Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica
... activities during austral summer (Shirsat and Graf, 2009; Graf et al., 2010). Previous measurements indicate a geographical gradient of atmospheric BC concentrations from South Pole to Southern Ocean with minimum BC concentrations at South Pole (around 0.65 ng m−3 , Bodhaine, 1995), slightly increasing to coastal Antarctic sites (around 1 ng m−3 at Halley, ... , Pereira et al., 2006). Neither of these investigations provided a trend estimate for BC concentrations, mainly due to short observation periods. Very recently, a study on global decadal trends of aerosol optical properties revealed no significant long term trend for BC concentrations observed at Neumayer (Collaud Coen et al., 2012). Individual ice core studies ... sector, wind velocity < 2.0 m s−1 and/or CP concentrations (measured by a TSI CPC 3022A particle counter) > 2500 cm−3 during summer, > 800 cm−3 during spring/autumn and > 400 cm−3 during winter. The CP threshold values were chosen based on our more than 25-yr long CP record from Neumayer, demonstrating that CP concentrations above the corresponding levels
Environmental Conditions Associated with Elevated Vibrio parahaemolyticus Concentrations in Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire.
... parahaemolyticus concentrations that imply risk thresholds, including the level to which post-harvest shellfish processing approaches need to reach to be considered effective [30 MPN g-1; ], and the Health Canada limit for minimal risk conditions [100 MPN g-1; ]. Thus, public health risk concerns remain tied to V. parahaemolyticus concentrations ... parahaemolyticus in Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire Correlations between V. parahaemolyticus concentrations and in situ environmental data were calculated for all months at all sampling locations. The measure of linear association between log-transformed V. parahaemolyticus concentrations and paired environmental parameter data were calculated by Pearson’s product-moment ... of 0.05. For the purposes of data normality, all MPN g-1 values for V. parahaemolyticus concentrations were log10 transformed prior to statistical analysis. For the purposes of model fit and observation of data trends within the normal range of V. parahaemolyticus concentrations, outlying, relatively high V. parahaemolyticus concentration data points
Apocynin prevents vascular effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.
... Apocynin Prevents Vascular Effects Caused by Chronic Exposure to Low Concentrations of Mercury Danize A. Rizzetti1, João Guilherme D. Torres1, Alyne G. Escobar1, Franck M. Peçanha1, Francielli W. Santos1, Robson L. Puntel1, Marı́a J. Alonso3, ... the vasculature. Our aim was to investigate whether treatment with apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevents the vascular effects caused by chronic intoxication with low concentrations of mercury. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with a) intramuscular injections (i.m.) of saline; b) HgCl2 (i.m. 1st dose: 4.6 mg/kg, subsequent ... thus demonstrating a two-way action. Citation: Rizzetti DA, Torres JGD, Escobar AG, Peçanha FM, Santos FW, et al. (2013) Apocynin Prevents Vascular Effects Caused by Chronic Exposure to Low Concentrations of Mercury. PLoS ONE 8(2): e55806. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055806 Editor: Ryuichi Morishita, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan Received November
Determination of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Normal and Pathological Human Endometrial Biopsies and In Vitro Regulation of Gene Expression by Metals in the Ishikawa and Hec-1b Endometrial Cell Line.
... considered to be statistically significant. Results Measurement of metal concentrations in the endometrial tissues The concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium (isotopes 111 and 114) and vanadium were determined in 14 normal, 10 hyperplastic and 11 adenocarcinoma biopsies by ICP-MS. The concentrations of all the metals were measurable, exhibiting non-zero ... determine the range of concentrations that did not generate cell mortality. The concentration at which cell viability decreased varies greatly with the metal tested (S1 Fig). Cadmium was the most toxic with 70% mortality at 10μM. Vanadium and mercury (both 20 μM) reduced the viability of the cells by 60% and 35%, respectively, whereas concentrations > 500 ... Ishikawa cells exposed to different mercury concentrations for 24h measured by quantitative RT-PCR. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant ( p
Examination of parameterizations for CCN number concentrations based on in-situ aerosol activation property measurements in the North China Plain
... reference aerosol number concentrations and applied to CCN calculation. Three reference aerosol number concentrations were considered below, namely, (1) total aerosol number concentrations, (2) accumulation mode aerosol number concentrations, and (3) CCN number concentrations assuming ammonium sulfate aerosol. Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive ... series of size-selected CCN number concentrations (NCCN,s (Dp , S)) during these 5 min were matched with the size-selected CN (Condensation Nuclei) number concentrations (NCN,s (Dp )) from CPC. The size-resolved aerosol activation ratios (A(Dp , S) = NCCN,s (Dp , S)/NCN,s (Dp )) were inverted from size-selected CCN number concentrations and PNSD using a ... number concentrations (Figs. 1b and 2b), while simple relationships between other parameters and aerosol properties were not found. C and N could thereby be predicted assuming a linear relationship of aerosol number concentrations (diameter larger than 50 nm) NCN,>50 nm , with other parameters set as the averages during the whole campaign. CCN number concentrations
Oxidation of SO<sub>2</sub> by stabilized Criegee intermediate (sCI) radicals as a crucial source for atmospheric sulfuric acid concentrations
... radicals on the atmospheric concentrations of sulfuric acid for two different stations: SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. Our results show that depending on the concentrations of the organic compounds, their contribution via the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates to atmospheric gas phase sulfuric acid concentrations is crucial at ... basic meteorological parameters, aerosol concentrations, photosynthesis and soil properties. In this work, we utilize measurements of temperature, wind speed, spectral irradiance, global and diffuse solar radiation intensity, SO2 , CO, NO, NOx , O3 , VOC, OH and H2 SO4 concentrations. Furthermore, particle size number concentrations from DMPS (differential ... for all three parameters. However, the ratio between day and night concentrations of the organic compounds, and vice versa, is as is normally observed at Hyytiälä. Daytime concentrations are Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3865–3879, 2013 larger by up to a factor of 10, but the absolute concentrations are similar to those measured at the SMEAR II station.
Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure.
... associated with unfavorable outcomes in consecutive patients . It is almost identical to the concentrations interval seen in healthy individuals . Statistics Data are presented as median (range). Spearman’s rank correlation (rs) was used to compare plasma glutamine concentrations with indices of liver function, and receiver operating characteristic curves ... Sweden * firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Background OPEN ACCESS Citation: Helling G, Wahlin S, Smedberg M, Pettersson L, Tjäder I, Norberg Å, et al. (2016) Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0150440. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0150440 Editor: Sheng-Nan Lu, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, TAIWAN Received: December ... levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations. Methods Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40), acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20), acute fulminant liver failure
Low serum cartonectin/CTRP3 concentrations in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: in vivo regulation of cartonectin by glucose.
... men; however, there were no significant difference with respect to serum cartonectin concentrations [224.1 (98.8– 321.2) vs. 188.9 (100.7–304.0) ng/ml; P.0.05]. Effects of a 2 hour 75 g OGTT in T2DM subjects on serum cartonectin concentrations Glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly higher in T2DM subjects after a 2 hour 75 g OGTT (Figure1A: ... Furthermore, we had observed significantly lower leptin concentrations in our newly diagnosed (first discovery) T2DM subjects (median HbA1c: 7.3%). This is similar with previous publications describing lower leptin concentrations in subjects with poorly controlled T2DM [27,28]. The lower serum cartonectin concentrations in patients with T2DM is bewildering ... increases circulating cartonectin concentrations in insulin resistant women with PCOS . The findings from the current study support this notion. Also, we present novel data that serum cartonectin concentrations were significantly lower in T2DM patients after a 2 hour 75 g OGTT. In contrast, glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly
Influences of in-cloud aerosol scavenging parameterizations on aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in ECHAM5-HAM
... and unlike in a prognostic scavenging scheme, aerosol in-droplet and in-crystal concentrations are not passed between model time-steps. Prognostic aerosol cloud processing schemes have also been recently developed, which do pass aerosol in-droplet, and in-crystal aerosol concentrations between model time-steps (e.g., Ghan and Easter, 2006; Hoose et al., ... nucleation scavenging scheme, which determines stratiform cloud scavenging ratios for both aerosol mass and number distributions, based on cloud droplet, and ice crystal number concentrations, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM global climate model. This scheme is coupled with a size-dependent in-cloud impaction scavenging parameterization for both cloud ... primarily (>90%) attributed to impaction. 99% of this impaction scavenging occurs in clouds with temperatures less than 273 K. Sensitivity studies are presented, which compare aerosol concentrations, burdens, and deposition for a variety of incloud scavenging approaches: prescribed fractions, a more computationally expensive prognostic aerosol cloud processing
Acclimatation de vitroplants de bananier Musa sp. en culture hydroponique: impact de différentes concentrations en cuivre sur la croissance des vitroplants
... contenant chacun 5 l de solution nutritive enrichie en Cu aux concentrations différentes; témoin (zéro CuSO4), 100 ppm, 500 ppm et 1000 ppm constituant les quatre traitements appliqués dans le cadre de cet essai. Ces 111 TROPICULTURA, 2013, 31, 2, 110-120 concentrations sont similaires à des concentrations en Cu total dans le sol de la forêt claire ... biochimiques des espèces des plantes (10). En culture in vitro de bananier, l’effet des concentrations de Cu a été rapporté sur un petit nombre de cultivars (3, 21). Par ailleurs, les résultats des études menées en culture in vitro de bananier suggèrent que les concentrations élevées de Cu (0,64-6,4 ppm), inhibent l’induction de la rhizogénèse, la croissance ... et le vent facilitent ensuite ces métaux toxiques, dont le cuivre, à pouvoir gagner de plus en plus des surfaces, à tel point que les concentrations sont devenues élevées. Les cultures ont difficile à croître suite aux concentrations élevées en cuivre. En raison de la formation du complexe organocuivré, le Cu en excès peut être hautement toxique (18).
Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation
... summer-time CN concentrations exceeding winter-time concentrations by a factor of 2– 10. For example, at Pallas, summertime CN concentrations are about 1250 cm−3 whereas wintertime concentrations are about 250 cm−3. Strong seasonal cycles also exist at some FT sites. At the South Pole summertime CN concentrations are about 250 cm−3 whereas wintertime concentrations ... higher concentrations observed at this site. We did not ﬁlter out a continental inﬂuence so the MBL CN concen- trations we report at these sites may not be representative for the open ocean. In the FT, annual mean CN concentrations are typically 500–2000 cm−3. Lower concentrations are observed at the South Pole in Antarctica (100 cm−3). Observed CN concentrations ... CN number concentrations Simulated surface CN (diameter >3 nm) concentrations for the different experiments described in Sect. 2.2 are shown in Table 1 and Fig. 1. With no particle formation (PRI), surface annual mean (median) CN concentrations are 105 (30) cm−3 over the oceans and 640 (107) cm−3 over the continents. The greater simulated concentrations
A case of extreme particulate matter concentrations over Central Europe caused by dust emitted over the southern Ukraine
... instruments. Aerosol parameter Particle number size distribution (0.003–0.8 µm) Particle number size distribution (0.8–8 µm) Mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 Mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 Ion concentrations Method Electromobility analysis Time-of ﬂight size classiﬁcation Light scattering size classiﬁcation Gravimetry of ... 5500 VDI (1999) Metal concentrations Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) DIN (1998) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 997–1016, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/997/2008/ W. Birmili et al.: Extreme particulate matter concentrations over Central Europe 1001 2.3 PM10 network observations PM10 mass concentrations are ... now with respect to chemical particle composition. 4.4.3 Ti and Fe in in bulk PM10 Iron (Fe) and Titanium (Ti) concentrations in daily PM10 samples are depicted as a function of time in Fig. 12. Like PM10 mass concentrations, extremely high concentrations up to 0.36 µg m−3 (Ti) and 4.4 µg m−3 (Fe) were observed at all measurement sites in Saxony on March
Quantifying lower tropospheric methane concentrations using GOSAT near-IR and TES thermal IR measurements
... for quantifying both XCH4 and lower tropospheric CH4 concentrations. 4 Conclusions This study shows the potential for estimating lowertropospheric methane concentrations using a combination of thermal IR and reﬂected sunlight measurements. Here we report monthly averaged lower tropospheric methane concentrations (lowermost 250 hPa of the atmosphere) ... latitude/longitude grid making these data suitable for evaluating lower-tropospheric methane concentrations. Smoothing error is approximately 10 ppb or less. Comparisons between these data and the GEOS-Chem model demonstrate that these lower-tropospheric CH4 estimates can resolve enhanced concentrations over ﬂux regions that are challenging to resolve with total column ... atmospheric methane concentrations (e.g., Frankenberg et al., 2005, 2011; Worden et al., 2012) that in turn have provided new insights into the role of wetlands (e.g., Bloom et al., 2010), ﬁres (e.g., Worden et al., 2012, 2013), the stratosphere (e.g., Xiong et al., 2013), and anthropogenic emissions (e.g. Kort et al., 2014) on tropospheric methane concentrations.
