Insulin Resistance

Clonal dissemination, emergence of mutator lineages and antibiotic resistance evolution in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis chronic lung infection.

... wild-type distributions. Resistance profiles (I+R) to the 8 antipseudomonal agents and mutator phenotypes for the 100 isolates are also indicated in Figure 1. Although the resistance profiles were variable within and across patients along the study period, a significant trend towards the accumulation of resistances was noted, increasing from an average of resistance ... overexpression and ceftazidime resistance and lack of OprD and imipenem resistance, as previously observed [42,43], a correlation between phenotype and genotype was not always evident, particularly concerning efflux pumps overexpression. Previously described efflux unbalance in CF [44] and antagonistic interactions between certain resistance mechanisms [45] ... 3, Figure 2). The clone associated with a higher number of resistance mechanisms was ST-146/LES-1 previously associated with MDR phenotypes [43]. The initial MDR isolate from this clone already expressed 4 resistance mechanisms (MexY, MexF, MexD and OprD). The last isolate also expressed 4 resistance mechanisms (MexY, MexD, MexF, and OprD), but showed
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Elimination of Enhanced Thermal Resistance of Spheroid Culture Model of Prostate Carcinoma Cell Line by Inhibitors of Hsp70 Induction

... Furthermore, the spheroids showed a more significant resistance to hyperthermia compared to the monolayer cultures (p = 0.01). They also produced more Hsp70 than the monolayer cultures. Treatment of cells with quercetin reduced the Hsp70 level in both culture systems. However, with the reduced Hsp70 levels, thermal resistance of the spheroids showed a greater decrease ... the monolayers. Conclusion: The results suggest that the enhanced hyperthermia resistance mechanism of the spheroid cultures compared to that of the monolayer cultures can be attributed to spheroids' Hsp70 production. Keywords: Spheroid, Monolayer, Quercetin, Hsp70, Thermal Resistance Yakhteh Medical Journal, Vol 12, No 1, Spring 2010, Pages: 105-112 Introduction Hyperthermia, ... glucose deprivation (6), hypoxia (7), and viral infections (8). Hsp70 has been shown to confer resistance to radiation and hyperthermic treatment for recurrent breast cancer (9). It has also been shown that overexpression of Hsp70 generally confers heat resistance to cancer cells, suggesting that Hsp70, in addition to its functions in the repair and
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The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia induces resistance to dengue virus in Aedes aegypti.

... ZN, Blair CD, Beaty BJ, et al. (2006) Engineering RNA interference-based resistance to dengue virus type 2 in genetically modified Aedes aegypti. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103: 4198–4203. 3. Olson KE, Higgs S, Gaines PJ, Powers AM, Davis BS, et al. (1996) Genetically engineered resistance to dengue-2 virus transmission in mosquitoes. Science 272: 884–886. 4. ... control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has long been promoted as a potential vehicle for introducing disease -resistance genes into mosquitoes, thereby making them refractory to the human pathogens they transmit. Given the large overlap in tissue distribution and intracellular localization ... potential usefulness of Wolbachia-based control strategies for population replacement. Citation: Bian G, Xu Y, Lu P, Xie Y, Xi Z (2010) The Endosymbiotic Bacterium Wolbachia Induces Resistance to Dengue Virus in Aedes aegypti. PLoS Pathog 6(4): e1000833. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000833 Editor: David S. Schneider, Stanford University, United States of America Received
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Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

... explain variation in resistance expression within species pairs of Sympetrum [24]. Importantly, variation in immune response and resistance has been documented in many studies examining the costs and benefits of resistance to pathogens such as bacteria. In invertebrates, studies demonstrate that genetic heterogeneity influences resistance to pathogens ... tolerance and resistance between related host species to shared parasites [4]. A first look at this problem would be to compare levels of resistance to real parasites with respect to levels of parasitism and host defences, as done recently by Vogelweith et al. [5]. Evaluating patterns of innate immunity among host species might help predict resistance ... DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115539 February 6, 2015 6 / 13 Damselfly Parasitism, Immune Proxies and Resistance Table 1. Details of Arrenurus spp. parasitism, resistance and innate immunity measures in 10 species of damselflies sampled at five sites. Species pair Species Resistance Sex Argia A. moesta A. violaceae Enallagma E. boreale (E) E. ebrium Enallagma E.
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The effect of aquatic plyometric training with and without resistance on selected physical fitness variables among volleyball players

