Heart Disease

Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with COPD in Taiwan.

... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the impact of bronchodilator treatment. Intern Med J 40: 94–101. 14. Gillum RF (1990) Peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the extremities in the United States: hospitalization and mortality. Am Heart J 120: 1414–1418. 15. Golomb BA, Dang TT, Criqui MH (2006) Peripheral arterial disease: morbidity and mortality ... Lung Disease Initiative (BOLD): rationale and design. COPD 2: 277–283. 3. Fang X, Wang X, Bai C (2011) COPD in China: the burden and importance of proper management. Chest 139: 920–929. 4. Mathers CD, Loncar D (2006) Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 3: e442. 5. Hunninghake DB (2005) Cardiovascular disease ... obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2: 44–49. 6. Magnussen H, Watz H (2009) Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma: relation with comorbidities. Proc Am Thorac Soc 6: 648–651. 7. Garcia-Rio F, Miravitlles M, Soriano JB, Munoz L, Duran-Tauleria E, et al. (2010) Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:
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Severe form of Legionnaires' disease in an immunocompetent patient

... legionnaires disease: comparative study between communityacquired pneumonias. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2006; 56(1): 7– 11. 14. Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE, Legionella and legionnaires' disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002; 15: 506–26. 15. Fernández JA, López P, Orozco D, Merino J. Clinical study of an outbreak of legionnaire's disease ... Orenstein W, Parkin WE, Beecham HJ, Sharrar RG, et al. Legionnaires' disease: description of an epidemic of pneumonia. N Engl J Med 1977; 297: 1189–97. 2. American Academy of Pediatrics.Legionella pneumophila infections. In: McMillan JA, editor. Red Book: 2006 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 27th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of ... (Serbian) 8. Puljiz I, Kuzman I, Đaković Rode O, Vuković B. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of legionaries disease in our hospitalized patients. Croatian Journal of Infection 2007; 27: 3, 115–22. 9. Kuzman I, Puljiz I. Legionnaries' disease. Medicus 2005; 14(1): 107– 13. (Serbian) 10. Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis
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Immune Response to Killed Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus by Water-Catholyte-Anolyte in Specific-Pathogenic-Free Chickens

... bursal disease in broiler chickens. Journal Veterinary Malaysia., 12:63-69. Hassan, M.K. and Saif, Y. 1996. MInfluence of the host system on the pathogenecity, immunogenecity and antigenecity of infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Disease. , 40:553-561. Howie, R. and Thorsen, J. 1981. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for infectious bursal disease ... protection of the progeny. Avian Disease. , 23:466-478. Lukert, P.D. and saif, Y.M. 1997. Infectious bursal disease. In: Disease of poultry (11th ED) Iowa state University press, Ames Iowa. YSE. pp: 721-738. Maas, R.A., venema, S., Oei, H.L., pol, M.A., Claassen, J.T.M. and Huurne, A.H.M. 2001. Effecacy of inactivated infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine: coparison ... Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza virus in egg fluids and serum. Avian Disease. , 35(3):505–514. Larghi, O.P. and Nebel, 1980. A.E. Rabies virus inactivation by binary ethylenimine: new method for inactivated vaccine production. Journal of Clinical Microbiology., 11(2):120– 122. Lucio, B. and Hitchner, S.B. 1979. Infectious bursal disease emulsified
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Sero-diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease using serum immunoglobulin A antibody against glycopeptidolipid antigen in Taiwan.

