Protective Immunity


... 2008; Maccalli et al., 2009). 3. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM The process of tumor elimination encompasses both innate and acquired immunity, leading to an integrated host defense against tumors in which various cells and molecules mutually work. Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against pathogens and tumor cells. The major cell types involved in innate ... Yang and P. Hwu et al., 2002. Cancer regression and autoimmunity in patients after clonal repopulation with antitumor lymphocytes. Science, 298: 850-4. DOI: 10.1126/science.1076514 Dunn, G.P., L.J. Old and R.D. Schreiber, 2004. The immunobiology of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting. Immunity, 21: 137-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2004.07.017. Eisenberg, ... and lymphocytes through the release of cytokines and specific chemokine (Shi et al., 2003). The recognition and lyses of tumor cells by NK cells are extremely important in innate immunity against tumors. Since their discovery, a large number of studies have demonstrated that NK cell-mediated lyses of different types of tumor cells in vitro, as well as NK
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Radiotherapy-induced anti-tumor immunity contributes to the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by CTLA-4 blockade in a mouse model.

... syngeneic mammary carcinoma model to show that abscopal effects result from irradiation-activated anti-tumor immunity [3]. Taken together, these observations indicate that Introduction Recently, several reports showed that radiotherapy and antitumor immunity are closely associated. We recently demonstrated that tumor antigen-specific T cell responses can ... located at a PLOS ONE | 1 March 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 3 | e92572 Radiotherapy Requires Immunity local radiotherapy can induce systemic tumor-specific immune responses. The molecular mechanisms that mediate anti-tumor immunity, in terms of irradiation-induced immunogenic tumor cell death and its impact on the prognosis of cancer ... 11 and 14. However, cytokine production then increased on Days 17 and 20 (Figure 3B). Humoral immunity was examined by flow cytometry. EL4-specific IgG1 was detected in the serum of irradiated EL4bearing C57/BL6 mice (Fig. 3C). Thus, both cellular and humoral immunity against EL4 tumors were induced in irradiated EL4-bearing C57/BL6 mice. Anti-tumor effects
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Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

... cytokines suggests that the parasite actively modulates the host immunity. Taking into account the in vitro result, this modulation may occur via PGE2 produced by the parasite, which suppresses host immunity by switching cytokines to a T helper-2 phenotype [10]. Furthermore, PGE2 has a protective role in CM, with an inverse relationship between the concentration ... significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants ... RESEARCH ARTICLE Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome Ryuma Matsubara1,2, Hiroka Aonuma1¤, Mikiko Kojima3, Michiru Tahara1, Syed Bilal Ahmad Andrabi1, Hitoshi Sakakibara3, Kisaburo Nagamune1,4* 1
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Effects of feeding Bt maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and fate of transgenic material.

... Effects of Feeding Bt Maize to Sows during Gestation and Lactation on Maternal and Offspring Immunity and Fate of Transgenic Material Stefan G. Buzoianu1,2, Maria C. Walsh1, Mary C. Rea3,4, Orla O’Donovan2, Eva Gelencsér5, Gabriella Ujhelyi5, Erika Szabó5, Andras Nagy5, ... Institute, Budapest, Hungary Abstract Background: We aimed to determine the effect of feeding transgenic maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and to assess the fate of transgenic material. Methodology/Principal Findings: On the day of insemination, sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n = 12/ treatment); ... safety assessment. Citation: Buzoianu SG, Walsh MC, Rea MC, O’Donovan O, Gelencsér E, et al. (2012) Effects of Feeding Bt Maize to Sows during Gestation and Lactation on Maternal and Offspring Immunity and Fate of Transgenic Material. PLoS ONE 7(10): e47851. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047851 Editor: Alejandra Bravo, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de
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SUN PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF Clitoria Ternata Linn, Canna Indica Linn FLOWER

... flavonoids. 5. 6. 7. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. Keerthana, Sun Protective Activity of Herbal Drugs- A Review, Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2014; 4 (1), Pg 45-46. Saraf S Saraf SS Ashawat M Anti solar activity of flowers extracts of R. damascena and T. erecta Linn. Planta indica ; 2005 : 1(3), 26-27. Keerthana, Sun Protective Activity of Herbal Drugs- A Review, Asian ... segments longer than the corolla, 3 suberect, spathulate, 1 linear revolute. In the gold coast, the flowers are said to cure eye disease. [4] Knowingly or unknowingly there is a sun protective activity in the daily food that we eat. This can be use as an alternative to commercial sunscreens. Some of the food that helps us from UV rays is as follows Tomato ... SUN PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF Clitoria Ternata Linn, Canna Indica Linn FLOWER 1 1 2 SANDEEP B. PATIL *, N.S. NAIKWADE , C.S. MAGDUM , S.S.SATHE 1 3 Appasaheb Birnale College of Pharmacy,
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Protective and therapeutic efficacy of Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing HBHA-hIL12 fusion protein against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.

