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Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

... levels. The surface seasonal variations in CO are further confirmed by analysis of ground- level measurements in the next section. 3.4 Comparison with ground measurements In this section we consider analysis of surface CO recorded at nine monitoring stations as the in situ ground measurements are more sensitive to the boundary layer than the MOPITT CO. ... decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical averages and MOZAIC/IAGOS aircraft profiles were in good agreement within the standard deviations at all pressure levels. There is consistency between the time evolution of high-CO episodes monitored by satellite and ground measurements and the fire ... (December and January) and a minimum in summer (Fig. 10). It is obvious that MOPITT CO surface data capture monthly variation as ground data, except at Fort McMurray 2006. However, the magnitude of the MOPITT surface values is less than ground data, which could be attributed to the fact that the MOPITT surface values are really the layer averages from the surface
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Settlement process of radioactive dust to the ground inferred from the atmospheric electric field measurement

... radioactive dust into the air from the ground and trees, and subsequent transport to the other region or fallout to the ground until late April. (6) Weakening of the daily variation and gradual recovery of the nighttime fair-weather baseline after mid-April suggests a complete settlement of the radioactive material to the ground with partial migration to ... flowing in the air between the ground and the ionosphere at a global scale (e.g. reviews by Rycroft et al., 2000, 2008; Williams, 2009). Since both the ionosphere and the ground are highly electrically conductive compared to the atmosphere, the current generates a relatively vertical electric field of about 100–150 V m−1 at ground level except near electrified ... sources that do not fallout to the ground, i.e. remain suspended in the air, without contributing significantly to the atmospheric electric conductivity near the ground. All these data indicate that wind carried a dense radioactive dust plume from the FNPP during the spikes, leaving only a part of the dust to fallout to the ground, and this fallout process
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Quality assessment of ozone total column amounts as monitored by ground-based solar absorption spectrometry in the near infrared (> 3000 cm<sup>−1</sup>)

... Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures J I J I Back Close | 20 Discussion Paper 15 | 10 This study examines the possibility of ground- based remote sensing ozone total column amounts (OTC) from spectral signatures at 3040 and 4030 cm−1 . These spectral regions are routinely measured by the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) ground- based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) experiments. ... Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures J I J I Back Close | 20 Discussion Paper 15 | 10 Atmospheric ozone concentrations (O3 ) are monitored by ground- and space-based remote sensors, applying different measurement techniques. Very valuable is the groundbased FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) experiment, since it can observe total column amounts and mixing ratio profiles ... cm−1 . The former has demonstrated to provide the best quality of ground- based infrared ozone retrievals −1 at > 1800 cm (e.g., Rinsland et al., 1996; Lindenmaier et al., 2010), and the latter corresponds to the highest infrared frequency with ozone signatures being still strong enough for ground- based retrievals (at higher infrared frequency ozone lines
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A study of the relationship between cloud-to-ground lightning and precipitation in the convective weather system in China

... Annales Geophysicae (2002) 20: 107–113 c European Geophysical Society 2002 Annales Geophysicae A study of the relationship between cloud-to -ground lightning and precipitation in the convective weather system in China Y. Zhou1 , X. Qie1 , and S. Soula2 1 Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research ... Belin 31400 Toulouse, France 2 Laboratoire Received: 25 August 2000 – Revised: 16 July 2001 – Accepted: 18 July 2001 Abstract. In this paper, the correlation between cloud-toground (CG) lightning and precipitation has been studied by making use of the data from weather radar, meteorological soundings, and a lightning location system that includes three direction ... the precipitation intensity. Piepgrass et al. (l982) found that the CG lightning flash peak frequency appeared a few minutes earlier than the peak precipitation intensity on the ground in a thunder cell. By analyzing the radar reflectivity and the CG lightning location data, Qie et al. (1993) also found that the peak value of the CG lightning flash frequency
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Effect of Polythene-covering on Above-ground tuberization and storage roots yield in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

