Low Income

Low-level mixing height detection in coastal locations with a scanning Doppler lidar

... heights below the lowest vertical gate, 42 % of the time at Limassol and 62 % of the time at Loviisa. The VAD-based mixing height estimates show that, at Limassol, in 58 % of the cases when mixing level height must be below the vertically-pointing altitude limit, there is a shallow mixed layer at the surface (Fig. 9). At Loviisa the VADs indicate a shallow ... mixing. Finally we have demonstrated that very shallow mixing layers can be present during the majority of the time that vertically-pointing measurements indicate no mixing; i.e. mixing height is below the lowest measurement at vertical. At Limassol, representing Mediterranean summer time conditions, such low mixing heights occurred only during the night: ... at the top of the lowest gate. The median VAD-based mixing height estimate is indicated in bold; upper and lower quartiles for VAD-based mixing height estimates are also indicated. For the 4◦ elevation ◦ angle, the VAD reference mixing height is taken from the lowest level of the 15 elevation angle VAD. AMTD 7, 12219–12248, 2014 Low- level mixing height
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CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genomic Deletion of the Beta-1, 4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 Gene in Murine P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells Results in Low Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxin Type C.

... harvested using an AccuEasy Flow Cytometry Kit (LEAP Biosciences, Palo Alto, CA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry with a Gallios Flow Cytometer (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA). At least 5000 events were acquired for each experiment, and the data were processed with Kaluza Flow Analysis Software (Beckman ... and uptake of HC/C (Fig 2D). The binding and uptake of HC/C decreased under both GalNAc-T and Siat8 knockdown, and the fluorescence intensity of HC/C following GalNAc-T knockdown was lower than that following Siat8 knockdown. Therefore, the effect of GalNAc-T knockdown on the intracellular activity of BoNT/C was examined next (Fig 2E). Upon BoNT/C treatment, ... Binding and entry of Alexa Fluor 647-CTB into knockdown cells. Mean fluorescence intensities were measured by flow cytometric analysis. Significance for differences (compared with control) was evaluated by oneway ANOVA (***, p < 0.001). (D) Flow cytometric analysis for the binding and entry of Alexa Fluor 488-HC/C into knockdown cells. Histograms represented the
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Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

... operation. The flow rate (Q) of the draining procedure in the UGF units was determined by the following procedure: (a) the unit Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 5, 73–85, 2012 was filled to the maximum level of the top; (b) the water flow into the filter was interrupted; (c) the surface area was measured (A); (d) the butterfly valve was opened until the water level lowered ... removed by opening the drainage valve, allowing gravity flow to drain and clean the filter. Research carried out by Cinara over more than 15 yr showed that different MSF alternatives that were tested, including UGF (filtration rate, Vf = 0.6 m h−1 ) and SSF (operating at 0.15 m h−1 ), were able to produce effluents with a low microbial risk (Galvis, 1999). ... for final removal of suspended particles and microorganisms. The RMC unit allows a proper rapid mixing time and a velocity gradient, while the CF-UGF unit facilitates flocculation and deposition of particles. The hydraulic RMC operates through a rectangular weir that allows free flow of water to form a hydraulic jump for mixing the coagulant with the raw water.
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Digital Ultra Low Voltage High Speed Logic

... 20, 2009, Hong Kong Digital Ultra Low Voltage High Speed Logic Omid Mirmotahari and Yngvar Berg 1 Introduction and background Low power is becoming more and more crucial and in many aspects becoming the number 1 priority when designing new applications. Ultra low voltage CMOS is an approach for producing very low- power CMOS circuits by reducing ... maintain good performance at low supply voltages, the threshold voltages of MOS transistors must also be reduced [3–5]. Unfortunately, this requires a change in the CMOS fabrication process. Because variations in Vth , when operating in a low- Vdd and low- Vth environment, cause significant variations in performance, the ultra low power approach lies on ... primary drawbacks to ultra low power CMOS are that it requires (i) a change in the fabrication process, (ii) additional circuitry to adjust body potential, and (iii) additional routing of separate well-voltage (Vp-well and Vn-well ) references. The outline of this paper is as follows: in section 2 key aspects of the ultra low voltage (ULV) gate is presented. Section
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Developing the Evidence Base to Inform Best Practice: A Scoping Study of Breast and Cervical Cancer Reviews in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