... in anti-intracellular pathogens by augmenting innate and cellular immunity in many ways. It is essential to the generation of a protective immune response to M. tuberculosis mainly by the induction of IFN-c expression and the activation of antigen-specific lymphocytes which could form a protective granuloma [23,24]. Yang C et al [24] had constructed the ... the site of primary infection [11]. The lymphocytes from healthy human individuals infected with M. tuberculosis produce high levels of HBHA-specific interferon-c (IFNc). Protective immunity induced by methylated HBHA is comparable to that afforded by vaccination with BCG, and DNA vaccination with the HBHA gene has resulted in both HBHA-specific antibodies ... improving the Th1-type response against TB, and the protective effect was equivalent to that of the conventional BCG vaccine in mice. Furthermore, it could decrease bacterial load and alleviate histopathological damage in lungs of M. tuberculosis infected mice. Citation: Zhao S, Zhao Y, Mao F, Zhang C, Bai B, et al. (2012) Protective and Therapeutic Efficacy of
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Correction: The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects.

... of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0136141. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136141 PMID: 26291084 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Tanno LK, Kerr DS, dos Santos B, Talib LL, Yamaguti C, Rodrigues H, et al. (2015) Correction: The Absence of CYP3A5 3 Is a Protective ... CORRECTION Correction: The Absence of CYP3A53 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects Luciana Kase Tanno, Daniel Shikanai Kerr, Bernardo dos Santos, Leda
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Th17/IL-17A might play a protective role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia immunity.

... with Treg cells. The results of this study suggest that Th17 may play a beneficial role in CLL immunity. Citation: Hus I, Bojarska-Junak A, Chocholska S, Tomczak W, Woś J, et al. (2013) Th17/IL-17A Might Play a Protective Role in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Immunity. PLoS ONE 8(11): e78091. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078091 Editor: Derya Unutmaz, New ... Th17/IL-17A Might Play a Protective Role in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Immunity Iwona Hus1., Agnieszka Bojarska-Junak2*., Sylwia Chocholska1, Waldemar Tomczak1, Justyna Woś2, Anna Dmoszyńska1, Jacek Roliński2 1 Department ... tumor microenvironment [2]. The occurrence of several T cell abnor- PLOS ONE | 1 November 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 11 | e78091 A Role of Th17/IL-17A in CLL Immunity elevated numbers of Th17 cells in peripheral blood of patients with CLL and their association with favorable prognosis [17]. In this study, we further investigated the
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Similar to spironolactone, oxymatrine is protective in aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte injury via inhibition of calpain and apoptosis-inducing factor signaling.

... findings indicated that OMT might be a potential cardioprotective-agent against excessive ALD-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of calpain/AIF signaling. Citation: Xiao T-T, Wang Y-Y, Zhang Y, Bai C-H, Shen X-C (2014) Similar to Spironolactone, Oxymatrine Is Protective in Aldosterone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Injury via ... 226–230. 19. Shen XC, Yang YP, Xiao TT, Peng J, Liu XD (2011) Protective effect of oxymatrine on myocardial fibrosis induced by acute myocardial infarction in rats involved in TGF-beta(1)-Smads signal pathway. J Asian Nat Prod Res 13: 215– 224. 20. Sun HL, Li L, Shang L, Zhao D, Dong DL, et al. (2008) Cardioprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of oxymatrine ... evidences show that OMT could prevent myocardium from apoptosis and fibrosis caused by lots of stimuli [17,18,19,20,21]. Hence, the aim of present study was to investigate the protective effect of OMT on ALD-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. To the best of our Introduction Nearly 40% of deaths are related to cardiovascular disease in developed countries
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Pre-existing adenovirus immunity modifies a complex mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response to an Ad5/HIV-1 vaccine candidate in humans.