... colonize the respiratory tract without any accompanying invasive disease [4]. Thus, isolation of MAC from sputum is insufficient to document pulmonary Lung disease (LD) due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an important clinical concern because the incidence and prevalence of NTM diseases have increased over the last ten years [1,2]. According ... MAC-GPL 3 November 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 11 | e80473 Sero-Diagnosis of MAC Lung Disease Figure 1. Serum immunoglobulin A antibody levels of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) glycopeptidolipid (GPL) in different lung disease statuses. IgA, immunoglobulin A; LD, lung disease; PTB, pulmonary tuberculosis; RGM, rapid-growing mycobacteria. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080473.g001 PLOS ... fortuitum, and 5 M. chelonae), 48 with pulmonary TB, and 42 TB household contacts. Among the 42 household contacts, 22 (19 without underlying disease) were IGRA-positive and the remaining 20 (18 without underlying disease) were IGRA-negative. Among the MAC-LD patients, the mean age was 67.8 years, 50% were male, and 32% had co-morbidity (Table 1). Seven MAC-LD
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Clinical outcomes in low risk coronary artery disease patients treated with different limus-based drug-eluting stents--a nationwide retrospective cohort study using insurance claims database.

... group). Similarly, we found no difference in the three stent groups in risks of acute coronary events, heart failure needing hospitalization, and cerebrovascular disease. In conclusion, we observed no difference in all-cause mortality, acute coronary events, heart failure PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122860 April 7, 2015 1 / 14 Outcomes of Different ... disorders 34 (1.6) 59 (1.7) 22 (2.2) 0.46 Chronic pulmonary disease 325 (15.2) 544 (15.8) 162 (16.3) 0.71 Diabetes 769 (35.9) 1,261 (36.6) 359 (36.0) 0.85 Hypothyroidism 32 (1.5) 50 (1.5) 11 (1.1) 0.66 Renal failure 129 (6.0) 282 (8.2) 60 (6.0) 0.003 Liver Disease 61 (2.9) 100 (2.9) 34 (3.4) 0.66 Peptic ulcer disease, excluding bleeding 308 (14.4) 498 (14.5) 154 (15.5) 0.70 Lymphoma 3 (0.1) 8 (0.2) -a Metastatic ... acute coronary events, HF needing hospitalization, and cerebrovascular disease in low risk coronary artery disease patients treated with SES, E-ZES, and EES. Hence, a coronary stent with a lower price may be the preference while performing DES implantation in low risk coronary artery disease patients from the perspective of health economics. PLOS ONE
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Association of NOD2 and IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico.

... Diego, CA) developed by an international consortium of investigators studying major immune-related diseases such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune thyroid disease, celiac disease, and multiple sclerosis. [14] Because the iChip is a custom designed chip and the Puerto ... summarized in Table 1. Puerto Ricans with an established diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD; Crohn’s Disease, CD, 406; Ulcerative Colitis, UC, 244; Indeterminate Colitis, 5) were recruited from the University of Puerto Rico Center for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases as well as IBD support groups and community gastroenterology practices as part of ... KK, Kamm MA, Xia B, Wu J, et al. (2012) Genetics of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Inflammatory bowel diseases 18: 1164–1176. 8. Elson CO, Cong Y, McCracken VJ, Dimmitt RA, Lorenz RG, et al. (2005) Experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease reveal innate, adaptive, and regulatory mechanisms of host dialogue
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HLA-Cw Allele Frequency in Definite Meniere’s Disease Compared to Probable Meniere’s Disease and Healthy Controls in an Iranian Sample

... of Meniere’s disease. The aim of this study was determining the association between HLA-Cw Alleles in patients with definite Meniere’s disease and patients with probable Meniere’s disease and a control group. Materials and Methods: HLA-Cw genotyping was performed in 23 patients with definite Meniere’s disease, 24 with probable Meniere’s disease, and ... Probable Meniere’s disease is defined as one definitive episode of vertigo which might be accompanied by other symptoms and signs of Meniere’s disease except for associated hearing loss (1). A group of genetic and environmental factors are known to be responsible in the aetiology of Meniere’s disease (2,3). Also an autoimmune theory for this disease is developed ... to autoimmune disease pathogenesis (6). Genetic studies have shown that particular HLA Alleles increase the risk of a number of autoimmune diseases (7,8). Genetic factors involved in autoimmune conditions seem to play an important role in the development of a number of inner ear diseases including neurosensory hearing loss and Meniere’s disease (9-12).
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A Household Level Analysis of Water Sanitation Associated with Gastrointestinal Disease in an Urban Slum Setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar

... gastrointestinal diseases. 2. Material and Methods 2.1 Data collection A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the factors affecting the water sanitation association with gastrointestinal diseases for slum dwellers in South Okkalapa, Yangon. Gastrointestinal diseases in this study refer to Diarrhea, Dysentery and other related diseases. Disease ... area. All of the data collectors are medical doctors and they know well about diseases symptoms to differentiate from others diseases such as contents of stool (Bloody, Mucus, Watery, Semi-solid, others), history of Diarrhea, and Dysentery and other related diseases including heartburn, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome, cramps, nausea, vomiting, ... gastrointestinal diseases. It may not generalize for the whole township. It cannot be represented for the whole country results. The causes of gastrointestinal diseases are multi-factorial and difficult to point out the others cause. The information about diseases occurrence may be occurred recall bias for last 6 months ago. The incidence of some gastrointestinal diseases
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XBP1-Independent UPR Pathways Suppress C/EBP-β Mediated Chondrocyte Differentiation in ER-Stress Related Skeletal Disease.

... C/EBP-β in a mouse model of human disease. Moreover, it establishes a rational foundation for future studies investigating both C/EBP-β as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of MCDS, and the possible role of disruption to differentiation pathways controlled by C/EBP-β in other ER stressassociated human disease contexts. Results Generation ... biomechanical stresses influencing endochondral bone development in this disease, in addition to ER stress. The onset of hypertrophic zone expansion and ER stress well before the increase in apoptosis in MCDS [11,12,27,29] indicates that ER stress-induced cell death is not a central feature of the disease pathology. Moreover, our data suggest that the proposal ... KM, Gresshoff IL, Sampurno L, Mullan L, Ermann J, et al. (2015) XBP1Independent UPR Pathways Suppress C/EBP-β Mediated Chondrocyte Differentiation in ER-Stress Related Skeletal Disease. PLoS Genet 11(9): e1005505. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005505 Editor: Gregory S. Barsh, Stanford University School of Medicine, United States of America Received: April
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"Non Working Beating Heart": novo método de proteção miocárdica no transplante cardíaco.

... the ischemic time during implantation of the donor heart in the bicaval bipulmonary orthotopic position using normothermic beating heart and thus, facilitate the transplanted heart adaptation to the recipient. This study presents a small experience about a new strategy of myocardial protection during heart transplant. Methods: In cardiopulmonary bypass, ... ARTIGO ORIGINAL Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2011;26(4):630-4 “Non Working Beating Heart? ??: novo método de proteção miocárdica no transplante cardíaco Non Working Beating Heart: a new strategy of myocardial protection during heart transplant Jarbas Jakson Dinkhuysen1, Carlos Contreras2, Reginaldo Cipullo3, Marco Aurélio Finger4, ... RJ, Panos A, Slutsky AS. Warm heart surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1991;101(2):269-74. 4. Wei H, Mingwu C, Wensheng W. Beating heart mitral valve replacement in 2 cases under mild hypotermia cardiopulmonary bypass. Guangxi Med Coll J. 1993;10:320-1. 5. Hui L, Wei H, Shifeng W. Aortic valve replacement on the beating heart with continuous retrograde
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Global status of DDT and its alternatives for use in vector control to prevent disease.

... dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), used for disease vector control, and its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives. Contemporary data on DDT use were obtained from questionnaires and reports as well as a Scopus search to retrieve published articles. Nearly 14 countries use DDT for disease control, and several others are reintroducing ... purpose of controlling disease vectors in accordance with recommendations and guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and when locally safe, effective, and affordable alternatives are not available2. Ironically, DDT use in Africa has increased since the Stockholm Convention came into effect3. Malaria is a complex parasitic disease confined mostly ... sundaicus) in Vietnam62. Resistance does not necessarily result in failure to control disease. Standard testing of DDT resistance focuses on the insecticide’s toxic action. However, the repellent and irritant properties of DDT also have the potential to reduce transmission of disease and relieve the selective pressure for toxic resistance63,64. This is an
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Effects of acupuncture at Shenmen (C-7) and Neiguan (PC-6) acupoints on the heart hate, hart rate variability and cardiac rhythm in healthy dogs.