... al., 2004), information on the possible influence of polythene-covering on above -ground lateral tuber formation and total yield of the crop are still in scarcity. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish the influence of polythene-covering on lateral tuber formation above -ground and total storage roots yield of cassava at three planting methods. The ... planted 5 cm deep in the soil while cuttings horizontally planted were buried to a depth of 2 cm from the surface. This planting was followed by above -ground stem polythenecovering (about 5 cm from the ground surface) with a silver shine polythene sheets (0.03 mm × 1000 mm × 1000 mm) at 0, 1, 30, and 60 days after planting. This study was carried out ... 30 DAP = stem Polythenecovering at 30 days after planting, 60 DAP = stem Polythene-covering at 60 days after planting. 3.3 Number of tuber above -ground Stem polythene-covering had no significant effect on aboveground tuber formation, regardless of variety or planting method except for Sri Medan when cuttings were vertically planted in which, the effect
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Tracking of urban aerosols using combined lidar-based remote sensing and ground-based measurements

... Version Interactive Discussion an ambient particulate monitor positioned 2 m above the ground. In addition, NOx and meteorological data (wind speed and direction 10 m above the ground, temperature and relative humidity 2 m above the ground) were also collected at the same site. All ground- based data were averaged every hour except for the wind speed and direction, which ... at around 17:00 Central European Time. We also found that the averaged horizontal atmospheric extinction within the scanning region 200 m above the ground is correlated to the PM10 concentration at the ground level with a correlation coefficient of 0.64, which may be due to relatively quiet meteorological conditions and basin-like terrain configuration. Discussion ... the extinction coefficient (m ). Raw data was normalized to the laser energy and the flat baseline of each return, which is proportional to the intensity of background noise, was subtracted. Background noise was defined as an average of data points sampled at the far end of the trace. Each lidar return was then corrected for inverse-range-squared dependence
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Correction: Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium.

... Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0139611. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139611 PMID: 26540101 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Buckley M, Fariña RA, Lawless C, Tambusso PS, Varela L, Carlini AA, et al. (2015) Correction: Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium. ... CORRECTION Correction: Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium Michael Buckley, Richard A. Fariña, Craig Lawless, P. Sebastián Tambusso, Luciano Varela, Alfredo A. Carlini, Jaime E. Powell, Jorge G. Martinez The
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Simulations of direct and reflected wave trajectories for ground-based GNSS-R experiments

... 2014 www.geosci-model-dev.net/7/2261/2014/ doi:10.5194/gmd-7-2261-2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Simulations of direct and reflected wave trajectories for ground- based GNSS-R experiments N. Roussel1,2 , F. Frappart1,2 , G. Ramillien1,2 , J. Darrozes1,2 , C. Desjardins1,2,3,4 , P. Gegout1,2 , F. Pérosanz1,2,4 , and R. Biancale1,2,4 1 ... effect of angular refraction due to the troposphere on the specular reflection point positions. Various outputs (time-varying reflection point coordinates, satellite positions and ground paths, wave trajectories, first Fresnel zones, etc.) are provided either as text or KML files for visualization with Google Earth. 1 Introduction The Global Navigation ... the time-varying reflection point coordinates, but also various KML (Keyhole Markup Language – the standard format used by Google Earth) files such as satellite positions and ground paths, wave trajectories and Fresnel first surfaces that can be opened using the Google Earth visualization tool. 2 2.1 Data sets 2263 Figure 2. Data flowchart of the
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Zeeman effect in atmospheric O<sub>2</sub> measured by ground-based microwave radiometry

... 191.5◦ while the smaller broadening is found at 71.5◦. 4.2 Tropospheric correction of SDR spectrometer A ground- based microwave radiometer measures a superposition of emission and absorption of radiation at different altitudes. The received intensity at ground level can be expressed in the Rayleigh–Jeans limit (hυ kT ) as a function of the brightness temperature. ... temperature and the ground temperature (Ingold et al., 1998). The weighted tropospheric temperature was calculated using radiosonde measurements. Radiosondes are launched twice a day at the aerological station of MeteoSwiss in Payerne (40 km west of Bern). One year of radiosonde data was used and the linear fit found between Ttrop at 53 GHz and the ground temperature ... highresolution spectrometer (1 kHz) was used in order to measure for the first time the polarization state of the radiation due to the Zeeman effect in the main isotopologue of oxygen from ground- based microwave measurements. The measured spectra showed a clear polarized signature when the observational angles were changed, evidencing the Zeeman effect in the oxygen
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Impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on European aerosol ground levels through local processes: a seasonal model-based assessment using fixed anthropogenic emissions

