Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of the Llandovery in northern peri-Gondwana: new data from the Barrandian area, Czech Republic
... Radotín tunnel and Hlásná Třebaň) of the Barrandian area (Štorch 1994; Fig. 1). Richly fossiliferous Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Barrandian area belong to a world-class natural heritage site. Unmetamorphosed and tectonically little deformed Ordovician to Middle Devonian deposits preserved in the Barrandian area unconformably overlie the Neoproterozoic ... graptolite biozones). Key words: carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, Llandovery, Barrandian area, northern peri-Gondwana, Czech Republic. INTRODUCTION GEOLOGICAL SETTING On-going systematic search for major δ13C excursions in the Silurian strata of the Barrandian area of northern peri-Gondwana revealed five excursions: (a) a positive excursion associated ... September 2014 Abstract. The first complete δ13Corg record of the uppermost Hirnantian to lower Telychian strata of the Barrandian area (northern peri-Gondwana) is presented based on 168 new samples. The new data from the study area reveal that the evolution of the Llandoverian organic carbon isotope reservoir was similar to that on other palaeoplates,
Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with COPD in Taiwan.
... Taichung, Taiwan Abstract Aim: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the associated risk factors for patients with COPD. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled ... countries. Hyperlipidemia, old age, hypertension, and smoking burden were the associated cardiovascular risk factors. However, there was no association between lung function and PAD in the COPD patients. Citation: Lin M-S, Hsu K-Y, Chen Y-J, Chen C-R, Chen C-M, et al. (2013) Prevalence and Risk Factors of Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with COPD in ... email@example.com studies regarding the prevalence and risk factors of PAD in patients with COPD in Asia. The primary end point of this study was to determine the prevalence of low ankle-brachial index (ABI,0.9) in COPD patients in Taiwan. The secondary end point was to evaluate the risk factors for PAD and further to investigate whether PAD was associated
Association between CTLA-4 60G/A and -1661A/G polymorphisms and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis.
... 2. Meta-analysis of the CTLA-4 60G/A (rs3087243) polymorphism and cancer risk. The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e83710 The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk Figure 2. Forest plot of the association between cancer risk and the CTLA-4 60G/A polymorphism using the homozygote model (AA vs. ... of the CTLA-4 -1661A/G (rs4553808) polymorphism and cancer risk. The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e83710 The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk Figure 3. Overall association between the CTLA-4 -1661A/G polymorphism and cancer risk for all subjects using the heterozygote model (GA vs. ... G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk 31. Bharti V, Mohanti BK, Das SN (2013) Functional genetic variants of CTLA-4 and risk of tobacco-related oral carcinoma in high -risk North Indian population. Hum Immunol 74: 348–352. 32. Feng D, Yang X, Li S, Liu T, Wu Z, et al. (2013) Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 genetic variants and risk of Ewing’s sarcoma. Genet
Public health risk analysis through evaluation of drinking water safety
... L, 7. 8. 9. 10. Bartram J, editors. Water quality - Guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for waterrelated infectious disease. London: IWA Publishing; 2001. p. 61–88. Ivetić M, Kostić D. Analysis and evaluation of risk regarding safe water supply – examples from Serbian and the world. Conference on the modern civil ... microbiological or biological factors) of some water-related diseases. The current PH risk analysis approach concerning drinking water is based on cause-effect relations and probabilities of unwanted events, i.e. human exposure to CTs. This approach fails to capture all of the risk factors involved, valuable data on exposure to given hazards. During the water usage ... and complemented by paradigm shift. Breaking away from risk, which seeks for adverse events, we could look into safety, which seeks for proper way of doing things. A novel approach, systems-theoretic accident model and processes (STAMP) 10, originated from safety and resilience engineering, is proposed to expand traditional risk analysis which is primarily based on
INTRODUCTION A National park is an area set aside by a national government for the preservation of the natural environment. The World Conservation Union defines a National park as a natural area designated to protect the ecological integrity of one or mor
... Pakistan. Received 27.05.2011; accepted 10.08.2011; printed 30.09.2011 INTRODUCTION A National park is an area set aside by a national government for the preservation of the natural environment. The World Conservation Union defines a National park as a natural area designated to protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations. ... significant native flora. A list of plant species present in the study area is provided in Table 1. Apart from their importance from ecological point of view few species are used as medicinal herbs by local inhabitants. Observed biodiversity of occuring species indicate that this area can be used for conservation of native flora. 116 SHEIKH SAEED ... demarcation study area was divided into two zones. Zone 1 was located about 1 m from the walking track. 60 quadrats were laid down along both sides (30 quadrats on each side). Quadrat method was used for the collection of vegetation data. Quadrat size of 1×1 m was selected because a high number of herbs and shrubs were present in the area. Within each