Population PK/PD model of homocysteine concentrations after high-dose methotrexate treatment in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
... patients were excluded due to missing MTX concentrations and one because of implausible MTX plasma concentrations. The main demographic characteristics of the remaining 494 patients are listed in Table 1. For these 494 patients, 6722 MTX plasma concentrations were determined. From this population 2567 HCY plasma concentrations were determined in 414 patients ... with MTX concentrations .1.0 mM at 42 hours and continued until the MTX concentration was less than 0.1 mM. Sampling and Assays During window therapy, plasma MTX concentrations were measured at 4, 24 and 42 hours after start of infusion, whereas during consolidation therapy plasma MTX concentrations were assessed at 6, 23 and 42 hours. MTX concentrations ... differences in maximum HCY plasma concentrations of those two subpopulations could not been shown. Any further increase in HCY concentrations was subsequently covered by the folinate rescue therapy antagonizing the inhibition of HCY degradation. This is also consistent with earlier findings presented in literature, as elevated HCY concentrations were observed
The relationship between aerosol and cloud drop number concentrations in a global aerosol microphysics model
... CDN85: same as CDN15 but the 85th percentile value. High CDN concentrations occur (for a given aerosol number concentration) when the mean diameter of the accumulation mode is large and low CDN concentrations occur when the accumulation mode diameter is small. Thus, the variability in the CDN 5 concentrations in Fig. 2 can be explained in terms of variations ... (within the range of aerosol number concentrations in the region). Extrapolating from this region does well in some regions, but fails to capture the higher than average CDN concentrations in regions where 15 cloud processing is extensive (leading to 10–25% biases). It also fails to capture the lower than average CDN concentrations in some continental ... are broadly in line with observations; in clean marine regions concentrations of 25–100 cm−3 are predicted (cf. an average of 40 cm−3, Bennart, 2007), this increases to 100–400 cm−3 in polluted marine regions (cf. 170–500, Meskhidze et al., 2005; Menon et al., 2003). Polluted continental CDN concentrations are underestimated (300–600 cm−3) compared to
The first estimates of global nucleation mode aerosol concentrations based on satellite measurements
... parcels are diluted very rapidly (Kerminen et al., 2004). In urban areas with primary nucleation resulting from trafﬁc exhaust, concentrations of nucleation mode particles have been observed to correlate with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations (e.g. Fernandez-Camacho, 2010). When spread over larger volumes of ambient air, primary nuclei are expected to ... the satellite-derived AOD has been successfully used to trace surface particulate matter concentrations in air quality applications (Hoff and Christopher, 2009), in addition to which it has turned out to be a good tracer for atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei concentrations (Andreae, 2009). Second, both vapor condensation and light scattering are ... 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/10791/2011/ M. Kulmala et al.: Global nucleation mode aerosol concentrations 10795 Table 1. Mean, median and percentiles (10th and 90th) for the measured data set used in the comparison of proxy performance in Hyytia¨la¨. Measured nucleation mode particle concentrations Nnuc were compared to Eq. (9) (proxy utilizing UVB, SO2, CS and
Serum protein concentrations of captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) determined by means of agarosis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE) gel electrophoresis.
... ration and green roughage. Serum protein concentrations in agarosis gel revealed the presence of four protein fractions: albumin, alphaglobulin, betaglobulin, and gammaglobulin. Only serum concentrations of albumin were influenced by season, being values in spring higher than values in summer (4.15 x 3.64g/dl). Serum concentrations of albumin (4.05 x 3.75g/dl) ... prognóstico de doenças inflamatórias, nutricionais e imunomediadas. Palavras-chave: veado-catingueiro, proteinograma, eletroforese, SDS-PAGE ABSTRACT The serum protein concentrations of brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) obtained by agarosis gel and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE) gel were determined from blood samples ... 2008 Comunicação [Communication] Proteinograma sérico de veados-catingueiro (Mazama gouazoubira) criados em cativeiro obtido por eletroforese em gel de agarose e de poliacrilamida (SDS PAGE) [Serum protein concentrations of captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) determined by means of agarosis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE) gel electrophoresis] A.M.
Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.
Lead concentrations in the blood of children from pottery-making families exposed to lead salts in a Mexican village
... into four groups whose blood lead concentrations were in the ranges of O-20, 2140, 41-60, and over 60 pg %. As this division shows, considerable numbers of exposed and control children were found to have blood lead concentrations in the ranges of O-20 and 2 l-40 pg % . However, none of the control children had blood lead concentrations above 40 pg % , considered ... significant p
Isolation of S. typhi resistant to high concentrations of chloramphenicol
... cephalothin, colistin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, and nalidixic acid at concentrations varying from 0.6 to 5 pg/ml. However, 88 of these cultures resisted over 200 pg/ml. of chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and streptomycin. The 12 sensitive cultures were inhibited by these three antibiotics at concentrations of lessthan 5 /-%/ml. Table 3 showsthe phage-typedistribution ... has been considered the drug of choice for treating typhoid fever. Nevertheless, several published articles have reported finding strains of Salmonella @phi resistant to high concentrations of chloramphenicol in various countries of Asia and Africa. The percentage of resistant strains is said to have run as high as 20 per cent in India and 25 per cent ... tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, cephalothin, colistin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, and nitrofurantoin-see Table 2). In both of these experiments the following drug concentrations were tested: 0.6, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50,100,200,300,400, and 500 pg/ml. In addition, the phage-typesof 49 of the S. typhi cultures were determined at the Center for