Quality Of Health Care

Expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 in muscle is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance and lipid disturbances in patients with HIV.

... several measurement of insulin resistance. (A) Fasting plasma levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 are increased 2-fold in HIV subjects with lipodystrophy compared to healthy men; (B) mRNA expression of FGF-21 are increased 8-fold in muscle biopsies from HIV subjects with lipodystrophy compared to healthy men; (C–F) Plots of FGF-21 mRNA in muscle ... Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, 3 Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4 Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Department of Human Physiology, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract Background: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a novel regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, increased FGF-21 ... subjects. Compared to controls, HIV subjects demonstrated a twofold increase of plasma FGF-21 from 70.4656.8 pg/ml vs 109.1671.8 pg/ml, respectively (p = 0.04) and an eight-fold increase in muscular FGF-21 mRNA expression (p = 0.001). Muscle FGF-21 mRNA correlated inversely with the rate of disappearance of glucose during insulin clamp (r = 20.54, p = 0.0009),
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The Divergent Intracellular Lifestyle of Francisella tularensis in Evolutionarily Distinct Host Cells.

... Grant of University of Rijeka (Grant No. 811.10.1111). YAK is supported by Public Health Service Award 1R01AI120244 and R21AI116517 from the National Institute of Health and by the Commonwealth of Kentucky Research Challenge Trust Fund. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the ... Intracellular Lifestyle of Francisella tularensis in Evolutionarily Distinct Host Cells Mateja Ozanic1, Valentina Marecic1, Yousef Abu Kwaik2, Marina Santic1* 1 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Rijeka, Medical faculty, Rijeka, Croatia, 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Center for Predictive Medicine, College of Medicine, ... essential for the ability of Francisella to escape from the Francisella-containing phagosome (FCP) into the cytoplasm and for pathogenesis of tularemia in vivo [17]. The FPI genes iglA, iglB, iglD, pdpA, vgrG, and iglI are also required for intracellular growth and virulence of F. tularensis [10,18]. Although the mechanism of escape of Francisella from the
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Europium nanoparticle-based high performing immunoassay for the screening of treponemal antibodies.

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Modelling multi-phase halogen chemistry in the coastal marine boundary layer: investigation of the relative importance of local chemistry vs. long-range transport

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Interaction pattern of Arg 62 in the A-pocket of differentially disease-associated HLA-B27 subtypes suggests distinct TCR binding modes.

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Microbial contamination of disinfectants and antiseptics in four major hospitals in Trinidad

... 108 colony-forming units per mL of disinfectant/antiseptic, with the possibility of attaining an infective dose at the site of application (8, 9). The public health significance of the use of contaminated disinfectants/antiseptics in neonatal units, surgical wards, and intensive care units cannot be overemphasized. Reports of epidemics of nosocomial bacterial ... the sensitivity of the bacteria to antimicrobial agents. Trinidad and Tobago, a twin-island republic in the Caribbean, has a population of 1.3 million people. Its health care system, which is currently undergoing structural reform, consists of a combination of public establishments (government hospitals, health centers, 194 and other health institutions) ... the questionnaires, we selected four health institutions, as these four prepared and utilized the largest volumes of disinfectants and antiseptics purchased by the Government and distributed to the pharmacy departments of these public health care institutions. These four hospitals are the largest public health care institutions in Trinidad. Three of these hospitals are located
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The regulation of privacy and data protection in the use of electronic health information: an international perspective and reference source on regulatory and legal issues related to person-identifiable health database

... the  future  of? ? healthcare.  They  reinforce,  complement,  and enhance  existing  health? ? programs  and  healthcare  delivery  systems, offer  new solutions  for  health? ? interventions,  and  create  the  opportunity for  the  establishment  and  operation  of? ? innovative  practice  models. Telemedicine or Telehealth  is a prime example? ?of? ?such applications  ... in connection with the delivery? ?of? ?healthcare  services, healthcare  financing,  or  health? ? services  research.  Group  providers  and healthcare  organizations  in  the  United  States  (Kaiser­Permanente, Mayo  Clinic,  Veterans  Administration,  Department  of? ? Defense, Louisiana  State University Medical  Center,  Indiana  University School  of Medicine,  Columbia  ... regardless whether they are collected offline or online. Health? ? professionals,  legislators,  and  other  interested  parties  will  find  in  this publication  of? ?the  Essential  Drugs  and Technology  Program,  Division  of? ? Health Systems  and  Services  Development,  a  valuable,  carefully  researched,  and extensively  referenced  source  of? ? information  on 
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The shape of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico

... criteria of CD4 cell counts of less than 200/µL and/or CD4 percent- Rev Panam Salud Publica/Pan Am J Public Health 7(6), 2000 ages of less than 14%; that was true for 44.7% of the Puerto Rican AIDS population (4). In the Human Retrovirus Registry of the Universidad Central del Caribe in Bayamón, great emphasis has been placed on the study of the natural history ... from homes where one or both parents have a history of drug use or of risky sexual activities. These families have multiple needs and will often have to rely on external sources of assistance (31). In most countries around the world the majority of new HIV infections occur in people between the ages of 15 and 24, often resulting from risky sexual behaviors. ... assess the characteristics of a subgroup of 123 HIV patients 55 years and older within a larger cohort study in the Human Retrovirus Registry of the Bayamón health region.6 Preliminary results revealed that only 23 of these elderly persons (18.7%) were employed. Among the persons in this subgroup 67% of the females and 52% of the males reported having heterosexual
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The Pan American Sanitary Code: Toward a Hemispheric Health Policy

... of Public Health and Chief of the Department of Public Health History of the National School of Public Health, Ministry of Public Health, Calle 150 entre 31 y 25, Cubanacán, Municipio Playa, Havana, Cuba. 2 Former professor (deceased) of the School of Medicine, Central University of Quito, Ecuador. 3 Chief of the Publications Program, Pan American Health ... early decades of the 19th century, the office of health inspector had been instituted in the country’s main cities. T he office was responsible for health administration, control of epidemics, and collection and processing of statistical data. T he cholera epidemics of 1830 and 1849 caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. In the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, ... llamando Finlaísmo. 26 Toward a Hemspheric Health Policy Gubetich (Paraguay), professor at the School of Medicine of the National University of Asunción; Alfonso Pruneda (Mexico), distinguished professor of pathology at the National School of Medicine of Mexico; Charles Mathon (Haiti), renowned professor of clinical medicine at the University of Haiti; Ricardo Gutiérrez
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Efficiency of hospital cholera treatment in Ecuador

... Hermida J, Laspina C, Idrovo F. Improving quality of cholera case management in a hospital setting in Ecuador [draft of report]. Bethesda, Maryland: Quality Assurance Project; 1994. 12. Endsley S, McCarthy D. Field-test of cost elements of revised WHO/PAHO health facility survey [trip report]. Honduras: Pan American Health Organization; 1993. 13. Phillips ... the lack of data available on purchase prices and dates) and then depreciating that at a rate of 14% a year, up to a maximum of 70%. These values were then converted into April 1994 (the start date of the project) sucres on the basis of the cumulative inflation rates in each of the cities between the date of the inventory and the beginning of the project. ... criteria: • location in a zone of high cholera incidence during the research period • previous admission of large numbers of cholera patients • differing levels of complexity Looking at different levels of hospital complexity enabled the results of the study to be extrapolated tentatively to other, similar hospitals in the public health system. The following hospitals
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Ecology of Vibrio cholerae serogroup 01 in aquatic environments

... expedite dissemination and reproduction of the pathogenic microorganism in aquatic environments (39). A laboratory study by Tamplin et al. (37) in Bangladesh indicated that five strains of V. cholerae 01 of clinical origin (three of the classic biotype and two of the El Tor biotype) adhered primarily to the exoskeleton of copepods (Acartia sp., Acartia chilkaensis, ... is capable of detecting viable but nonculturable vibrios, revealed strains of V. cholerae 01 (of unresearched biotype and toxigenicity) in 64% of plankton specimens collected from water at the mouth of the Ganges and Meghna rivers in Bangladesh, even during the interepidemic periods (13). In contrast, when culture methods were used, only 0.3% of plankton ... carried out in Kent, United Kingdom, most environmental isolations of nontoxigenic strains of V. cholerae 01 biotype El Tor occurred during the summer (24). In the frigid waters (12 °C) of the Peruvian side of Lake Titicaca, which is over 3 000 m above sea level, V. cholerae 01 biotype El Tor (of unresearched toxigenicity) was isolated only occasionally and
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Amendments to the staff rules of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau

... practice of the Governing Bodies of PAHO has been to maintain the salary of the Director at the same level as that of the Deputy Director-General of WHO. CE107/14, Page 2 ADD. T (Eng.) The XXMeeting of the Directing Council, in operative paragraph 2 of Resolution XX, requested "the Executive Committee, in case of any future adjustments in respect of ... review. One of these amendments concerns the consolidation of five multiplier points of post adjustment into the net base salaries for the professional and higher graded posts. A consequential adjustment in the salaries of ungraded posts should likewise be considered. At the time of preparation of document CE107/14 the corresponding rates of salaries for ungraded ... maintained at the same official station at the initiative of the Bureau, the payment of the mobility element of the allowance may be extended for a further period of one year. The non-removal element of the allowance is payable at official stations in categories A to E as long as the staff member is not entitled to a removal of household goods under
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Epidemiology and leadership in public health

... effectiveness of health programs and services in improving the health of the population. The Importance of Public Health What is the importance of the public health movement? Returning to Winslow, in a report to the American Public Health Association as Consultant on Accreditation of Schools of Public Health, commented that: The American Public Health Association believes ... s 1 3 4 6 6 4 1 2 3 5 Other 4 1 7 6 9 2 1 4 I 3 7 6 18 18 25 29 26 32 I - - I - 32 32 'Score = 5 x no. of Is + 4 x no. of2 s + 3 x no. of 3s + 2 x no. of4 s + I x no. of 5s. Source: Pan American Health Organization. Health Conditions in the Americas, 1981-84. Volume 1. Washington, D.C., 1986. 2. Support the appointment of leaders of health departments, schools of public health, and departments of community, social and preventive medicine ... from the health, engineering, statistical, social science and other public health disciplines; creating an atmosphere of intellectual excitement, inquiry, experimentation, and exploration of new ways to protect the health of the public; emphasizing the development of true professionals dedicated to public health goals rather than the production of narrow
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Salary of the Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau

... been to maintain the salary of the Director of PASB at the same level as that of the Deputy Director-General of WHO. The XX Meeting of the Directing Council, in operative paragraph 2 of Resolution XX, requested "the Executive Committee, in case of any future salary adjustments in respect of professional and ungraded categories of posts, to make recommendations ... the decision of the General Assembly of the United Nations to revise the schedule of salaries for staff in the professional and higher categories, established the annual net salary of the Deputy Director-General of WHO at 458,892 at the single rate (Resolution 41.14) effective 1 April 1988. It should be pointed out that the recommendation of the Executive Board ... annex to this document. The Committee took note of the practice of the Governing Bodies of PAhO to maintain the salary of the Director of PASB at the same level as that of the Deputy Director-General of WHO, and adopted Resolution XII, which reads as follows: CD33/9 Page 2 (Eng.) THE 101st MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, Considering the revision made
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Health as an economic value in a time of crisis

... living standards. Health occupies a prominent place in economic and social development, because of the sizable investments and expenditures in the sector and also because of the population’s increasing expectations of better achievements. As a result, health has come to be viewed as a value of production, for the study of which the discipline of health economics ... (particularly) health care education; trash collection and care of the environment; utilization of free time; wages; and electrification. Many of these actions are financed by household income and constitute an excellent opportunity for obtaining active participation, both in health promotion and in the direct financing of simplified medical care. Using ... to care for the sick. Universality and equity are the health planners’ criteria and are applicable to both the urban and rural sectors, with establishment of a scale of priorities. Because of the greater demand for servicesarising from higher expectations and larger populations in the face of tight fmancial resource availability, every possible way of
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CD29.R4: Appointment of the External Auditor

... has expressed a willingness to serve as External Auditor of the Pan American Health Organization, RESOLVES To appoint the holder of the office of Comptroller and Auditor General of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland External Auditor of the accounts of the Pan American Health Organization for the financial periods 1984–1985 and ... practice of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization to have the same External Auditor, and that the holder of the office of Comptroller and Auditor General of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, who has been appointed External Auditor of the World Health Organization for the financial periods 1984–1985 and ... PAN AMERICAN? ?HEALTH? ?ORGANIZATION  WORLD? ?HEALTH? ?ORGANIZATION                    29th DIRECTING COUNCIL   35th SESSION OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 26 September – 3 October 1983 RESOLUTION CD29.R4 APPOINTMENT OF THE EXTERNAL AUDITOR THE 29th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Bearing in mind that it has been the practice of the World Health Organization
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CD29.R5: Amendments to the financial regulations of the PAHO