Urbanization and the Risk of Flooding In the Congo; Case of The City Of Brazzaville
... because of the explosive urban growth coming from rural areas. The rural exodus leads to negative consequences in both urban and rural areas. In rural areas, rural lose bodied men actually had to work hard to feed the urban populations. Some villages also disappear because of the rural exodus. In urban areas, the increase in population leads to many evils ... longitude 15degrés16 East. His current area of 263.9 km 2 with a population of 1 .373 .382. Inhabitants (CNSEE 2007)), a 5204hab / Km2 density. III. CAUSES OF URBAN GROWTH '' In urban areas, the demo-economic approach invites to remember that cities have the function to attract as many people as compatible with basic needs in urban areas. A city without poor ... their lives. Build quality urban roads in order to guide rain water. Enforce action with respect to any resident who tried to settle in areas at risk. Post a law of the land use which is to ban the sale of plots in swampy areas. Since the city is built on a soft rock which is the sand, the state must build for vulnerable population’s quality of social housing
Clinical outcomes in low risk coronary artery disease patients treated with different limus-based drug-eluting stents--a nationwide retrospective cohort study using insurance claims database.
... patients) concluded that there was no significant difference regarding the risk of cardiac death or MI between EES and SES but a significant reduction in the risk of repeated revascularization in the EES arm was noted. In our study, we observed no significant difference regarding the risks of all-cause mortality, acute coronary events, HF needing hospitalization, ... characteristics was used to compare the relative risks of different outcomes among the three different limus-based DES. Totally, 6584 patients were evaluated (n=2142 for SES, n=3445 for E-ZES, and n=997 for EES). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no statistically significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality in three DES groups ... and 39 in the EES group [3.9%]). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no statistically significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality in the three DES groups in spite of a trend of lower risk in EES group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94–1.38, p = 0.20 in E-ZES group compared with SES
THE SNOW DRIFT POTENTIAL IN THE PLAIN AREA OF BUZĂU COUNTY
... sheltered areas (O'Rourke et al., 2002). Sheltered areas in terms of land use, are the human goals present in 6% of the study area, but also the patches of forest that extend over approximately 5294 ha. It should be noted that growing areas in the study area, which are present mainly in the plain region contact with Istriţei Hill on about 4% of the study area, ... share of these areas is about 83%. The average of snow-drifts potential index (SDPI = 6-8), in case of blizzard phenomena occurs, appears in approximately 14% of the study area. Areas of potential in that class are the growing zones, wetlands and areas exposed in South-Eastern and North-West of contact with the hilly plain area. The plain areas of Buzău ... snow-drifts potential (SDPI = 8-10) are the built-up areas of villages under full field exposure in West, south and south-west areas, and areas where the environmental factors overlaps the snow-drifts potential. This potential class is specific in the most villages of the study area and the proportion of areas with high levels of SPDI is 2%. This phenomenon
Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand
... the distribution of heavy metals in the study area. The surface sediments were collected from 24 stations along the study sites which were divided into 3 zones symbolically: A, B and C representing industrial (near Map Ta Phut industrial estate), urban community and agriculture or conservative land use areas, respectively (Fig. 1). At each station, ... Wang-Ta-Nord C B8 102°08' E 102°14' E C7 B1 B2 B3 B6 B7 B9 B10 (B) Chanthaburi Figure 1. The three river basins of Chanthaburi coastal area and sampling stations Figure 1. The three river basins of Chanthaburi coastal area and sampling stations 135 C1 C6 C5 (C) Welu C2 C3 C4 136 Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean SD 1.536 2.511 1.045 2.209 3.039 1.577 1.542 2.075 1.084 1.818 0.525 Pb World ... coastal area of Chanthaburi Province J. Potipat et al. / EnvironmentAsia 8(1) (2015) 133-143 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. The concentration of heavy metals and sediment characteristics The average variation of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of 133-143 the river J. Potipat et al. / EnvironmentAsia 8(1) (2015) basin of coastal area of
Genetic variation in selenoprotein genes, lifestyle, and risk of colon and rectal cancer.
