CB2 cannabinoid receptors contribute to bacterial invasion and mortality in polymicrobial sepsis.
... Figure 1a, CB2 receptor KO mice had significantly lower mortality rates compared with WT mice, which became apparent on the 2nd day of observation. On the 7th day following CLP, the mortality rate of CB2 KO mice was markedly (by more than 40%) lower than that of CB2 WT mice. No additional changes in mortality were detected when the mice were monitored ... (Figure 1b, c). Taken together, these studies document that CB2 receptors contribute to bacterial translocation into the bloodstream and mortality in polymicrobial sepsis. Results CB2 receptors contribute to sepsis-induced mortality and bacterial invasion To begin to study the role of CB2 receptors, we first investigated the effect of CB2 deficiency in ... contributors to septic immune dysfunction and mortality, indicating that CB2 receptors may be therapeutically targeted for the benefit of patients suffering from sepsis. Citation: Csóka B, Németh ZH, Mukhopadhyay P, Spolarics Z, Rajesh M, et al. (2009) CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors Contribute to Bacterial Invasion and Mortality in Polymicrobial Sepsis. PLoS
Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.
... and cancer incidence Cancer Mortality and Incidence Data Cancer mortality data were derived from the 3rd National Death Cause Survey in China . Briefly, this was a retrospective survey conducted in 160 randomized counties and 53 cancer highrisk areas between 2004 and 2005. Cancer incidence data were estimated by using a Mortality/ Incidence (M/I) ... cases are esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In China, the crude mortality rate of esophageal cancer in 2004–2005 was 15.2/100,000, which represented 11.2% of all cancer deaths and ranked as the 4th most common cause of cancer death . Thus, even though the age-standardized mortality of esophageal cancer decreased by 41.6% from 1973 to 2005 , ... responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China. Citation: Wang J-B, Fan J-H, Liang H, Li J, Xiao H-J, et al. (2012) Attributable Causes of Esophageal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42281.
Towards Reducing Maternal Mortality in India
... site of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes . Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is the measure of maternal mortality and is defined as the number of MDs during a given time period per 100000 live births (LBs) during the same time period usually over period of ... maternal mortality 1990–2008: estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and The World Bank Geneva: WHO 2010. www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring/9789241500265/en/index.html. 2. World Health Report 2005 – Make every mother and child count. Geneva: World Health. Organization, 2005. 3. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Maternal Mortality ... 201_filename_mmupdate-2002.pdf. 4. www.un.org/milleniumgoals/summitstroy.shtml. 5. Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA; Departmental of Reproductive Health and Research WHO, Geneva 2004. 6. WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, The World Bank. Trends in maternal mortality: 1990-2010; Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPAand theWorld Bank;
Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?
... 30-Day Mortality significantly higher 30-day mortality (68.4%) than those with a GCS score of 5 to 12 (6.7%) and a GCS score of 13 to 15 (0%). ICH Score The relationship of 30-day mortality versus ICH score was shown on Fig. 3. There was a positive association between the 30day mortality and ICH score, i.e., with a higher ICH score, the 30day mortality ... Scale, ICH Score: 30-Day Mortality Figure 3. Bar chart of 30-day mortality versus ICH Score. There is no apparent difference between the ABC/2 and CAVA methods regarding the 30-day mortality no matter in trend or in each ICH score. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102326.g003 Figure 4. Comparison of ROC curves in predicting the 30-day mortality by GCS, ICH ... 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score. Citation: Wang C-W, Liu Y-J, Lee Y-H, Hueng D-Y, Fan H-C, et al. (2014) Hematoma Shape, Hematoma Size, Glasgow Coma Scale Score and ICH Score: Which Predicts the 30-Day Mortality
Child mortality estimation: consistency of under-five mortality rate estimates using full birth histories and summary birth histories.