... by ("Uterine Cervical Neoplasms"(MeSH)). For details on MeSH subheadings please see S1 Text. In addition, “developing countries(MeSH)” was replaced by the keyword ? ?low- income countries” and ? ?low- income country” and unique reviews were included in the review. A few reviews [n = 3] that were not initially detected in our search because they focused on specific countries, ... necessary in LMICs. Introduction As a global health priority, cancer is rapidly emerging as a visible and prevalent challenge differentially impacting low- and middle -income countries (LMICs) compared with high -income countries (HICs) [1–4]. With substantial differences between HICs and LMICs regarding health resources, environment, infrastructure, technology, ... This Background Breast and cervical cancers have emerged as major global health challenges and disproportionately lead to excess morbidity and mortality in low- and middle -income countries (LMICs) when compared to high -income countries. The objective of this paper was to highlight key findings, recommendations, and gaps in research and practice identified through
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Identification and analysis of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic carbon in subglacial basal ice ecosystems by ion chromatography

... Recent advances in ion chromatography instrumentation and system optimization (e.g. greater column sensitivities, low flow rates, multiple eluents, and gradient elution) enabled this study to identify and quantify numerous LMW-DOC compounds at low (< 70 nM C) concentrations, which demonstrates a novel methodological approach to glacial LMW-DOC analysis. Here, ... (DI) (Millipore), and the remaining ice was transferred into a pre-combusted glass beaker covered with foil. The ice was allowed to melt inside a laminar flow cabinet (Telstar Mini-H) under ambient laboratory conditions, which allowed any sediment to settle out of suspension. The ice melt was then decanted into smaller pre-combusted beakers. Ice melt ... extractable carbohydrate concentrations in basal sediment were quantified by ion chromatography following an acid-extraction protocol to convert any polysaccharides and sugar derivatives to lower molecular weight components (Jensen et al., 2005). We followed the protocol described in Stibal et al. (2010) and conducted each extraction procedure in triplicate.
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The effects of pulsed low frequency magnetic field in early rehabilitation of patients with cementless total hip arthroplasty

... (group A) or low (group B) doses of PLFMF, in addition to kinesitherapy. Control group C was treated only with kinesitherapy. Study was completed in three weeks. RESULTS Subjects of group A had significantly lower pain than group B (p
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Navigational efficiency of nocturnal Myrmecia ants suffers at low light levels.

... walked more slowly, the success in finding the nest reduced and their paths became less straight. We found that in both bright and dark conditions ants relied predominantly on visual landmark information for navigation and that landmark guidance became less reliable at low light conditions. It is perhaps due to the poor navigational efficiency at low light ... navigational efficiency of nocturnal animals suffers at low light. The nocturnal Namibian spider, Leucorchestris arenicola, while navigating to its burrow, pause and stay still for upto 1s at the lowest light intensities at which they operate [30]. These pauses have been suggested to be a behavioural adaptation for low light to enable animals to collect enough light ... the nocturnal Australian Bullant, Myrmecia pyriformis Smith (Figure 1) to find out whether their navigational efficiency suffers at low light levels. This study species is appropriate for the question of interest for the following reasons. Firstly, in ants it is possible to record the entire path of individuals with sufficient accuracy under ecologically
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Pigmentation and vitamin D metabolism in Caucasians: low vitamin D serum levels in fair skin types in the UK.

... this manuscript are restricted to these 1414 twins. Low 25(OH)D levels were defined as equal or below 70 nmol/L which is the median level in this population and approaching the minimal 25(OH)D level needed for maximal suppression of parathyroid hormone [15]. Clinically relevant low vitamin D levels were defined as equal or below 30 nmol/L as this is critical level ... in 52% of the high vitamin D group (above 70 nmol/L) compared to 40% of the low vitamin D group (equal or below 70 nmol/L) (p,0.0001). More than 25 weeks of holidays abroad in a sunny climate over a lifetime was reported in 37% of the high vitamin D group compared to 30% of the low vitamin D group (p = 0.014). This difference remained significant after ... type. 45% of skin type 1 subjects had low serum 25(OH)D compared to 28% in the skin type 4. When winter 25(OH)D levels were measured, the differences were more marked- low 25(OH)D levels were found in 60% of the skin type 1 compared to 38% of the skin type 4 (p,0,0001). Clinical vitamin D deficiency defined as equal or below 30 nm/L was found in 10% of skin
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Clinical outcomes in low risk coronary artery disease patients treated with different limus-based drug-eluting stents--a nationwide retrospective cohort study using insurance claims database.