... modify the risk associated with the genes. We observed that TNXRD1 and TNXRD2 interacted with both aspirin and cigarette smoking to alter colon and rectal cancer risk. TNXRD3 also interacted with aspirin/ NSAID use to modify risk of rectal cancer, in that those with the variant genotype who did not use aspirin/NSAID had a similar reduced risk of rectal ... genotype of these candidate selenoprotein genes. TXNRD1, TXNRD2, TXNRD3, and SelN1 interacted with BMI to alter risk of colon cancer and TXNRD1 interacted with BMI to statistically alter risk associated with rectal cancer (Table 5). The adjusted risk for SelN1 and colon cancer and both TXNRD1 SNPs and rectal cancer remained statistically significant after ... genes, TXNRD2, SelS, SeP15, and SelW1 and estrogen status for both colon and rectal cancer (Table 4). While the variant alleles often increased risk among those not exposed to estrogen, they appeared to reduce risk among those exposed to estrogen. Roughly 50% of the SNPs initially associated showed a significant interaction after adjustment for multiple
Influence of anisotropy on velocity and age distribution at Scharffenbergbotnen blue ice area
... Scharﬀenbergbotnen valley, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The domain encompasses a high accumulation rate region and, downstream 5 a sublimation-dominated bare ice ablation area. The ablation ice area is notable for having old ice at its surface since the vertical velocity is upwards, and horizontal velocities are almost stagnant there. We compare the model ... that the importance of anisotropy has been demonstrated in the ice dynamics of a blue ice area. This is useful to understand ice ﬂow in order to better interpret archives of ancient ice for paleoclimate research. TCD 7, 3059–3093, 2013 Scharﬀenbergbotnen blue ice area T. Zwinger et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back Close Full ... References Tables Figures Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion 3060 1 Introduction Blue ice areas (BIAs) make up about 1 % of the surface area of Antarctica (Bintanja, 1999). They are usually formed where removal of snow fall by wind exceeds precipitation (Crary and Wilson, 1961), though low
RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESSES IN SUPPLY CHAINS
... change respondents identified this risk as the top risk 2 42% of the The level Rising transportation costs respondents of risk identified this went risk as the top down by 9 risk points, 51% to 42% 3 38% of the The level Commodity price volatility respondents of risk identified this went risk as the top down by 5 risk points, 43% ... 2, 2009 1 risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. 2.3.1 Risk identification It is often useful to consider categories of risks as a starting point to guide organizations in an initial assessment of their supply chains. Many authors have their own opinion of identifying Supply chain risks. Thinking broadly, risks in supply chains ... chains Risks can be seen as internal or external to the focal firm, and be seen as internal or external to the supply chain: • Process risk • Control risk • Supply risk • Demand risk • Environmental risk Figure 3 – risks in supply chains AMR Research is company that provides A. Aleksić, B.Jeremić, M. Stefanović, M. Đapan 2 comprehensive research
Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.