... PAN AMERICAN? ?HEALTH? ?ORGANIZATION  WORLD? ?HEALTH? ?ORGANIZATION                    29th DIRECTING COUNCIL   35th SESSION OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 26 September – 3 October 1983 RESOLUTION CD29.R5 AMENDMENTS TO THE FINANCIAL REGULATIONS OF THE PAHO THE 29th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Having considered the recommendation of the 90th Meeting of the ... consideration that the changes in the Regulations will provide conformity between the Financial Regulations of WHO and PAHO with respect to the availability of appropriations, RESOLVES To approve the changes in the Financial Regulations of the Pan American Health Organization as they appear in Document CD29/31. Sept.–Oct. 1983 OD 192, 52
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Prevention of rheumatic fever

... Health Regulations or of alarming situations, outbreaks, or epidemics of other infectious diseases. * Weekly and/or monthly statistical reports prepared by the ministries of health of the countries and supplied on the PAHO international form. 4 * Epidemiological bulletins (see Table 1) and other official publications of the ministries of health. PAHO, in ... notification of communicable diseases in the Americas is mandated by Articles 3-8 of the Pan American Sanitary Code and Part II of the International Health Regulations. The Pan American Health Organization receives information from the following sources: * Telegrams from ihe countries of the Region reporting cases of diseases subject to the International Health Regulations ... application of secondary prophylaxis to patients who have suffered from rheumatic fever. The activities to be carried out at various levels of the health care services should be programmed so as to allow optimal utilization of available resources. A guide for the programming of activities, including the allocation of functions to staff and calculation of necessary
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First intersectorial meeting on health of man in the Americas: progress report of the Director

... effectiveness of health care will be seriously limited, and even cancelled out, within a short time. This may be seen very clearly where the poor health of a population is a reflection of the living standards of the very low income sectors 1 rather than of a lack of health services; in such cases, even the most complete and high quality health care services can ... the effectiveness of health care has not been questioned. At the theoretical level, this need is self-evident, since it is nothing but a reflection of the complementarity of the factors or conditions essential to survival. If one or more of these factors is missing, e.g., adequate nutrition, education, shelter, environmental sanitation, etc., the effectiveness of health ... not go hand in hand with the delivery of the other basic goods and services essential to subsistence. The Coverage Goal of the Ten-Year Health Plan The above observations are particularly meaningful in the Region of the Americas, since one of the fundamental goals of its Ten-Year Health Plan is to extend coverage of minimum services to the entire unprotected population.
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Request of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas for membership in the PAHO

... ACCEPTANCE OF THE CONSTITUTION AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION The Director General Pan American Health OF Organization. Sir, I have of the Health of The and of of T_is comply amended fully with by the I have Nassau, Pan obligations Bahamas The is the the on 26 Bahamas of the membership Government in with Pan to and Health and on the Article Pan 2A of the Protocol States in independent wishes prepared in Health Pan an to become a Organization. members American of became 1973 willing Member honour for July, additional other behalf accordance American provisions the on Organization. imposed of the in 10th Government with apply, Bahamas, of on the Constitution the the state member financial The Commonwealth sovereign full to Organization Constitution the honour Commonwealth American as the to fulfill accordance Organization, American Sanitary of and the 1952, work of to the the with to Code cooperate Organization. remain, February, 1974 ,_ Paul ... the Pan American Health Organization made by the Minister of External Affairs of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas on behalf of his Government, in a letter dated 26 February 1974, (Eng. CE72/12 Page 2 RESOLVES : i. To take note of the request of the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas for membership in the Pan American Health Organization, and ... Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas is applying for membership in accordance with Article 2-A of the Constitution of PAHO. It has indicated its willingness to comply with its obligations as a Member of PAHO, and to cooperate fully with the other Member Countries. A copy of the Instrument of Acceptance of the Constitution of the Pan American Health
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Proposed program and budget estimates of the WHO for the region of the Americas for 1978-79

... PANAMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION XIX PAN AMERICANSANITARYCONFERENCE XXVI REGIONALCOMMITTEEMEETING WASHINGTON, D.C., U.S.A. September-October I ,i 1974 i Provisional Agenda i Item 18-B CSP19/20 (Eng.) 6 August 1974 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH PROPOSED PROGRAM AND BUDGET ESTIMATES OF THE WORLD THE REGION OF THE AMERICAS FOR 1978-79 HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOR The ... distribution to the Director-General of the World Health Organization for inclusion in the WHO program for 1978-79 by adopting a resolution along the following lines: THE XIX PAN AMERICAN proposed Resolution SANITARY CONFERENCE, Having considered the Proposed Program and Budget Estimates of the World Health Organization for the Region of the Americas for 1976 ... 1977; and needs Recognizing the advisability into future years, of projecting probable program RESOLVES: To recommend to the Director General that he include in the Program and Budget Estimates of the World Health Organization for 1978 and 1979 the proposed program for the Region of the Americas as detailed in Document CsPIg/20. Annex csP19/20(Eng.) ANNEX oo oo oo olooo _oooo _ olooooooooo r--u_
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Symposium on Education in Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine Education in veterinary public health and preventive medicine, St. Paul, Minnesota, 18-22 March 1968

