High Risk Pregnancy
High resolution structure of the ba3 cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus in a lipidic environment.
... and obtained highly reproducible crystals of ba3 oxidase diffracting to 1.7–1.8 Å. Initial success of in meso crystallization was related to obtaining high resolution structures of microbial rhodopsins [22– 27] and recently to revealing several structures of human G protein-coupled receptors [28–31]. Apart from paving the way for more reproducible and higher ... robust system for production of ba3-oxidase crystals diffracting to high resolution, together with an established expression system for generating mutants, opens the door for systematic structure-function studies. Citation: Tiefenbrunn T, Liu W, Chen Y, Katritch V, Stout CD, et al. (2011) High Resolution Structure of the ba3 Cytochrome c Oxidase from Thermus ... the extensive direct and lipid-mediated crystal contacts involving the transmembrane components, but it also reflects the high degree of order within the protein interior (Figure S2). The new structural elements revealed by the high resolution in meso structure include 20 ordered lipid molecules, providing a snapshot of the lipidic environment surrounding
Microbial community diversities and taxa abundances in soils along a seven-year gradient of potato monoculture using high throughput pyrosequencing approach.
... studies have examined microbial communities in potato monoculture soils using a high throughput pyrosequencing approach. Methodology/Principal Findings: Soils along a seven-year gradient of potato monoculture were collected and microbial communities were characterized using high throughput pyrosequencing approach. Principal findings are as follows. First, diversity ... relative abundance of Gemmatimonadetes in our samples was 10.9% (Figure 1), which is much higher than the ,3% reported in previous studies [1,2,36]. DeBruyn et al  reported that Gemmatimonadetes is a drier soil-adapted phylum, which is probably the reason why its abundance was so high in our soils. As for fungi, Ascomycota was the top abundant phylum in our ... the environment. Citation: Liu X, Zhang J, Gu T, Zhang W, Shen Q, et al. (2014) Microbial Community Diversities and Taxa Abundances in Soils along a Seven-Year Gradient of Potato Monoculture Using High Throughput Pyrosequencing Approach. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86610. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086610 Editor: Kevin McCluskey, University of Missouri, United States of America Received
Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with COPD in Taiwan.
... Taichung, Taiwan Abstract Aim: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the associated risk factors for patients with COPD. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled ... countries. Hyperlipidemia, old age, hypertension, and smoking burden were the associated cardiovascular risk factors. However, there was no association between lung function and PAD in the COPD patients. Citation: Lin M-S, Hsu K-Y, Chen Y-J, Chen C-R, Chen C-M, et al. (2013) Prevalence and Risk Factors of Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with COPD in ... firstname.lastname@example.org studies regarding the prevalence and risk factors of PAD in patients with COPD in Asia. The primary end point of this study was to determine the prevalence of low ankle-brachial index (ABI,0.9) in COPD patients in Taiwan. The secondary end point was to evaluate the risk factors for PAD and further to investigate whether PAD was associated
Association between CTLA-4 60G/A and -1661A/G polymorphisms and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis.
... G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk 31. Bharti V, Mohanti BK, Das SN (2013) Functional genetic variants of CTLA-4 and risk of tobacco-related oral carcinoma in high- risk North Indian population. Hum Immunol 74: 348–352. 32. Feng D, Yang X, Li S, Liu T, Wu Z, et al. (2013) Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 genetic variants and risk of Ewing’s sarcoma. Genet ... of the CTLA-4 -1661A/G (rs4553808) polymorphism and cancer risk. The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e83710 The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk Figure 3. Overall association between the CTLA-4 -1661A/G polymorphism and cancer risk for all subjects using the heterozygote model (GA vs. ... 2. Meta-analysis of the CTLA-4 60G/A (rs3087243) polymorphism and cancer risk. The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e83710 The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk Figure 2. Forest plot of the association between cancer risk and the CTLA-4 60G/A polymorphism using the homozygote model (AA vs.
Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.