... all-cause mortality, acute coronary events, HF needing hospitalization, and cerebrovascular disease in low risk coronary artery disease patients treated with SES, E-ZES, and EES. Hence, a coronary stent with a lower price may be the preference while performing DES implantation in low risk coronary artery disease patients from the perspective of health economics. PLOS ... Otherwise, the three groups did not differ significantly. (Table 1) Primary end-point Till December 31, 2011, the median follow-up was 40.4 months in the SES group, 37.8 months in the E-ZES group and 28.9 months in the EES group. During follow-up, 495 patients died (162 in the SES group [7.6%], 294 in the E-ZES group [8.5%] and 39 in the EES group [3.9%]). After ... or SES in 3-to-1 ratio. Although E-ZES was associated with significantly higher late lumen loss and binary restenosis at 8-month angiographic follow-up compared with SES,[15] patients in the E-ZES group had lower risks of all-cause mortality, MI and major adverse PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122860 April 7, 2015 8 / 14 Outcomes of Different
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Extracting gene networks for low-dose radiation using graph theoretical algorithms.

... identify relationships in expression between multiple genes. They illustrate this method by applying it to the study of low- dose radiation exposure in mice and in the process identify a variety of relationships that are activated in spleen by low levels of radiation exposure. Results Calculation of the Correlation Matrix Microarray data used in this study ... illustrate our approach using a set of microarray data that was generated from spleen of mice exposed in vivo to low- dose ionizing radiation (IR). Radiation is a well known agent of DNA damage at relatively high but sub-lethal doses[19]. The response to lower doses, however, such as those received from medical imaging, radiotherapy and occupational exposures, ... pair of samples. A total of at least three biological replicates were analyzed for each inbred strain. Data were normalized using Lowess to adjust for intensity-dependent dye bias after removing spots of poor quality or low expression and subtracting local background [62]. Differentially expressed genes were identified using mixed model ANOVA performed
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SELF TUNING CONTROLLERS FOR DAMPING LOW FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS

... coordinated power flow control by multiple series FACTS devices", IEEE Power Engineering Society International Conference, pp. 74 – 80. Smith, K.S; Ran, L; Penman, J (1997): “Dynamic Modeling of a Unified Power Flow Controller.”, IEE Proceedings-C, Vol 144, p.7. Tambey, N; Kothari, M.L (2009):” Damping of power system oscillations with unified power flow controller ... 489-502. Nabavi-Niaki, A; Iravani, M.R (1996): “Steady-state and Dynamic Models of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for Power System Studies.”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol 11, p 1937. Noroozian, M; Angquist, L; Ghandari, M; Anderson, G (1997): “Use of UPFC for optimal power flow control”, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 1629–1634. Oudalov,A; ... ,A.M;Talebi,N(2008): " Fuzzy Logic Based UPFC Controller for Damping Low Frequency Oscillations of Power Systems", 2nd IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy, pp. 85-88. Gyugyi, L; Schauder, C.D; Williams, S.L; Rietman, T.R; Torgerson, D.R; Edris, A (1995): "The Unified Power Flow Controller: A New Approach to Power Transmission Control", IEEE
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Mice infected with low-virulence strains of Toxoplasma gondii lose their innate aversion to cat urine, even after extensive parasite clearance.

