Hypertensive Pregnancy

EGFR signaling promotes β-cell proliferation and survivin expression during pregnancy.

... expansion during murine pregnancy, showing that the number of islets nearly doubles during pregnancy. In addition, we show that EGFR signaling is involved in pregnancy- and lactogen-induced b-cell proliferation and that the mechanism involves survivin expression. Our findings further elucidate the physiological adaptation of b-cell mass to pregnancy. Acknowledgments Veera ... obtained in the islets of the Quantitative morphometry of islets during pregnancy. In addition to b-cell proliferation, some studies report that also the number of islets increases during pregnancy. To investigate the effect of EGFR signaling on the possible formation of new islets during pregnancy we analyzed the number of islets per pancreatic area from ... mice (Fig 1E). PLOS ONE | 3 April 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 4 | e93651 EGFR in b-Cells during Pregnancy Figure 1. E1-DN mice do not increase b-cell mass during pregnancy. A: The b-cell mass of wild-type mice increases during pregnancy at GD14.5. There is no difference between groups of E1-DN mice, n = 8–13. B: Isolated islets from wild-type
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Consequences of missed opportunities for HIV testing during pregnancy and delayed diagnosis for Mexican women, children and male partners.

... temporarily stopping treatment during the postpartum period; only one of these women was diagnosed during pregnancy. Reasons given by women for HIV diagnosis during pregnancy On average, women went to 6.5 ANC visits in the pregnancy prior to HIV-diagnosis or the pregnancy during which they were diagnosed [range 1–10], providing ample opportunities for health workers ... she acquired HIV from a partner who she met after the index pregnancy, the other three women had the same male partner at the time of diagnosis as during the index pregnancy and were diagnosed shortly after delivery. This finding indicates that repeat HIV testing in the third trimester of pregnancy could provide additional benefit for identifying women ... Reported monthly family incomes of the PLOS ONE | 2 November 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e109912 Consequences of Missed Opportunities for HIV Testing during Pregnancy pregnancy also suggests that the quality of counseling was suboptimal. For instance, Jacinta wanted to be tested but understood HIV testing to be ‘‘a requirement of the health
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Prognostic value of QTc interval dispersion changes during exercise testing in hypertensive men

... Bird R, Ryder K, Hart G. Left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients is associated with abnormal rate adaptation of QT interval. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 29:778-84. 8. Perkiomaki SJ, Ikahemio JM, Pikkujamsa MS, et al. Dispersion of the QT interval and autonomic modulation of hear rate in hypertensive men with and without left ventricular hypertrophy. ... Saunuki E, Sumida Y. Influence of exercise on QT dispersion in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy without coronary artery disease. Jpn Circ J 1999; 63:881-4. SRPSKI ARHIV ZA CELOKUPNO LEKARSTVO PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF QTc INTERVAL DISPERSION CHANGES DURING EXERCISE TESTING IN HYPERTENSIVE MEN Dragan DJORDJEVIĆ, Branko LOVIĆ, Marina DELJANIN-ILIĆ, ... patients (pts) with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) during the exercise testing and its prognostic significance. METHOD In the study we included 55 men (aged 53 years) with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy and a negative ET (LVH group), 20 men (aged 58 years) with a positive ET and 20 healthy men (aged 55 years). There was no statistically
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Adolescence as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome in Central Africa--a cross-sectional study.

... adverse pregnancy outcome. Antenatal care programs specifically tailored for the needs of adolescents may be necessary to improve the frequency of antenatal care visits and pregnancy outcomes in this risk group in Central Africa. Citation: Kurth F, Bélard S, Mombo-Ngoma G, Schuster K, Adegnika AA, et al. (2010) Adolescence As Risk Factor for Adverse Pregnancy ... cornerstone of current strategies to reduce pregnancy associated adverse health outcomes [6–9]. The identification of additional - yet underappreciated preventable risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome is necessary to further strengthen current efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Adolescent pregnancy is defined as gestation of women ... neonatal mortality worldwide. Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, yet there is insufficient data from Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal adolescence on pregnancy outcomes in the Central African country Gabon. Methodology and Principal Findings: Data
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Hypertensive Notfälle und Nierenarterienstenose