... ‘‘Child Mortality Estimation Methods,’’ when examining acute mortality crises such as the Rwandan genocide, under-five mortality rates using 5-y periods also tend to smooth out the genocide-related mortality, unlike when 1-y periods are used . Discussion I examined the consistency of direct and indirect methods used to estimate under-five mortality ... be used only for populations that have experienced either smooth mortality declines or only short periods of excess mortality in their recent past. Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary. Citation: Silva R (2012) Child Mortality Estimation: Consistency of Under-Five Mortality Rate Estimates Using Full Birth Histories and Summary Birth ... | e1001296 Consistency of Under-Five Mortality Rate Estimates Introduction In 2001, world leaders, recognizing the lack of progress in reducing under-five mortality and the need for more attention and resources to address the proximate determinants of under-five mortality, agreed to prioritize child mortality reduction as part of the United
Long-term mortality in patients with tuberculous meningitis: a Danish nationwide cohort study.
... anti-tuberculous therapy short-term mortality is high; ranging from 20–69% [1–4]. We have recently reported a 19% short-term mortality and a high risk of sequelae (50%) in TBM patients in Denmark over the last decade . The acute, short-term mortality rates in TBM are well documented, but few studies have analysed long-term mortality. In this population ... of death. Conclusion: Adult TBM patients have an almost two-fold increased long-term mortality and the excess mortality stems from infectious disease related causes of death. Citation: Christensen A-SH, Roed C, Omland LH, Andersen PH, Obel N, et al. (2011) Long-Term Mortality in Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study. ... in-patient mortality rates are generally similar for HIV and non-HIV positive TBM patients [3,23]. However, when looking at 9-month survival in TBM patients, a Vietnamese study found a significantly increased mortality (MRR 2.91; 95%CI: 2.14–3.96) in HIV positive patients . Even though the main objective of this study was to address the long-term mortality,
Oxidative Stress Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-Infected Patients.
... F2-IsoPs with mortality remained significant (adjusted OR per 1 log10 increase, 2.34 [1.23– 4.47], P = 0.009). The association of MDA with mortality was attenuated after adjustment: adjusted OR (95% CI) per 1 log10 increase, 2.05 [0.91–4.59], P = 0.080. Median hsCRP was also higher in cases, and it also proved to be an independent predictor of mortality ... stress biomarkers with mortality in humans are limited. Recently, an association has been described with all-cause mortality in HIV-uninfected older adults . Studies on specific oxidative biomarkers are limited to circumscribed clinical scenarios [35, 36]. We found that the relationship of oxidative stress biomarkers with mortality was independent ... 25, 2016 4 / 12 Oxidative Stress and Mortality in HIV Patients Fig 1. Plasma levels of F2-isoprostanes, malondialdehyde and C-reactive protein in cases and controls. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153456.g001 PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0153456 April 25, 2016 5 / 12 Oxidative Stress and Mortality in HIV Patients Fig 2. Unadjusted
Hypertension News-Screen: Effects of thiazide-type and thiazide-like diuretics on cardiovascular events and mortality: systematic review and metaanalysis
... events and mortality. Randomized, controlled studies in adult hypertensive patients that compared TT or TL diuretics with placebo or antihypertensive drugs and had 1 year follow-up were included. Primary outcome was cardiovascular events; secondary outcomes included coronary events, heart failure, cerebrovascular events, and all-cause mortality. Meta-regression ... Wien Handelskai 94–96/23. OG E-Mail: email@example.com Hypertension News-Screen T. Weber Effects of thiazide-type and thiazide-like diuretics on cardiovascular events and mortality: systematic review and metaanalysis Olde Engberink RH, Frenkel WJ, van de Bogaard B et al. Hypertension 2015; 65: 1033–40. Abstract Thiazide diuretics are recommended ... Hypertension News-Screen: Effects of thiazide-type and thiazide-like diuretics on cardiovascular events and mortality: systematic review and metaanalysis Weber T Journal für Hypertonie - Austrian Journal of Hypertension 2015; 19 (4), 122-123 Homepage: www.kup.at/ hypertonie Online-Datenbank