... stimulation of acupoints C-7 and PC-6 in healthy dogs does not promote change in sympathovagal balance, specifically on the heart rate variability, heart rate and heart rhythm on healthy dogs. Keywords: sympathovagal balance, heart rate, acupuncture REFERÊNCIAS CARARETO, R.; SOUSA, M.G.; ZACHEU, J.C. et al. Variabilidade da frequência cardíaca ... stimulation of certain points on the skin by inserting a needle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of stimulation of acupoints C7 and PC6 on the heart rate variability, heart rate and heart rhythm in healthy dogs. 30 male and female adult dogs were used, with no breed restriction. The animals were analyzed at two different times in weekly ... P.J.; LO, H.M. et al. Effect of acupuncture at nei-kuan on left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease. Am. J. Chin. Med., v.27, p.149-156, 1999. JINGBI, M. The effects of acupuncture in treatment of coronary heart diseases. J. Trad. Chin. Med., v.16, p.16-19, 2004. KIDD, J.R. Alternative medicines for the geriatric veterinary
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Population snapshot of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in South Africa prior to introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

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Interaction pattern of Arg 62 in the A-pocket of differentially disease-associated HLA-B27 subtypes suggests distinct TCR binding modes.

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Progress toward elimination of Chagas' disease transmission in Argentina

... America to southern Argentina and Chile. The disease affects 16-18 million people, and some 90 million-about 25% of the population of Latin America-are at risk of acquiring Chagas’ disease. After an asymptomatic period of several years, 27% of those infected develop Source: World Health Organization. Chagas disease; progress towards elimination of transmission. Wkly ... can only be solved by people from diverse organizations working together and learning from one another. 444 Progress toward Elimination of Chagas’ Disease Transmission in Argentina BACKGROUND Chagas’ disease exists only in the Americas. It is caused by a flagellate protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by triatomine insects known ... epidemiologic pattern of Chagas’ disease, transforming it from a rural infection to one that could be transmitted in urban areas via blood transfusion. The areas of transmission in Argentina cover about 60% of the national territory. The main vector is Triafoma irzjesfans, a domestic species. CONTROL ARGENTINA PROGRAM IN Chagas’ disease control activities
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A seroepidemiologic survey of Chagas' disease in two Paraguayan villages

... were found to harbor T. mm, so that an active potential for disease transmission existed in at least those homes. This proven potential for Chagas’ disease transmission in at least 22% of the homes inspected (19 % of those in Guazu-Cui, 43 % of those in Pozo Hondo) leads to the conclusion that the disease is highly endemic in both places (10, II). The house ... positive control sera were obtained from patients with a clinical and epidemiologic history of Chagas’ disease and a positive xenodiagnosis. The negative control sera were obtained from healthy individuals with no clinical or epidemiologic history of the disease. Examination of survg, subjects. Subsequently, 68 (82.9%) of the 82 Guazu-Cu6 subjects yielding positive ... population. This survey was carried out in February-May 1982. As in many Latin American countries, Chagas’ disease is a serious endemic public health problem in Paraguay. Vector studies conducted in various parts of the country through the mid-1970s found the principal Chagas’ disease vector, Triatoma infestans, to be present in all the areas surveyed, with the recorded
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Diarrheal disease control in the Caribbean