... events that will be used to understand the NAO impact on aerosol concentration levels assessed in the next Section. 4.2 NAO impact on mean ground- level aerosol concentrations NAO+ minus NAO− composites of mean ground- level concentration of the various aerosol species are provided in Figs. 5–8. In general, the positive phase of NAO enhances aerosol ... recurrent www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/11195/2013/ Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11195–11207, 2013 11202 S. Jerez et al.: Impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on European aerosol ground levels Fig. 5. NAO impact in winter (left) and summer (right) on mean ground levels of natural inert aerosols: NAO+ minus NAO− composites for (a, b) SALT and (c, d) DUST. Differences in µg m−3 are represented ... aerosol ground levels 11203 Fig. 6. As in Fig. 5, here for secondary inorganic aerosols: (a, b) SO42−, (c, d) NH+4 and (e, f) NO−3 . summer season. These differences involve variations up to and over 100 % in the mean levels of each species; about 20–40 % for PM10 and PM2.5. Eventually, softer signals of opposite sign (i.e., NAO− enhancing the ground- level
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Influence of Variable Acceleration on Parametric Roll Motion of a Container Ship

... an encounter frequency twice that of the roll natural frequency. In this case, the variation of restoring moment causes the roll angle increase drastically unless other factors such as damping come into play. This particular state is called the parametric roll phenomenon. Controlling amplitude of roll motion is only possible by increasing ... of Roll Response with respect to Model Velocity Figure 7. Variation of Restoring Moment Values of Scaled Model 5. Results Roll amplitudes with respect to constant model velocities were determined by solving nonlinear parametric roll motion equation (Simple Model) with averaging method in frequency domain (Figure 8). The reason why parametric roll ... Figure 11-17. Figure 11 was generated for condition 1: 0 m/s initial velocity, 5° initial roll angle and 40 N thrust force. Results of roll motion with 40 N thrust force deviated from steady state solution. Maximum angle of roll oscillation increased from 5° to 30°. Roll motion of accelerated model was attracted by fold bifurcation part of steady state
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IN-SEASON ASSESSMENT OF WHEAT CROP HEALTH USING VEGETATION INDICES BASED ON GROUND MEASURED HYPER SPECTRAL DATA

... doi:10.3844/ajabssp.2014.138.146 Published Online 9 (2) 2014 (http://www.thescipub.com/ajabs.toc) IN-SEASON ASSESSMENT OF WHEAT CROP HEALTH USING VEGETATION INDICES BASED ON GROUND MEASURED HYPER SPECTRAL DATA 1Khalid Ali Al-Gaadi, 2Virupakshagouda Patil, 2ElKamil Tola, 2Rangaswamy Madugundu and 2Samy Marey 1Department of Agricultural Engineering,
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Atmospheric greenhouse gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY: comparison to ground-based FTS measurements and model results

... retrieved single ground scene XCO2 on φ (for details, see Heymann et al., 2012): XCO2C(φ )=XCO2− 3 ppm 1000(◦)2 · φ + 47.3◦ 2 + 7 ppm (1) The sign of the scan angle (minus corresponds to measurements east of the nadir position) can be derived from the relative azimuth angle stated in the WFM-DOAS product files. The single ground scene ... Q-branch of the 2ν3 band around 1666 nm. For each TCCON site, monthly means with sufficient SCIAMACHY ground scenes passing the quality filter within 500 km around the site are used for the validation and intercomparison study. 2.2 FTS TCCON is a network of ground- based Fourier Transform Spectrometers recording direct solar spectra in the nearinfrared/shortwave-infrared ... dry air column-averaged mole fraction data sets from SCIAMACHY derived using Weighting Function Modified DOAS (WFM-DOAS) version 2 (Schneising et al., 2011) are validated with ground- based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements and compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 (Peters et al., 2007, 2010) and TM5-4DVAR XCH4 (Meirink
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Detection of large above-ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