Transplantation of infant kidneys - the surgical technique en bloc and transplant position variation: A case report
... certain technical problems related to the choice and type of vascular and ureteral anastomosis and graft position in this group of patients 3. As infant kidneys are small, it is common to use a pair of infant kidneys for transplantation to one patient of adequate body mass. Developmental discrepancy of such transplantation poses several problems, such ... characteristics and/or implantation techniques. Case report. We presented a case with successful variation of kidney position with modified approach of kidney transplantation from an infant to an adult female patient with normal postoperative recovery. Urethral anastomosis was performed without antireflux procedure and this has not led to the development of ... Page 1122 CASE REPORT VOJNOSANITETSKI PREGLED Vojnosanit Pregl 2015; 72(12): 1122–1125. UDC: 616.61-089.843 DOI: 10.2298/VSP141010111P Transplantation of infant kidneys – The surgical technique en bloc and transplant position variation: A case report Transplantacija dečjih bubrega – hirurška tehnika en bloc i varijacija pozicije
Mortality among Brazilian Air Force Officers
... low levels of mortality and high quality mortality data. The list includes Chile, Sweden, France and Japan. The mortality data for these countries were obtained in HMD (The Human Mortality Database). We also compared our estimates with mortality data for Brazil obtained from IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, 2000). The mortality estimates ... differences in mortality patterns across the populations compared in our analysis, we also estimated mortality ratios for ages 45 and above assuming the age specific mortality rates for Sweden as the standard. The closer the ratio is to the value of one, the closer the mortality of that given population in a certain age group is to Sweden’s mortality rate. ... 1935 Brazilian cohort is inverted, reflecting the distinct pattern of mortality in the Brazilian total population. 35 Figure 8. Mortality Ratios between each country’s rate and Sweden’s rate as pattern. Source: DIRSA. HMD/Human Mortality Database, available at http://www .mortality. org/. IBGE/Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, male
Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.
... echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive ... were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: ... Artigo Original Ecoestresse Físico: Predição de Mortalidade e Eventos Cardíacos em Pacientes com Ergometria Isquêmica Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia Ana Carla Pereira de Araujo 1, Bruno F. de Oliveira Santos1, Flavia Ricci Calasans1, Ibraim M. Francisco
Neonatal tetanus mortality in Veracruz, Mexico, 1989
... Urban and rural mortality tetanus mortality estimates 2. The difference between estimated infant mortality in the rural versus urban strata was not statistically significant at the 0.05 probability level. There was a significant difference between estimated neonatal mortality in the rural and urban strata but not between estimated NNT mortality in these ... especially in rural areas. Registered tetanus mortality among Veracruz infants in 1956-1960 was 1.5 deaths per 1 000 live births; and while only seven cases were reported to the Veracruz Health Secretariat in 1987, some 35 deaths caused by NNT were officially registered that year. These deaths made the state’s reported NNT mortality (approximately 0.15 deaths per ... and mortality estimates, we found that of the 9 879 babies enumerated in the sample, 8 401 were 120 Bulletin of PAHO 29(Z), 1995 born within the study period of Easter (April) 1988 through May 1989 and were 1-12 months old. (On the basis of this finding, the crude birth rate was estimated at 2.7%.) There were also 209 infant deaths, indicating an infant
Years of productive life lost to premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases
... person dying. b Percentage of economically active years lost to premature mortality that is attributed to cardiovascular disease mortality. 13.1 17.3 15.5 27.0 Table 3. Overburden of years of economically active life lost disease mortality (as a percentage of all to cardiovascular mortality) other in the South regions, and as indicated and corrected (Table Southeast by ... estimate the economically productive years lost in Brazil, using 1985 data, as a result of premature mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. Two decades ago these diseases were the leading cause of death in Brazil (1, 2). Since then the morbidity and mortality picture has changed; and while the nation’s infrastructure for prevention and control of ... country’s five regions, the percentage of 1985 mortality ascribed to cardiovascular diseases in each region (bold type), and the economically active years of life lost to cardiovascular diseases in 1985 (both uncorrected and corrected for age distribution) (7). NorthernRegion 19.8% 22,240.O 15,792.5 % mortalityascribedto cardiovasculardiseases,1985 MfGERIALS AND
Characteristics of urban mortality from Chagas' disease in Brazil's Federal District
... causes of mortahty in these groups. The figures show that Chagas’ disease mortality is considerably lower than mortality from “external” causes (accidents, poisonings, and violence) in this age range, but that it is far higher than tuberculosis mortality and is roughly on a par with mortality attributed to cancer, to heart disease, and to stroke (3). To ... women (1,363 working years) was lower; but female mortality from most causes was also lower than male mortality in this age range, and so the share of productive women’s years lost to Chagas’ disease mortality, as compared to other causes, was still relatively high. Table 7 compares data on Chagas’ disease mortality in the Federal District (1977-1978), S%o ... this mortality is especially high among young adults. Overall, it appears that mortality from infectious and parasitic dis- eases would be one-quarter lower if the deaths due to Chagas’ disease were excluded, and that such infectious and parasitic disease mortality would thus drop from the first to the fourth position-trailing cardiovascular disease mortality,
CD29.R21: Infant and young child nutrition
... 1983 RESOLUTION CD29.R21 INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD NUTRITION THE 29th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Recognizing that there is a close interrelationship between infant and young child nutrition and socioeconomic development; Concerned that inappropriate feeding practices of infants and young children result in greater incidence of infant mortality, malnutrition, ... ideal method of infant feeding during the first months of life and should be promoted and protected in all countries; Convinced that Member Governments have important responsibilities and a fundamental role to play in the promotion of good nutrition and in the protection of breastfeeding and sound weaning practices as a means of improving infant and young ... and Recalling Resolution WHA33.321 on Infant and Young Child Feeding and Resolution WHA34.222 adopting the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, RESOLVES 1. To urge all Member Governments to: a) Give full support to their implementation of the recommendations made by the Joint WHO/UNICEF Meeting on Infant and Young Child Feeding (1979),
Review of mortality and morbidity in the English-speaking Caribbean, 1970-1980
... 1 LILH5RjY 1 Vol. 2, No. 3, 1981 Review of Mortality and Morbidity in the English-speaking Caribbean, 1970-1980 Introduction Mortality On the recommendation of its Scientific Advisory Committee, the Caribbean Epidemiology Center (CAREC) conducted a review of mortality and morbidity in the Caribbean in 1970-1980 in order to determine ... characteristics of the area because the last population census was held in 1970 and considerable changes are believed to have taken place in mortality, fertility, birth rate, child mortality, and migration between 1970 and 1980. Since the mortality and morbidity data are presented in absolute figures, this review should be considered a first attempt to determine the ... and Trinidad and Tobago), the findings for this group of countries do not make it possible to extrapolate the state of health in the Caribbean as a region. IN THIS ISSUE... Review of Mortality and Morbidity in the English-speaking Caribbean, 1970-1980 * Diseases Subject to the International Health Regulations * Status of Plague in the Americas, 1970-1980 * · * · * Patterns
Results of the Inter-American Investigations of Mortality relating to reproduction