... tick-borne diseases affecting livestock in Central America, Mexico, Panama, and other subtropical and tropical countries. DISEASE CONTROL Representatives of 15 Caribbean countries and territories ’ met in Kingston, Jamaica, on lo- 13 March 1980 to discuss recent breakthroughs in diarrhea1 disease control and establishment of national diarrhea1 disease control programs. The ... 202 PAHO BULLETIN Additional resolutions dealt with control of foot-and-mouth disease, rabies, and tickborne diseases. The Meeting endorsed the resolutions of the VII Regular Meeting of the South American Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease and insisted on the advisability of having all technical and financial assistance ... a number of other accounts were presented. These dealt with the following subjects: nutrition and diarrhea1 disease- by Dinesh Sinha; the WHO Global Diarrhea1 Disease Control Program-by Dilip Mahalanabis; UNICEF assistance to national diarrhea1 disease control programs-by Kofi Joppa; planning national diarrhea1 control programs-by Robert E. Black; therapeutic principles
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The Aymara of Western Bolivia: health and disease

... organs Nervous system EW Ear. mastoid procerr Circulator” svstem Acute hy&tension ()160/95) Borderline hypertennon (?140/90) Acute myocardiol infarctmn Other irchemic heart disease All other heart disease Cerebrovmnrlar d&ewe 000-136 140-2.39 140-209 210.239 240-279 210 280-289 290-515 320-389 X70-358 360-379 380-389 590.458 401 401 0 410 #II-414 390-429 430-438 460.519 460-466 480-486 Acute ... specific diagnoses mentioned in Tables 3 and 4. 1) Infective The and Parasitic Diseases most commonly ~internatzoml Classification Use in the United States (8). seen infective dis- of Diseases Adapted for 58 PAHO BULLETIN . vol. 14, no. 1, 1980 Table 3. Distribution of diseases and disorders in members of the population of the Department of Oruro, spending ... organs Ne,vousghm Eye Em, marlold procesr Circulatory system Acute hypertension (2 X0/95) Borderline hypertmrron(~140/90) Acute myocardial infarctron Other ischemic heart dtseue All other heart dmase Cerebrommulor disease Respiratory system Acute rap. infect. except influenza, tonsdlttis, andsinuriris Pneumonia Acute tonsillifrs, hypertrophy of tonsils and adenoids D&&e system In&d hernia Cholelrthmxis, Choleqditir Cenitourinary system Complicationsof pregnancy Skin,
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The multinational Andean genetic and health program: II. Disease and disability among the Aymara

... system Eye Ear, mnstoid process Circulatory system Acute hypertension ( ? 160/95J Borderline hypertension ( S 140/9OJ Acute myocardial infarction Other ischemic heart disease AN other heart disease Ccrebrovascular disease Respiratory system Acute rap. infect. except influenza, tonsillitis, sinusitis Pneumonia Acute tonsillitis, hype-trophy of tonsils and adenoids Digestive ... system Eye Ear. mastoid process Circulatory system Acute hypertension ( ? 160/95J Borderline hypertension ( ?140/9OJ Acute myocardial infamion Other ischemic heart disease All other heart disease Cmbrovascular disease Respiratory system Acute msp. infect. except influenza, tonsillitis, sinusitis Pneumonia Acute tonsillitis, hypertrophy of tonsils and adenoids Digestive ... system Eye Ear. mastoid process Cimlatory system Acute hypertension (2 160/95J Borderbne hypertension ( L 140/9OJ Acute myocmdrol infarction Other ischemic heart disease AN other heart disease Cerebrovasculm disease Respiratory system Acute resp. mfect. except influenza, tonsillitis. sinusitis meumonia Acute tonsilIitis, hypertrophy of tonsils and adenoids Digestive
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Educational approach in the control of Chagas' disease