... RESEARCH ARTICLE Effects of Puerarin on Lipid Accumulation and Metabolism in High- Fat Diet-Fed Mice Guodong Zheng1*, Lezhen Lin2, Shusheng Zhong1, Qingfeng Zhang1, Dongming Li1 1 Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Natural Product and Functional Food, College of ... Nanchang, China * email@example.com a11111 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Zheng G, Lin L, Zhong S, Zhang Q, Li D (2015) Effects of Puerarin on Lipid Accumulation and Metabolism in High- Fat Diet-Fed Mice. PLoS ONE 10(3): e0122925. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122925 Academic Editor: Zane Andrews, Monash University, AUSTRALIA Received: September 4, 2014 Accepted: ... are credited. Abstract In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high- fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and
Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies implies ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models
... reproduce the observed response to high nitrogen loading, we believe that future manipulation studies in high- latitude soils that use realistic nitrogen additions would be more relevant for understanding the tundra soil response. For example, recent studies have added nitrogen to tundra soils at magnitudes one order of magnitude higher than measured concentrations ... studies (Thomas et al., 2013b) that acutely perturb ecosystems on short timescales (months to years). However, the broad spatial heterogeneity of high- latitude soils may not be well represented by the concentration of high- latitude field studies within a few sites. Herein, we benchmark the models by compiling data from a range of studies measuring the same ... that determine the fate of soil carbon but are currently not represented in the land models. In the present study, we examined the fate of high- latitude soil carbon based on conclusions drawn from (1) metaanalyses of high- latitude field studies (≥ 60◦ N) focusing on ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen additions and (2) meta-analyses of simulations
Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines
... PROBLEMELE ENERGETICII REGIONALE 1 (30) 2016 ELECTROENERGETICĂ Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines Postolati V., Bycova Е., Suslov V. Institute of Power Engineering of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova Republic of Moldova Timashova L., Shakarian Yu., ... традиционной конструкции. БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ (REFERENCES)  Postolaty V.M.,Bykova E.V.,Suslov V.M.,Shakaryan Y.G.,Timashova L.V.,Kareva S.N. [Efficiency of the Compact Controlled High - Voltage Power Lines] Effektivnosti compactnih upravliaemihvisokovolitnih linii electroperdachi. Problemele Energeticii Regionale №3 (29), p.117. 2015 (in Russian). 12 PROBLEMELE ... Efectivnosti primenenia upravleaemyh samocompensiruiuschihsea visikovolithyh linii electroperedachi i fazoreguliruiuschih ustroistv transformatornogo tipa. [The efficiency of the use of controlled selfcompensated high voltage power lines with and phase controlled apparatus of transformer type] Electrichestvo, 2010, N2, pp. 7-14. (in Russian) Сведения об авторах. Постолатий Виталий Михайлович,
Urbanization and the Risk of Flooding In the Congo; Case of The City Of Brazzaville
... ignore. Urban development works for town planning reasons, the anarchic occupation of space, high rainfall and the special extension are all problems that are the cause of flooding in the city of Brazzaville. This article aims to study urbanization and the risk of flooding in the city of Brazzaville, and offers appropriate solutions in order to remedy ... Brazzaville 19812.L'état birth records the following births; 1999.17945 13210 in 2000 and 21295 in 2001 (Balkiabiya, 2008) .With a high birth rate, around 42%0.Also, Brazzaville she carries the causes of population growth with high birth as shown in the above totaled. The population pyramid of Brazzaville would be a pyramid with a wide base with a tapered ... (AJER) 2015 American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) e-ISSN : 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936 Volume-04, Issue-01, pp-49-54 www.ajer.org open Access Research Paper Urbanization and the Risk of Flooding In the Congo; Case of The City Of Brazzaville Nzoussi Hilaire Kevin 1 Prof Li Jiang Feng 2 1 School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences,
Clinical outcomes in low risk coronary artery disease patients treated with different limus-based drug-eluting stents--a nationwide retrospective cohort study using insurance claims database.