... in determining birth order. study of infant mortality conducted with the Infant Mortality According to Birth Order $ 120 7 MONTERREY z 2 0 100 CHILE. RIBEIRiO PROJECT -z *\ -c-m -L--H@ NEONATAL 0 PRETO -- I I -10 10 I 2. 75 19 I 30.34 I 351 20 AGE Fig. 2 Neonatal and infant mortality of Mortality in Childhood. ed NEONATAL I I -20 0.) N.--w-- 14 OF I 15.19 MOTHER I 30 34 I 35t I I -20 20 24 I 25.29 I 30.34 I 35t IN ... (7), which was based on official birth and death certificates. Infant Mortality According to Age of the Mother In addition to underlying and associated causes of infant mortality, other factors such as maternal age and birth order have a direct relationship to the health and survival of the infant. The calculation of death rates by maternal age group ... nutritional deficiency as underlying or associated cause of infant death in 24 areas of 15 projects of the Inter-American Investigation of Mortality in Childhood. Figure 2 shows the neonatal and infant death rates for these six projects according to five maternal age groups. In all instances the infant death rates were highest for mothers under 20 years
Effects of maternal nutrition on fetal growth and infant development
... lactation and infant mortality. . vol. X, no. 4, 1976 during A9s of infants af dealh CALORICSUPPLEMEWlAlIOfl m m Determinants of Infant Low f~20.000 caloriesI High 1-20.000 calories1 Mortality Figure 6 shows a comparison of caloric supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, with stillbirth or infant death during the first year of life. Mortality was consistently higher ... loweT firevalences of growth Tetardation and infant mortality. Sufifilementation of the children’s diets also correlated with better #eTformance on jxychological tests. A study temalan Introduction Infant mortality is a major public health problem in developing countries, where an average of almost two out of every 10 liveborn infants die within their first year. By ... public health (10). of low birthweight. It has Significance been established that low-birthweight babies have greater rates of infant mortality than babies with higher birthweight (II). This means that nutritional programs ) 1 High aimed at decreasing infant mortality could maximize their effectiveness if they were focused on mothers at high risk of delivering low-birthweight babies.
The role of nutritional deficiency in mortality : Findings of the Inter-American investigation of mortality in childhood
... revealsclearly the seriousnessof the problem among infants under one year of age. Infant deaths with nutritional deficiency as underlying or associated cause numbered 1,867.6 per 100,000 live births-or by the standard unit for infant mortality, 18.7 per 1,000 live births-a rate higher than the total 100,000 popul&ion. infant death rate in several countries of ... pluricarencial infantiZ) was If both the birth weight and weights at subclarified by Autret and BBhar (8) but wider sequent periods were available, the infant? ??s application of this knowledge and better re- growth was evaluated and the assignmentwas Puffer and Semano * NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY IN MORTALITY 7 IN CHILDHOOD .A TABLE 2-Mortalitya from ... THE ROLE OF NUTRITIONAL FINDINGS DEFICIENCY OF THE INTER-AMERICAN IN MORTALITY INVESTIGATION OF MORTALITY IN CHILDHOOD’ Ruth Rice Puffer, Dr. P.H.,2 and Carlos V. Serrano, M.D., Ph.D.3 The Inter-American Investigation of Mortality in Childhood, carried out by the Pan American Health Organization in collaboration with
Initial phases of the Inter-American investigation of mortality in childhood
... PHASES OF THE INTER-AMERICAN MORTALITY IN CHILDHOOD ’ INVESTIGATION OF Ru+h R. Puffer ’ The inter-American Investigation of Mortality in Childhood will lead to a better understanding of the health problems in infancy and early childhood in the Americas, and will lay the bases for effective action “to reduce the present mortality rate in children under ... population lives. Mortality in infancy and early childhood is known to be responsible for excessive death rates in Latin American countries (2). One of the objectives of the Charter of Punta de1 Este (3) was “to reduce the present mortality rate in children under 5 years of age by one half.” Also, the recent deceleration of de decline of the infant death ... secure birth records of all infants who die shortly after birth and also records of fetal deaths of those who show no signs of life in accordance with the WHO definition. Perinatal mortality, that is, the combination of fetal deaths (28 weeks of gestation and over) and deaths under 7 days, will be analyzed. For calculation of infant death rates a complete
Mortality in children under 15 years of age in Cali, Colombia