... hand for controlling thti scourge of mankind. Introduction Since its discovery in 1909, Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis) has featured prominently among the parasitic diseases of man in many Latin American countries. Only two decades ago this disease was still assumed to be a rarity and a pathological curiosity. That assumption, however, has ... populations regarding the presence of reduviid bugs in their homes and the association between these bugs and the disease. These factors are under- Petanu l EDUCATIONAL APPROACH TO CHAGAS 'DISEASE CONTROL 301 LEFT: Tn’atonuz infestans, vector of Chagas’ disease, feeding on a human subject. Victims of T. infestans. These three children, photographed in front ... length during several international conventions on Chagas’ disease. Petana , l EDUCATIONAL APPROACH TO CHAG AS DISEASE CONTROL sophisticated educator, who may not be wellacquainted with the often simple and conservative ways of people in rural areas. A short and informative radio series about the disease and its prophylaxis should also be included in
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Sixth Inter-American Meeting, at the Ministerial Level, on Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Zoonoses Control

... and improve diagnostic capability for detection and control of vesicular diseases, rabies, equine encephalitis, and diseases exotic to the Americas, which could very seriously damage the animal industry. Page 3 4. To reaffirm its support of the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center and the Pan American Zoonoses Center and the programs they ... and Prevention of Exotic Animal Diseases and Their Importance to the International Movement of Animals and Animal Products." Dr. Jerry J. Callis opened the proceedings with the presentation of his paper, "Some Exotic Animal Diseases that Pose a Threat to the Americas." He called attention to the increasing risk that diseases not now existing in the ... steps being taken to eradicate Newcastle disease, which is caused by a virus that is foreign to the United States. Dr. J. F. Frank, speaking on "Diagnostic Laboratories for Exotic Diseases: Organization and Functions," indicated some of the principal duties of the diagnostic laboratory in the detection and control of exotic diseases and emphasized that the
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CD17.R19: Financing of the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center

... 12 October 1967 RESOLUTION CD17.R19 FINANCING OF THE PAN AMERICAN FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE CENTER THE 17th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Recognizing the significance of foot-and-mouth disease for health and economic development, and the key role of the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center with respect to this problem; Noting the action of the Executive Committee ... 57th Meeting) in supporting the program and financing arrangements for the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center contained in the report of the mission of His Excellency the Vice President of Peru and the Director of the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center; Noting that at its Fifth Annual Meetings at the Expert and the Ministerial Levels (Viña ... financing of the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center; Noting further that CIAP, at its thirteenth meeting (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 29 September-2 October 1967), approved Resolution CIAP-3/67,2 which included, inter alia, the following key provisions: 2. To recommend financing the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center, so as to ensure its financial
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Some international aspects of venereal disease control

... in the border area. It can be applied to al1 phases of public health as well as to venereal disease. Venereal disease, however, poses some special problems which must be viewed apart from‘ the general considerations above. One of the greatest sources of venereal disease on the border springs from prostitution, which is permitted in most of the states ... it a little further. 1 would be in hearty agreement with the chief of the Venereal Disease Division of the Mexican Public Health Service, who is strongly opposed to the regulation of prostitution in Mexico, if prohibition were practicable or possible at present. Despite the fact that he and his 19481 VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL 737 predecessorhave ... a better job of controlling venereal disease where it is found? It is agreed that one of the best ways of controlling venereal diseases is to flnd the early infectious casesand to treat them immediately, and that this can well be done by prompt reporting and investigation of the contacts of known casesof venereal disease. The Pan Ameritan Sanitary Bureau
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... Status of Chagas' Disease in the Region of the Americas Current Status Chagas' disease or American trypanosomiasis is a disease exclusive to the Region of the Americas that is transmitted to man mainly through contact with the feces of triatomid ... Malaria prevention and control programs which exist in various countries are a resource that should also be used in the control of Chagas' disease. (Source: Tropical Diseases Program, Health Programs Development, PAHO.) Diseases Subject to the International Health Regulations Cholera, yellow fever, and plague cases and deaths reported in the Region of the ... evidence in South America that roughly 10% of the individuals infected develop the clinical symptoms and signs characteristic of chronic Chagas' disease. This brief report summarizes the present status of Chagas' disease in the countries of the Region by compiling data available from various sources. Argentina The area of transmission of infection by Trypanosoma
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