... Informationen: Boso GmbH und Co. KG Dr. Rudolf Mad A-1200 Wien Handelskai 94–96/23. OG E-Mail: Hypertensive Notfälle und Nierenarterienstenose Hypertensive Notfälle und Nierenarterienstenose R. R. Wenzel Kurzfassung: Bei therapieresistenter Hypertonie und hypertensiven Notfällen sollte vor allem an die häufigen Ursachen gedacht werden: mangelnde Compliance ... nur bei einer Ratio deutlich < 0,9 eine Intervention geplant werden. Schlüsselwörter: hypertensiver Notfall, Nierenarterienstenose, therapieresistente Hypertonie Abstract: Hypertensive Emergencies and Renal Artery Stenosis. In patients with resistant hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, factors which commonly contribute to uncontrolled BP should ... Faktoren eine wichtige Rolle, die klinische Bedeutung und z. T. auch eine therapeutische Konsequenz haben [1, 2]. Tabelle 1 dient zur Begriffsklärung: Maligne Hypertonie, hypertensiver Notfall, hypertensive Krise und therapieresistente Hypertonie sind letztlich verschieden stark ausgeprägte Manifestationen einer nicht gut kontrollierten Blutdruckeinstellung;
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Palmitoylethanolamide treatment reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: involvement of cytochrome p450-derived eicosanoids and renin angiotensin system.

... animals [25–27]. Consistently, we found an impairment of EDHF vasodilation elicited by acetylcholine in hypertensive rats. This finding agrees with those reported for mesenteric arteries of the spontaneously hypertensive rat [28] and in salt-sensitive hypertensive patients [29]. Taken together, all these findings prompted us to speculate an involvement ... hydrolysis has been found to be increased in renal fractions of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), an animal model of Ang II-mediated hypertension [13]. Consistently, sEH was found increased in SHR renal microsomes and cytosol [13] and in renal microvessels of Ang II-induced hypertensive rats [14]. sEH expression has been shown to be also increased ... could modulate in a concerted way the interaction among Ang II and sEH/EET system, being useful in reinforcing anti -hypertensive therapy. Currently, ACE inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers, as RAS interfering agents, are widely used in anti -hypertensive treatment. However, a part from their troublesome side effects, these compounds do not completely inhibit
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Abstinence-only education and teen pregnancy rates: why we need comprehensive sex education in the U.S.

... These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes ... the ultimate goal of reducing teen pregnancy rates. This large-scale analysis aims to provide scientific evidence for this decision by evaluating the most recent data on the effectiveness of different sex education programs with regard to preventing teen pregnancy for the U.S. as a whole. We used the most recent teenage pregnancy, abortion and birth data ... effective in reducing U.S. teen pregnancy rates?’’ If abstinence education results in teenagers being abstinent, teenage pregnancy and birth rates should be Introduction The appropriate type of sex education that should be taught in U.S. public schools continues to be a major topic of debate, which is motivated by the high teen pregnancy and birth rates
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Modern Technologies In Ectopic Pregnancy Diagnostics On Hospital Stage

... Ectopic Pregnancy Diagnostics On Hospital Stage. Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research, 2009, vol. 5, № 4, p. 537–540. The present research provides analysis of results of preoperative examination of 680 patients with ectopic pregnancy depending on the range of surgical treatment. It has been shown that in case of progressive ectopic pregnancy the ... transvaginal examination and laparoscopy depends on the duration of pregnancy. When the term of ectopic pregnancy is 3-4 weeks monitoring of β chorionic gonadotropin in blood serum (99.5%), transvaginal examination (58%) and laparoscopy (78.5%) are more informative. When the term of ectopic pregnancy is more than 4 weeks there is a high diagnostic value ... β-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (99.5%), transvaginal examination (68%) and laparoscopy (99,5%). The research has proved that pregnancy period of 3-4 weeks is optimal for laparoscopy and other operations. Key words: ectopic pregnancy, β chorionic gonadotropin, preoperative examination. Введение. За последние годы частота внематочной беременности (ВБ)
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Retrospective analysis of 14 patients who managed for adnexal torsion during pregnancy