... specifically, buoyancy and resistance resulting from its viscosity (Miller et al., 2002). Previous studies comparing land-based and aquatic plyometric programs have been completed in varying depths of water (Martel et al., 2005; Robinson et al., 2004). These studies have shown that both aquatic plyometric training with and without resistance training have ... Education and Sport ® - JPES, 11(2), Art # 31, pp.205-210, 2011 E- ISSN 2066-2483 P-ISSN 1582-8131 © JPES Original Article The effect of aquatic plyometric training with and without resistance on selected physical fitness variables among volleyball players K. KAMALAKKANNAN1 , DR. KAUKAB AZEEM2, DR. C. ARUMUGAM3 1 Director of Physical Education, Arunai Engineering
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Virological failure and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among naive and antiretroviral pre-treated patients entering the ESTHER program of Calmette Hospital in Cambodia.

... (66.6) 3TC resistance 7 (100) 9 (75) 16 (84.2) 2 (66.6) D4T resistance 4 (57.1) 8 (66.6) 12 (63.2) 1 (33.3) AZT resistance 2 (20.0) 7 (58.3) 9 (47.4) 1 (33.3) ABC resistance 1 (12.2) 3 (25.5) 4 (21.1) 0 (0) TDF resistance 1 (14..2) 1 (8.3) 2 (10.5) 0 (0) DDI resistance 1 (14..2) 5 (33.3) 6 (31.6) 0 (0) NRTI resistance NNRTI resistance NVP ... (0) NRTI resistance NNRTI resistance NVP resistance 7 (100) 8 (66.6) 15 (78.9) 2 (66.6) EFV resistance 7 (100) 8 (66.6) 15 (78.9) 2 (66.6) ETV resistance 0 (0) 3 (25.0) 3 (15.8) 1 (33.3) RPV resistance 0(0) 2 (16.6) 3 (15.8) 0 (0) PI resistance LPVr resistance not done 0/3 (0) 0/3 (0) ATVr resistance not done 0/3 (0) 0/3 (0) Numbers ... diagnosis of treatment failure is associated with accumulated drug resistance mutations and high level cross resistance to subsequent regimens [10]. Retention and adherence also play a critical role in the response to ART as suboptimal viral suppression may result in higher risk of developing drug resistance [11]. In 2011, data from 149 low- and middle-income
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Over-expression of a cytochrome P450 is associated with resistance to pyriproxyfen in the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

... e31077 Pyriproxyfen Resistance in the Greenhouse Whitefly resistance in T. vaporariorum. The response of TV8pyrsel after only three generations of selection demonstrated a very potent resistance to this insecticide. Interestingly, pyriproxyfen is not registered for use in Germany. The moderate resistance found in TV8 could be due to either cross -resistance ... there are reports of insects evolving resistance to pyriproxyfen, the underlying resistance mechanism(s) are poorly understood. Results: Bioassays against eggs of a German (TV8) population of T. vaporariorum revealed a moderate level (21-fold) of resistance to pyriproxyfen. This is the first time that pyriproxyfen resistance has been confirmed in this ... receptor molecule. However, the Methoprene-tolerant gene (Met) (also known as Resistance to juvenile hormone) has been proposed as a possible candidate for the juvenile hormone (JH) receptor as it has been shown to confer resistance to toxic doses of JH when mutated [9,10]. Resistance to pyriproxyfen was first documented in B. tabaci from Israel in 1998
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Type I host resistance and Trichothecene Accumulation in <i>Fusarium</i>-infected Wheat Heads

... Christensen (1963) described two components of physiological resistance to FHB. The first of these is known as Type I resistance which is defined as resistance to initial infection by the pathogen and the second, type II is defined as resistance against the spread of infection within the spike. Type I resistance is detected by spray-inoculating heads and measuring ... evaluations for type I resistance (Rudd et al., 2001). Other physiological resistances have been proposed including; resistance to kernel infection (Mesterházy 1995; Mesterházy et al., 1999), FHB tolerance (Mesterházy 1995; Mesterházy et al., 1999) and resistance to toxin accumulation (Miller et al., 1985). Irrespective of the resistance mechanism, FHB ... local population, in resistance screening appears advisable in order to avoid the misinterpretation of a cultivar’s resistance with the use of single isolate. Screening of cultivars likely requires both greenhouse and the field testing. Key words: Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, acetyldeoxynivalenol, type I resistance, Fusarium
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Pancreatic alpha-cell dysfunction contributes to the disruption of glucose homeostasis and compensatory insulin hypersecretion in glucocorticoid-treated rats.