... strides in the direction of the optimum health of man. RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE SYMPOSIUM RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE SYMPOSIUM THE PROMOTION OF HEALTH Although progress has been made since the 1963 Seminar on the Teaching of Preventive Medicine and Public Health in Schools of Veterinary Medicine, not all of the recommendations of that meeting have been ... education of veterinarians in public health. Dr. Anderson is Mayo Professor and Director of the School of Public Health, University of Minnesota. OBJECTIVES OF THE SYMPOSIUM PEDRO N. ACHA, D.V.M., M.P.H.,* AND HAROLD B. HUBBARD, D.V.M., M.P.H.t In recent years, three Seminars on the Teaching of Preventive Medicine and Public Health in Schools of Veterinary ... Pan American Health Organization to cooperate with the Association of Teachers of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine by providing financial support for the Symposium. Dr. Daniel Cohen, Chief of the Section of Epidemiology and Public Health of the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, expressed on behalf of the Association
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Election of two member countries to fill the vacancies on the Executive Committee

... AMERICAN SANITARY ORGANIZATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION VII Meeting V Meeting Washington, D. C. 9-22 October 1953 I CD7/13 (Eng.) ORIGINAL: Topic 27: SPANISH ELECTION OF TWO MEMBER COUNTRIES TO FILL THE VACANCIES ON THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE CREATED BY THE TERMINATION OF THE PERIODS OF OFFICE OF CHILE AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Pursuant to Article 13-A of the Constitution of the ... Committee "shall be composed of seven Member GCvernments elected by the Council for overlapping terms of three years... A Member Government shall not be eligible for reelection to the Executive Committee until one year has elapsed." The following chart shows the composition of the Executive Committee together with the expiration dates of the terms of the present Members: Executive ... 1955 Mexico October 1954 Panama October 1955 Since the terms of Chile and the Dominican Republic will expire immediately after the current Meeting of the Directing Council, two Member Countries are to be elected to form part of the Executive Committee under the provisions of the Constitution. MEMBERSHIP OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE T COUNTRY From From From E R M S From From From From January
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Remuneration of international staff members of the PASB

... subject to the application of salary differentials designed to equate the salaries of internationally recruited staff in all areas of the world in terms of cost of living and related factors. It is, therefore, the present practice of the Bureau to apply an "initial" cost-ofliving adjustment (plus or minus) in multiples of 10% to 75% of the international salaries ... cost -of- living in a locality and that in New York as of the base date (May 1950) has been established. Subsequent adjustments will be made, based upon significant changes in the cost of living in that locality. '^- V CE19/8 (Eng.) Page 3 Further, the Staff Rules of the Bureau offer certain types of allowances which provide and added source of remuneration ... Fund, and coverage by the Health and Accident Insurance Plan. In order to ensure equity of grade levels throughout the staff, the grade classifications are based on the degrees of responsibility and the duties of each post regardless of geographic location. About a year ago a study was made of the responsibilities and duties of the Zone Representatives
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Scientific institutions en Latin America: National Institute of Hygiene of Ecuador

... manufacture of serums, vaccines, and B.C.G. (tuberculosis vaccine). There will be a special division for the study of plague. The museum will have collections of both rare and common species of Ameritan animals and insects. It is felt that the city of Guayaquil, which was the scene of two great victories of international hygiene (the eradication of yellow ... fever, last case, May, 1918, and of plague, last case, April 14, 1939) is an especially appropriate location for thii center of scientific research. Severa1 of the personnel of the Institute are receiving special training in scientific institutions of the United States, before taking up their new duties. * One of B series of papera describing the prinoipal ... HIGIENE)* AMERICA (INSTITUTO Guayaquil, Ecuador The National Institute of Hygiene of Ecuador has been established by the National Department of Health in response to a long-felt need. In this country, situated in the tropical region of South America, with its variety in climate, its abrupt changes in altitude, and its wide range of agricultura1 production and the diversity in
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