... Mediterranean Marine Protected Area Planning Fig 1. The area of interest (AOI): the proposed MPA. (A) Detailed view of the currently proposed Rosh Hanikra protected area. (B) The Mediterranean Sea coast of Israel with the six new and/or expanded reserves proposed by the INPA (in green). The northernmost proposed MPA is the area originally proposed for ... Mediterranean Marine Protected Area Planning conflicts by Davies et al. . Moffet & Sarkar's  paper, termed a “mini-review” by the authors, deals exclusively with the use of MCA for the design of conservation area networks. Moffett & Sarkar  suggest that MCA is inappropriate for decision making about conservation area networks when there is ...  review of 312 papers presenting cases of MCA being used for environmental decision-making, protected area management is not even designated as a category of application. The planning of protected area zoning—frequently used for protected area management— requires choosing among possible scenarios. Therefore, MCA is highly applicable despite overall
Epidemiology and Clinical Burden of Malaria in the War-Torn Area, Orakzai Agency in Pakistan.
... collection site (Orakzai Agency: black area) in FATA, Pakistan. FATA (gray): Federally Administered Tribal Areas, KPK: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, AK: Azad Kashmir. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004399.g001 PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases | DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004399 January 25, 2016 3 / 12 Malaria in the War-Torn Pakistani Area shown in Fig 1). Keeping ... . The collapse of the program resulted in the re-emergence of malaria, and turned the region into a malaria endemic area. After the Soviet war, Afghanistan and the nearby Pakistani regions, specifically the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA, a semi-autonomous territory running along the Pakistan–Afghanistan border) transformed into religious ... impoverished and extremely underdeveloped area in the Pakistan has the highest malaria burden due to the large Afghan refugees and IDPs . Social development gages are appallingly low. There are only 41 hospitals for a population of 3.1 million. The Orakzai Agency (Fig 1) has been one of the most neglected areas in FATA during the multi-decade-long
Comorbidity of depression and type 2 diabetes: Risk factors and clinical significance
... Depression as a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2006; 49(5): 837–45. 23. Cosgrove MP, Sargeant LA, Griffin SJ. Does depression increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes? Occup Med (Lond) 2008; 58(1): 7–14. 24. Brown LC, Majumdar SR, Newman SC, Johnson JA. History of depression increases risk of type ... dijabetes melitus, insulin-nezavisni; depresija; komorbiditet; faktori rizika; kvalitet života; antidepresivi. Key words: diabetes mellitus, type 2; depression; comorbidity; risk factors; quality of life; antidepressive agents. Uvod Epidemiološki podaci pokazuju da će se broj osoba obolelih od dijabetesa skoro udvostručiti, sa 2,8% 2000. na 4,4%, ... committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(Supp l): S5–20. 3. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2002. Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: WHO; 2002. Also available from: htpp://www.who.int/whr. 4. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause
Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure.
... on demographic characteristics and medical history at the same time when the health examination was performed. Data Analysis To identify the risk factors for CKD, we compared the prevalence of each potential risk factor between participants with and without CKD and evaluated the differences using chi-square tests. We adopted the normal ranges in our ... according to a previous survey of a representative sample of the whole Taiwan area . We also divided the participants by quartiles of PCDD/Fs and evaluated the differences in eGFR among the groups by analysis of variance (ANOVA). To evaluate the effects of potential risk factors, we performed univariate logistic regressions and calculated the odds ... “full model” in the initial analysis which included all potential risk factors and a “final model” in the further analysis which included predictors with statistical significance only. In both analyses, an adjusted odd ratio (AOR) and the associated 95% CI were calculated for each potential risk factor. In building the “final model,” we applied a stepwise
Modeling social heterogeneity, neighborhoods and local influences on urban real state prices: spatial dynamic analyses in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, Brazil