... (2013) Investigation of the mechanisms contributing to the compensatory increase in insulin secretion during dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rhesus macaques. J Endocrinol 216:207–215. 19. Jensen DH, Aaboe K, Henriksen JE, Vølund A, Holst JJ, et al. (2012) Steroidinduced insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are both associated with a progressive ... conditions. Interestingly, their insulin/ glucagon ratio did not increase from the fasted state to the fed state, which may result in impaired insulin suppressive effects and/or augmented hyperglycemic actions of glucagon on the liver, as was previously suggested for GC-treated humans [30]. In fact, the DEX rats are less insulin sensitive as observed by the insulin tolerance ... increase in insulin secretion (Figure 5A and Table 1). In contrast, for the islets of DEX rats, the insulin response in the presence of glucagon or forskolin was significantly higher compared to incubation with 5.6 mmol/l glucose alone (Figure 5A and Table 2). This insulin hypersecretion in DEX animals seems not to be related with increased insulin biosynthesis
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Midkine, a potential link between obesity and insulin resistance.

... adipokines that are directly involved in insulin resistance [7]. Herein, we showed that MK suppressed insulin signaling in adipocytes, as indicated by reduced phosphorylation of Akt and IRS-1 in response to insulin stimulation. These findings provide the first evidence that MK may be a novel inducer of insulin resistance. Since MK expression was increased ... obesity-linked insulin resistance. Science 259: 87–91. 40. Olefsky JM, Glass CK (2010) Macrophages, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Annu Rev Physiol 72: 219–246. 41. Palanivel R, Fullerton MD, Galic S, Honeyman J, Hewitt KA, et al. (2012) Reduced Socs3 expression in adipose tissue protects female mice against obesityinduced insulin resistance. ... tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) on Tyr612 in response to insulin stimulation (Figure 5A and C). Taken together, our results show that MK impairs insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 7 February 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 2 | e88299 Midkine May Link Obesity to Insulin Resistance Figure
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Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans infection.

... D9-THC on fungal infections. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic D9-THC treatment on the resistance to systemic C. albicans infection in mice. Specifically, we studied the effect of chronic D9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to a primary, acute systemic C. albicans infection as well as to a secondary systemic C. albicans infection. ... bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic D9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection. To determine the outcome of chronic D9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were ... chronic D9-THC (4–64 mg/kg) treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.56104 C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 56105 C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic
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Expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 in muscle is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance and lipid disturbances in patients with HIV.

... hepatic insulin resistance, we performed a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp with stable isotopes. We found that muscle FGF-21 mRNA was negatively associated with the insulin- mediated glucose-uptake (Figure 1G), but not with hepatic insulin resistance (data not shown). We did not find any association between plasma FGF-21 and parameters of insulin resistance ... FGF-21 mRNA, plasma FGF-21 and insulin resistance Muscle FGF-21 mRNA correlated positively to all markers of insulin resistance: fasting insulin (r = 0.57, p = 0.0008), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score (r = 0.55, p = 0.001), and insulinAUC (r = 0.38, p = 0.02) (Fig. 1 C–F). To test whether the association between insulin and FGF-21 mRNA in muscle ... lipid driven insulin resistance [20]. Therefore, increased FGF-21 in muscle may be a compensatory mechanism to offset the lipid-induced insulin resistance in muscle. This explanation is supported by in vitro models, where FGF-21 is found to protect human myotubes from palmitate-induced insulin resistance [28], and to increase basal and insulin- stimulated
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A novel interaction between plant-beneficial rhizobacteria and roots: colonization induces corn resistance against the root herbivore Diabrotica speciosa.

