic variables are crossed with the purely demographic and social variables. For example, one should know the distribution of families by size in the lowest socioeconomic group, and also the distribution ... the methodological issues involved in such research. The Proposed Indicators The eight socioeconomic indicators ered mandatory (1) are as follows: consid- l demographic information (the population classified according to age, sex, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic status); l general fertility; l the per capita availability of calories and proteins; l
Spatial distribution of proportional infant mortality and certain socioeconomic variables in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
... PATHOLOGIC CONDITION THAT al DIRECTLYCAUSEDDEATH IV THE DIAGNOSISWAS CONFIRMED 1 BYAUTOPSY BYS"PPLlMfNTARY EXAMIHAWWBYSURGERY THEUNDERSIGNED PHYSICIAN ATTENDEDTHE DECEASED DUETOORASACONSEQUENCEOF b) DUETOORASACONSEQUENCEOF cl I ia PART II OTHER SIGNIFICANT PATHOLOGICCONDITIONS THAT CONTRIBUTEDTO DEATH BUT WERE UNRELATEDTOTHEDlSEASEORPATHOLOGlCCONDITIONTHATRESULTEDIN ... important association between certain socioeconomic and sanitation variables and infant survival. Finally, they suggest that a recent decline in the rate of infant deaths in Salvador (5) does not signify an improvement in the quality of life for the whole population-because of the persistence of adverse social conditions and relatively high proportional ... these quartiles with respect to various socioeconomic and medical indicators. This analysis shows that proportional infant mortality varied greatly 11.8 % in the different quartiles-from in the first to 42.5 % in the fourth. It also finds clear and highly significant associations between proportional infant mortality and several socioeconomic and sanitation variables-these being