... adnexal torsion in the third trimester of pregnancy: a case report. Abd Imag 2004;29:123-127. 8. Zainuddin ZRB, Sulaiha S, Azmi M. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy: a diagnostic and management challenge. Int Med J Mal 2014;13:1-3. 9. Mathevet P, Nessah K, Darget D, Mellier G. Laparoscopic management of adnexal masses in pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod ... Persistence of a normal pregnancy after an early luteectomy. A report of two cases. J Reprod Med 1992;37:749-752. 17. Vural F, Vural B, Çakıroğlu Y. A Case of adnexial torsion during pregnancy: shortcomings in Doppler ultrasonography. CausaPedia 2015;4:978-982. 18. Ventolini G, Hunter L, Drollinger D, Hurd W. Ovarian torsion during pregnancy. Res Staff ... clinical characteristics and sonographic findings of maternal ovarian torsion in pregnancy. Fertil Steril 2009;92:1983-1987. Cilt / Vol 42, No 4, 490-494 494 M. Polat. ve ark. Gebelik sırasında adneksiyal torsiyon tedavisi 12. Prefumo F, Ciravolo G. Adnexal torsion in late pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2009;280:473–474. 13. Chang SD, Yen
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Lower Circulating B12 Is Associated with Higher Obesity and Insulin Resistance during Pregnancy in a Non-Diabetic White British Population.

... recruited at 28 weeks of pregnancy. 26.4% had a BMI 30kg/m2, 54.1% were multiparous and 13.7% reported smoking in pregnancy. 90% of mothers took folic acid supplements in early pregnancy (until 12 weeks gestation), 30% continued to take a multivitamin during pregnancy and 8.5% were vegetarian. Serum B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy The geometric ... maternity services[1]. These rising rates of obesity in pregnancy have led to an emphasis on understanding the effects of adiposity on maternal health. The paradox of nutritional deficiencies in those who are overweight and obese[2] may have important implications for maternal and fetal health and wellbeing in pregnancy. The micronutrients B12 and folate are ... assessment (HOMA)[8]. PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135268 August 19, 2015 2 / 10 Lower B12 Associated with Higher Obesity in Pregnancy B12 and folate measurements B12 and folate were measured in serum samples taken at 28 weeks of pregnancy, and stored at -80°C. B12 and folate were analysed with microbiological assays at the Diabetes Research Centre, KEM
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Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

... Primary HIV during Pregnancy Table 1. Participants with primary HIV-1 infection identified during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Country date Age Timing of HIV-1 seroconversion CD4 count (cells/μL) Immediate intervention to reduce HIV-1 transmission risk, time to intervention * Infant outcome KenyaAug 2009 23 9 2/7 weeks prior to pregnancy identification 978 Combination ... birth. HIV-1 DNA PCR negative at 6 weeks of age KenyaOct 2010 23 3 5/7 weeksof pregnancy 1053 Referred for combination ART but lost to follow-up until 19 2/7 weeks of pregnancy, then zidovidine monotherapy Preterm birth, neonatal death Uganda Nov 2010 27 34 6/7 weeks of pregnancy 604 Combination ART (zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine),11 days Term ... months of age Uganda Jan 2011 25 15 6/7 weeks of pregnancy 824 Declined ART Induced abortion UgandaMar 2011 25 13 5/7 weeks of pregnancy 306 Combination ART (zidovudine, lamivudine, tenofovir),11 days Term live birth. HIV-1 DNA PCR negative at 6 weeks of age UgandaMar 2011 34 25 1/7 weeks of pregnancy 459 Combination ART (zidovudine, lamivudine, efavirenz),26
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The Specific Role of Relationship Life Events in the Onset of Depression during Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

... prevalence of depression in women, of one to three times higher than that of men [3]. Depression during pregnancy and the early postnatal period has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes for the developing foetus and child. Depression during pregnancy has been linked to risky health behaviours, such as substance use, tobacco and alcohol use and ... interviewer would administer the pregnancy and postpartum interview for each mother, the depression ratings were not always made independently of life event information, although it was ensured that all interviewers and raters were blind to the study hypothesis. Thirdly, a measure of relationship abuse administered during pregnancy was used to stratify ... 9046559 4. Zuckerman B, Amaro H, Bauchner H, Cabral H. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy: Relationship to poor health behaviors. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989; 160: 1107–1111. PMID: 2729387 5. Kurki T, Hiilesmaa V, Raitasalo R, Mattila H, Ylikorkla O. Depression and anxiety in early pregnancy and risk for preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 95: 487–490. PMID:
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Pre-Pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and the Risk of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Cohort Study in Wuhan, China.