... America Abstract The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between preexisting Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 ... these data suggest that the presence of pre-existing Ad5neutralizing antibody titers may have a blunting effect that is qualitatively different for Ad5-specific immunity than for Gagspecific immunity. We observed a wide range of T-cell response rates to Gag peptide pools at the peak time point across the thirty analytes tested. For example, all vaccine ... vector-specific immunity that is present prior to vaccine administration, and the magnitude of insert-specific cytokine responses was associated with both humoral and cellular immune responses to the Ad5 vector. Discussion The results of pre-clinical studies and the Step Study clearly indicate that more investigation is needed to clarify how preexisting vector immunity
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Palmitoylation of the immunity related GTPase, Irgm1: impact on membrane localization and ability to promote mitochondrial fission.

... National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America Abstract The Immunity- Related GTPases (IRG) are a family of large GTPases that mediate innate immune responses. Irgm1 is particularly critical for immunity to bacteria and protozoa, and for inflammatory homeostasis in the intestine. Although precise functions ... function like dynamins in this context in being able to contract and exert a Introduction The Immunity Related GTPases (IRG) are a family of vertebrate proteins that, like the related Guanylate Binding proteins (GBPs) and the Mx proteins, mediate innate immunity to a variety of pathogens [1–3]. Mice that lack expression of IRGs display decreased host ... firmly anchor Irgm1 in the Golgi and mitochondria, thus facilitating function of the protein. Citation: Henry SC, Schmidt EA, Fessler MB, Taylor GA (2014) Palmitoylation of the Immunity Related GTPase, Irgm1: Impact on Membrane Localization and Ability to Promote Mitochondrial Fission. PLoS ONE 9(4): e95021. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095021 Editor: F.
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Characteristic and functional analysis of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the lophotrocozoan, Crassostrea gigas, reveals ancient origin of TLR-mediated innate immunity.

... further evidence for an ancient origin of TLR-mediated innate immunity. Citation: Zhang Y, He X, Yu F, Xiang Z, Li J, et al. (2013) Characteristic and Functional Analysis of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) in the lophotrocozoan, Crassostrea gigas, Reveals Ancient Origin of TLR-Mediated Innate Immunity. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76464. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076464 Editor: ... 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 10 | e76464 TLR Signaling Regulates Innate Immunity in Mollusk Cloning the full-length cDNA of CgTLRs and CgMyD88 PAMPs, but is instead activated by the endogenous ligand Spätzle [6]. Moreover, contrary to mammalian TLRs whose function is specific to innate immunity, Drosophila and C. elegans Tolls are also recognized as key ... hemocyte activation and TNF induction caused by bacterial infection, revealing that TLRmediated innate immunity shared an ancient origin at least in bilateria phylum. 11 October 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 10 | e76464 TLR Signaling Regulates Innate Immunity in Mollusk Figure 8. Blocking peptide (BP) inhibits degranulation caused by infection. (A) The
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Eyedrop Vaccination Induced Systemic and Mucosal Immunity against Influenza Virus in Ferrets.

... 1610080. 12. Jayawardane GW, Spradbrow PB. Mucosal immunity in chickens vaccinated with the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus. Vet Microbiol. 1995; 46(1–3):69–77. Epub 1995/09/01. PMID: 8545981. 13. Seo KY, Han SJ, Cha HR, Seo SU, Song JH, Chung SH, et al. Eye mucosa: an efficient vaccine delivery route for inducing protective immunity. J Immunol. 2010; 185(6):3610–9. ... systemic and mucosal immune responses in ferrets by eyedrop Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) To evaluate the capacity for the eyedrop influenza vaccine to elicit protective immunity in ferrets, we separately administered three different strains of LAIV (Table 1) to three groups of ferrets (n = 3 or 4) twice with two weeks interval. Serum and ... 2016 6 / 16 Eyedrop Vaccination against Influenza EDV protects ferrets from intranasal influenza virus challenge To evaluate whether LAIV administration could confer a protective immunity against influenza infection, four immunized ferrets in each EDV group or PBS treated ferrets as control group were challenged with CA04 (H1N1), Sw09 (H1N2), and
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Meglumine exerts protective effects against features of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes.