... using flow cytometry. Total numbers of cells positive for any of these markers are reported for uninfected, Type I-infected, and Type III-infected animals at 4 to 5 mpi. Average percentages of brain leukocyte populations for uninfected, Type I, and Type III animals are displayed in pie charts below each group. [C] Blood serum was collected following ... and/or meninges following parasite presence. Combined with previously published studies, our data indicate that infection with all three major North American T. gondii clonal lineages results in loss of innate, hard-wired aversion to feline predator urine in mice. Immunological analysis of mice infected with attenuated Type I and low- virulence Type ... urine was added to the dish and mice were allowed to explore the cage freely for one hour in the dark. The movements of each mouse were automatically recorded using Motor Monitor Smart Frames by Kinder Scientific, which are comprised of a grid of infrared beams 1 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e75246 Low- Virulence Toxoplasma: Permanent Aversion
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Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš

... Socioeconomic factors and low birth weight in Mexico. BMC Public Health 2005; 5: 20. 32. Carmelo GA Nobile, Gianluca R, Carlo A, Maria P. Influence of maternal and social factors as predictors of low birth weight in Italy. BMC Public Health 2007; 7: 192. 33. Nomura Y, Wickramaratne PJ, Pilowsky DJ, Bruder B, Newcorn JH, Fifer WP, et al. Low birth weight and ... et al. Low birth weight and risk of affective disorders and selected medical illness in offspring at high and low risk for depression. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007; 161(2): 186– 92. 34. Patel V, Prince M. Maternal psychological morbidity and low birth weight in India. British Journal of Psychiatry 2006; 188: 284–5. Rad primljen 13. II 2009. Revidiran ... trudnoća; pušenje; socioekonomski faktori; trudnoća, ishod; novorođenče, mala telesna masa. Key words: pregnancy; smoking; socioeconomic factors; pregnancy outcome; infant, low birth weight. Correspondence to: Miodrag Stojanović, Ul. Deligradska 2/33, 18 000 Niš, Srbija. Tel.: + 381 18 258 344. E-mail: drmstojanovic@gmail.com Strana 146 Uvod VOJNOSANITETSKI
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Purification and characterisation of immunoglobulins from the Australian black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) using anti-fab affinity chromatography reveals the low abundance of IgA.

... P. giganteus, demonstrated a delayed primary antibody response following immunization with sheep red blood cells [32]. Similarly, the magnitude and duration of the neutralising antibody response of the Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus) to the model antigen PhiX174 bacteriophage was lower than that of rabbits and guinea pigs [33]. The likelihood that ... incubation with 5-fold higher enzyme concentration (Fig. 2C). Following digestion, the Fab and Fc fragments were separated by Protein A affinity chromatography. The Fc (Fcc) fragment was bound to the column and later eluted, whilst the Fab fragment did not bind and was collected in the flow through fraction. This method isolated approximately 5.4 mg ... expressed very low levels of all three mRNAs. IGHG was most abundant in the lymph node, spleen and PBMC. Glycosylation. The glycosylation status of whole P. alecto IgG and IgM was assessed by treatment with glycosidases and lectin binding. Human immunoglobulins were used as controls. Electrophoretic analysis of immunoglobulin subunits following deglycosylation
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Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude at low-latitudes: possible role of field line oscillations

... and Rajaram, 1997). How- A. K. Sinha et al.: Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude 71 ever, most of such estimates are based on a suitably chosen density profile as a power law r−m for the hydrogen plasma. Such estimates are not valid for low- latitude regions, i.e. for lower L-values where the field lines are almost ... scintillations of radio waves at lowlatitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigenperiods of toroidal field line oscillations at low- latitudes, computed by using ... with hydromagnetic oscillations excited on geomagnetic field line, their characteristics at low- and equatorial-latitudes are not yet understood either observationally or theoretically (Yumoto, 1986). It should be noted that it is around these local times that the lowand equatorial-latitude ionosphere is manifested with what is known as the spread-F, which
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Neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine responses towards low IL-12p70 and high IL-10 production via distinct factors.