... who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and who had the highest level of early GWG. The different trends observed between whole pregnancy GWG and early pregnancy GWG when stratified by pre -pregnancy BMI might be explained by the different levels of edema at the middle or late stage of pregnancy across different pre -pregnancy BMI categories, which ... early pregnancy, and gestational BMI gain, and all of these models were also adjusted for pre -pregnancy BMI. Additionally, models evaluating the risk of HDP for pre -pregnancy BMI and gestational BMI gain were mutually adjusted. Analyses were further stratified by maternal pre -pregnancy BMI categories, and the interactions between GWG and pre -pregnancy ... total GWG, and GWG during early pregnancy stratified by pre -pregnancy BMI are presented in Table 3. Women with higher BMI gain and GWG during the whole pregnancy had a significantly elevated risk of developing HDP across all pre -pregnancy BMI categories. However, the odds ratio for higher BMI gain and GWG decreased as the pre -pregnancy BMI increased. In
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Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš

... smoking during pregnancy, smoking before pregnancy, the number of daily cigarettes, the number of cigarettes used during pregnancy, paternal earnings and socioeconomic factors. In a multivariant model the most significant factors were socioeconomic factors, education level of the mothers, paternal earnings and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. ... the most vulnerable population. Ključne reči: trudnoća; pušenje; socioekonomski faktori; trudnoća, ishod; novorođenče, mala telesna masa. Key words: pregnancy; smoking; socioeconomic factors; pregnancy outcome; infant, low birth weight. Correspondence to: Miodrag Stojanović, Ul. Deligradska 2/33, 18 000 Niš, Srbija. Tel.: + 381 18 258 344. E-mail: ... Adolescent pregnancy and perinatal outcome. Pediatric Endocrinology 2006; 3(Suppl 1): 170–1. 25. Connor SK, McIntyre L. The sociodemographic predictors of smoking cessation among pregnant women in Canada. Can J Public Health 1999; 90(5): 352–5. 26. McLeod D, Pullon S, Cookson T. Factors that influence changes in smoking behaviour during pregnancy.
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The Effects of Intravenous Hydration on Amniotic Fluid Volume and Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Term Pregnancy and Oligohydramnios: A Randomized Clinical Trial

... period and confirmed by the results of ultrasound or determined through early pregnancy sonography), cephalic presentation, no prior history of cesarean section, no pregnancy complications such as gestational hypertension, bleeding, no known systemic disease before and during pregnancy (systemic disease), and intact fetal membranes. Mothers whose contractions ... with isotonic saline on amniotic fluid index and pregnancy outcomes (fetal distress, Apgar score, meconium staining, and cesarean section because of fetal distress). Materials and methods This single blind clinical trial aimed to determine the effects of IV hydration of mothers on amniotic fluid volume and pregnancy outcome in Alzahra Hospital, affiliated ... Sciences, 2012, 1(3), 123-128 doi:10.5681/jcs.2012.018 http:// JCS The Effects of Intravenous Hydration on Amniotic Fluid Volume and Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Term Pregnancy and Oligohydramnios: A Randomized Clinical Trial Mahnaz Shahnazi1*, Manizheh Sayyah Meli2, Fariba Hamoony3, Farnaz Sadrimehr3, Fatemeh Ghatre Samani4,
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Reported estimates of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with and without syphilis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

... eliminate of MTCT of syphilis and to guide policy and advocacy efforts, global data on the burden of syphilis in pregnancy and associated adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) are needed. Currently, although some estimates for burden of syphilis in pregnancy and associated APOs were available, the global incidence of adverse birth outcomes among syphilitic ... searched through August 2013 with no restrictions to identify published peer-reviewed research articles assessing pregnancy outcomes in the presence of maternal syphilis by the following search terms: syphilis, pregnancy, adverse birth or pregnancy outcomes, congenital syphilis, preterm, low birth weight, stillbirth, fetal loss or death, abortion or ... 13.853, P = 0.000 x2trend = 3.402, P = 0.065 Syphilis in Pregnancy and Associated Adverse Birth Outcomes 9 July 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 7 | e102203 Syphilis in Pregnancy and Associated Adverse Birth Outcomes Table 4. Comparison for summary estimates of the proportion (%) of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) among different subgroups. Subgroup Miscarriage absolute
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Dengue haemorrhagic fever in pregnancy: appraisal on Thai cases