... 8.8 8.8.1 8.8.2 8.8.3 8.8.4 8.8.5 Application: cellular automata model for the Greater Area of Belo Horizonte (1897-1991) Objective of the application Definition of actors Exogenous historical features implemented Application data Workspace: study area Exogenous demand Accessibility Possible scenarios: data Model application time scheme ... Radial distribution of actors from the city center – RMBH – 2000 138 7.5 Evolution of occupation of high-income residential areas from 1991 to 2000 139 7.6 Evolution of occupation of low-income residential areas from 1991 to 2000 140 7.7 Map of price per square meter for Belo Horizonte, 2007. Source: elaboration of the author ... Urban occupation in Belo Horizonte 1930 78 4.6 Urban occupation in Belo Horizonte 1940 79 4.7 Urban occupation in Belo Horizonte 1964 80 4.8 Official urban areas RMBH 2000 81 4.9 Evolution of RMBH municipalities boundaries from 1893 to 1996 83 5.1 Synthesis of the indicators used to describe the urban fabric 90 5.2
Epidemiologic identification of infants with low birth weight in urban areas of Latin America:: II A simplified risk score for early prenatal
... Riskscore basedon attributablerisk .40 50 60 70 30 ,.90 1.00 1 - speclfrcltyi 100 Figure 2. Receiver operating characteristics curve for the LBW risk scores of 6,542 study women. The white dots represent risk scores based on odds ratios, while the black dots represent risk scores based on attributable risk. me 2 compares the risk scores reflecting odds ... < 10th percentile aThe attributable risk for the total population (as a percentage of the total risk) is expressed by the following equation: Attributable risk (%) = 1OOF (OR - 1) 1 +F(OR-1) where F is the decimal portion of the population with the risk factor present and OR is the odds ratio. the particular risk factor in question from the population. This ... (the only risk scores we have employed up to this point, see Table 1) with other risk scores reflecting population-attributable risks (see the right-hand column of Table 3 for this risk score index). No significant differences were observed in the results obtained with the two methods. DISCUSSION In illustrating our method of deriving a risk score
Risk of cholera transmission by foods
... treated and disposed of to avoid contamination of harvest areas by human enteric pathogens. Effective enforcement needs to be maintained to prevent harvesting of shellfish from areas known to be sewagecontaminated. Monitoring programs must be established for Vibrio species in molluscan shellfish growing areas, especially during warm months. National standards ... surface waters not known to be fecally contaminated and in areas where no human infection has been recorded, including brackish and estuarine environments (20-12). Although the organism may be present naturally in the marine environment, the small number of seafood-linked cases in nonendemic areas (for example, on the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United ... contaminated during handling. The consumption of fresh raw fishery products poses the greatest risk, although the potential for disease transmission also exists with frozen, iced, or refrigerated seafood. Since freezing does not kill the organisms effectively, previously frozen seafood still poses a risk if eaten raw or allowed to cross-contaminate other foods. Because K
CD31.R13: Actions taken in regard to the elimination and functions of the area offices of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau
... 1985 RESOLUTION CD31.R13 ACTIONS TAKEN IN REGARD TO THE ELIMINATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE AREA OFFICES OF THE PAN AMERICAN SANITARY BUREAU THE 31st DIRECTING COUNCIL, Having seen the report presented by the Director on the actions taken in regard to the elimination and functions of the Area Offices of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (Document CD31/11); Considering
Leptospirosis as an animal and public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean area
... Argentina. In the developing countries, however, especially rhose of Latin America and the Caribbean area, the situation is quite different. About 50 per cent of the population still lives in rural areas in close contact with a large variety of animals and exposed to high risk of infection. The application of modern technology to agricultural practices has come ... been isolated in Latin HEALTH 123 PROBLEM America and the Caribbean area. Several of them are autochthonous and have not been described from other geographic areas. In view of the present status of leptospirosis, the strengthening of public and animal health services in this area is a must. To this end it will be necessary to train personnel in diagnosis ... cent), followed by canicokz (27.3 per cent) and icterohaemorrhagiue (23.7 per cent). Some 85 per cent of these patients were from the rural or suburban areas. Two groups were recognized as particularly at risk - agricultural irrigation workers and swineherds. This occupational aspect of the disease is emphasized by both the fact that males were predominantly