... Meglumine Exerts Protective Effects against Features of Metabolic Syndrome and Type II Diabetes Arturo Bravo-Nuevo1*, Alice Marcy2, Minzhou Huang1, Frank Kappler2, Jennifer Mulgrew1, Lisa LauryKleintop1, ... improve muscle function, limit metabolic syndrome and reduce diabetic complications. Citation: Bravo-Nuevo A, Marcy A, Huang M, Kappler F, Mulgrew J, et al. (2014) Meglumine Exerts Protective Effects against Features of Metabolic Syndrome and Type II Diabetes. PLoS ONE 9(2): e90031. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090031 Editor: Anindita Das, Virginia Commonwealth ... increase fibroblast migration [14,15]. Based on its structural similarity with sorbitol, we investigated whether meglumine may stimulate SNARK levels and exert muscle-associated protective effects against metabolic syndrome or diabetes-associated conditions in a preclinical mouse model of insulin-resistant diabetes. PLOS ONE | 1 February
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Zinc piracy as a mechanism of Neisseria meningitidis for evasion of nutritional immunity.

... Zinc Piracy as a Mechanism of Neisseria meningitidis for Evasion of Nutritional Immunity Michiel Stork1¤a, Jan Grijpstra1, Martine P. Bos1, Carmen Man˜ as Torres1¤b, Nathalie Devos2, Jan T. Poolman2¤c, Walter J. Chazin3, Jan Tommassen1* 1 Department of Molecular ... vertebrate host, the sequestration of essential nutrient metals is an important defense mechanism that limits the growth of invading pathogens, a process known as ‘‘nutritional immunity. ’’ The acquisition of scarce nutrients from the environment is mediated by receptors in the outer membrane in an energy-requiring process. Most characterized receptors ... promote its growth. Citation: Stork M, Grijpstra J, Bos MP, Man˜ as Torres C, Devos N, et al. (2013) Zinc Piracy as a Mechanism of Neisseria meningitidis for Evasion of Nutritional Immunity. PLoS Pathog 9(10): e1003733. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003733 Editor: Xavier Nassif, Faculte´ de Me´decine Paris Descartes, Necker, France Received March 25, 2013;
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The effects of vaccination and immunity on bacterial infection dynamics in vivo.

... vaccines [7]. To attain a high level of protective immunity against systemic infections with virulent strains of Salmonella in susceptible hosts it is necessary to induce both antibody responses and T-helper type 1 (TH1) cell-mediated immunity [8]. This is due to the fact that intracellular control requires TH1 immunity whereas antibodies can only target ... considered and empirically tested. These preparations rely on the induction of antibodies for their protective activity so the optimisation of these vaccines and their delivery would benefit from improvements in their ability to induce T-cell mediated immunity. Materials and Methods Bacterial strains, media and growth conditions S. enterica serovar ... experience this results in a strong antibody response with the killed vaccine whereas i.v. immunisation does not. Regardless of route the KV is known to be unable to induce protective T-cell immunity against virulent challenge. We confirmed that this immunisation regime elicited anti-Salmonella antibody, although there was a somewhat lower production of IgG
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Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.

... stimulated specific cellular (IFNc) immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents. Citation: ... vaccination-related infections [61]. The ability of P. marinus to elicit systemic immunity, characterized by IgG antibodies and IFNc secretion provides a rationale for the use of genetically-engineered P. marinus parasites expressing antigenic proteins/subunits of infectious agents to induce protective immunity through the oral route. This is especially relevant for diseases ... antigens can induce local immune responses in the gastrointestinal mucosa (characterized by IgA isotype) or systemic immunity (characterized by IgG isotype) [51]. The underlying mechanisms for selective induction of tolerance versus immunity to orally administered antigens remain largely unknown, though some evidence indicates that the level of protein
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... of virus. Like innate immunity, the intrinsic immunity does not react any differently upon re-infection by the same pathogen. Furthermore, like adaptive immunity, intrinsic immunity is also specifically made to target a type or class of pathogens, most notably retroviruses. In case of retroviral infections, adaptive and innate immunity permit the sensing ... anti-HIV1 activity. The recognition of intrinsic immunity as a potent anti-viral defence mechanism is a recent discovery and is not yet discussed in most immunology courses or texts. Though the extent of protective intrinsic immunity still remains largely unknown, it is believed that the intrinsic immunity may very well constitute a third branch of ... replication is immune restoration, especially HIV-specific immunity, which is lost soon after the initial infection. This immunity remains perfectly restored in many long surviving, therapy naïve HIVinfected non-progressors and elite controllers, which can provide clues to components of protective immunity in HIV+ individuals. 2.3.2. Natural Killer Cells
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Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is protective against autoimmune-mediated demyelination by inhibiting effector T cell proliferation.