... age were reviewed as well. According to this study, there have been at least 11 reports6–15 in the literature of 14 cases of DHF in pregnancy, of that no case was lethal. All except one case (23 wk pregnancy) had term pregnancy on presentation. Average age of the patients was 23.6 + 8.2 yr. Concerning the clinical manifestations, all had fever and ... therefore, some pregnant women may also be susceptible to dengue5. Although Thailand has high prevalence of DHF in pregnancy it is rarely reported. In this present paper, the author has reported a literature review of the reports of DHF in pregnancy in Thailand in order to summarise the characteristics of this infection among the Thai pregnant patients. This ... included in the international citation index. The literature review focused on the years 1981 to 2005. The key word for searching is ? ?pregnancy? ?? and “dengue”. According to the literature review, seven reports on DHF in pregnancy were recruited for further study. The details of clinical presentations of the patients (such as clinical manifestation, diagnosis,
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Latent Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.

... pregnancy; 7 addressed treatment of LTBI pregnancy; 3 addressed the risk of TB PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0154825 May 5, 2016 4 / 12 Latent Tuberculosis in Pregnancy reactivation during pregnancy; 5 examined the performance of interferon-gamma release assays during pregnancy, and 6 addressed adherence with TB screening during pregnancy. ... Reactivation with Pregnancy In order to examine the epidemiology of TB in pregnancy and to establish whether pregnancy is an independent risk factor for active TB, Zenner and colleagues conducted a primary carebased retrospective cohort study, using the General Practitioner Research Database [20]. They considered all women in the UK with known pregnancy start ... treating active disease during pregnancy offers clear benefits, the treatment of LTBI during pregnancy remains controversial and current CDC and ACOG guidelines favor deferring treatment to the post-partum period in most cases[3, 5]. In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted
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Correction: Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is Short-Term Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in PC12 Cells and Hypothalamic and Brainstem Neurons from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Possible Implications in Hypertension.

... a11111 CORRECTION Correction: Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is ShortTerm Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in PC12 Cells and Hypothalamic and Brainstem Neurons from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Possible Implications in Hypertension Nadia A. Longo Carbajosa, Gerardo Corradi, María A. Lopez Verrilli, María J. Guil, Marcelo S. Vatta, Mariela M. Gironacci The ... MS, Gironacci MM (2015) Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is Short-Term Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in PC12 Cells and Hypothalamic and Brainstem Neurons from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Possible Implications in Hypertension. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0116597. doi:10. 1371/journal.pone.0116597 Reference 1. Carbajosa NAL, Corradi G, Verrilli MAL, Guil ... MS, Gironacci MM (2015) Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is Short-Term Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in PC12 Cells and Hypothalamic and Brainstem Neurons from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Possible Implications in Hypertension. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0116597. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116597 PMID: 25710381 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Longo Carbajosa NA,
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Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

... exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task). Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased ... conducted by Parnpiansil and collaborators [3], rats submitted to treadmill exercise during pregnancy had pups with better spatial learning scores in a multiple T maze test, compared to pups born of sedentary rats. It was also noted that maternal running on a treadmill during pregnancy improved memory performance of offspring in a step-down avoidance task, in ... assessed some molecular and cellular changes in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rats born from mothers submitted to treadmill exercise during pregnancy. Results showed that exercise during pregnancy induces long-term neuroplastic effects on BDNF levels and absolute cell numbers in the brain of offspring rats, namely in the hippocampal formation,
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Progesterone is essential for protecting against LPS-induced pregnancy loss. LIF as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of progesterone.

... sustaining pregnancy when there is a threat of abortion, progesterone supplementation represents the most commonly used therapy [12]. As mentioned before, this implies that there exists a direct dependence between circulating progesterone levels and a successful pregnancy. In order to test this, we evaluated the ability of exogenous progesterone to modulate pregnancy ... subsequent pronounced decline in the levels of this steroid, led to complete pregnancy loss within 24 h. This allowed us to conclude that the administration of 1 mg/g of LPS to mice during early pregnancy is associated with a decrease in serum levels of progesterone that leads to pregnancy loss. This is consistent with previous findings showing that serum ... progress of an active pregnancy loss. It is known, and has been confirmed in this study, that PRs are expressed in the epithelial, stromal and myometrial compartments of the uterus. We assume that the PRs that are located in these tissues are jointly involved in the process of pregnancy loss. A function of progesterone that is crucial for pregnancy and is
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The association of season and temperature with adverse pregnancy outcome in two German states, a time-series analysis.