Planejamento de saude em area programatica brasileira
... material resources of the area a program of activities for the period 1968-1972 was prepared. The results obtained indicate that these methods can be used in underdeveloped areas and that tbey represent a valuable tool for improving the utilization of the available health resources, according to the needs and possibilities of such areas. de la santé dans ... Brazil, chosen as the programming and priority area. In this work the methods of local and public sector programming recommended by the Pan Ameritan Health Organization were used. For a better evaluation of the problem under consideration, a similar study was made in another country of the same region where FSESP 291 s~úDe Area in Brazil (Summury) operates
Fomento de la salud de los trabajadores : Aportes del area médica
... tipos de tarea exponen al trabajador, el equipo médico puede programar la colocación selectiva de individuos para evitar que ejecuten funciones perjudiciales para su propia salud o para la de otras personas (30, 32, 33). Sobre la base del conocimiento psicosomático del hombre así como de las exigencias y características de las distintas tareas, se pueden tomar ... Informe final del Taller de Expertos sobre Enseñanza de la Salud Ocupacional en el Area Médica. Washington, D C, junio de 1986. 8 El-Batawi, M. A. Capacitación médica en salud ocupacional. Documento de trabajo preparado para el Taller sobre Enseñanza de la Salud Ocupacional en el Area Médica. Washington, D C, junio de 1986. 9 Organización Mundial de la Salud. ... no se han diseminado al punto que * La “enfermedad profesional” está legalmente definida en todos los países. Es el estado patológico que se produce como consecuencia de la tarea que desarrolla normalmente el trabajador o de la acción reiterada de los factores de riesgo relacionados con el trabajo. Debe existir relación de causa a efecto para que la enfermedad
Selection of mothers with increased risk of delivery low birthweight newborns at a public maternity hospital in Rosario, Argentina
... schooling) Beltin et al. Screeningfor Low Birthweight Risk 415 15. Siblings (mother two live children) has more than Once the cutoff points were established, the relative risk and the attributable risk were calculated for each variable (see Tables l-3). Relative risk is the extent to which a particular risk factor increases the likelihood that affected ... Birthweight Risk 417 Table 3. Apparent influence of the 15 risk factors upon preterm deliveries among infants born to the 1,209 study mothers. The overall incidence of preterm delivery was 16.3%. Risk factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8a 8b 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Risk factor incidence in study population (%) Incidence of prematurity (%) Relative risk 21.4 25.4 1.81 (1.40-3.13) 14.8 17.8 1.02 (0.58-1.85) 0.3 11.3 11.5 1.29 (0.67-2.89) 3 5.0 15.4 1.79 (0.73-6.03) 4 16.9 1.07 2.04 (0.57-2.20) (1.35-4.74) (0.74-1.68) Low ... .67) (0.34-l .03) Risk Attributable risk W) 8 5 1 incomplete primary 15 416 schooling) Siblings (22 live children) Bulletin of PAHO 23(4), 1989 4 -18 Table 2. Apparent influence of the 15 risk factors upon intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) among infants born to the 1,209 study mothers. The overall incidence of IUCR was 6.8%. Risk factor Low
Community health workers in a Peruvian slum area: An evaluation of their impact on health behavior
... statements about causes of health problems in the three slum areas involved. These statements indicate that the residents had a better understanding of health problems’ causes in the area served by the health promoters and field auxiliaries (Area 1) than in the control area served by neither (Area 2). In general, the people interviewed showed considerable ... the area served by the health promoters. Health Behavior The data in Table 4 indicate that the percentage of fully vaccinated children was nearly twice as high in the area Table 3. Causes of health problems in the slum area, as perceived by the persons interviewed in the household survev. % of all answers citing the indicated cause Area 1a Area ... answersp) (142) (244) (210) (Total number of interviewed households) (82) (152) (130) aAreaserved by health promoters and field auxiliaries. bAreaserved by neither health promoters nor field auxiliaries (control area) .