... patients to receive either the E-ZES or the SES, revealed higher risks of all-cause mortality, MI and target lesion revascularization in the E-ZES group at 18-month follow-up. The differences in all-cause mortality and MI between E-ZES and SES groups attenuated after extended follow-up of 36 months but higher rate of target lesion PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122860 ... patients) concluded that there was no significant difference regarding the risk of cardiac death or MI between EES and SES but a significant reduction in the risk of repeated revascularization in the EES arm was noted. In our study, we observed no significant difference regarding the risks of all-cause mortality, acute coronary events, HF needing hospitalization, ... and 39 in the EES group [3.9%]). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no statistically significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality in the three DES groups in spite of a trend of lower risk in EES group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94–1.38, p = 0.20 in E-ZES group compared with SES
Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at high relative humidity and their diurnal variations in the North China Plain
... (Wehner et al., 2004, 2008; Liu et al., 2009). Air quality is significantly influenced by aerosol particles and high loads of aerosol pollution severely degrade visibility, especially at high RH in summer (Zhang et al., 2010); related health risks are increased as well (Leitte, 2011). Moreover, aerosol particles influence the earth’s radiative budget ... sparingly soluble materials; thus, an observable growth behaviour appears at very high RH (>95%). This slight change in hygroscopic growth behaviour cannot be resolved without taking advantage of the high RH hygroscopic measurement. In other words, hygroscopicity measurements at high RH provide detailed information about the distributions of hygroscopicity. The ... nearly-hydrophobic (NH) group. The MH group particles were highly hygroscopic, and their GF was relatively constant during the period with average values of 1.54 ± 0.02, 1.81 ± 0.04 and 2.45 ± 0.07 at 90%, 95% and 98.5% RH (D0 = 100 nm), respectively. The NH group particles grew very slightly when exposed to high RH, with GF values of 1.08 ± 0.02, 1.13 ± 0.06
A subset of osteoblasts expressing high endogenous levels of PPARgamma switches fate to adipocytes in the rat calvaria cell culture model.
... overexpression of PPARc  or treatment with high doses of PPARc ligands [8,9,10,11,16] in several models elicits reciprocal up- and downregulation of adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, respectively. On the other hand, BRL at relatively low concentrations has no pro-adipogenic effect in MC3T3-E1 cells . Because high concentrations of PPARc and/or their ... nuclear translocation of PPARc and induces an adipogenic fate switch in a discrete subset of ObL cells characterized by relatively high levels of endogenous PPARs. The molecular basis by which this subset of osteogenic cells acquires high endogenous expression of adipogenic transcription factors, whether regulated or occurring stochastically, remains to be ... with important implications in normal and pathological bone development. Citation: Yoshiko Y, Oizumi K, Hasegawa T, Minamizaki T, Tanne K, et al. (2010) A Subset of Osteoblasts Expressing High Endogenous Levels of PPARc Switches Fate to Adipocytes in the Rat Calvaria Cell Culture Model. PLoS ONE 5(7): e11782. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011782 Editor: Christoph Winkler,
The Specific Role of Relationship Life Events in the Onset of Depression during Pregnancy and the Postpartum.
... that depression is often recurrent, with each episode increasing the risk for experiencing a subsequent episode . Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated a higher prevalence of depression in women, of one to three times higher than that of men . Depression during pregnancy and the early postnatal period has been linked to a range ... by interview to examine specific psychosocial risk for depression in the transition to parenthood. Using a sample of first time mothers who were interviewed during pregnancy and at 29 weeks postpartum, we tested the hypothesis that events related to the partner relationship would show a significantly higher risk for depression onset than other types of ... their partner and then about their partner’s behaviour toward them. High and low psychological abuse strata were defined using the highest of the partner to participant and participant to partner scores for each family. A variable indicating whether the mother was high or low psychosocial risk allocation to the intensive sample was included as a covariate. The
Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue 2 envelope forms virus-like particles without pre-membrane protein and induces high titer neutralizing antibodies.
... dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Aside from high fever, DHF/DSS is characterized by very high levels of viremia, thrombocytopenia, abnormal hemostasis and vascular leakage due to endothelial damage and in the absence of medical attention can result in very high case fatality rates [1,3,4]. While infection with any DENV serotype ... diseaseenhancing antibodies. These VLPs elicit very high levels of virusneutralizing antibodies which protected mice significantly against lethal DENV challenge. The encouraging data obtained for VLPs specific to one of the four DENVs warrant the development of VLPs specific to the remaining three. The use of the high yielding yeast system for producing these ... of pre-membrane protein highlights the potential of P. pastoris in developing non-replicating, safe, efficacious and affordable dengue vaccine. Citation: Mani S, Tripathi L, Raut R, Tyagi P, Arora U, et al. (2013) Pichia pastoris-Expressed Dengue 2 Envelope Forms Virus-Like Particles without Pre-Membrane Protein and Induces High Titer Neutralizing
Genetic variation in selenoprotein genes, lifestyle, and risk of colon and rectal cancer.
... modify the risk associated with the genes. We observed that TNXRD1 and TNXRD2 interacted with both aspirin and cigarette smoking to alter colon and rectal cancer risk. TNXRD3 also interacted with aspirin/ NSAID use to modify risk of rectal cancer, in that those with the variant genotype who did not use aspirin/NSAID had a similar reduced risk of rectal ... genotype of these candidate selenoprotein genes. TXNRD1, TXNRD2, TXNRD3, and SelN1 interacted with BMI to alter risk of colon cancer and TXNRD1 interacted with BMI to statistically alter risk associated with rectal cancer (Table 5). The adjusted risk for SelN1 and colon cancer and both TXNRD1 SNPs and rectal cancer remained statistically significant after ... (Table 4). While the variant alleles often increased risk among those not exposed to estrogen, they appeared to reduce risk among those exposed to estrogen. Roughly 50% of the SNPs initially associated showed a significant interaction after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Utilization of the maxT highlighted the focus of the interactive effects with
Single nucleus genome sequencing reveals high similarity among nuclei of an endomycorrhizal fungus.
... Several studies indicated that these nuclei are genetically highly diverse, suggesting that endomycorrhizal fungi evolved a unique genome structure. By sequencing individual nuclei of a single individual of the reference fungus Rhizophagus, we demystify this hypothesis and show that the nuclei are highly similar. Furthermore, we created the first genome ... main types, of which the highly polymorphic PLS1 likely represents a pseudogene , . No polymorphisms were found for RiPLS in the different assemblies (Fig. S2). For BIP three loci were identified and designated RiBIP1 (RirG196040), RiBIP2 (RirG160690) and RiBIP3 (RirG043980). Sequence and structure of these genes is highly conserved and homologous ... the high level of ITS variability within single nuclei, we conclude that the 45rDNA ITS sequence is less suited for comparative studies of Glomeromycota. Based on the whole genome comparison of individual nuclei we conclude that the organization of the R. irregularis genome of the used reference culture DAOM197198w is basically homokaryotic. The high
CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons
... accommodation Productivity high low high 67 V. V. Postnov, S. K. Khadiullin, S. V. Starovoitov and L. R. Kilmetova / Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 7 (5) (2014) 66 - 69 Fig .5 - Producing an oval and barrel shape piston by milling The multi-purpose turning center is used to produce the necessary geometry. The turning purpose with high- speed ... surfaces of the piston in a single setup. High requirements for surface roughness determine the using of a lubricant and coolant fluids. The effect of the external conditions and lubricant and coolant fluids on tool-workpiece contact is described in . The necessary geometry of the piston can also be produced by high- speed feeding of a turning tool in ... Issue on Simulation of Manufacturing Technologies JOURNAL OF Engineering Science and Technology Review Conference Article www.jestr.org CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High- Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons V. V. Postnov, S. K. Khadiullin*, S. V. Starovoitov and L. R. Kilmetova Ufa State Aviation Technical University,
RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESSES IN SUPPLY CHAINS
... change respondents identified this risk as the top risk 2 42% of the The level Rising transportation costs respondents of risk identified this went risk as the top down by 9 risk points, 51% to 42% 3 38% of the The level Commodity price volatility respondents of risk identified this went risk as the top down by 5 risk points, 43% ... 2, 2009 1 risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. 2.3.1 Risk identification It is often useful to consider categories of risks as a starting point to guide organizations in an initial assessment of their supply chains. Many authors have their own opinion of identifying Supply chain risks. Thinking broadly, risks in supply chains ... chains Risks can be seen as internal or external to the focal firm, and be seen as internal or external to the supply chain: • Process risk • Control risk • Supply risk • Demand risk • Environmental risk Figure 3 – risks in supply chains AMR Research is company that provides A. Aleksić, B.Jeremić, M. Stefanović, M. Đapan 2 comprehensive research
Correction: Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Down-regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and TNF Receptor 1.