... Viswanathan R, Raguchander T, Prakasam V, Smaiyappan R (2001) Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in crop plants against pests and diseases. Crop Prot 20: 1–11. 21. Zehnder G, Kloepper J, Yao C, Wei G (1997a) Induction of systemic resistance against cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) by plant growthpromoting ... (2014) Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions. Plant Cell Environ 37: 813–826. 28. Robert CAM, Erb M, Hibbard BE, French BW, Zwahlen C, et al. (2012b) A specialist root herbivore reduces plant resistance and uses an induced plant volatile to aggregate in a density-dependent ... specialization [5] and the specific plant-beneficial microorganism interaction [3,6]. For some systems, the association of plants with beneficial microorganisms results in resistance to generalist herbivores, but not always to specialists [7,8]. However, in other cases, beneficial microorganism-plant mutualism may benefit from herbivore attack [9]. Members
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Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

... after an acute bout of resistance exercise and nutrition before the start of the resistance training period (r = 0.10, P = 0.67). B) The relationship between changes in muscle volume as measured by MRI and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation at Thr37/46 measured 1 hour after an acute bout of resistance exercise and nutrition before the start of the resistance training ... Hypertrophy Figure 4. Myofibrillar Protein synthesis. FSR is calculated at rest and after an acute bout of resistance exercise and protein ingestion prior to the start of the resistance training period. The other rates were calculated from 1 to 3 hours and 3–6 hours after the resistance exercises. Each circle, square, and triangle represents a single subject at rest, ... Staples AW, Atherton PJ, Baker JM, et al. (2010) Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men. PLoS One 5: e12033. 8. Burd NA, Holwerda AM, Selby KC, West DW, Staples AW, et al. (2010) Resistance exercise volume affects myofibrillar protein synthesis and
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Effects of unfermented and fermented whole grain rye crisp breads served as part of a standardized breakfast, on appetite and postprandial glucose and insulin responses: a randomized cross-over trial.

... of glucose and subsequent insulin response [64]. The differences in postprandial insulin response could also be due to different amounts of insulinogenic amino acids such as the BCAA valine, isoleucine and leucine as well as the amino acids lysine and threonine. These have been suggested to mediate increased secretion of insulin and to be correlated ... serum insulin and plasma glucose concentrations were performed by established routine methods at the certified laboratory of the Department of Clinical Chemistry at Uppsala University Hospital. Serum insulin was analyzed on a Roche PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122241 March 31, 2015 6 / 19 Effect of Rye Crisp Bread on Appetite, Insulin ... (SE). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122241.g005 PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122241 March 31, 2015 10 / 19 Effect of Rye Crisp Bread on Appetite, Insulin and Glucose Fig 6. Plasma insulin profile and AUC. Left: Plasma insulin concentration- time profile in n = 23 participants. Values are means. A statistically significant interaction between treatment x
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Resistance of i-beams in warping torsion with account for the development of plasticdeformations

... А.Р., Прокич М. Прочность двутавровых профилей при стесненном кручении с учетом развития пластических деформаций // Вестник МГСУ. 2014. № 1. С. 75—82. A.R. Tusnin, M. Prokic RESISTANCE OF I-BEAMS IN WARPING TORSION WITH ACCOUNT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTIC DEFORMATIONS Torsion of thin-walled open-section beams due to restrained warping displacements ... I-section beam under the action of bimoment and gave recommendations for the design of torsion members including improved value of plastic shape factor. Key words: warping torsion, resistance, plasticity, plastic shape factor, bimoment, plastic deformation. Designing and detailing of building systems. Mechanics in civil engineering 81 1/2014 References ... Federation; prokic@mail.ru. F o r c i t a t i o n : Tusnin A.R., Prokic M. Prochnost' dvutavrovykh profiley pri stesnennom kruchenii s uchetom razvitiya plasticheskikh deformatsiy [Resistance of I-beams in Warping Torsion with Account for the Development of Plastic Deformations] Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014,
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pp32 (ANP32A) expression inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and induces gemcitabine resistance by disrupting HuR binding to mRNAs.

... class that utilize dCK for cellular metabolism: GEM and cytarabine (ARA-C) (Table 1 and Figure 2C, center and right). Mia.pp32 cells displayed a ten-fold resistance to GEM compared to Mia.EV, and a 2-fold resistance to ARA-C (Table 1 and representative data, Figure 2C, center). siRNA knockdown of endogenous pp32 expression sensitizes cells to gemcitabine The ... Williams TK, Costantino CL, Bildzukewicz NA, Richards NG, Rittenhouse DW, et al. (2010) pp32 (ANP32A) Expression Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth and Induces Gemcitabine Resistance by Disrupting HuR Binding to mRNAs. PLoS ONE 5(11): e15455. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015455 Editor: Janine Santos, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, ... standard treatment in the adjuvant setting, they provide little improvement in long-term survival [3,4,5]. Therefore, a better understanding of acquired and de novo chemotherapeutic resistance mechanisms is necessary for us to enhance current treatment strategies. Although much has been learned about the molecular changes involved in the process of pancreatic
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Steering Evolution with Sequential Therapy to Prevent the Emergence of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance.