... root Biogeosciences, 10, 3917–3930, 2013 www.biogeosciences.net/10/3917/2013/ J. Jubanski et al.: Detection of large above -ground biomass variability 3919 Fig. 1. Location of the LiDAR tracks and above -ground biomass (AGB) clusters (see Methods) (0.13 ha, indicated by black +) in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, superimposed on a Landsat ... et al., 2011). The point clouds formed by the waveform decompositions were further filtered to generate the DTMs. In this study, the filtering was the separation between ground and off -ground LiDAR points. The filtering approach applied was the hierarchic robust filtering (Pfeifer et al., 2001), and the method used to interpolate the DTMs (1 m resolution) ... account the scan geometry. A total of 80 % of the field plots were collected within a swath of ± 15◦. In addition we found that point density on the ground for scan angles greater than 15◦ is high enough to separate ground points from vegetation. Additionally 88 differential GPS measurements in various locations along and across track were collected. DTM accuracy
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Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

... categorizing sites according to biome, we also categorized each site according to three environmental variables: elevation, ground temperature, and ground- level humidity (~ 2 cm above the soil/litter surface). We report both temperature and ground- level humidity because these two factors contribute to understanding desiccation stress. As humidity increases, ... 25 cm deep) inserted in a PVC sleeve (3.8 PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135210 September 2, 2015 4 / 18 Ground- Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range cm in diameter, 28 cm long) buried in the ground. The opening of each trap was flush with the soil surface. When charged, test tubes were half filled with ~ 75 ml ... account any positive correlation associated with sites. This allowed us to test for differences in arthropod assemblages among biomes controlling for sampling period and to test for differences among seasons controlling for differences among biomes. Pairwise differences were only examined following a significant ANOSIM test with significance values
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Ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations of formaldehyde at Réunion Island and comparisons with satellite and model data

... from ground- based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) campaign measurements in 2004 and 2007 and from UV-Visible MAX-DOAS measurements in 2004–2005 at the NDACC site of Re´ union Island (21◦ S, 5 55◦ E). The FTIR and MAX-DOAS daily mean formaldehyde total columns are intercompared in their common measurement period, from August to October 2004. The ground- based ... retrieved by these two different remote sensing techniques are mutually compared. Whereas Jones et al. (2007) presented comparisons of ground- based FTIR HCHO columns with GOME data, the present paper gives 10 the first comparisons of ground- based FTIR measurements with SCIAMACHY data. In addition, the retrievals are compared with the results of a global CTM, ... regions. Formaldehyde total columns have been observed from space by GOME and SCIAMACHY (Abbot et al., 2003; De Smedt et al., 2008; Dufour et al., 2009). Formaldehyde 15 measurements by ground- based FTIR instruments have been reported at mid-latitude (Demoulin et al., 1999; Jones et al., 2007) and polar stations (Notholt et al., 2000), and during a ship cruise
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Mesoscale structure of a morning sector ionospheric shear flow region determined by conjugate Cluster II and MIRACLE ground-based observations

... (50–1000 km) ionospheric electrodynamics of a shear flow region, using observations of the Cluster II satellites and the MIRACLE ground- based network during a spacecraft passage over northern Scandinavia and Finland. Since both the ground- based and the four-satellite Cluster II data cover an extended spatial area, it is possible to monitor and to divide ... Both with respect to the FAC structure and to the location of the CRB, an excellent agreement exists between the satellite and ground- based results, when the satellite data is averaged to the mesoscale resolution which the ground- based instruments observe; 3. The ionospheric conductances in the westward electrojet region reach values up to ∼25 S (regions ... In this study we focus on the mesoscale structure of the ionosphere. Ionospheric conductances, true horizontal currents, and field-aligned currents (FAC) are calculated from the ground- based measurements of the IMAGE magnetometers and the STARE coherent scatter radar, using the 1-D method of characteristics. An excellent agreement between these results
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Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl<sub>3</sub>F and CCl<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub> using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations

... provide a zonal mean profile. 3.6 Ground- based FTIR column measurements of HCl and HF High-resolution IR solar spectra recorded under clear-sky conditions with ground- based FTIR (gb-FTIR) instruments have been analyzed to supply data for comparison with ACEFTS v2.2 products. These observations have been recorded at 12 ground- based sites within the framework ... the inverse of the maximum optical path difference, range from 0.002 to 0.008 cm−1. All ground- based instruments involved here perform regular measurements encompassing the main IR absorption features of HCl, HF, CFC-11 and CFC-12. For the source gases however, the ground- based measurements are mostly sensitive to the tropospheric contribution of their ... distributions and decadal trends of HCl and HF from space (e.g., Anderson et al., 2000; WMO Report Nr. 50, 2007). These stratospheric species have also been remotely monitored from the ground, using FTIRs. Data sets now spanning more than 30 years are available from the Jungfraujoch station, allowing long-term trends in HCl and HF to be characterized (e.g., Rinsland
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Rememorando os Filhos de Onontio: Richard White, The Middle Ground e a escrita da história da América do Norte colonial.

... os Filhos de Onontio: Richard White, The Middle Ground e a escrita da história da América do Norte colonial Remembering the Children of Onontio: Richard White, The Middle Ground and the writing of the history of Colonial North America Arthur Lima de AVILA* Resumo: Publicado em 1991, o livro The Middle Ground, do historiador norte-americano Richard ... condição do middle ground. Esse, nos diz White, era: The place in between cultures, peoples, and in between empires and the nonstate world of villages. It is a place where many of the North American subjects and allies of empires lived. It is the area between the historical foreground of European invasion and occupation and the background of Indian defeat ... Phillip Deloria (2006), middle ground de “fronteira”, não reduzindo o primeiro à segunda. Sob este aspecto, o middle ground exige uma situação fronteiriça para a sua emergência, mas nem todas as situações fronteiriças resultam em tal meio termo. Como demonstrado por diversos autores, em alguns lugares da América do Norte, o middle ground prosperou; em outros,
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CD42.R15: Roll back malaria in the Region of the Americas

... COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 25-29 September 2000 RESOLUTION CD42.R15 ROLL BACK MALARIA IN THE REGION OF THE AMERICAS THE 42nd DIRECTING COUNCIL, Having considered Document CD42/16 which proposes that the Member States in which malaria continues to be a public health problem adopt the Roll Back Malaria initiative in their territory; and Taking into account ... policy, and the training of human resources to carry out the measures to control malaria transmission, RESOLVES 1. To urge the Member States to: (a) formalize the adoption of the Roll Back Malaria initiative in territories where malaria still constitutes a public health problem; (b) make a commitment to perform an annual evaluation of progress in the different
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Results of spraying with ultra-low-volume malathion at ground level in Panama City

... high rates of larval mortality were also obtained. Overall, the results strongly indicate that thrice-weekly ground- level ULV spraying with malathion can serve as a highly effective mosquito control measure. REFERENCES (I) Pant, C. P., et al. Ultra-low-volume ground aeroSOISof technical malathion for the control of Aedes aegypti L. Bull WHO 45: 805-817,197l. (2) ... Their purpose was to find out how useful this UL V technique could be in helping to combat local mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti. The results strongly indicate that thrice-weekly ground- level spraying of this kind can serve as a highly effective mosquito control measure. Introduction In late 1973 the Ministry of Health of Panama, concerned about Aedes ... aegypti Adults Interior exposure Outside exposure H;se . 5 7 8 12 Bldg.* Total Outside exposure Larvae Interior exposure Outside exposure Interior exposure 2;: posed % mortality No. exposed % mortality No. exposed % mortality No. exposed % mortality No. exposed % mortality No. exposed % morta.lity 5 20 10 10 15 60 100 100 90 90 100 97 20 5 15 15 55 20 100 41 47 42 5 20 10 10 25 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 20 5 15 15 55 100 100 100 100 100 5 20 10 10 45 100 75 50 70 75 20 5 15 15 55 15 40 20 21 22 *Ground floor, No. exposed Controls Larvae . . . . . _. . . . A. aegypti ........ A. albimanus % mortality 25 25 0 0 25 0 Adults A. aegypti ..e . . . . . . . involved.
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