... Hajjar A, Rein-Weston A, et al. (2008) Polychromatic flow cytometric high-throughput assay to analyze the innate immune response to Toll-like receptor stimulation. J Immunol Methods 336: 183–192. 20. Lee JA, Spidlen J, Boyce K, Cai J, Crosbie N, et al. (2008) MIFlowCyt: the minimum information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment. Cytometry A 73: 926–930. 21. ... Polarizes TLR4-Mediated Responses Supporting Information Figure S1 Flow cytometric detection of TLR4-mediated IL-12p40. PBMC were stimulated for 4 h with LPS (100 ng/mL) and IFN-c (20 ng/mL) in the presence of exocytosis inhibitor. Intracellular IL-12p40 was determined by flow cytometry, as described in text S1. Panels demonstrate intracellular ... the presence of increasing concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-OHD, panel A), or PGE2 (panel B). *; p,0.05, **; p,0.01. (TIF) Text S1 MIFlowCyt standard compliant information for submitted flow cytometric data. (DOC) Acknowledgments OL acknowledges the mentorship and support of Dr. Michael Wessels and Dr. Christopher Wilson. We thank Dr.
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THE EFFECT OF NANO-TITANIA ADDITION ON THE PROPERTIES OF HIGH-ALUMINA LOW-CEMENT SELF-FLOWING REFRACTORY CASTABLES

... particles on the self-flow characteristics and properties of high alumina self-flowing low- cement refractory castables is investigated in this work. Also, microstructure and phase composition of these refractory castables is studied. EXPERIMENTAL Raw materials and composition The composition used for high-alumina self-flowing refractory castable ... influence that nanotitania particles exert on the microstructure and properties of high-alumina low- cement self-flowing refractory castables. An attraction between nano-titania particles and other fine particles in the castable matrix appears to promote lower flow ability in this system. Besides, the addition of nano-titania particles in the castable composition ... size, the largest particle size (5000 μm) and the distribution modulus, respectively. In order to achieve self-flow, q values are in the range 0.21-0.26. For the present study, q is chosen to be 0.24 [9]. Self-flow measurement Self-flow value (SFV) and working time measurement was performed according to ASTM C 1446-99. Based on this standard,
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Atmospheric influences on infrared-laser signals used for occultation measurements between Low Earth Orbit satellites

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Epidemiologic identification of infants with low birth weight in urban areas of Latin America:: II A simplified risk score for early prenatal

... birth weight. As Figure 1 shows, an NBW delivery followed by an LBW delivery was associated with an LBW rate on the next delivery of 18.0%. In contrast, an LBW delivery followed by an NBW delivery was associated with an LBW rate on the next delivery of only 10.5%. Multivariate analysis yielded the following results: The presence of medical pathology during ... 4.8 36 26.0 LBW 8.4 25 42.0 76.0 I, N LBW 8.4 36 55.0 65.0 I I, LBW 8.4 44 64.0 58.0 proving our knowledge in these areas may allow us to select more specific indicators for predicting LBW. An important question arises here. Could the risk factors found in our lowincome Guatemalan population be used in another developing country? Or would every country have to invest a considerable ... of delivering LBW infants. To improve the predictKestler et al. Screening for Low Birth Weighf 149 ability of LBW deliveries, we suggest that when an initial screening yields a high percentage of false positives but a low percentage of false negatives, some of the following activities should be implemented: By 32-34 weeks of gestation, all women
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Evaluation of newborn arm circumference as an indicator of low birth weight

... The respective frequencies of low birth weight and an average arm circumference below 9 cm were 12.00% and 12.51%, respectively, with a correlation coefficient of +0.79. Data regarding the sensitivity and specificity of arm circumference as an indicator of low birth weight are shown in Table 1. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Low birth weight was found in ... Organization, Family Health. The incidence of low birth weight: a critical review. World Health Sfaf Q. 1980;33:197. 3. Dias MLCM, Camarano MR, Lechtig A. Drought, recession, and prevalence of low birth weight babies in poor urban populations of the Northeast Trap Pediafr. (In press). Our results showed a close relationship between low birth weight and arm circumference. ... found by the Brazilian Pediatric Society in the city of Recife in 1986 (11). In this same vein, Dias et al. (3) found that the frequency of low birth weight in Rede rose from 10.20% in 1982 to 15.30% in 1984. Nationally, low birth weight and infant mortality have exhibited a noteworthy rise in Brazil since 1982, trends that have accompanied the economic
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Interdepartmental differences in life expectancy at birth in Peru as it relates to income, household drinking-water, and provision of medical consultations