... space to avoid the emergence of resistance. This suggests a new strategy in the war against antibiotic–resistant organisms: drug sequencing to shepherd evolution through genotype space to states from which resistance cannot emerge and by which to maximize the chance of successful therapy. Author Summary Increasing antibiotic resistance, coupled with the ... be prescribed in order to prevent resistance where each drug alone may fail. These model predictions suggest a novel treatment strategy: using sequences of antibiotics to ‘steer’ the evolution of a pathogen to a configuration from which resistance to a final antibiotic cannot emerge. Further, we test the likelihood of resistance emerging when arbitrary ... prescribed, finding that approximately 70% of arbitrary sequences of 2–4 drugs promote resistance to the final drug. This result serves as a cautionary warning that we may be inadvertently promoting resistance through careless (or random) prescription of drugs. Introduction Resistance to antibiotic treatments within bacterial pathogens poses an increasing
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Optimal antiviral switching to minimize resistance risk in HIV therapy.

... mutation gives broad class resistance against all NNRTIs, any follow-up therapy will not use NNRTIs. Neither (74V) nor (184V) exhibit strong cross -resistance patterns with any other NRTIs, so a possible follow-up therapy would be the two NRTIs tenofovir and zidovudine together with the PI nelfinavir. Clinically significant resistance to these three drugs ... mutations between sensitive and resistant mutant. Therefore, in order to quantify the risk of drug -resistance emergence, resistance mutations must be modeled as a stochastic process. Poisson Modeling. In this section, equations are presented that determine the drug -resistance emergence risk, which is the mutation probability from the current virus pool to ... regimen provides insufficient mutational barrier to prevent resistance, so if a switch is not made, the viral load will rebound. The reduction in resistance emergence risk achieved by this intervention depends on the genetic distance of the dominant strain at the switch time to the closest strain with resistance to the naive regimen. Table 2 illustrates the
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Effects of genetic variants in ADCY5, GIPR, GCKR and VPS13C on early impairment of glucose and insulin metabolism in children.

... of the genetic model (additive/dominant) applied. Association of genotypes with insulin and glucose traits The C-allele in rs2877716 (ADCY5) was nominally associated with parameters of insulin secretion and insulin resistance, such as a lower fasting plasma insulin, peak insulin (Fig. 1A), HOMA-B and a higher QUICKI and ISI (Fig. 1C), but showed no ... e22101 Genetics of Insulin Resistance in Children PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 5 July 2011 | Volume 6 | Issue 7 | e22101 Genetics of Insulin Resistance in Children Figure 1. Association of rs2877716 (ADCY5) and rs17271305 (VPS13C) risk alleles with metabolic parameters. Peak insulin (A), 2 h blood glucose (B) and Matsuda insulin sensitivity ... FBG: Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l); BG: blood glucose; FPI: fasting plasma insulin (pmol/L); AUC: Area under the curve; for a detailed description of the Insulin resistance and –sensitivity indices see Method S1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022101.t002 Genetics of Insulin Resistance in Children Table 3. Effect sizes and P values for metabolic parameters
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Relation of Absolute or Relative Adiposity to Insulin Resistance, Retinol Binding Protein-4, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Type 2 Diabetes

... conjunction with insulin resistance, was measured by amplifying the subjects’ serum samples, which were stored at -70°C, with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Phoenix, Belmont, CA, USA): the intra-assay CV value was 8% [14]. Insulin resistance The rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance (KITT) was employed to assess insulin resistance. An insulin tolerance ... YL, et al.   Several studies have analyzed the association among insulin resistance, body fat distribution, and race. In a study by Boutcher et al. [7], a greater amount of trunk fat was associated with severity of insulin resistance in Austrian women, while in Chinese women, insulin resistance was associated with a smaller amount of fat in the lower ... of peripheral fat mass may aggravate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Keywords:  Adiponectin; Adiposity; Insulin resistance; Leptin; Retinol binding protein-4 INTRODUCTION Fat accumulation in the human body releases several adipokines from adipocytes, some of which are known to lead to elevate insulin resistance and to cause metabolic syndrome
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Emerging resistance against different fungicides in Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the cause of mango dieback in Pakistan