... e40228 Season and Temperature on Pregnancy Outcome the other hand, young women usually show high mobility and the place where they give birth might differ from residence during pregnancy [61]. A constrained lag model was used to investigate temperature. We considered temperature averaged over different time periods of pregnancy (trimester, first month, ... too close [63]. No adjustment was made for air pollution, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or infections. We did not have data on these factors, but if we did it is not clear whether they should be adjusted for. Air pollution and preeclampsia have been shown to be associated with both adverse pregnancy outcome and temperature [18,64–66], but as air ... criterion was used to compare the model fit [43]. The full model by date of birth was further adjusted for day of the week which is a known predictor of adverse pregnancy outcome [45]. When pregnancy data is collected by date of birth but analysed by date of conception, longer pregnancies will dominate at the start and shorter pregnancies at the end
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Marked reduction of anemia during pregnancy over a 10-year period in Montserrat

... Marked Reduction of Anemia during Pregnancy over a lo-Year Period in Montserratl W. K. SIMMONS,~ D. T. SIMEON,~ D. BRAMBLE,~ C. BUFFONGE,~ & P. GALLAGHER~ Anemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes including maternal and perinatal mortality. However, health education ... hypertrophy, and reduced maternal estriol excretion (3). Not surprisingly, a recent national survey in Jamaica associated anemia of pregnancy with increased perinatal mortality (5). As the foregoing suggests, anemia during pregnancy continues to pose a significant public health problem in the English-speaking Caribbean (5-7). Available information shows ... controlling for three possible confounding factors (maternal age, parity, and weeks of gestation at first prenatal visit) the difference between the risk of developing anemia during pregnancy in 1980 as compared to 1985 or 1990 was still highly significant. The reasons for the observed drop in anemia’s prevalence during the survey period are not entirely clear,
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Prevention of toxemia of pregnancy in Ecuadorian Andean women: Experience with dietary calcium supplementation

... pregnancy and its successful outcome. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. Sullivan JM. Hypertension and pregnancy. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1986:3-7. World Health Organization, International Collaborative Study of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Geographic variation in the incidence of hypertension in pregnancy. ... levels during pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1972; 79:694-97. Lopez-Jaramillo P, Yepez R, NarvBez M, Gaibor M, Moscoso H, Corrado Al? Calcium metabolism in normal pregnancy and pregnancy- induced hypertension. I Bras Ginecol. 1988; 98:189-91. Payne RP, Little AJ, Evans RT. Albuminadjusted calcium concentration in serum increases during normal pregnancy. ... during pregnancy offers a cheap and effective way of reducing the incidence of PM, and that this treatment should be considered in preference to other proposed measures such as administration of low doses of aspirin (28). CALCIUM Nomd METABOLISM Pregnancy versus PIH Calcium metabolism undergoes a series of important adaptive processes during pregnancy
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The Jamaican hypertensive: characteristics of black patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies

... previous hospitalization at the UHWI with recorded systolic and diastolic blood pressures in excess of 160195 mmHg, or (2) who were known hypertensives requiring antihypertensive therapy at some time prior to admission, or (3) who had to be placed on antihypertensive medication during the hospital stay under study, or (4) whose systolic and diastolic blood pressuresrecorded ... and patients with diabetes mellitus among the hypertensive study subjects (Table 7). Discussion and Conclusions Jamaica and the Caribbean offer an important opportunity to study black hypertensives in an environment where they occupy all levels of the existing social hierarchy. Overall, only nine of the hypertensive patients admitted during the two-year ... hospitalized patients, and 14.7% had grade III and IV changes. This high prevalence of hypertensive retinopathy in Jamaica is consistent with data of McDonough et al. (13) from the Evans County study that showed hypertensive blacks to have a higher prevalence of hypertensive retinal changes at each level of blood pressure than did whites. Fundoscopic
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