... %) the 108 138 78 17 1;: 341 23.3 266 23.4 71 9 by Age and Sample in Each 170 262 149 26 23.2 25.2 22.0 17.4 607 23.4 Llanos et al. TABLE P -Infant - CHILD Mortality MORTALITY Rates, Cali, IN Colombia, CALI. TABLE 1965. Who Live births Sex Male . _. Female Both sexes ::. Infant mortality rate n 5%:: 1 year 1,013 :2”% 24:481 755 1,768 4-Distribution of Child by of Age Groups, 81.9 62.3 72.2 Under ... the old, less specific count of total deaths, which indicated only the general mortality rate, was a major victory for epidemiology. It contributed greatly to knowledge of the history of diseases, since it reveals trends in the mortality caused by each of them. In Colombia, mortality statistics are the only index available for studying and demonstrating ... emphasize that almost three quarters of the total number of deaths (71.3 per cent) were of children under 1 year-a reflection of the high infant mortality in Colombia. From the birth records during the same period (5) the mortality rates in Table 2 were calculated. These two tables indicate that the risk of death is higher among male children than among
Control of infant diarrheas in the light of recent scientific progress
... rise to a maximum of about Me the rate for infants. ,4n cxamination of age specific rates further shows that, in the decline of mortality, there was an earlier and more rapid fa11 in the mortality in older childrcn and adulm as compared with a slow and delayed decline in infant? ??s. Thus, the need for control in infants was more urgent and attaining prevention ... interpretation of recorded mortality data, particularly with referente to diarrheal disease in infants. Mortality rates can not be more accurate than the diagnoses recorded. Despite these limitations, the accumulated observations in the United States clearly indicate the past magnitude of the problem and the progress in its control. Mortality from Diarrheal Diseases ... mortality from infant diarrhea continues to be excessive. On a world-wide basis, the acute diarrheal diseases almost certainly still remain as the greatest single cause of infant mortality and possibly as the greatest single cause of death. Discussion The public health history of numerous cities and severa1 countries establishes beyond doubt that the mortality
Epidemiology of acute myocardial infarction in Salvador, Brazil: Incidence, lethality, and mortality
... is also worth noting that an analysis of AM1 mortality trends in industrial countries indicates that such mortality has declined in some of them in recent times (3). In contrast, information about cardiovascular disease epidemiology in developing countries is very scarce.In 10 Latin American cities where mortality patterns were studied 20 years ago, nearly ... INCIDENCE, LETHALITY, AND MORTALITY1 Ines Lessa, E&a Corteq3 Jose’ Ant6nio Souza,3 JokZo Sozcza FiZbo,3 Jo&o Ponds’ Netto,4 and F&tima Afiarecida AZmeida5 I NTRODUCTION Among cardiovascular diseases,acute myocardial infarction stands out as the leading threat to human life, especially for men in the developed countries, where the morbidity and mortality attributable ... of either sex). Both of these caseswere excluded from the overall incidence and mortality figures presented in Table 2. It should also be noted that the rates for age in Table 2 are slightly underestimated because the agesof 12 individuals with AM1 were unknown. Data on AMI mortality (deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) and lethality (the ratio of deaths
Prediction of poor infant growth
Decline and unevenness of infant mortality in Salvador, Brazil, 1980-1988
... Conclusions. RESULTS Table 1 shows sharp drops in both proportional infant mortality and infant mortality coefficients over the course of the study period. Specifically, proportional infant mortality fell from 30.8% of total mortality in 1980 to 17.4% in 1988, a reduction of 43.5%; and the coefficient of infant mortality fell from 71.9 deaths per thousand live births ... of variations in proportional infant mortality and the infant mortality coefficient. To study changes in proportional infant mortality during the study period, the reporting zones were separated into quartiles using 1980 data. That is, each zone was placed into a quartile where the MATERIALS AND METHODS proportional infant mortality in 1980 was Salvador, ... of proportional infant mortality were 17.1%, 25.8%, 37.5%, and 52.5% according to the 1988 data. Comparison of these two figures shows a marked reduction in the areas with “high” proportional infant mortality in 1988 and a near-absence of areas infant with “very high” proportional mortality. Table 3 shows declines in the average infant mortality coefficients