... Quetiapine, an Atypical Antipsychotic, Is Protective against Autoimmune-Mediated Demyelination by Inhibiting Effector T Cell Proliferation Feng Mei1., Sheng Guo2., Yangtao He1, Linyun Wang1, Hongkai Wang1, Jianqin Niu1, ... course of EAE, and thus may be a promising candidate for treatment of MS. Citation: Mei F, Guo S, He Y, Wang L, Wang H, et al. (2012) Quetiapine, an Atypical Antipsychotic, Is Protective against Autoimmune-Mediated Demyelination by Inhibiting Effector T Cell Proliferation. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42746. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042746 Editor: Yue Feng, Emory ... and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and other neurological disorders like depression. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that Que exerts protective effects on neurons [12]. Recently, oligodendrocyte dysfunction or demyelination has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppresses host immunity by activating the DAF-2 insulin-like signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

... defense against pathogens in plants and animals. Innate immunity in animals is evolutionarily ancient, and the molecular components of mammalian innate immunity are partly conserved in invertebrates such as Drosophila and C. elegans that lack a somatic recombination-based adaptive immunity. Innate immunity comprises several functions, including the production ... for examples). This underscores the importance of other pathways in C. elegans innate immunity. Recently, through genetic studies, several conserved PLoS Pathogens | 1 October 2008 | Volume 4 | Issue 10 | e1000175 Pseudomonas Suppresses Host Immunity expression. For example, an important component of host defense is the deposition ... Fellowship. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: signal transduction pathways that are required for innate immunity in C. elegans have been identified. They include the p38 MAPK, the Sma/TGF-b, and the DAF-2/DAF-16 insulinlike signaling pathways (reviewed in [11,12]). For example, mutants
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Regulation of anti-Plasmodium immunity by a LITAF-like transcription factor in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

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Protective efficacy of BCG against leprosy in Sao Paulo

... as an agent of mycobacterial cross -immunity, provides a variable degree of protection against leprosy that ranges from 20% to 80% (2-5). This variation in protection, reported by a number of studies, has been attributed to regional differences in the BCG strains used, differing levels of study population exposure, immunity conferred by other mycobacteria ... against leprosy: preliminary results. hrzcef 1992; 339:446-450. Nishioka SA, Goulart IMB. Assessment of BCG protective efficacy by case-control studies [letter]. Znt 1 Lepr 1993;61:459-461. Rodrigues MLO, Andrade ALSS, Martelli CMT, Zicker F. Assessment of BCG protective efficacy by case-control studies [reply to letter from Drs. Nishioka and Goulart]. ht J ... Protective Efficacy of BCG against Leprosy in S20 Paulol CLOVIS LOMBARDI,* ELISETE SILVA PEDRAZZANI,~ CARLOS PED~ZZANI,~ PEDRO FERREIRA FILHO,~ & FABIO ZICKER~ JoAo The case-control
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Immunity in toxoplasmosis

... cells. However, passively transferred antibodies do add to the effect of cellular immunity, as shown by studies in IgM-suppressed mice (12). The most important specific factor in protective immunity is supplied by sensitized lymphoid cells, which have been shown to confer immunity by adoptive cell transfer (I I). By separately testing specifically and ... immunization (baby) Threshold Fever, lymphadenopathy Seroconversion, high IgM and IgG titers a) Nearoptimal acquired immunity Acute Subacute Pneumonia, hepatitis, myocarditis, myositis encephalttts, and retinochoroiditis Htgh IgM and IgG ttters a) Delayed/ inadequate rate ofimmunity acquistion a) Inadequate rate of Immunity acquisition b) Immunologtc immaturity c) Passwe immuntzation d) ... ability to develop immunity in a timely fashion. (The life-cycle of Toxoplasma and other aspects of the parasite are discussed elsewhere-5,6,7.) Humans acquire infection either from cat-shed oocysts, which persist in the soil for long periods of time, or from eating undercooked meat of chronically infected animals (Figure 2). Protective immunity to Toxoplasma
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Protective effect of antibiotics on mortality risk from acute respiratory infections in Mexican children

... Protective Effect of Antibiotics on Mortality Risk from Acute Respiratory Infections in Mexican Children1 VICTOR M. CARDENAS,~ JAMES S. KOOPMAN,~ J. GARRIDO, 2 LUIS F. BAZ~A,~
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