... CORRECTION Correction: Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Down-regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and TNF Receptor 1 Chih-Pei Lin, Po-Hsun Huang, Chung Fang Lai, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin, JiaShiong Chen There ... Taiwan. Reference 1. Lin C-P, Huang P-H, Lai CF, Chen J-W, Lin S-J, Chen J-S (2015) Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Downregulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and TNF Receptor 1. PLoS ONE 10(12): e0143686. doi: 10. 1371/journal.pone.0143686 PMID: 26625143 OPEN ACCESS Citation: ... Huang P-H, Lai CF, Chen J-W, Lin S-J, Chen J-S (2016) Correction: Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Down-regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and TNF Receptor 1. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0148590. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148590 Published: January 29, 2016 Copyright:
Unknown Input High Gain Observer for Fault Detection and Isolation of Uncertain Systems
... faults. Daley and Wang  used a high gain observer, which was developed by Petersen and Hollot , as a tool for sensor fault detection. In the present work, an unknown input high gain observer (UIHGO) based component (i.e., parameter) fault detection and isolation technique is derived. First, an unknown input high gain observer is developed for ... well as the FDI technique is shown with the help of a numerical example. Index Terms— Unknown input high gain observer; component fault; fault detection and isolation; uncertain system; parameter estimation. I. INTRODUCTION With the rising demands of high reliability and safety of advanced processes like avionics, nuclear power stations, automobiles ... ____________________________________________________________________________________ Unknown Input High Gain Observer for Fault Detection and Isolation of Uncertain Systems Sharifuddin Mondal*, G. Chakraborty and K. Bhattacharyya Abstract —An unknown input high gain observer (UIHGO) based component fault detection and isolation (FDI) technique is presented.
Comorbidity of depression and type 2 diabetes: Risk factors and clinical significance
... Depression as a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2006; 49(5): 837–45. 23. Cosgrove MP, Sargeant LA, Griffin SJ. Does depression increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes? Occup Med (Lond) 2008; 58(1): 7–14. 24. Brown LC, Majumdar SR, Newman SC, Johnson JA. History of depression increases risk of type ... dijabetes melitus, insulin-nezavisni; depresija; komorbiditet; faktori rizika; kvalitet života; antidepresivi. Key words: diabetes mellitus, type 2; depression; comorbidity; risk factors; quality of life; antidepressive agents. Uvod Epidemiološki podaci pokazuju da će se broj osoba obolelih od dijabetesa skoro udvostručiti, sa 2,8% 2000. na 4,4%, ... committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(Supp l): S5–20. 3. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2002. Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: WHO; 2002. Also available from: htpp://www.who.int/whr. 4. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause
Neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine responses towards low IL-12p70 and high IL-10 production via distinct factors.