... in this particular region. Fungicidal resistance is a stable, inheritable adjustment by the fungus to fungicides that results in reduced sensitivity or increased resistance (Ma and Michailides, 2005). The prolonged use of DMIs + MBCs reduced performance due to high infection pressure, which is associated with the resistance of L. theobromae. This suggests ... strains of mango pathogens. Keeping in mind the facts, the resistance development in L. theobromae in mango groves of Pakistan is not surprising. In our study, multiple fungicidal resistances reflect that the intensive use of selective fungicides is a serious threat for the mango crop in Pakistan. Cross -resistance may occur and it is common in fungal species ... potential of fungicide resistance in Pakistan. This study demonstrates that the mango growers must be conscious of the significance of rotation tactics to discourage the selection of single-chemistry fungicides, which are presently in development FUNGICIDAL RESISTANCE IN LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE 247 to avoid the evolution of resistance in pathogens.
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Small changes in environmental parameters lead to alterations in antibiotic resistance, cell morphology and membrane fatty acid composition in Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

... significant increase in antibiotic resistance compared with the control samples (Table 1). At the temperatures of 35uC and 39uC at pH 8 and pH 6, the MIC values for 5% w/w added NaCl were significantly higher than both control and centroid samples. The combinations of lower pH and high NaCl concentrations led to the highest antibiotic resistance for gentamicin ... concentrations together elicited significant changes in cell morphology and membrane composition which led to measurable enhancements in antibiotic resistance and growth characteristics. Significantly increased antibiotic resistance to gentamicin was observed in cells grown under PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 6 April 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 4 | e92296 Lipid ... NaCl displayed elevated antibiotic resistance (MIC). Varying the pH and temperature parameters revealed that combinations of treatments with 5% w/w added NaCl resulted in the highest levels of MIC for gentamicin and had associated increases in generation times (Table 1). It was thus concluded that the enhanced antibiotic resistance was an inadvertent ‘‘benefit’’
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Correction: Insulin and mTOR Pathway Regulate HDAC3-Mediated Deacetylation and Activation of PGK1.

... CORRECTION Correction: Insulin and mTOR Pathway Regulate HDAC3-Mediated Deacetylation and Activation of PGK1 Shiwen Wang, Bowen Jiang, Tengfei Zhang, Lixia Liu, Yi Wang, Yiping Wang, Xiufei Chen, Huaipeng ... right end of the top row. The authors have provided a corrected version here. OPEN ACCESS Citation: Wang S, Jiang B, Zhang T, Liu L, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. (2015) Correction: Insulin and mTOR Pathway Regulate HDAC3-Mediated Deacetylation and Activation of PGK1. PLoS Biol 13(11): e1002287. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002287 Published: November 5, 2015 Copyright: ... Table. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002287.g001 PLOS Biology | DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002287 November 5, 2015 2/3 Reference 1. Wang S, Jiang B, Zhang T, Liu L, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. (2015) Insulin and mTOR Pathway Regulate HDAC3-Mediated Deacetylation and Activation of PGK1. PLoS Biol 13(9): e1002243. doi:10.1371/ journal.pbio.1002243 PMID: 26356530 PLOS Biology
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Response to short-course chemotherapy of patients with initial resistance to antituberculosis drugs

... streptomycin, isoniazid, andrifampinONice a week.) For purposes of this study, initial resistance was considered to be resistance shown by the patient’s tuberculosis strain(s) at the beginning of treatment, regardlessof whether this was primary resistance (in new cases)or secondary (acquired) resistance in patients treated previously who had abandoned treatment or relapsed. Because ... influence of resistance upon the results of therapy can be seen when the resistance was to isoniazid or isoniazid plus streptomycin. However, as the data in Table 3 indicate, resistance to streptomycin alone does not appear to have played a causal role in failures. This finding is especially important in our country, where the predominant form of resistance ... resultsobtainedwith “new” casesshowingprimary resistanceand previouslytreatedcases exhibiting secondaryor acquired resistance. Infectionsrendered inactive Resistant cases Newcases(primary resistance) Previously treatedcases (secondary oracquired resistance) Treatment failures Subsequent relapsesa No. w No. W) 128 (92.1) 11 (7.9) 7 (5.5) 32 (86.5) 5 (13.5) 5 (15.6) a
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