... may have been due to the gold-mining industry. As these examples show, it is possible for income inequalities to cause overestimation of life expectancy in both low- income areas like Cuzco and relatively high -income areas like Madre de Dies. (The average monthly incomes of employed persons in the two departments were 39,000 soles and 77,000 soles, respectively, ... the initial level of coverage. This argument does not appear applicable to the income variable. Additional income may increase life expectancy markedly for a poor person or family, but this does not necessarily follow for a wealthy person or family. Also, while sufficient income enables a population to realize its biological life potential, it does not ... and dotted lines), together with the average income and life expectancy figures for each of Peru’s 25 departments. These projections show that the two regression models nearly coincide over the range of observed average departmental incomes (30,000 to 80,000 soles per employed person per month). However, at lower income levels-levels that might possibly be
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The worldwide incidence of low birth-weight: an update

... Africa, the estimated percentage of low birth-weight infants for 1982 (at 14.0%) is 1% lower than that for 1979. This fall is largely due to changes in Northern and Southern Africa, where more recent data have dramatically changed the estimates for a number of countries, including Egypt and Lesotho. The overall proportion of low birth-weight infants born ... health status of the communities into which they are born. Low birth-weight has been defined as a birthweight of less than 2,500 g (up to and including 2,499 g). It can be caused either by premature delivery (short gestation), or by fetal growth retardation. In countries where the proportion of low birth-weight infants is small, most of them are pre-term. ... interrelated. Among them are low maternal food intake, hard physical work during pregnancy, and illnesses-especially ones involving infections. Short maternal stature, very young age, high parity, and close birth spacing are all associated factors. It is clear from the multiplicity of causes that there is no universal solution to the low birthweight problem.
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Experimental aerial spraying with ultra-low-volume (ULV) malathion to control Aedes aegypti in Buga, Colombia

... Organ 18(l), 1984. EXPERIMENTAL AERIAL SPRAYING WITH VOLUME (ULV) MALATHION TO CONTROL IN BUGA, COLOMBIA1 ULTRA-LOWAEDES AEGYPTI Luis Jorge Uribe ,2 Germ&n Campos Garrido,s Michael Milton E. Tinker,5 and Jo& Moquillazas Nelson,4 Aerial ultra -low- volume (ULV applications of malathion were made in Buga, Colombia, beginning on 16 March 1979, in order to ... been applied at a rate of 6 ounces per acre, was an ultra -low- volume 96 per cent near-odorless concentrate of malathion (Fyfanon@). Before the actual operation began, a number of short flights were made in order to calibrate the insecticide discharge rate. This calibration was accomplished in the following manner: A few gallons of malathion were placed ... the positions of the flow-regulator rings and the pressure control device were fixed. After that a short flight was made, during which the insecticide discharge control valve was kept open for two minutes. Then, when the plane landed, the insecticide remaining in the tank was drawn off and measured, and on this basis the rate of flow per minute was calculated. The
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Selection of mothers with increased risk of delivery low birthweight newborns at a public maternity hospital in Rosario, Argentina

... selected were as follows: 1. Low 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. birthweight history (at least one previous low birthweight newborn) Mother smokes (more than two cigarettes per day) Low maternal weight (weight at start of pregnancy below the tenth percentile of the study population: 46 kg) Low maternal height (height below the fifth percentile of ... relative risks with confidence intervals having lower limits greater than one. Tables 2 and 3 present similar data on IUGR and preterm delivery. With regard 37 3 -5 -19 to IUGR, the two factors registering significant relative risk (lower 95% confidence limit >l) were a low birthweight history and low maternal weight. Regarding preterm delivery ... (%) Relative risk 21.4 25.4 1.81 (1.40-3.13) 14.8 17.8 1.02 (0.58-1.85) 0.3 11.3 11.5 1.29 (0.67-2.89) 3 5.0 15.4 1.79 (0.73-6.03) 4 16.9 1.07 2.04 (0.57-2.20) (1.35-4.74) (0.74-1.68) Low birthweight history (;r: 1 LBW newborn) Mother smokes (> 2 cigarettes/day) Low maternal weight (< 10th percentile: 46 kg) Low maternal height (4 hours/day) Education of spouse (none) Single parent Maternal age (< 18 years) Maternal age (> 35 years) Housework (mother does housework unassisted) Low
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