... that cord blood plasma polarizes TLR-mediated cytokine responses towards low production of IL-12p70 and high production of IL-10. We show that this polarizing effect is present throughout the first month of life, thereby potentially contributing to high neonatal susceptibility to infection. Although to a lesser extent, adult plasma also inhibited TLR4-mediated ... Netherlands, 2 Division of Infectious Diseases, Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Abstract Human neonates are highly susceptible to infection, which may be due in part to impaired innate immune function. Neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses are biased against the generation of pro-inflammatory/Th1-polarizing ... neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4mediated cytokine production. When exposed to cord blood plasma, mononuclear cells (MCs) produced significantly lower TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 and higher IL-10 compared to MC exposed to adult plasma. Suppression by neonatal plasma of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production, but not induction of TLR4-mediated IL-10 production, was
THE EFFECT OF NANO-TITANIA ADDITION ON THE PROPERTIES OF HIGH-ALUMINA LOW-CEMENT SELF-FLOWING REFRACTORY CASTABLES
... H., Otroj S. the microstructure of high alumina refractory castable containing different amounts of nano-titania particles after firing at 1550°C. Figure 8. SEM photomicrograph of high- alumina refractory castable containing 0.5 wt. % nano-titania particles fired at 1250°C. As shown, the microstructure of high- alumina refractory castable after ... between CA6 grains. Figure 9. SEM photomicrograph of high- alumina refractory castable without nano-titania particles fired at 1550°C. Figure 11. SEM photomicrograph of high- alumina refractory castable containing 1 wt.% nano-titania particles fired at 1550°C. Figure 10. SEM photomicrograph of high- alumina refractory castable containing 0.5 wt.% ... characteristics Figure 1 shows the effect of nano-titania content on SFV of the high- alumina low-cement refractory castable as a function of time. The results indicate that with increase of nano-titania particles in castable composition, SFV tends to decrease. The nano-titania particles have high surface area that leads to attraction forces between particles.
Europium nanoparticle-based high performing immunoassay for the screening of treponemal antibodies.
Risk of cholera transmission by foods
... results of the experimental studies cited above. Theoretically, fresh produce poses a risk of cholera transmission if eaten raw and unwashed or allowed to cross-contaminate other foods. Fruit concentrates and pulps with a pH of less than 4.5, as well as pickled foods, pose no risk of cholera transmission. Canned foods will be free of K choierae provided they ... contaminated during handling. The consumption of fresh raw fishery products poses the greatest risk, although the potential for disease transmission also exists with frozen, iced, or refrigerated seafood. Since freezing does not kill the organisms effectively, previously frozen seafood still poses a risk if eaten raw or allowed to cross-contaminate other foods. Because K ... defecation and before preparing and eating food; and covering prepared food to avoid contact with flies. The risk of transmission of cholera by foods requires that government authorities and the food industry cooperate to eliminate or control this risk. Food that is susceptible to contamination with Vibrio cholerae should be produced and handled according
Selection of mothers with increased risk of delivery low birthweight newborns at a public maternity hospital in Rosario, Argentina
... schooling) Beltin et al. Screeningfor Low Birthweight Risk 415 15. Siblings (mother two live children) has more than Once the cutoff points were established, the relative risk and the attributable risk were calculated for each variable (see Tables l-3). Relative risk is the extent to which a particular risk factor increases the likelihood that affected ... Birthweight Risk 417 Table 3. Apparent influence of the 15 risk factors upon preterm deliveries among infants born to the 1,209 study mothers. The overall incidence of preterm delivery was 16.3%. Risk factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8a 8b 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Risk factor incidence in study population (%) Incidence of prematurity (%) Relative risk 21.4 25.4 1.81 (1.40-3.13) 14.8 17.8 1.02 (0.58-1.85) 0.3 11.3 11.5 1.29 (0.67-2.89) 3 5.0 15.4 1.79 (0.73-6.03) 4 16.9 1.07 2.04 (0.57-2.20) (1.35-4.74) (0.74-1.68) Low ... .67) (0.34-l .03) Risk Attributable risk W) 8 5 1 incomplete primary 15 416 schooling) Siblings (22 live children) Bulletin of PAHO 23(4), 1989 4 -18 Table 2. Apparent influence of the 15 risk factors upon intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) among infants born to the 1,209 study mothers. The overall incidence of IUCR was 6.8%. Risk factor Low